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Sample records for acute whiplash trauma

  1. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: a 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina B W; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Oernboel, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Patients with acute whiplash trauma were followed to examine if post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress were associated with reduced work capability and neck pain at 12 months follow-up. The study included 740 consecutive patients (474 females, 266 males) referred from...... emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in four counties in Denmark. After the collision patients received a questionnaire on psychological distress, unspecified pain and socio-demographics and 12 months later a follow-up on work capability and neck pain was performed. Risk factors were...... with poor recovery and high accumulation of pre-collision psychological distress is associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up. However, no conclusions on causality can be drawn. Personal characteristics before the collision are important for recovery and attention to pre-collision characteristics...

  2. Are there gender differences in coping with neck pain following acute whiplash trauma? A 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina B W; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Oernboel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about gender differences in coping after whiplash, and to date possible interaction of gender and coping on recovery has not been investigated. AIMS: To examine if gender differences in coping are associated with long-lasting neck pain after acute whiplash. METHODS......: Seven hundred and forty participants referred from emergency departments or general practitioners after car accidents in Denmark. Within a median of five days, post-collision participants completed questionnaires on collision characteristics, psychological distress, and socio-demographics. After 3months...

  3. Pain and Disability in the Jaw and Neck Region following Whiplash Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Henrikson, B; Lampa, E; Marklund, S; Wänman, A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between whiplash trauma and chronic orofacial pain is unclear, especially with regard to the time elapsed from trauma to development of orofacial pain. The aim was to analyze prevalence of jaw pain and disability, as well as the relationship between pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions in the early nonchronic stage after whiplash trauma. In this case-control study, 70 individuals (40 women, 30 men, mean age 35.5 y) who visited an emergency department with neck pain following a car accident were examined within 3 wk of trauma (group 1) and compared with 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 33.8 y), who declined to attend a clinical examination but agreed to fill in questionnaires (group 2). The 2 case groups were compared with a matched control group of 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 37.6 y) without a history of neck trauma. All participants completed questionnaires regarding jaw pain and dysfunction, rating pain intensity in jaw and neck regions on the Numerical Rating Scale, the Neck Disability Index, and Jaw Disability Checklist. Compared with controls, individuals with a recent whiplash trauma reported more jaw pain and dysfunction. Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between jaw and neck pain ratings for group 1 (r = 0.61, P neck pain and disability compared with controls. Taken together, the results show that individuals with a recent whiplash trauma report more jaw pain and disability compared with controls without a history of neck trauma. Furthermore, the correlation between jaw and neck pain intensity implies that intensity of neck pain in the acute stage after whiplash trauma might be a possible risk factor also for development of chronic orofacial pain. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  4. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Birgitte Wisbech Carstensen

    Full Text Available 10-22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision.719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 3.8 (2.1;7.1 and future neck pain (OR (95%CI = 3.3 (1.8;6.3, controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2 = 36.7, p < 0.001 and unemployment (χ2(2 = 12.5, p = 0.002 pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI = 3.1 (2.3;4.4 compared with controls.Sick leave before the collision strongly predicted prolonged recovery

  5. The risk assessment score in acute whiplash injury predicts outcome and reflects biopsychosocial factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Qerama, Erisela; Kongsted, Alice

    2011-01-01

    One-year prospective study of 141 acute whiplash patients (WLP) and 40 acute ankle-injured controls.......One-year prospective study of 141 acute whiplash patients (WLP) and 40 acute ankle-injured controls....

  6. MRI in acute phase of whiplash injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden); Bjoernebrink, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden); Pettersson, K. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden); Hildingsson, C. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    A prospective MRI study of 39 whiplash patients was performed and the results were compared with the clinical findings within 15 days after trauma. The MRI parameters included disc bulging either with impingement on the anterior epidural space or with medullary compression, foraminal stenosis, dorsal ligament thickening, osteophyte extension and intramedullary or paravertebral soft tissue injury. All changes were graded visually on a four-point scale (no, some, moderate or extensive changes). After the MRI evaluation was made the clinical findings were analysed by two orthopaedic surgeons using a specially designed protocol. With MRI 29 patients (74 %) showed no or only slight changes, and were thus regarded as normal variations. Of these, 10 of 29 patients (34 %) had as the only symptom pain in the head or in the neck, 19 of 29 patients (66 %) showed neurological changes, either paresthesias, sensory deficits or weakness of upper extremities. In 10 (26 %) patients with moderate or extensive MRI changes, 3 of 10 (33 %) had only head or neck pain, or both, and 7 of 10 (66 %) had neurological changes. Use of MRI in whiplash injury is helpful, but it is not the first-choice radiological examination method. Despite neurological changes, the frequency of true traumatic lesions is low. There is no clear correlation between the patients` subjective symptoms or clinical signs and the findings with MRI. However, MRI can be used to find patients with disk herniation that can be treated surgically. (orig.)

  7. MRI in acute phase of whiplash injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, M.; Bjoernebrink, J.; Pettersson, K.; Hildingsson, C.

    1995-01-01

    A prospective MRI study of 39 whiplash patients was performed and the results were compared with the clinical findings within 15 days after trauma. The MRI parameters included disc bulging either with impingement on the anterior epidural space or with medullary compression, foraminal stenosis, dorsal ligament thickening, osteophyte extension and intramedullary or paravertebral soft tissue injury. All changes were graded visually on a four-point scale (no, some, moderate or extensive changes). After the MRI evaluation was made the clinical findings were analysed by two orthopaedic surgeons using a specially designed protocol. With MRI 29 patients (74 %) showed no or only slight changes, and were thus regarded as normal variations. Of these, 10 of 29 patients (34 %) had as the only symptom pain in the head or in the neck, 19 of 29 patients (66 %) showed neurological changes, either paresthesias, sensory deficits or weakness of upper extremities. In 10 (26 %) patients with moderate or extensive MRI changes, 3 of 10 (33 %) had only head or neck pain, or both, and 7 of 10 (66 %) had neurological changes. Use of MRI in whiplash injury is helpful, but it is not the first-choice radiological examination method. Despite neurological changes, the frequency of true traumatic lesions is low. There is no clear correlation between the patients' subjective symptoms or clinical signs and the findings with MRI. However, MRI can be used to find patients with disk herniation that can be treated surgically. (orig.)

  8. A Test-Retest Reliability Study of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire in Patients With Acute Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) in individuals with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). METHODS: We performed a test-retest reliability study. We included...... insurance claimants from Ontario who were at least 18years of age, within 21days of their motor vehicle collision and diagnosed as having acute WAD grades I to III. The WDQ, a 13-item questionnaire scored from 0 (no disability) to 130 (complete disability), was administered to all participants at baseline...

  9. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and exercise for chronic whiplash: protocol of a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Letitia; Kenardy, Justin; Andersen, Tonny; McGregor, Leanne; Maujean, Annick; Sterling, Michele

    2015-10-01

    As a consequence of a road traffic crash, persistent pain and disability following whiplash injury are common and incur substantial personal and economic costs. Up to 50% of people who experience a whiplash injury will never fully recover and up to 30% will remain moderately to severely disabled by the condition. The reason as to why symptoms persist past the acute to sub-acute stage and become chronic is unclear, but likely results from complex interactions between structural injury, physical impairments, and psychological and psychosocial factors. Psychological responses related to the traumatic event itself are becoming an increasingly recognised factor in the whiplash condition. Despite this recognition, there is limited knowledge regarding the effectiveness of psychological interventions, either delivered alone or in combination with physiotherapy, in reducing the physical and pain-related psychological factors of chronic whiplash. Pilot study results have shown positive results for the use of trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy to treat psychological factors, pain and disability in individuals with chronic whiplash. The results have indicated that a combined approach could not only reduce psychological symptoms, but also pain and disability. The primary aim of this randomised, controlled trial is to investigate the effectiveness of combined trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, delivered by a psychologist, and physiotherapy exercise to decrease pain and disability of individuals with chronic whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The trial also aims to investigate the effectiveness of the combined therapy in decreasing post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression. A total of 108 participants with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) grade II of > 3 months and behavioural therapy or supportive therapy, both delivered by a clinical psychologist. Participants will then receive ten sessions of evidence

  10. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous clinical studies have documented successful neck pain relief in whiplash patients using nerve block and radiofrequency ablation of facet joint afferents, including capsular ligament nerves. No previous study has documented injuries to the neck ligaments as determined by altered dynamic mechanical properties due to whiplash. The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of whiplash-exposed human cervical spine ligaments. Additionally, the present data were compared to previously reported control data. The ligaments included the anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. Methods A total of 98 bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1 were prepared from six cervical spines following 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g rear impacts and pre- and post-impact flexibility testing. The specimens were elongated to failure at a peak rate of 725 (SD 95 mm/s. Failure force, elongation, and energy absorbed, as well as stiffness were determined. The mechanical properties were statistically compared among ligaments, and to the control data (significance level: P Results For all whiplash-exposed ligaments, the average failure elongation exceeded the average physiological elongation. The highest average failure force of 204.6 N was observed in the ligamentum flavum, significantly greater than in middle-third disc and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. The highest average failure elongation of 4.9 mm was observed in the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. The average energy absorbed ranged from 0.04 J by the middle-third disc to 0.44 J by the capsular ligament. The ligamentum flavum was the stiffest ligament, while the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments were most flexible. The whiplash

  11. A prospective study of 39 patients with whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, M; Smed, A; Jespersen, H

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The acute symptoms after whiplash traumas can be explained by the neck sprain, but the pathogenesis of the 'late whiplash syndrome' and the reason why only some people have persistent symptoms more than 6 months is still unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive cases o...

  12. Acute coagulopathy of trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R

    2010-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy of trauma predicts a poor clinical outcome. Tissue trauma activates the sympathoadrenal system resulting in high circulating levels of catecholamines that influence hemostasis dose-dependently through immediate effects on the two major compartments of hemostasis, i...

  13. Vestibular and stabilometric findings in whiplash injury and minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, A; Ferrazzi, M; Berrettini, S; Panicucci, E; Matteucci, J; Bruschini, L; Ursino, F; Fattori, B

    2011-12-01

    Vertigo and postural instability following whiplash and/or minor head injuries is very frequent. According to some authors, post-whiplash vertigo cannot be caused by real injury to vestibular structures; other authors maintain that vestibular damage is possible even in the case of isolated whiplash, with vascular or post-traumatic involvement. Furthermore, many of the balance disorders reported after trauma can be justified by post-traumatic modification to the cervical proprioceptive input, with consequent damage to the vestibular spinal reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular condition and postural status in a group of patients (Group A, n = 90) affected with balance disorders following whiplash, and in a second group (Group B, n = 20) with balance disorders after minor head injury associated with whiplash. Both groups were submitted to videonystagmography (VNG) and stabilometric investigation (open eyes - O E, closed eyes - CE, closed eyes with head retroflexed - CER) within 15 days of their injuries and repeated within 10 days after conclusion of cervical physiotherapy treatment. The VNG tests revealed vestibulopathy in 19% of cases in Group A (11% peripheral, 5% central, 3% in an undefined site) and in 60% of subjects in Group B (50% peripheral, 10% central). At the follow-up examination, all cases of non-compensated labyrinth deficit showed signs of compensation, while there were two cases (2%) in Group A and one case (5%) in Group B of PPV. As far as the altered posturographic recordings are concerned, while there was no specific pattern in the two groups, they were clearly pathologic, especially during CER. Both in OE and in CE there was an increase in the surface values and in those pertaining to shifting of the gravity centre on the sagittal plane, which was even more evident during CER. In Group A, the pre-post-physiotherapy comparison of CER results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the majority of the

  14. Telephone versus usual care in management of acute whiplash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whiplash associated disorder (WAD) is a common and costly condition, and recommended management includes advice to “act as usual” and exercise. Providing this treatment through a telephonic intervention may help to improve access to care, and reduce costs. This pilot study assessed: (1) the effectiveness of a ...

  15. Prognostic factors for poor recovery in acute whiplash patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, E.J.M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Windt - Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Steen, de C.W. Neeleman-van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Verhagen, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our prospective inception cohort study was to identify prognostic factors for poor recovery in patients with whiplash-associated disorders grade 1 or 2 who still had neck pain and accompanying complaints 2 weeks after the accident. The study was carried out in a primary health care

  16. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and exercise for chronic whiplash: protocol of a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Campbell

    2015-10-01

    Discussion: This study will provide a definitive evaluation of the effects of adding trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy to physiotherapy exercise for individuals with chronic WAD and PTSD. This study is likely to influence the clinical management of whiplash injury and will have immediate clinical applicability in Australia, Denmark and the wider international community. The study will also have implications for both health and insurance policy makers in their decision-making regarding treatment options and funding.

  17. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...

  18. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama

    2008-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...

  19. Definition, klassifikation og epidemiologi ved whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming Winther

    2010-01-01

    A whiplash trauma is caused by an acceleration-deceleration force transferring its energy to the cervical spine. Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) refers to the symptoms that develop after a whiplash injury. The prognosis is favorable with recovery in over 90% of the injured subjects. In a fract......A whiplash trauma is caused by an acceleration-deceleration force transferring its energy to the cervical spine. Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) refers to the symptoms that develop after a whiplash injury. The prognosis is favorable with recovery in over 90% of the injured subjects...

  20. Definition, klassifikation og epidemiologi ved whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming Winther

    2010-01-01

    A whiplash trauma is caused by an acceleration-deceleration force transferring its energy to the cervical spine. Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) refers to the symptoms that develop after a whiplash injury. The prognosis is favorable with recovery in over 90% of the injured subjects. In a fract...

  1. Definition, klassifikation og epidemiologi ved whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming Winther

    2010-01-01

    A whiplash trauma is caused by an acceleration-deceleration force transferring its energy to the cervical spine. Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) refers to the symptoms that develop after a whiplash injury. The prognosis is favorable with recovery in over 90% of the injured subjects...

  2. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub......-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to PTSD symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted...... PTSD severity. Combined, the results support the component model of dissociation and PTSD, while still stressing the importance of dissociative symptoms when planning treatment for PTSD....

  3. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Tonny E

    2018-03-16

    Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted PTSD severity. Combined, the results support the component model of dissociation and PTSD, while still stressing the importance of dissociative symptoms when planning treatment for PTSD.

  4. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...... in the emergency room were examined according to an algorithm until a diagnosis was established. The overall incidence of wrist trauma was 69 per 10,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence of wrist trauma requiring x-ray examination was 58 per 10,000 per year. The incidence of distal radius fractures was 27 per 10...... using data from a population-based study. A completeness rate of 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.78) was found. An x-ray had been taken for all patients reporting a fracture thus justifying the use of fractures as an incidence measure when comparing groups of patients with wrist trauma....

  5. Chronic Neck Pain and Whiplash: A Case-Control Study of the Relationship between Acute Whiplash Injuries and Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Freeman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors undertook a case-control study of chronic neck pain and whiplash injuries in nine states in the United States to determine whether whiplash injuries contributed significantly to the population of individuals with chronic neck and other spine pain.

  6. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...

  7. Some observations on whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    Motor vehicle accidents with a whiplash mechanism of injury are one of the most common causes of neck injuries, with an incidence of perhaps 1 million per year in the United States. Proper adjustment of head restraints can reduce the incidence of neck pain in rear-end collisions by 24%. Persistent neck pain is more common in women by a ratio of 70:30. Whiplash injuries usually result in neck pain owing to myofascial trauma, which has been documented in both animal and human studies. Headaches, reported in 82% of patients acutely, are usually of the muscle contraction type, often associated with greater occipital neuralgia and less often temporomandibular joint syndrome. Occasionally migraine headaches can be precipitated. Dizziness often occurs and can result from vestibular, central, and cervical injury. More than one third of patients acutely complain of paresthesias, which frequently are caused by trigger points and thoracic outlet syndrome and less commonly by cervical radiculopathy. Some studies have indicated that a postconcussion syndrome can develop from a whiplash injury. Interscapular and low back pain are other frequent complaints. Although most patients recover within 3 months after the accident, persistent neck pain and headaches after 2 years are reported by more than 30% and 10% of patients. Risk factors for a less favorable recovery include older age, the presence of interscapular or upper back pain, occipital headache, multiple symptoms or paresthesias at presentation, reduced range of movement of the cervical spine, the presence of an objective neurologic deficit, preexisting degenerative osteoarthritic changes; and the upper middle occupational category. There is only a minimal association of a poor prognosis with the speed or severity of the collision and the extent of vehicle damage. Whiplash injuries result in long-term disability with upward of 6% of patients not returning to work after 1 year. Although litigation is very common and always

  8. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Velde Gabrielle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD. A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1 physician-based education and activation, 2 a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers, and 3 the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February

  9. Can kinesiophobia predict the duration of neck symptoms in acute whiplash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J; Jaspers, JPC; Fidler, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: In low back pain, clinical studies suggest that kinesiophobia (fear of movement/(re)injury) is important in the etiology of chronic symptoms. In this prospective cohort study, the predictive role of kinesiophobia in the development of late whiplash syndrome was examined. Methods: Victims

  10. An attempt of early detection of poor outcome after whiplash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien LAPORTE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash associated disorders (WAD for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences.In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and six months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15 to 21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI with tractography (DTI. At 6-month, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favourable or unfavourable progression (an unfavourable classification corresponding to the presence of Post-Concussion Symptom PCS and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and /or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. That is, the association of a neuropsychological disorder with a somatic one was sufficient to explain the passage to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible

  11. StressModEx--Physiotherapist-led Stress Inoculation Training integrated with exercise for acute whiplash injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Carrie; Kenardy, Justin; Smeets, Rob; Sterling, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Whiplash associated disorders are the most common non-hospitalised injuries following a road traffic crash. Up to 50% of individuals who experience a whiplash injury will not fully recover and report ongoing pain and disability. Most recovery, if it occurs, takes place in the first 2-3 months post injury, indicating that treatment provided in the early stages is critical to long-term outcome. However, early management approaches for people with acute whiplash associated disorders are modestly effective. One reason may be that the treatments have been non-specific and have not targeted the processes shown to be associated with poor recovery, such as post-traumatic stress symptoms. Targeting and modulating these early stress responses in the early management of acute whiplash associated disorders may improve health outcomes. Early aggressive psychological interventions in the form of psychological debriefing may be detrimental to recovery and are now not recommended for management of early post-traumatic stress symptoms. In contrast, Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) is a cognitive behavioural approach that teaches various general problem-solving and coping strategies to manage stress-related anxiety (ie, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring and positive self-statements) and provides important information to injured individuals about the impact of stress on their physical and psychological wellbeing. While referral to a psychologist may be necessary in some cases where acute stress disorder or other more significant psychological reactions to stress are evident, in the case of acute whiplash injuries, it is neither feasible nor necessary for a psychologist to deliver the early stress modulation intervention to all injured individuals. The feasibility of using other specially trained health professionals to deliver psychological interventions has been explored in conditions such as chronic low back pain, chronic whiplash and cancer, but few trials have studied

  12. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: Cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, G.; Cote, P.; Bayoumi, A.M.; Cassidy, J.D.; Boyle, E.; Shearer, H.M.; Stupar, M.; Jacobs, C.; Ammendolia, C.; Carette, S.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the

  13. Whiplash and prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A whiplash is caused by a sudden and violent movement of the head in relation to the torso. Whiplash injury is a combination of pain in the neck, pain in the head, and other health complaints. Annually, an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 people in the Netherlands incur whiplash due to a traffic crash,

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated...

  15. A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD) - choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Bring, Annika; Asenlöf, Pernilla

    2009-07-22

    The management of whiplash associated disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with whiplash associated disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet - based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in whiplash associated disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute whiplash associated disorders. The project will contribute to the creation of a cost-effective behavioural medicine

  16. A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bring Annika

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet – based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. Discussion This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in Whiplash Associated Disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The project will

  17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated the...

  18. Acute appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. Coincidence or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iván Latorre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is a common disease in clinical practice; some well-defined causes include luminal obstruction by fecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, foreign bodies and intestinal parasites. Closed abdominal trauma has been associated as an etiological factor, although, their causal relationship is still unclear. This paper presents the case of a patient with appendicitis after a closed abdominal trauma.

  19. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydam, K.; Sehlen, S.; Schlenkhoff, D.; Kiricuta, J.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Central Sensitization Is Modulated Following Trigger Point Anesthetization in Patients with Chronic Pain from Whiplash Trauma. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, N Ake; Freeman, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS) with low peripheral pain thresholds (PPTs) is a common finding among patients with chronic pain after whiplash (CPWI). While it has been proposed that myofascial myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) may act as modulators of central sensitization, previously reported findings are conflicting and inconclusive. The present study was designed to investigate immediate responsiveness of CS to alterations in nociceptive input. Controlled, double-blind, cross-over. Thirty-one patients with chronic pain (trapezius myalgia) and CS after whiplash. Participants were referred by randomization to group A for injection of a single peripheral pain generator (MTrP or other discrete tender point) with local anesthetic or to group B for sham injection and cross-over. Documentation of PPT (Algometer), maximum jaw opening (caliper), and grip strength (Vigorimeter), as well as subjective overall pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), was made before and after each intervention. Statistical analysis of data (Student's t test, analysis of variance) confirmed that peripheral pain thresholds were significantly higher and maximum jaw opening significantly greater after anesthetizing a focal pain generator in the trapezius, but not after a sham injection. In contrast with the objective variables, subjective generalized pain improved (VAS) after not only an injection of local anesthetic, but also, and to a similar extent, after a sham injection. CS, as expressed by lowered PPT, is a rapidly adjusting physiological response to nociceptive stimuli in some patients with chronic pain after whiplash. PPT are likely modulated by myofascial tender points in selected patients with CS. With reference to the present findings, surgical ablation of MTrPs is discussed as a potential treatment modality for CS. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Acute longitudinal ligament rupture following acute spinal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Hansom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a rare case of anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL rupture in a 47- year-old gentleman following a bicycle accident. The ALL is a continuous band of a variable thickness that acts as a primary spinal stabiliser. Stress, strain or rupture of the ALL usually occurs as a result of hyperextension, with the primary perpetrator being whiplash injuries. Such injuries have been shown to result in cervical spine instability during extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending modes. Spine radiographs of such patients may be routinely assessed as normal, therefore this specific type of injury does not lend itself to identification by traditional imaging methods. This account demonstrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion of a ligamentous neck injury in the setting of normal plain radiographs but abnormal clinical examination.

  2. Todd's Paresis in Acute Mild Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Alan; Wright, David; Breen, Thomas; Lyon, Richard

    We present the case of an adult male who sustained Todd's paresis after a traumatically induced seizure in a patient with an isolated facial injury. The precipitating event was head trauma from a golf club. The patient had no previous history of seizures and went on to make a complete neurologic recovery with no cerebral pathology noted. A literature review suggests that Todd's paresis after trauma is very rare as opposed to occurring in the medical or long-term brain injury settings. Although the authors acknowledge that it may occur in trauma, the awareness within the prehospital setting is sufficiently rare for this case report to be of interest to prehospital clinicians; it is important prehospital clinicians are aware of this condition. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for chronic disability in a cohort of patients with acute whiplash associated disorders seeking physiotherapy treatment for persisting symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-03-01

    (1) To identify risk factors for chronic disability in people with acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). (2) To estimate the impact of the numbers of risk factors present. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected, on average, 32 days after injury (SD=10.9) and 12 months later. Baseline measures of pain, disability, neck movement, psychological and behavioural factors were independent variables and chronic disability at 12 months was the dependent variable in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. National Health Service physiotherapy departments. Participants (n=599) with symptoms 3 weeks after injury, self-referred to physiotherapy as part of a randomised controlled trial. 430 (72%) participants provided complete data for this analysis. Chronic disability based on Neck Disability Index scores. 136 (30%) participants developed chronic disability. High baseline disability (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.97 to 5.55), longer predicted recovery time (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.87), psychological distress (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.51), passive coping (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.97) and greater number of symptoms (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.78) were associated with chronic disability. One risk factor resulted in 3.5 times the risk (95% CI 1.04 to 11.45) of chronic disability but this risk increased to 16 times (95%CI 5.36 to 49.27) in those with four or five risk factors. Baseline disability had the strongest association with chronic disability but psychological and behavioural factors were also important. Treatment strategies should reflect this which may require a change to current physiotherapy approaches for acute WAD. The number of risk factors present should be considered when evaluating potential for poor outcome. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute local inflammation after blunt trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Namkje van der

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, early local inflammation as a result of injury was studied in trauma patients. Local tissue activation as a result of a closed femoral fracture was used as a model. The local inflammatory response in general and especially the production of pro-inflammatory cyokites was studied in

  5. Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrara, S. D.; Ananian, V.; Baccino, E.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD). The document...

  6. Acute head trauma in children - early application of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reither, M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the present diagnostic potential of MRI in early stage head trauma and possibly to replace CT studies in children. FLAIR-techniques consequently applied as 'scout sequences' provided reliable identification of traumatic intra- and extracranial lesions yet during the first measurement in all 24 cases. Follow-up scan confirmed the initial results. The reliability of MRI in acute pediatric head trauma is underlined by the fact that CT scans were no longer necessary within the last three years. Therefore, the imaging algorithm of acute head trauma in children has changed in our institution: medium and high risk patients undergo MRI, in young infants we do US first. HR-CT is reserved for lesions of the visceral cranium. X rays are out. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of acute pain in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Stine; Mannering, Anne; Zwisler, Stine T

    2016-01-01

    .003). CONCLUSIONS: Effect was only documented in one patient after administering opioids in a patient with trauma population, where approximately 17 percent of patients experienced severe pain. Severe pain was correlated to male gender, respiratory intervention, opioid administration, and the diagnosis unspecified......OBJECTIVE: To elucidate pain treatment with analgesics in a prehospital trauma population. DESIGN: Retrospective database study. SETTING: Prehospital data from the anesthesiologist-manned Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark, were extracted and subjected to analysis. PATIENTS...... MEASURES: Evaluation of the application of the pain scale Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Furthermore, the authors performed a characterization of the patients with mild pain and severe pain according to specific parameters such as pharmacological interventions, opioid consumption, intubation, and others...

  8. Contemporary management of acute kidney trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Anselmo da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury occurs in 1%–5% of all traumas, causing disability or even death. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST renal injury scale should be used when injuries are reported. Although there is a consensus regarding handling of lower-grade injuries conservatively, the same cannot be said for the higher-grades, for which different specialists handle either conservatively or surgically. A search of the MEDLINE database was undertaken by using the following filters: English language articles, full-text availability, last five years, humans. Pediatric studies were excluded. For most renal injuries in hemodynamically stable, patients can be safely handled conservatively. An organized assessment and treatment system can reduce the need for nephrectomy in most other cases, as has occurred in the last two decades. The AAST injury scale should be updated in light of the advancements in imaging techniques, in order to fine tune grading and treatment.

  9. A Review of Traumatic Axonal Injury following Whiplash Injury As Demonstrated by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash is a bony or soft tissue injury resulting from an acceleration–deceleration energy transfer in the neck. Although patients with whiplash injury often complain of cerebral symptoms, and previous studies have reported evidence indicating brain injury, such an association has not been clearly elucidated. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI is tearing of axons due to indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or to direct head trauma. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has a unique advantage to detect TAI in patients whose conventional brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results were negative following head trauma. Since the introduction of DTI, six studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT based on DTI data have reported TAI in patients with whiplash injury, even though conventional brain CT or MRI results were negative. A precise TAI diagnosis in whiplash patients is clinically important for proper management and prognosis. Among the methods employed to diagnose TAI in the six previous studies, the common diagnostic approach for neural tract TAI in individual patients with whiplash injury were (1 whiplash injury history due to car accident; (2 development of new clinical symptoms and signs after whiplash injury; (3 evidence of neural tract TAI in DTT results, mainly via configurational analysis; and (4 coincidence of newly developed clinical manifestations and the function of injured neural tracts. All six studies were individual patient case studies; therefore, further prospective studies involving larger number of subjects should be encouraged.

  10. Occult Pneumothoraces in Acute Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Berryman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many traumatic pneumothoraces (PTX are not seen on initial chest radiograph (CR(occult PTX but are detected only on computed tomography (CT. Although CR remains the first toolfor detecting PTX, most trauma patients with significant thoracoabdominal injuries will receive both CTand CR. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively determine the effectiveness of CR fordetecting PTX in trauma patients. Our hypotheses were that CR is a sensitive indicator of PTX on CT,that chest pain and shortness of breath are good predictors of PTX on CR, and that we could determineother predictors of PTX on CR.Methods: All trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center with a CT-diagnosed PTX over a2-year period who had both a CR and a chest CT were included. The CT reading was considered thegold standard for PTX diagnosis. Electronic medical records were searched using key words fordiagnoses, symptoms, demographics, and radiologic results. We recorded the official radiologistreadings for both CR and CT (positive or negative and the size of the PTX on CT (large, moderate,small, or tiny. The outcome variable was dichotomized based on presence or absence of PTXdetected on CR. Descriptive statistics and v2 tests were used for univariate analysis. A regressionanalysis was performed to determine characteristics predictive of a PTX on CR, and 1 variable wasadded to the model for every 10 positive CRs. With equal-size groups, this study has the power of 80%to detect a 10% absolute difference in single predictors of PTX on CR with 45 subjects in each group.Results: There were 134 CT-documented PTXs included in the study. Mean age was 42, and 74%were men. For 66 (49% patients, PTX was detected on CR (sensitivity¼50%. The CR detected 30%of small PTX, 35% of moderate PTX, and 33% of large PTX. Comparing patients with and without PTXon CR, there were no significant differences in shortness of breath or chest pain. There no

  11. Occult pneumothoraces in acute trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Amy A; McIntyre, William A; Weiss, Steven J; Berryman, Chad

    2012-11-01

    Many traumatic pneumothoraces (PTX) are not seen on initial chest radiograph (CR) (occult PTX) but are detected only on computed tomography (CT). Although CR remains the first tool for detecting PTX, most trauma patients with significant thoracoabdominal injuries will receive both CT and CR. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively determine the effectiveness of CR for detecting PTX in trauma patients. Our hypotheses were that CR is a sensitive indicator of PTX on CT, that chest pain and shortness of breath are good predictors of PTX on CR, and that we could determine other predictors of PTX on CR. All trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center with a CT-diagnosed PTX over a 2-year period who had both a CR and a chest CT were included. The CT reading was considered the gold standard for PTX diagnosis. Electronic medical records were searched using key words for diagnoses, symptoms, demographics, and radiologic results. We recorded the official radiologist readings for both CR and CT (positive or negative) and the size of the PTX on CT (large, moderate, small, or tiny). The outcome variable was dichotomized based on presence or absence of PTX detected on CR. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) tests were used for univariate analysis. A regression analysis was performed to determine characteristics predictive of a PTX on CR, and 1 variable was added to the model for every 10 positive CRs. With equal-size groups, this study has the power of 80% to detect a 10% absolute difference in single predictors of PTX on CR with 45 subjects in each group. There were 134 CT-documented PTXs included in the study. Mean age was 42, and 74% were men. For 66 (49%) patients, PTX was detected on CR (sensitivity = 50%). The CR detected 30% of small PTX, 35% of moderate PTX, and 33% of large PTX. Comparing patients with and without PTX on CR, there were no significant differences in shortness of breath or chest pain. There no relationships between PTX detected

  12. 1.5-T MR imaging of acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.V.; Kopanicky, D.; McArdle, C.; Cotler, H.; Lee, K.F.; Bondrut, F.; Harris, J.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution surface coil MR imaging was performed in 53 patients with acute spinal trauma. Three types of spinal cord lesions were identified on MR. Cord hemorrhage was seen in approximately 25% of cases. Spinal cord hemorrhage and its subsequent resolution is demonstrated on serial MR images. The most common cord abnormality in acute spinal trauma was cord edema/contusion (61%). The third type of cord injury was probably a combination of the first two types (11%). The various types of cord injuries, their resolution and association with skeletal and ligamentous injury, are demonstrated and correlated with CT findings. Cord injury patterns and neurologic damage and neurological recovery are correlated using Frankel classification

  13. TRAUMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blunt trauma. (n = 17). 3 (17.6%). 2. 14 (82.4%). 0. Table 2. Types of complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Clavien-Dindo Grading. Postoperative Complications (number). I. Wound Sepsis (3), Ileus (1). II. Pneumonia (2). III a. Nil. III b. Empyema of chest (1)*. IV a. Acute Kidney Injury (1), Respiratory Failure ...

  14. Temporomandibular disorders after whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Hjorth, Tine; Svensson, Peter

    2002-01-01

    to a motor vehicle accident involving a rear collision participated in a study of TMD. The control group consisted of 20 age- and gender-matched ankle-injury patients. Participants were seen within 4 weeks and again at 6 months post-injury. The masticatory system was examined in accordance with the research...... obtained at each visit. Results: One whiplash patient and I ankle-injury patient bad jaw pain at the first visit. Palpation scores of the TMJ and the summated palpation scores only tended to be higher in patients sustaining a whiplash injury than in ankle-injury controls at the first visit. However, MPQ......, TMD symptoms and signs, MVOF and PDT, I were not significantly different in whiplash-injury and ankle-injury patients after 4 weeks and 6 months. Conclusion: TMD pain after whiplash injury and ankle injury is rare, suggesting that whiplash injury is not a major risk factor for the development of TMD...

  15. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for acute thoracic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goodman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operative intervention for thoracic trauma typically requires thoracotomy. We hypothesized that thoracoscopy may be safely and effectively utilized for the acute management of thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: The Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was queried from 1999 through 2010 for all video-assisted thoracic procedures within 24 h of admission. Data collected included initial vital signs, operative indication, intraoperative course, and postoperative outcome. Results: Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria: 3 (13% following blunt injury and 20 (87% after penetrating trauma. Indications for urgent thoracoscopy included diaphragmatic/esophageal injury, retained hemothorax, ongoing hemorrhage, and open/persistent pneumothorax. No conversions to thoracotomy were required and no patient required re-operation. Mean postoperative chest tube duration was 2.9 days and mean length of stay was 5.6 days. Conclusion: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and effective for managing thoracic trauma in hemodynamically stable patients within the first 24 h post-injury.

  16. A comparison between MRI and CT in acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Tress, B.M.; Hennessy, O.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 0.3T and computed Tomography (CT) were compared in the retrospective evaluation of 34 patients with acute spinal cord injury. MRI was highly accurate in the imaging of vertebral body fracture, and spondylitic changes, and is the method of choice for imaging ligament injury, traumatic disc protrusion and spinal cord compression. It was also useful for the identification of subtle subluxations in the sagittal plane. It is concluded that while CT remains the method of choice for imaging neural arch fractures, MRI at 0.3T is a valid technique for assessing patients with acute spinal trauma. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Short-term effects of cervical kinesio taping on pain and cervical range of motion in patients with acute whiplash injury: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Javier; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Huijbregts, Peter; Del Rosario Gutiérrez-Vega, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the short-term effects of Kinesio Taping, applied to the cervical spine, on neck pain and cervical range of motion in individuals with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). Researchers have begun to investigate the effects of Kinesio Taping on different musculoskeletal conditions (eg, shoulder and trunk pain). Considering the demonstrated short-term effectiveness of Kinesio Tape for the management of shoulder pain, it is suggested that Kinesio Tape may also be beneficial in reducing pain associated with WAD. Forty-one patients (21 females) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the experimental group received Kinesio Taping to the cervical spine (applied with tension) and the placebo group received a sham Kinesio Taping application (applied without tension). Both neck pain (11-point numerical pain rating scale) and cervical range-of-motion data were collected at baseline, immediately after the Kinesio Tape application, and at a 24-hour follow-up by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the effects of the treatment on each outcome variable, with group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable. The primary analysis was the group-by-time interaction. The group-by-time interaction for the 2-by-3 mixed-model ANOVA was statistically significant for pain as the dependent variable (F = 64.8; PKinesio Taping experienced a greater decrease in pain immediately postapplication and at the 24-hour follow-up (both, PKinesio Taping, applied with proper tension, exhibited statistically significant improvements immediately following application of the Kinesio Tape and at a 24-hour follow-up. However, the improvements in pain and cervical range of motion were small and may not be clinically meaningful. Future studies should investigate if Kinesio Taping provides enhanced outcomes when added to physical therapy

  18. Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with abdominal trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Jihoon; Yoon, Hye Young; Park, Jinyoung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Acute mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) is defined as new-onset thrombosis of the mesenteric vein without evidence of collateralization, finally resulting in extensive intestinal infarction. MVT may be idiopathic or be caused by conditions responsible for thrombophilia and acquired risk factors. To date, there have been few reports of MVT after trauma. Herein we describe our experiences treating three patients with MVT. Patient concerns: Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with transverse colon mesenteric hematoma after blunt abdominal trauma. Case 2 was a 55-year-old man with jejunal transection after a traffic accident. Case 3 was a 26-year-old man presented with multiple abdominal stab bowel injury. Diagnoses: A 1-week follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in all of three patients. Interventions: All patients were treated with anticoagulant for 3 or 6 months. Outcomes: MVTs were completely resolved without any complications. Lessons: If early diagnosis and treatment could be available, anticoagulation alone might be adequate for the treatment of SMVT associated with trauma. Early anticoagulation in patients with acute SMVT may avoid the grave prognosis observed in patients with arterial thrombosis. PMID:29382004

  19. Acute and overuse elbow trauma: radio-orthopaedics overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Elisabetta Antonia; Cucchi, Davide; Arrigoni, Paolo; Brioschi, Marco; Fusi, Cristiano; Genovese, Eugenio A; Messina, Carmelo; Randelli, Pietro; Masciocchi, Carlo; Aliprandi, Alberto

    2018-01-19

    The correct management of acute, subacute and overuse-related elbow pathologies represents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. While major trauma frequently requires a rapid surgical intervention, subluxation and minor trauma allow taking more time for diagnostics and planning the correct elective treatment after careful clinical and radiological investigation. In these conditions, communication between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist allow to create a detailed radiology report, tailored to the patient's and surgeon's needs and optimal to plan proper management. Imaging technique as X-Ray, CT, US, MRI, CTA and MRA all belong to the radiologist's portfolio in elbow diagnostics. Detailed knowledge of elbow pathology and its classification and of the possibilities and limits of each imaging technique is of crucial importance to reach the correct diagnosis efficiently. The aim of this review is to present the most frequent elbow pathologies and suggest a suitable diagnostic approach for each of them.

  20. Which Biomarker is most Effective to Determine Severity of Acute Head Trauma in the Experimental Animal Head Trauma Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ozgur; Deniz, Fatih Ersay; Benli, Ismail; Oksuz, Erol; Demir, Osman; Butun, Ilknur

    2016-01-01

    Because of the need for effective method to determine the severity of head trauma, the importance of biomarkers is recognized recently. This study aims to analyze the values of sera levels of some biomarkers and the relation with their tissue levels in acute head injury. In this study, rats were divided into three groups (mild head trauma, severe head trauma and control group). All rats were anaesthetized. Weightdrop method was used as trauma method. Blood samples were obtained five minutes after trauma when the acute effects of trauma occurred. Then whole brains of rats were excised. Levels of biomarkers were investigated in the sera samples and homogenized brain tissues biochemically. Significant differences in the sera GFAP (p=0.015) and insulin (p=0.011) levels were observed. Very significant difference in the sera nNOS level was observed. Extremely significant difference in the tissue IL-6 (p trauma severity. Sera GFAP and insulin are also capable to show trauma severity in the very acute period of postinjury. Tissue levels of the biomarkers except insulin are higher than their sera levels.

  1. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  2. Analysis of Surfing Injuries Presenting in the Acute Trauma Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubbal, Kevin T; Chen, Charlie; Costantini, Todd; Herrera, Fernando; Dobke, Marek; Suliman, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Surfing is a rapidly growing major worldwide sport; however, little is understood regarding severe injuries and resulting hospital admissions. This study explores surfing-related injuries in the major surfing hub of San Diego presenting in the acute trauma setting. The purpose of this study is to address the void of information regarding severe surfing injuries in the trauma setting, including injury patterns, associated hospitalization course, and risk factors. Understanding the injury patterns in surfing accidents is crucial for proper management of surfing injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed of all surfing-related injuries in a Level 1 trauma center between 2000 and 2016. A total of 93 patients were identified. Body parts most commonly affected include the head (42, 46%), face (21, 22%), and spine (47, 51%). Twenty-eight (30%) patients required surgical intervention, including 19 for spinal injuries, 3 for facial injuries, 4 for upper extremity injuries, and 2 for lower extremity injuries. The distribution for most presentations (55, 59%) occurred in the summer months between July and September. The Injury Severity Score demonstrated strong positive correlation with the length of hospital stay, with a Pearson coefficient of 0.52 (P sport, is not without major risks. In contrast with other studies, we found a high proportion of head, face, and spine injuries in patients presenting with surfing injuries in the trauma setting, consistent with its presentation as a high velocity and high impact injury. With plastic surgeons often treating severe head and facial injuries, understanding the injury patterns in severe surfing accidents is crucial for proper management. High rates of positive alcohol and drug screening signal the importance to bring awareness to the dangers of surfing under the influence.

  3. MRI for the initial evaluation of acute wrist, knee, and ankle trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Nikken (Jeroen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis we study the application of MRI in acute trauma of wrist, knee, and ankle, evaluating its potentials, its effects, and its costs. Our aim was to use MRI in all patients with acute trauma of wrist, knee, and ankle, without increasing the overall costs to society,

  4. Survey of 2582 cases of acute orthopedic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanha, Mehran; Mobayen, Mohammadreza; Asadi, Kamran; Adeli, Alborz; Haghparast-Ghadim-Limudahi, Zahra

    2014-11-01

    Orthopedic injuries are among the most common causes of mortality, morbidity, hospitalization, and economic burden in societies. In this research, we study the prevalence of different types of trauma requiring orthopedic surgery. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 2582 patients with acute orthopedic injuries admitted to the orthopedic emergency ward at the Poursina Hospital (a referral center in Guilan province (northern Iran), during December 2010 through September 2011. Patients were examined and the data collection form was filled for each patient. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 19 and were listed in tables. Of 2582 included cases, 1940 were male and 642 were female, with a mean age of 34.5 years. Most injuries were seen in the 25 to 44 year age group from rural areas. The highest frequency of trauma related to falls. On the other hand, bicycling and shooting had the lowest frequencies. There were 18 cases with limb amputation. Overall, 66.5% of patients had fractures, 5% had soft tissue lacerations, and 10% had dislocations. Identification of risk factors and methods of prevention is one of the most important duties of healthcare systems. Devising plans to minimize these risk factors and familiarizing people with them is prudent.

  5. Functional health status in subjects after a motor vehicle accident, with emphasis on whiplash associated disorders: design of a descriptive, prospective inception cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Helders, P.J.M.; Graaf, Y. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with acute and chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective

  6. Physiotherapy Management, Coping and Outcome Prediction in Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD)

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Anne

    2001-01-01

    The aims of the present thesis were to evaluate the management of acute WAD and to develop, describe and evaluate a cognitive behavioural approach for the physiotherapy management of long-term WAD as well as to study the predictors and mediating factors for long-term disability and pain after a whiplash injury. Two approaches for acute and chronic WAD were evaluated in experimental studies. Fifty-nine patients with acute whiplash injury (study I) and 33 patients with chronic WAD (study V), w...

  7. Acute diagnosis of spinal trauma; Akutdiagnostik des Wirbelsaeulentraumas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, M.; Mallouhi, A.; Jaschke, W. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria); El Attal, R.; Kathrein, A.; Knop, C.; Blauth, M. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-06-15

    Most traumatic spinal injuries result from a high-energy process and are accompanied by other injuries. Following the CCSPR study, the presence of all low-risk factors (simple trauma mechanism, fully conscious, ambulatory at any time since trauma, neck rotation exceeding 45 bilaterally) obviates the need to acutely image the cervical spine. Imaging is indicated in all other patients. Emergency spiral CT should be performed as the first imaging method in high-risk and moderate-risk patients; only in low-risk patients should conventional radiography be performed and trusted as the sole modality. The AO classification according to Magerl et al. is used for the subaxial spine, whereas the upper cervical spine should be classified separately because the anatomy is different at each level. Radiological evaluation of traumatic spinal injuries should be done systematically using the ''ABCS'' scheme. (orig.) [German] Wirbelsaeulentraumen entstehen zumeist infolge hochenergetischer Mechanismen und sind haeufig von weiteren Verletzungen begleitet. Auf eine Diagnostik der Wirbelsaeule kann laut CCSPR-Studie nur dann verzichtet werden, wenn alle Niedrigrisikofaktoren (bewusstseinsklar, gehfaehig, ausreichender Bewegungsumfang, einfacher Unfallmechanismus) erfuellt sind. Alle anderen Patienten muessen radiologisch abgeklaert werden. Dabei sollten Patienten mit einer hohen und mittleren Verletzungswahrscheinlichkeit primaer computertomographisch untersucht werden, nur bei einer geringen Verletzungswahrscheinlichkeit kann der konventionellen Diagnostik vertraut werden. Die Frakturen der subaxialen Wirbelsaeule werden nach der Magerl-AO-Klassifikation eingeteilt, wohingegen fuer die obere HWS separate Einteilungen angewandt werden. Die radiologische Beurteilung des Wirbelsaeulentraumas sollte systematisch anhand des ''ABCS''-Schemas erfolgen. (orig.)

  8. Advances in laparoscopy for acute care surgery and trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrioli, Matteo; Inaba, Kenji; Piccinini, Alice; Biscardi, Andrea; Sartelli, Massimo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Catena, Fausto; Cirocchi, Roberto; Jovine, Elio; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone

    2016-01-14

    The greatest advantages of laparoscopy when compared to open surgery include the faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, decreased postoperative pain, earlier return to work and resumption of normal daily activity as well as cosmetic benefits. Laparoscopy today is considered the gold standard of care in the treatment of cholecystitis and appendicitis worldwide. Laparoscopy has even been adopted in colorectal surgery with good results. The technological improvements in this surgical field along with the development of modern techniques and the acquisition of specific laparoscopic skills have allowed for its utilization in operations with fully intracorporeal anastomoses. Further progress in laparoscopy has included single-incision laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, laparoscopy for emergency surgery is still considered challenging and is usually not recommended due to the lack of adequate experience in this area. The technical difficulties of operating in the presence of diffuse peritonitis or large purulent collections and diffuse adhesions are also given as reasons. However, the potential advantages of laparoscopy, both in terms of diagnosis and therapy, are clear. Major advantages may be observed in cases with diffuse peritonitis secondary to perforated peptic ulcers, for example, where laparoscopy allows the confirmation of the diagnosis, the identification of the position of the ulcer and a laparoscopic repair with effective peritoneal washout. Laparoscopy has also revolutionized the approach to complicated diverticulitis even when intestinal perforation is present. Many other emergency conditions can be effectively managed laparoscopically, including trauma in select hemodynamically-stable patients. We have therefore reviewed the most recent scientific literature on advances in laparoscopy for acute care surgery and trauma in order to demonstrate the current indications and outcomes associated with a

  9. Acute pain from the perspective of minor trauma patients treated at the emergency unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Regina Martin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the factors that influence the perception of acute pain and the consequences of this experience in patients suffering from mild trauma. METHOD: Descriptive qualitative study conducted in an emergency service in southern Brazil. Data was collected in October 2013, through semi-structured interviews with 29 individuals who reported pain after physical trauma, regardless of the triggering factor. To process the data, we used a Content Analysis technique, subject modality. RESULTS: Two categories emerged: Factors that influence the perception of pain resulting from trauma and, Consequences of acute pain due to trauma. The acute pain sensation was influenced by biological, emotional, spiritual and socio-cultural factors and induced biological and emotional consequences for individuals. CONCLUSION: The health professionals need to consider the factors that influence soreness and its consequences for the proper assessment and management of pain resulting from trauma.

  10. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: A 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina

    2008-01-01

    emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in four counties in Denmark. After the collision patients received a questionnaire on psychological distress, unspecified pain and socio-demographics and 12months later a follow-up on work capability and neck pain was performed. Risk factors were....... Factors associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up were pre-collision unspecified pain (OR=3.5, p4years. Pre-collision neck pain and severity of accident...

  11. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: A 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2008-01-01

    emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in four counties in Denmark. After the collision patients received a questionnaire on psychological distress, unspecified pain and socio-demographics and 12 months later a follow-up on work capability and neck pain was performed. Risk factors were...... of accident were not associated with poor outcome. In conclusion unspecified as opposed to specified pain (neck pain) before the collision is associated with poor recovery and high accumulation of pre-collision psychological distress is associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up. However...

  12. Vestibular Rehabilitation in a Patient with Whiplash-associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Shieng Tuo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorders are characterized by multiple physical complaints after a flexion-extension trauma to the neck. They are difficult to treat, and they often result in great impact on the patient's quality of life. In this paper, the comprehensive treatment of a patient with whiplash-associated disorders is presented. The purpose is to highlight the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plans to improve patients' quality of life. This 23-year-old woman experienced a traffic accident which caused severely painful neck disability, numbness over bilateral upper limbs, dizziness, double vision and loss of balance. Among these symptoms, dizziness was the problem that bothered the patient most. She received a comprehensive rehabilitation program including physical modalities, trigger point injections for relief of pain, as well as a vestibular rehabilitation program, which included exercises challenging and improving her balance function, head-eye coordination exercise, visual-ocular control exercise and sensory substitution-promoting exercises. She resumed her previous full-time work after 3 weeks of treatment. This successfully treated case illustrates the importance of correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment for patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders.

  13. A new stratified risk assessment tool for whiplash injuries developed from a prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An initial stratification of acute whiplash patients into seven risk-strata in relation to 1-year work disability as primary outcome is presented. DESIGN: The design was an observational prospective study of risk factors embedded in a randomised controlled study. SETTING: Acute whipla...

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Management of Acute Skin Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Joel W.; Buckley, Bernadette; Holcomb, William R.; Ciocca, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the cleansing, debridement, dressing, and monitoring of acute skin trauma in patients. Background: Acute skin trauma is common during participation in athletic and recreational activities. Clinical decisions and intervention protocols after injury vary among athletic trainers and are often based on ritualistic practices. An understanding of cleansing, debridement, and dressing techniques; clinical features of infection and adverse reactions; and monitoring of acute skin trauma is critical for certified athletic trainers and other allied health and medical professionals to create a local wound environment that promotes healing and lessens the risk of complications. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide the certified athletic trainer and others participating in athletic health care with specific knowledge about and recommendations for the management of acute skin trauma. PMID:28092169

  15. Evidence for central sensitization in chronic whiplash: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterwijck, J; Nijs, J; Meeus, M; Paul, L

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that sensitization of the central nervous system plays an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic (pain) complaints experienced by whiplash patients. According to the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was performed to screen and evaluate the existing clinical evidence for the presence of central sensitization in chronic whiplash. DATABASES AND DATA TREATMENT: Predefined keywords regarding central sensitization and chronic whiplash were combined in electronic search engines PubMed and Web of Science. Full text clinical reports addressing studies of central sensitization in human adults with chronic complaints due to a whiplash trauma were included and reviewed on methodological quality by two independent reviewers. From the 99 articles that were identified, 24 met the inclusion criteria, and 22 articles achieved sufficient scores on methodological quality and were discussed. These studies evaluated the sensitivity to different types of stimuli (mechanical, thermal, electrical). Findings suggest that although different central mechanisms seem to be involved in sustaining the pain complaints in whiplash patients, hypersensitivity of the central nervous system plays a significant role. Persistent pain complaints, local and widespread hyperalgesia, referred pain and (thoracic) allodynia, decreased spinal reflex thresholds, inefficient diffuse noxious inhibitory controls activation and enhanced temporal summation of pain were established in chronic whiplash patients. Although the majority of the literature provides evidence for the presence of central sensitization in chronic whiplash, underlying mechanisms are still unclear and future studies with good methodological quality are necessary. In addition, international guidelines for the definition, clinical recognition, assessment and treatment of central sensitization are warranted. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  16. A new stratified risk assessment tool for whiplash injuries developed from a prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela

    2013-01-01

    -mobility was a strong predictor in this study; however, it was a more inconsistent predictor in other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the risk assessment score and use of the risk strata system may be beneficial in future studies and may be considered as a valuable tool to assess return-to-work following injuries......OBJECTIVES: An initial stratification of acute whiplash patients into seven risk-strata in relation to 1-year work disability as primary outcome is presented. DESIGN: The design was an observational prospective study of risk factors embedded in a randomised controlled study. SETTING: Acute whiplash...

  17. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por trauma muscular experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho Sombra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6: G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.. Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p. rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. CONCLUSION: Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo facilmente reprodutível de lesão pulmonar aguda decorrente de trauma muscular experimental em ratos sadios. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar adultos foram randomizados em 3 grupos (n=6: G-1-controle, G-2 - trauma+salina e G-3 - trauma+dexametasona. Grupos G-1 e G-2 foram tratados com salina 2,0 ml ip, G-3 ratos foram tratados com dexametasona (DE (2 mg/kg peso corporal ip. Salina e DE foram aplicadas 2h antes e 12h depois do trauma. Trauma foi induzido em ratos G-2 e G-3 anestesiados (tribromoetanol 97% de 100 ml/kg, i.p. por secção da musculatura anterior da coxa logo acima da articulação do joelho, preservando os grandes vasos e nervos. Amostras de tecido (pulmão foram coletadas para avaliação da mieloperoxidase (MPO, e exames histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro horas após a indução da lesão muscular houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de neutr

  18. Whiplash Injuries Can be Visible by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt H Johansson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash trauma can result in injuries that are difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in injuries to the upper segments of the cervical spine (craniocervical joint [CCJ] complex. Studies indicate that injuries in that region may be responsible for the cervicoencephalic syndrome, as evidenced by headache, balance problems, vertigo, dizziness, eye problems, tinnitus, poor concentration, sensitivity to light and pronounced fatigue. Consequently, diagnosis of lesions in the CCJ region is important. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a radiological technique that can visualize injuries of the ligaments and the joint capsules, and accompanying pathological movement patterns.

  19. Acute injury of the ankle joint; Akutes Trauma des Sprunggelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, M.J. [Univ. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Abt. fuer Osteologie und Besondere Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz, AKH, Wien (Austria)]|[Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of lateral collateral ankle ligament trauma is based on patient history, clinical examination, and clinical stress tests. If the clinical stress test is positive, stress radiography could be performed. There is no consensus about the usefulness of stress radiography in acute ankle sprain, particularly about the cut-off talar tilt angle beyond which a two-ligament rupture would be certain, ranging from 5 to 30 . Today MRI is not used for this indication, although it allows, with controlled positioning of the foot and with defined sections, visualization of injured lateral collateral ankle ligaments. In ankle injuries, plain radiographs form the established basis of diagnostic imaging and can provide definitive answers in most cases. CT is used in complex fractures for complete visualization. MRI is the method of choice for several diagnostic problem cases, including occult fractures and post-traumatic avascular necrosis. In tendon injuries, MRI is important if ultrasound is not diagnostic. Generally, for the evaluation of acute ankle injuries, MRI is the most important second-step procedure when radiographs are nondiagnostic. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Diagnose einer lateralen Bandverletzung beim frischen Sprunggelenkstrauma fusst auf der Anamnese, der klinischen Untersuchung und klinischen Stresstests. Bei positiven klinischen Stresstests kann eine Stressradiographie durchgefuehrt werden. Es gibt keine Uebereinstimmung fuer den Wert der Stressradiographie beim frischen Supinationstrauma des Sprunggelenks, insbesonders fuer den Winkel der Aufklappbarkeit bei einer Zweibandverletzung, der von 5 -30 reicht. Die MRT wird zur Zeit bei dieser Indikation nur in Einzelfaellen benutzt, obwohl sie mit definierter Fusspositionierung und Ausrichtung der Untersuchungsebene eine ausgezeichnete Beurteilung der Sprunggelenksbaende erlaubt. Bei knoecherner Sprunggelenksverletzungen ist die Verwendung des konventionellen Roentgen die etablierte Methode und meist

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute trauma of the spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradzki, J.; Paprzycki, W.; Jankowski, R.; Nowak, S.

    1993-01-01

    30 patients with acute neurologic deficits following spine trauma were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. 15 patients had hemorrhagic necrosis of spinal cord and 9 patients had contusion and/or oedema of spinal cord. 21 patients had compression of spinal cord. MRI appears to be useful in the diagnosis of acute cord injury. MRI in acute phase of spine injury can be predictive of the eventual motor recovery of the patient. (author)

  1. Telemedicine for acute plastic surgical trauma and burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D L; Jones, S M; Milroy, C; Pickford, M A

    2008-01-01

    Visual images can enhance communication over a distance. In the UK, plastic surgery provides services over large distances by a 'hub and spoke' model. Telemedicine could help to increase the efficiency of service for plastic surgery patients. Telemedicine, along with the impending Electronic Patient Record system could combine to improve communication, patient triage, record keeping, audit and could lead to a better quality of clinical care. Another benefit could be significant cost savings. We report our experience of the introduction of telemedicine to a Regional Plastic Surgery Service. Our first study compared assessments from images and patient examinations, which gave us confidence in the use of images [Jones SM, Milroy C, Pickford MA. Telemedicine in acute plastic surgical trauma and burns. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2004;86:239-42]. We proceeded to a 10-week evaluation of all 973 referrals to our unit. We found that the system was used for a wide variety of injuries and for 42% of the 452 patients where the system was available. Initial resistance was overcome by the ease of use of the system, with both receiving and referring clinicians reporting benefits. The third phase was a 12-week prospective cohort study of 996 patients comparing the referrals with and without the telemedicine system. The system was available for 389 patients, and used for 243 patients (63%). The groups were analysed by a chi squared test and confidence interval calculation. We demonstrated a significant difference in the initial management of patients, with 10% more being booked directly to our Day Surgery Unit. There was a decrease in number of occasions when we were unable to accept a patient due to a lack of capacity. We found no change in the patients being managed with telephone only advice. We found that telemedicine is a valuable method of providing useful preliminary information in the referral process for injured patients and often significantly modifies their treatment and

  2. Coping style as a predictor of compliance with referral to active rehabilitation in whiplash patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Louw, Deon

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the odds ratio for compliance with referral to an active treatment program according to coping style in a cohort of acute whiplash-injured subjects. Sixty whiplash patients were assessed within 1 week of their collision for their coping styles and were then questioned 3 weeks later to determine if they had complied with a referral for an active treatment program. Coping style was assessed with the Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory. Adjusting for age, gender, and initial whiplash disability questionnaire scores, the odds ratio for compliance with therapy for subjects who had a low active/high passive coping style was 0.15 (P=0.03) (95% CI, 0.03-0.86) relative to all other coping style patterns, whose odds ratios did not differ from each other. As a secondary outcome, the odds ratio for reporting prescription medication use for subjects who had a low active/high passive coping style was 6.7 (P=0.038) (95% CI, 1.1-40.4). Those whiplash patients who have a low active/high passive coping style are less likely to attend an active exercise-based rehabilitation program and more likely to use prescription medications in the first 3 weeks following injury. Coping style may affect recovery from whiplash injury through issues of compliance with active therapy and increased reliance on prescription medications.

  3. [Practical guidelines for the prevention of chronic symptoms after a whiplash injury, based on published evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vendrig, A A; Castro, W H; Scholten-Peeters, G G; van Akkerveeken, P F

    2004-01-01

    Recently, systematic reviews and evidence-based guidelines on whiplash have appeared, from which preventive recommendations can be derived. Fear of moving, catastrophic thoughts and avoidance of activity seem to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic symptoms. Early

  4. The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    L - carnitine (ALCAR) and (5) Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1-004 in reducing hearing and sensory cell loss as the result of an acute acoustic trauma that...trauma: (1) L -N-acetylcysteine ( L -NAC); (2) D-Methionine (D-MET); (3) Ebselen SPI-1005; (4) Acetyl- L - carnitine (ALCAR) and (5) Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1...rescue mode with L -N-acetylcysteine, D- Methionine, Ebselen SPI-1005, Acetyl- L - carnitine or Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1-004 following an acoustic trauma

  5. MR imaging at 1.5 T in the evaluation of acute cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Joslyn, J.N.; Young, J.W.R.; Gellad, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen patients presenting with acute neurologic deficits following cervical spine trauma were evaluating by MR imaging (18), CT with intrathecal contrast (18), myelography (13), and intraoperative spinal sonography (six) acutely or subacutely following trauma. In 15 of 18 patients MR imaging detected what were interpreted as significant cervical spine disk herniation and/or spinal cord contusion, ligamentous injury, or vertebral artery occlusion not demonstrated by CT with intrathecal contrast. CT with intrathecal contrast was superior to MR imaging in demonstrating dural tears with contrast extravasation and minimally displaced posterior element fractures. Myelography added no useful information to the MR or CT studies. The authors' preliminary experience suggests MR should be the study of choice in evaluating acute cervical spine trauma in symptomatic patients who are otherwise clinically stable

  6. Delayed onset of fatal basilar thrombotic embolus after whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viktrup, L; Knudsen, G M; Hansen, S H

    1995-01-01

    in a collision. CASE DESCRIPTION: After whiplash trauma in a car accident, a 50-year-old taxi driver suffered from headache and episodic visual disturbances. Two months after the accident he suddenly lost consciousness and was admitted to the hospital. A CT scan performed at that time was indicative of basilar...... injury caused a lesion of the right vertebral artery, leading to repeated transient ischemic attacks and finally to a fatal basilar thrombotic embolus. We suggest that in patients with disturbances of the vertebrobasilar circulation, attention should be paid to occurrence of neck trauma in the preceding...... 3 months. Further, anticoagulant therapy should particularly be considered in patients who after suffering neck injuries develop signs of transient ischemic attacks with origin from the posterior cerebral circulation....

  7. Re-estimation of acute subdural hematoma in children caused by trivial household head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Jun

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify characteristics of acute subdural hematoma in children caused by a trivial household head trauma from a modem neurosurgical and medicolegal standpoint. We performed a retrospective study of 25 children younger than 48 months hospitalized for acute subdural hematoma from December 1, 1993, through February 28, 2003. Inclusion criteria were as follows: acute subdural hematoma caused by trivial household trauma and a history of trauma corroborated by a caretaker, absence of physical injuries consistent with child abuse, fundoscopic examinations performed by a pediatric ophthalmologist, absence of fractures on general bone survey, and child abuse ruled out by long-term follow-up (more than 5 years). Twenty-one of the patients were boys, and 4 were girls. The patients ranged in age from 6 to 17 months, with an average age of 8.5 months. In 17 of 25 patients trauma had been caused by falls to the floor while standing with support or while sitting. Most of the patients were admitted to the hospital because of generalized convulsions or seizures that had developed soon after a trivial household trauma. Fifteen of the 25 (60%) patients had retinal or preretinal hemorrhage and 9 patients had bilateral retinal hemorrhage. Computed tomography showed fluid-type acute subdural hematomas at the frontal convexity or in the interhemispheric fissure in 18 of 25 (72%) patients. Fourteen of 25 (56%) patients had pre-existing external hydrocephalus (enlargements of the subarachnoid space). The long-term outcomes included normal mental development (IQ≥80) in 18 cases, mild mental retardation (IQ<80) in 7 cases, and epilepsy in 3 cases. Acute subdural hematoma in children caused by trivial household trauma is a clinical entity distinct from acute subdural hematoma caused by child abuse or shaken-baby syndrome. (author)

  8. The impact of magnetic resonance on the diagnostic evaluation of acute cervicothoracic spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, A.L.; Rothfus, W.E.; Deeb, Z.L.; Daffner, R.H.; Lupetin, A.R.; Wilberger, J.E.; Prostko, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    From 1984 to 1987 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 100 patients suffering acute spinal trauma. MR demonstrated one or more injuries to the cervicothoracic region in 31 patients. It displayed a spectrum of spinal cord injury ranging from mild compression and swelling to complete transection. MR was also useful in evaluating alignment at the cervicothoracic junction, in depicting ligamentous injury, in establishing the presence of disc herniation, and in identifying unsuspected levels of injury. We present a diagnostic algorithm that incorporates the role of MR in evaluating acute cervicothoracic spinal trauma and emphasizes the replacement of myelography by MR in the initial assessment of neurologic deficit. (orig.)

  9. Measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma: preliminary evaluation of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Karen; West, Anita; Nott, Philippa; Cole, Elaine; Playford, Diane; Liu, Clarence; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Injury severity, disability and care dependency are frequently used as surrogate measures for rehabilitation requirements following trauma. The true rehabilitation needs of patients may be different but there are no validated tools for the measurement of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential utility of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (RCS) version 2 in measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma patients. A prospective observation study of 103 patients with traumatic injuries in a Major Trauma Centre. Rehabilitation complexity was measured using the RCS and disability was measured using the Barthel Index. Demographic information and injury characteristics were obtained from the trauma database. The RCS was closely correlated with injury severity (r=0.69, pBarthel Index (r=0.91, pBarthel was poor at discriminating between patients rehabilitation needs, especially for patients with higher injury severities. Of 58 patients classified as 'very dependent' by the Barthel, 21 (36%) had low or moderate rehabilitation complexity. The RCS correlated with acute hospital length of stay (r=0.64, p=Barthel which had a flooring effect (56% of patients classified as very dependent were discharged home) and lacked discrimination despite close statistical correlation. The RCS outperformed the ISS and the Barthel in its ability to identify rehabilitation requirements in relation to injury severity, rehabilitation complexity, length of stay and discharge destination. The RCS is potentially a feasible and useful tool for the assessment of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care by providing specific measurement of patients' rehabilitation requirements. A larger longitudinal study is needed to evaluate the RCS in the assessment of patient need, service provision and trauma system performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TRAUMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing temperatures are associated with increased attendances. Soccer matches and their outcomes have no significant effect on IPV-related attendances. Conclusion: Temporal and weather factors can help predict which trauma unit shifts will be busiest. Keywords: trauma unit, assault, motor vehicle collision, weather, ...

  11. Acute costs and predictors of higher treatment costs of trauma in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Taylor, Colman; Dickson, Cara; Jan, Stephen; Palmer, Cameron S; Langcake, Mary; Myburgh, John

    2014-01-01

    Accurate economic data are fundamental for improving current funding models and ultimately in promoting the efficient delivery of services. The financial burden of a high trauma casemix to designated trauma centres in Australia has not been previously determined, and there is some evidence that the episode funding model used in Australia results in the underfunding of trauma. To describe the costs of acute trauma admissions in trauma centres, identify predictors of higher treatment costs and cost variance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data linkage of admitted trauma patient and financial data provided by 12 Level 1 NSW trauma centres for the 08/09 financial year was performed. Demographic, injury details and injury scores were obtained from trauma registries. Individual patient general ledger costs (actual trauma patient costs), Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (AR-DRG) and state-wide average costs (which form the basis of funding) were obtained. The actual costs incurred by the hospital were then compared with the state-wide AR-DRG average costs. Multivariable multiple linear regression was used for identifying predictors of costs. There were 17,522 patients, the average per patient cost was $10,603 and the median was $4628 (interquartile range: $2179-10,148). The actual costs incurred by trauma centres were on average $134 per bed day above AR-DRG costs-determined costs. Falls, road trauma and violence were the highest causes of total cost. Motor cyclists and pedestrians had higher median costs than motor vehicle occupants. As a result of greater numbers, patients with minor injury had comparable total costs with those generated by patients with severe injury. However the median cost of severely injured patients was nearly four times greater. The count of body regions injured, sex, length of stay, serious traumatic brain injury and admission to the Intensive Care Unit were significantly associated with increased costs (p<0.001). This

  12. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Lynsey; Curtis, Kate; Taylor, Colman; Jan, Stephen; Glass, Parisa; Myburgh, John

    2012-08-21

    In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS), per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1%) or charge estimate (25.9%) for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701). However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied and the cost methods employed are the primary drivers for the

  13. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willenberg Lynsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. Methods A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS, per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. Results A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1% or charge estimate (25.9% for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701. However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS, surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. Conclusion The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied

  14. Subacromial impingement in patients with whiplash injury to the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddins Grey E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impingement syndrome and shoulder pain have been reported to occur in a proportion of patients following whiplash injuries to the neck. In this study we aim to examine these findings to establish the association between subacromial impingement and whiplash injuries to the cervical spine. Methods and results We examined 220 patients who had presented to the senior author for a medico-legal report following a whiplash injury to the neck. All patients were assessed for clinical evidence of subacromial impingement. 56/220 patients (26% had developed shoulder pain following the injury; of these, 11/220 (5% had clinical evidence of impingement syndrome. Only 3/11 patients (27% had the diagnosis made prior to evaluation for their medico-legal report. In the majority, other clinicians had overlooked the diagnosis. The seatbelt shoulder was involved in 83% of cases (p Conclusion After a neck injury a significant proportion of patients present with shoulder pain, some of whom have treatable shoulder pathology such as impingement syndrome. The diagnosis is, however, frequently overlooked and shoulder pain is attributed to pain radiating from the neck resulting in long delays before treatment. It is important that this is appreciated and patients are specifically examined for signs of subacromial impingement after whiplash injuries to the neck. Direct seatbelt trauma to the shoulder is one possible explanation for its aetiology.

  15. Surface coil MR imaging of acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, C.B.; Mirfakhraee, M.; Crofford, M.J.; Calhoun, J.H.; Amparo, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two fractures were imaged in 21 patients, 18 in the first week after trauma, MR imaging detected all significant fractures of the thoracolumbar spine; and it was superior to other modalities in evaluating trauma to the disk and spinal cord. It was more sensitive, although less specific, than CT in assessing epidural mass effect. Most important, MR imaging was the only modality that identified tears of the spinal ligaments, enabling surgeons to accurately determine the stability of the spinal injury. The results indicate that Mr imaging can replace CT in evaluating the thoracolumbar spine. CT will play the major role in assessment of the cervical region, but MR is helpful in evaluating the spinal canal and cord

  16. Acute unilateral foot drop as a result of direct blunt trauma to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of an acute unilateral foot drop which occurred during a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) contest, specifically as a result of direct blunt trauma to the left peroneal nerve, without an accompanying fracture of the fibula. Keywords: foot extensor weakness, gait abnormality, contact sports, mixed martial ...

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Acute Acoustic Trauma: A Rapid Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Erwin L.; van Hulst, Rob A.; de Ru, J. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this rapid systematic review, we studied the clinical question, What is the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on hearing thresholds in patients who suffered a recent acute acoustic trauma? After screening for eligible titles and abstracts and extracting duplicates, 6 original research papers

  18. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general......Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  20. Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic Inflammation to Organ Failure in Trauma and Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0376 TITLE: Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic Inflammation to Organ Failgure in Trauma...COVERED 22 Sep 2016 - 21 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Trauma, extensive burns, bacterial infections, and acute pancreatitis (AP) are common

  1. SCINTIGRAPHY IN URGENT CONDITIONS AND COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE DISEASES AND TRAUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ye. Kudryashova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The data generalized in the review characterize radionuclide method as a high informative technique in diagnosis of the row of acute diseases and traumas and complications of them. It was shown that each radionuclide technique decides the concrete clinical tests and has a strictly definite place in the diagnostic algorithm. Urgent radionuclide techniques give the important information for the choice of the treatment’s policy or operation’s volume in such acute diseases as tromboembolism, arterial occlusions, small bowel obstruction, acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, acute myocardial infarct, rhabdomyolysis, differentiation of acute urological and acute abdominal surgical diseases and so on. The main aim of the work of our radionuclide department is to perfect, modificate of urgent radionuclide techniques and to correct the place of them in urgent conditions’s diagnostic algorithm for increasing of the quality and the rapidity in diagnosis. 

  2. Increased sensibility to acute acoustic and blast trauma among patients with acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Marzena; Olszewski, Jurek

    2018-01-15

    The article shows 2 cases of unusual presentation of acute acoustic trauma and blast injury due to occupational exposure. In the case of both patients the range of impaired frequencies in pure tone audiograms was atypical for this kind of causative factor. Both patients had symmetrical hearing before the accident (which was confirmed by provided results of hearing controls during their employment). A history of noise/blast exposure, the onset of symptoms directly after harmful exposure, symmetrical hearing before the trauma documented with audiograms, directed initial diagnosis towards acoustic/blast trauma, however, of atypical course. Acute acoustic and blast trauma and coexisting acoustic neuroma (AN) contributed to, and mutually modified, the course of sudden hearing loss. In the literature there are some reports pointing to a higher sensitivity to acoustic trauma in the case of patients with AN and, on the other hand, indicating noise as one of the causative factors in AN. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):361-369. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a ...

  4. TRAUMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-04

    Nov 4, 2017 ... and via a password protected mobile application program within 6 hours. The alcohol levels were reported in grams. TRAUMA. Serum alcohol levels ..... restricts advertising on alcohol consumption.22 In addition, the South African Department of Health has published the. MiniDrug MasterPlan 23 which ...

  5. Dental Trauma 2- Acute Management of Fracture Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemal, Serpil; Singh, Parmjit; Polycarpou, Nectaria; Tomson, Rachel; Kelleher, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Fortunately, traumatic dental injuries are a relatively uncommon occurrence in general dental practice. However, when they do present, timely diagnosis and treatment of such injuries is essential to maximize the chance of a successful outcome. This is the second part of a two-part series on traumatic dental injuries that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Part one covered the management of acute luxation/displacement injuries affecting the supporting structures of the tooth, while part two will cover the management of fracture injuries associated with teeth and the alveolar bone. Clinical relevance: Traumatic dental injuries are uncommon occurrences in everyday general dental practice. This article aims to provide a simple, step-by-step approach in the diagnosis and clinical management of acute fracture injuries.

  6. Incidence, clinical predictors and outcome of acute renal failure among North Indian trauma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medha; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sawhney, Chhavi; Upadhayay, Ashish Dutt; Albert, Venencia

    2013-01-01

    Context: There is a need for identifying risk factors aggravating development of acute renal failure after attaining trauma and defining new parameters for better assessment and management. Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of acute renal failure among trauma patients, and its correlation with various laboratory and clinical parameters recorded at the time of admission and in-hospital mortality. Subjects and Methods: The retrospective cohort study included admitted 208 trauma patients over a period of one year. 135 trauma patients at the serum creatinine level >2.0 mg/dL were enrolled in under the group of acute renal failure. 73 patients who had normal creatinine level made the control group. They were further assessed with clinical details and laboratory investigations. Results: Incidence of acute renal failure was 3.1%. There were 118 (87.4%) males and average length of stay was 9 (1, 83) days. Severity of injury (ISS, GCS) was relatively more among the renal failure group. Renal failure was transient in 35 (25.9%) patients. They had higher incidence of bone fracture (54.0%) (P= 0.04). Statistically significant association was observed between patients with head trauma and mortality 72 (59.0%) (P= 0.001). Prevalence of septic 24 (59.7%) and hemorrhagic 9 (7.4%) shock affected the renal failure group. Conclusion: Trauma patients at the urea level >50 mg/dL, ISS >24 on the first day of admission had 23 times and 7 times the risk of developing renal failure. Similarly, patients with hepatic dysfunction and pulmonary dysfunction were 12 times and 6 times. Patients who developed cardiovascular dysfunction, hematological dysfunction and post-trauma renal failure during the hospital stay had risk for mortality 29, 7 and 8 times, respectively. The final prognostic score obtained was: 14*hepatic dysfunction + 11*cISS + 18*cUrea + 12*cGlucose + 10*pulmonary dysfunction. Optimal score cut-off for prediction of renal failure was found to be ≥25 with

  7. Incidence, clinical predictors and outcome of acute renal failure among North Indian trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medha; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sawhney, Chhavi; Upadhayay, Ashish Dutt; Albert, Venencia

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for identifying risk factors aggravating development of acute renal failure after attaining trauma and defining new parameters for better assessment and management. Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of acute renal failure among trauma patients, and its correlation with various laboratory and clinical parameters recorded at the time of admission and in-hospital mortality. The retrospective cohort study included admitted 208 trauma patients over a period of one year. 135 trauma patients at the serum creatinine level >2.0 mg/dL were enrolled in under the group of acute renal failure. 73 patients who had normal creatinine level made the control group. They were further assessed with clinical details and laboratory investigations. Incidence of acute renal failure was 3.1%. There were 118 (87.4%) males and average length of stay was 9 (1, 83) days. Severity of injury (ISS, GCS) was relatively more among the renal failure group. Renal failure was transient in 35 (25.9%) patients. They had higher incidence of bone fracture (54.0%) (P= 0.04). Statistically significant association was observed between patients with head trauma and mortality 72 (59.0%) (P= 0.001). Prevalence of septic 24 (59.7%) and hemorrhagic 9 (7.4%) shock affected the renal failure group. Trauma patients at the urea level >50 mg/dL, ISS >24 on the first day of admission had 23 times and 7 times the risk of developing renal failure. Similarly, patients with hepatic dysfunction and pulmonary dysfunction were 12 times and 6 times. Patients who developed cardiovascular dysfunction, hematological dysfunction and post-trauma renal failure during the hospital stay had risk for mortality 29, 7 and 8 times, respectively. The final prognostic score obtained was: 14*hepatic dysfunction + 11*cISS + 18*cUrea + 12*cGlucose + 10*pulmonary dysfunction. Optimal score cut-off for prediction of renal failure was found to be ≥25 with specificity, sensitivity and positive likelihood ratio to be

  8. Incidence, clinical predictors and outcome of acute renal failure among North Indian trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a need for identifying risk factors aggravating development of acute renal failure after attaining trauma and defining new parameters for better assessment and management. Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of acute renal failure among trauma patients, and its correlation with various laboratory and clinical parameters recorded at the time of admission and in-hospital mortality. Subjects and Methods: The retrospective cohort study included admitted 208 trauma patients over a period of one year. 135 trauma patients at the serum creatinine level >2.0 mg/dL were enrolled in under the group of acute renal failure. 73 patients who had normal creatinine level made the control group. They were further assessed with clinical details and laboratory investigations. Results: Incidence of acute renal failure was 3.1%. There were 118 (87.4% males and average length of stay was 9 (1, 83 days. Severity of injury (ISS, GCS was relatively more among the renal failure group. Renal failure was transient in 35 (25.9% patients. They had higher incidence of bone fracture (54.0% (P = 0.04. Statistically significant association was observed between patients with head trauma and mortality 72 (59.0% (P = 0.001. Prevalence of septic 24 (59.7% and hemorrhagic 9 (7.4% shock affected the renal failure group. Conclusion: Trauma patients at the urea level >50 mg/dL, ISS >24 on the first day of admission had 23 times and 7 times the risk of developing renal failure. Similarly, patients with hepatic dysfunction and pulmonary dysfunction were 12 times and 6 times. Patients who developed cardiovascular dysfunction, hematological dysfunction and post-trauma renal failure during the hospital stay had risk for mortality 29, 7 and 8 times, respectively. The final prognostic score obtained was: 14FNx01hepatic dysfunction + 11FNx01cISS + 18FNx01cUrea + 12FNx01cGlucose + 10FNx01pulmonary dysfunction. Optimal score cut-off for prediction of renal failure was

  9. Human mitochondrial oxidative capacity is acutely impaired after burn trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Melanie G; Fram, Ricki Y; Herndon, David N; Qian, Ting; Angel, Carlos; Green, Justin M; Mlcak, Ronald; Aarsland, Asle; Wolfe, Robert R

    2008-08-01

    Mitochondrial proteins and genes are damaged after burn injury in animals and are assessed in human burn patients in this study. The rates of maximal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity (adenosine triphosphate production) and uncoupled oxidation (heat production) for both palmitate and pyruvate were measured in muscle biopsies from 40 children sustaining burns on more than 40% of their body surface area and from 13 healthy children controls. Maximal mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate and palmitate were reduced in burn patients compared with controls (4.0 +/- .2:1.9 +/- .1 micromol O2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min pyruvate; control:burn; P < .001 and 3.0 +/- .1: .9 +/- .03 micromol O2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min palmityl CoA; control:burn; P = .003). Uncoupled oxidation was the same between groups. The maximal coupled mitochondrial oxidative capacity is severely impaired after burn injury, although there are no alterations in the rate of uncoupled oxidative capacity. It may be that the ratio of these indicates that a larger portion of energy production in trauma patients is wasted through uncoupling, rather than used for healing.

  10. Human mitochondrial oxidative capacity is acutely impaired following burn trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Melanie G.; Fram, Ricki Y.; Herndon, David N.; Qian, Ting; Angel, Carlos; Green, Justin M.; Mlcak, Ronald; Aarsland, Asle; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial proteins and genes are damaged after burn injury in animals but have not previously been assessed in human burn patients. Methods The rates of maximal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity(ATP production) and uncoupled oxidation(heat production) for both palmitate and pyruvate were measured in muscle biopsies from 40 children sustaining burns >40% body surface area and from 13 healthy children controls. Results Maximal mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate and palmitate were reduced in burn patients compared to controls (4.0±0.2:1.9±0.1 µmolO2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min pyruvate; Control:Burn;P<0.001 and 3.0±0.1:0.9±0.03 µmolO2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min palmatyl CoA; Control:Burn;P=0.003). Uncoupled oxidation was the same between groups. Conclusions The maximal coupled mitochondrial oxidative capacity is severely impaired after burn injury, although there are no alterations in the rate of uncoupled oxidative capacity. It may be that the ratio of these indicates that a larger portion of energy production in trauma patients is wasted through uncoupling, rather than used for healing. PMID:18639661

  11. Health resource utilisation costs in acute patients with persistent midline cervical tenderness following road trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Helen M; Wolfe, Rory; Cameron, Peter A; Cooper, D James; Malham, Gregory M; Varma, Dinesh K; Fitt, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Liew, Susan M

    2012-11-01

    The costs associated with patients discharged with isolated clinician-elicited persistent midline tenderness and negative computed tomography (CT) findings have not been reported. Our aim was to determine the association of acute and post-acute patient and injury characteristics with health resource costs in such patients following road trauma. In a prospective cohort study, road trauma patients presenting with isolated persistent midline cervical tenderness and negative CT, who underwent additional acute imaging with MRI, were recruited. Patients were reviewed in the outpatient spine clinic following discharge, and were followed up at 6 and 12 months post-trauma. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association of injury mechanism, clinical assessment, socioeconomic factors and outcome findings with health resource costs generated in the acute hospital and post-acute periods. There were 64 patients recruited, of whom 24 (38%) had cervical spine injury detected on MRI. Of these, 2 patients were managed operatively, 6 were treated in cervical collars and 16 had the cervical spine cleared and were discharged. At 12 months, there were 25 patients (44%) with residual neck pain, and 22 (39%) with neck-related disability. The mean total cost was AUD $10,153 (SD=10,791) and the median was $4015 (IQR: 3044-6709). Transient neurologic deficit, which fully resolved early in the emergency department, was independently associated with higher marginal mean acute costs (represented in the analysis by the β coefficient) by $3521 (95% CI: 50-6880). Low education standard (β coefficient: $5988, 95% CI: 822-13,317), neck pain at 6 months (β coefficient: $4017, 95% CI: 426-9254) and history of transient neurologic deficit (β coefficient: $8471, 95% CI: 1766-18,334) were associated with increased post-acute costs. In a homogeneous group of road trauma patients with non fracture-related persistent midline cervical tenderness, health resource costs varied

  12. Clinical assessment of prognostic factors for long-term pain and handicap after whiplash injury: a 1-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, H; Qerama, E; Kongsted, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physical mechanisms are the possible factors involved in the development and maintenance of long-term handicaps after acute whiplash injury. This study prospectively examined the role of active neck mobility, cervical and extra-cervical pains, as well as non-painful compla...

  13. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Radiological Dept., Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Kallio, P.; Puntila, J. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vehmas, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  14. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohman, M.; Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Vehmas, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  15. Thrombelastography and biomarker profiles in acute coagulopathy of trauma: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Claus F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe injury induces an acute coagulopathy associated with increased mortality. This study compared the Thrombelastography (TEG and biomarker profiles upon admission in trauma patients. Methods Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry including standard coagulation tests, hematology, transfusions, Injury Severity Score (ISS and TEG were recorded. Retrospective analysis of thawed plasma/serum for biomarkers reflecting tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments, sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline, coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (sCD40L, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, prothrombinfragment 1+2, plasmin/α2-antiplasmin complex, thrombin/antithrombin complex, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, von willebrand factor, factor XIII. Comparison of patients stratified according to ISS/TEG maximum clot strength. Linear regression analysis of variables associated with clot strength. Results Trauma patients had normal (86%, hypercoagulable (11% or hypocoagulable (1% TEG clot strength; one had primary hyperfibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable patients had higher age, fibrinogen and platelet count (all p 10 red blood cells the initial 24 h. Patients with normal or hypercoagulable TEG clot strength had comparable biomarker profiles, but the few patients with hypocoagulable TEG clot strength and/or hyperfibrinolysis had very different biomarker profiles. Increasing ISS was associated with higher levels of catecholamines, histone-complexed DNA fragments, sCD40L, activated protein C and D-dimer and reduced levels of non-activated protein C, antithrombin, fibrinogen and factor XIII (all p 26. In patients with ISS > 26, adrenaline and sCD40L were independently negatively associated with clot strength. Conclusions Trauma patients displayed

  16. Dual-energy computed tomography of cruciate ligament injuries in acute knee trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, Erno K. [Helsinki University Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Department of Radiology, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Koskinen, Seppo K. [Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    To examine dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in evaluating cruciate ligament injuries. More specifically, the purpose was to assess the optimal keV level in DECT gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) images and to examine the usefulness of collagen-specific color mapping and dual-energy bone removal in the evaluation of cruciate ligaments and the popliteus tendon. At a level 1 trauma center, a 29-month period of emergency department DECT examinations for acute knee trauma was reviewed by two radiologists for presence of cruciate ligament injuries, visualization of the popliteus tendon and the optimal keV level in GSI images. Three different evaluating protocols (GSI, bone removal and collagen-specific color mapping) were rated. Subsequent MRI served as a reference standard for intraarticular injuries. A total of 18 patients who had an acute knee trauma, DECT and MRI were found. On MRI, six patients had an ACL rupture. DECT's sensitivity and specificity to detect ACL rupture were 79 % and 100 %, respectively. The DECT vs. MRI intra- and interobserver proportions of agreement for ACL rupture were excellent or good (kappa values 0.72-0.87). Only one patient had a PCL rupture. In GSI images, the optimal keV level was 63 keV. GSI of 40-140 keV was considered to be the best evaluation protocol in the majority of cases. DECT is a usable method to evaluate ACL in acute knee trauma patients with rather good sensitivity and high specificity. GSI is generally a better evaluation protocol than bone removal or collagen-specific color mapping in the evaluation of cruciate ligaments and popliteus tendon. (orig.)

  17. Central venous catheterization for acute trauma resuscitation: Tip position analysis using routine emergency computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Manuel F; Ewens, Sebastian; Schummer, Wolfram; Busch, Thilo; Bernhard, Michael; Fakler, Johannes K M; Stumpp, Patrick; Stehr, Sebastian N; Josten, Christoph; Wrigge, Hermann

    2018-03-01

    Central venous catheter insertion for acute trauma resuscitation may be associated with mechanical complications, but studies on the exact central venous catheter tip positions are not available. The goal of the study was to analyze central venous catheter tip positions using routine emergency computed tomography. Consecutive acute multiple trauma patients requiring large-bore thoracocervical central venous catheters in the resuscitation room of a university hospital were enrolled retrospectively from 2010 to 2015. Patients who received a routine emergency chest computed tomography were analyzed regarding central venous catheter tip position. The central venous catheter tip position was defined as correct if the catheter tip was placed less than 1 cm inside the right atrium relative to the cavoatrial junction, and the simultaneous angle of the central venous catheter tip compared with the lateral border of the superior vena cava was below 40°. During the 6-year study period, 97 patients were analyzed for the central venous catheter tip position in computed tomography. Malpositions were observed in 29 patients (29.9%). Patients with malpositioned central venous catheters presented with a higher rate of shock (systolic blood pressure central venous catheter tips. Logistic regression revealed injury severity score as a significant predictor for central venous catheter malposition (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval = 1.005-1.074, p = 0.024). Multiple trauma patients who underwent emergency central venous catheter placement by experienced anesthetists presented with considerable tip malposition in computed tomography, which was significantly associated with a higher injury severity.

  18. Multishot diffusion-weighted MR imaging features in acute trauma of spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin Song; Huan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To analyse diffusion-weighted MRI of acute spinal cord trauma and evaluate its diagnostic value. Conventional MRI and multishot, navigator-corrected DWI were performed in 20 patients with acute spinal cord trauma using 1.5-T MR within 72 h after the onset of trauma. Twenty cases were classified into four categories according to the characteristics of DWI: (1) Oedema type: ten cases presented with variable hyperintense areas within the spinal cord. There were significant differences in the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between lesions and unaffected regions (t = -7.621, P < 0.01). ADC values of lesions were markedly lower than those of normal areas. (2) Mixed type: six cases showed heterogeneously hyperintense areas due to a mixture of haemorrhage and oedema. (3) Haemorrhage type: two cases showed lesions as marked hypointensity due to intramedullary haemorrhage. (4) Compressed type (by epidural haemorrhage): one of the two cases showed an area of mild hyperintensity in the markedly compressed cord due to epidural haematoma. Muti-shot DWI of the spinal cord can help visualise and evaluate the injured spinal cord in the early stage, especially in distinguishing the cytotoxic oedema from vasogenic oedema. It can assist in detecting intramedullary haemorrhage and may have a potential role in the evaluation of compressed spinal cord. (orig.)

  19. Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with abdominal trauma: A rare case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Jihoon; Yoon, Hye Young; Park, Jinyoung

    2017-11-01

    Acute mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) is defined as new-onset thrombosis of the mesenteric vein without evidence of collateralization, finally resulting in extensive intestinal infarction. MVT may be idiopathic or be caused by conditions responsible for thrombophilia and acquired risk factors. To date, there have been few reports of MVT after trauma. Herein we describe our experiences treating three patients with MVT. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with transverse colon mesenteric hematoma after blunt abdominal trauma. Case 2 was a 55-year-old man with jejunal transection after a traffic accident. Case 3 was a 26-year-old man presented with multiple abdominal stab bowel injury. A 1-week follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in all of three patients. All patients were treated with anticoagulant for 3 or 6 months. MVTs were completely resolved without any complications. If early diagnosis and treatment could be available, anticoagulation alone might be adequate for the treatment of SMVT associated with trauma. Early anticoagulation in patients with acute SMVT may avoid the grave prognosis observed in patients with arterial thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multishot diffusion-weighted MR imaging features in acute trauma of spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin Song; Huan, Yi [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-15

    To analyse diffusion-weighted MRI of acute spinal cord trauma and evaluate its diagnostic value. Conventional MRI and multishot, navigator-corrected DWI were performed in 20 patients with acute spinal cord trauma using 1.5-T MR within 72 h after the onset of trauma. Twenty cases were classified into four categories according to the characteristics of DWI: (1) Oedema type: ten cases presented with variable hyperintense areas within the spinal cord. There were significant differences in the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between lesions and unaffected regions (t = -7.621, P < 0.01). ADC values of lesions were markedly lower than those of normal areas. (2) Mixed type: six cases showed heterogeneously hyperintense areas due to a mixture of haemorrhage and oedema. (3) Haemorrhage type: two cases showed lesions as marked hypointensity due to intramedullary haemorrhage. (4) Compressed type (by epidural haemorrhage): one of the two cases showed an area of mild hyperintensity in the markedly compressed cord due to epidural haematoma. Muti-shot DWI of the spinal cord can help visualise and evaluate the injured spinal cord in the early stage, especially in distinguishing the cytotoxic oedema from vasogenic oedema. It can assist in detecting intramedullary haemorrhage and may have a potential role in the evaluation of compressed spinal cord. (orig.)

  1. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  2. Investigation of biomarkers alterations after an acute tissue trauma in human trapezius muscle, using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line Bay; Gazerani, Parisa; Wåhlén, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in muscle milieu are suggested as important activity of peripheral drive in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Microdialysis (MD) has been used in monitoring altered metabolic response pattern in muscles. However, the insertion of MD probe causes a local tissue trauma....... Whether and how metabolites in trapezius muscle are affected by acute tissue trauma is unknown. Hence, this study investigated the metabolic response and nociceptive reaction of the tissue following MD probe insertion in patients with CMP and healthy individuals. Fifty-nine patients and forty pain...... of the metabolites was analyzed by a two-way-mixed-ANOVA. The metabolic response pattern changed over time and alterations in the level of metabolites could be seen in both CMP and healthy controls. Pain questionnaires and pain intensities manifested clinical aspects of pain closely to what CMP patients describe...

  3. Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

  4. Acute Knee Trauma: Analysis of Multidetector Computed Tomography Findings and Comparison with Conventional Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, A.O.T.; Kiuru, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of acute knee trauma and to compare radiography with MDCT in patients referred ta level 1 trauma center. Material and Methods: During a 5-year period, a total of 415 MDCT examinations were performed on 409 patients with acute knee trauma to reveal complex fracture anatomy or rule out a fracture. MDCT and primary radiographs were re-evaluated with respect to fracture location and trauma mechanism. Tibial plateau fractures were further analyzed depending on anatomical location: anterior-medial, anterior-lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior-medial regions. Maximal depression of the tibial articular surface was measured. Findings on the primary knee radiographs were compared with MDCT findings. Results: Of the 409 patients, 356 (87%) had a knee fracture. A total of 451 fractures were found in all anatomic regions: distal femur ( n = 49), proximal tibia ( n 307), patella ( n = 23), and proximal fibula ( n = 72). Primary radiographs were available in 316 (76%) cases. Of these, 225 (71%) had MDCT in order to reveal the fracture anatomy better, and 91 (29%) had a subsequent MDCT after negative plain radiographs. Overall sensitivity of radiography was 83%, while negative predictive value was 49%. On radiography, tibial plateau articular depression was underestimated in all regions except when the fracture consisted of the whole half of the anterior or posterior plateau. The three main injury mechanisms were traffic accident, a simple fall, and sport. In 49 cases (15%), primary radiographs were suboptimal due to positioning. Conclusion: In severely injured patients, diagnostically sufficient radiographs are difficult to obtain, and therefore a negative radiograph is not reliable in ruling out a fracture. In these patients, MDCT is a fast and accurate examination and is also recommended in patients with tibial plateau fractures or complex knee injuries in order to evaluate the fracture adequately

  5. Acute Knee Trauma: Analysis of Multidetector Computed Tomography Findings and Comparison with Conventional Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, A.O.T. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Koskinen, S.K. [Research Inst. of Military Medicine, Helsinki (Finland); Kiuru, M.J. [ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of acute knee trauma and to compare radiography with MDCT in patients referred ta level 1 trauma center. Material and Methods: During a 5-year period, a total of 415 MDCT examinations were performed on 409 patients with acute knee trauma to reveal complex fracture anatomy or rule out a fracture. MDCT and primary radiographs were re-evaluated with respect to fracture location and trauma mechanism. Tibial plateau fractures were further analyzed depending on anatomical location: anterior-medial, anterior-lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior-medial regions. Maximal depression of the tibial articular surface was measured. Findings on the primary knee radiographs were compared with MDCT findings. Results: Of the 409 patients, 356 (87%) had a knee fracture. A total of 451 fractures were found in all anatomic regions: distal femur ( n = 49), proximal tibia ( n 307), patella ( n = 23), and proximal fibula ( n = 72). Primary radiographs were available in 316 (76%) cases. Of these, 225 (71%) had MDCT in order to reveal the fracture anatomy better, and 91 (29%) had a subsequent MDCT after negative plain radiographs. Overall sensitivity of radiography was 83%, while negative predictive value was 49%. On radiography, tibial plateau articular depression was underestimated in all regions except when the fracture consisted of the whole half of the anterior or posterior plateau. The three main injury mechanisms were traffic accident, a simple fall, and sport. In 49 cases (15%), primary radiographs were suboptimal due to positioning. Conclusion: In severely injured patients, diagnostically sufficient radiographs are difficult to obtain, and therefore a negative radiograph is not reliable in ruling out a fracture. In these patients, MDCT is a fast and accurate examination and is also recommended in patients with tibial plateau fractures or complex knee injuries in order to evaluate the fracture adequately.

  6. Evaluation of acute traumatic coagulopathy in dogs and cats following blunt force trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dara L; Prittie, Jennifer; Buriko, Yekaterina; Lamb, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in dogs and cats following blunt trauma and to relate coagulation variables with injury severity and admission variables. Prospective, single center, observational study from 2013 to 2014. Urban private referral hospital. Eighteen and 19 client-owned dogs and cats, respectively, sustaining blunt trauma within 8 hours of presentation without prior resuscitation; 17 healthy staff and client-owned control cats METHODS: Blood samples were collected upon presentation for measurement of blood gas, lactate, blood glucose, ionized calcium, PCV, total plasma protein, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, platelet count, and thromboelastography. ATC was diagnosed in 1 dog and 1 cat on presentation. Hypercoagulability was documented in 4/18 (22%) of dogs and 1/19 (5.3%) of cats. In dogs, prolongation of PT (P = 0.018), aPTT (P = 0.013) and decrease in maximum amplitude (MA) (P = 0.027) were significantly associated with injury severity as measured by the animal trauma triage (ATT) score. In cats, PT, aPTT, MA, and clot strength (G) were not associated with injury severity. In cats, increasing blood glucose and lactate were significantly associated with decreasing MA (P = 0.041, P = 0.031) and G (P = 0.014, P = 0.03). In both dogs (P = 0.002) and cats (P = 0.007), fibrinogen concentration was significantly correlated with G. ATC is rare in minimally injured dogs and cats following blunt trauma. In dogs, ATT score is significantly associated with PT, aPTT, and MA, suggesting an increased risk of ATC in more severely injured animals. ATT score does not appear to predict coagulopathies in cats. Future studies including more severely injured animals are warranted to better characterize coagulation changes associated with blunt trauma. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  7. Use of botulinum toxin-A for musculoskeletal pain in patients with whiplash associated disorders [ISRCTN68653575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco J

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash associated disorder is commonly linked to motor vehicle accidents and sports injuries. Cervical injury is attributed to rapid extension followed by neck flexion. The exact pathophysiology of whiplash is uncertain but probably involves some degree of aberrant muscle spasms and may produce a wide range of symptoms. The most commonly prescribed pharmacological agents for initial treatment of whiplash-associated pain are oral muscle relaxants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, potential systemic adverse effects limit these agents. Physical interventions such as mobilization, manipulation, and exercises have proved beneficial for pain and dysfunction but only on a time-limited basis. Little evidence suggests that physical therapy specifically aimed at the musculature (e.g., transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ultrasonography, heat, ice, and acupuncture improves prognosis in acute whiplash associated disorder. A new approach to treatment is the use of botulinum toxin, which acts to reduce muscle spasms. Methods/design This is a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial and botulinum toxin-A (Botox® injections will be compared with placebo injections. The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of Botox® in the management of musculoskeletal pain in whiplash associated disorders. Discussion Botulinum toxin type-A toxin has been studied in small trials on whiplash associated disorder patients and has generally been found to relieve pain and improve range of motion. Specifically, we seek to assess the efficacy of Botox® in reducing pain and to improve the cervical spine range of movement, during the 6-month trial period.

  8. Coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tønnessen Theis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blunt chest trauma might lead to cardiac injury ranging from simple arrhythmias to lethal conditions such as cardiac rupture. We experienced a case of initially overlooked traumatic coronary artery dissection which resulted in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose this condition. Based on our case, we will give an overview of relevant literature on this topic. ECG, echocardiography, coronary angiography and cardiac enzymes are valuable tools in diagnosing this rare condition. The time span from coronary artery occlusion to revascularisation must be short if AMI is to be avoided.

  9. Immediate impact of 'penalty points legislation' on acute hospital trauma services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lenehan, Brian

    2012-02-03

    Road traffic accident (RTA) related mortality and injury may be reduced by up to 40% with the introduction of \\'road safety\\' legislation. Little is known regarding changes in pattern of injury and overall resource impact on acute trauma services. This prospective study examines RTA related admissions, injuries sustained and resultant sub-speciality operative workload in a Level 1 Trauma Centre during the 12 months immediately prior to and following the introduction of \\'penalty points\\' legislation. Eight hundred and twenty RTA related admissions were identified over the 24-month period from 01\\/11\\/2001 to 31\\/10\\/2003. There was a 36.7% decrease in RTA related admissions subsequent to the introduction of new legislation. Bed occupancy was almost halved. However, the relative Orthopaedic workload increased from 34% to 41% with a 10% increase in relative bed occupancy. The pattern of orthopaedic injury was significantly altered with a >50% absolute reduction in high velocity injuries. Curiously, there was no change in the absolute number of spinal fractures seen. This favourable early Irish experience of \\'penalty points\\' legislation mirrors that of worldwide published literature. Our findings demonstrate that the injury reduction effects were primarily enjoyed by non-orthopaedic sub-specialities. Such findings mandate consideration when allocating vital resources to sub-specialities within busy trauma units.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids and acute neurological trauma: a perspective on clinical translation*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladman Stacy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute neurological trauma remains one of the clinical areas with the most significant unmet needs worldwide. In the central nervous system, acute trauma has two stages: the primary injury and the secondary injury. The former is irreversible, and is a direct consequence of the impact. In the aftermath of the injury, a complex series of processes exacerbate the injury and amplify tissue damage. Some of these processes are local, others involve a systemic response. It is these processes which ultimately determine the clinical outcome. The aim of the treatments is a to confer neuroprotection and b to promote neuroregeneration. The results reported so far with omega-3 fatty acids in animal models of neurotrauma suggest that these compounds have the potential to offer a novel therapeutic approach and target both protection and regeneration. They lead to increased neuronal and glial survival, they can limit the damaging neuroinflammation and they can also protect neurites. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have a complex pharmacodynamics, which leads potentially to the activation of a multitude of targets, including voltage and ligand-gated ion channels, transcription factors and G-protein coupled receptors. They can produce tissue-specific metabolites which have intrinsic activity, either on the same or on different cellular targets. The apparent large therapeutic window of omega-3 fatty acids is an advantage in the context of trauma, with patients in an unstable state, with multiple injuries. The specific use of omega-3 fatty acids in spinal cord injury and peripheral nerve injury will be discussed, focusing on issues which need to be addressed in order to translate successfully to the clinic the efficacy reported in the initial proof of concept animal studies.

  11. Effect of painless diabetic neuropathy on pressure pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia after acute foot trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wienemann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy. Design and methods: A case–control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture. Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II®. Results: In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT at the injured foot was reduced by about 15–25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15–20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group; CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Conclusion: Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to ‘pull away’ from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking.

  12. Effect of painless diabetic neuropathy on pressure pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) after acute foot trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienemann, Tobias; Chantelau, Ernst A; Koller, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic) neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). A case-control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture). Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects) with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT) and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT) were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II(®)). In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT) at the injured foot was reduced by about 15-25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15-20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal) versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group); CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic) neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to 'pull away' from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking.

  13. Long term labour market performance of whiplash claimants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    A whiplash is a sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck and head, typically associated with a rear-end car collision that may produce injuries in the soft tissue. Often there are no objective signs or symptoms of injury, and diagnosing lasting whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) is difficult...

  14. Long-term Labour Market Performance of Whiplash Claimants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    A whiplash is a sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck and head, typically associated with a rear-end car collision that may produce injuries in the soft tissue. Often there are no objective signs or symptoms of injury, and diagnosing lasting whiplash associated disorders (WAD) is difficult...

  15. Reproducibility and responsiveness of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willis, Cameron; Niere, Kenneth Robert; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; O'Leary, Elizabeth F.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-01-01

    This study continued the validation of a Whiplash Specific Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) that was developed from the Neck Disability Index (NDI) using self-reported disabilities in a group of participants experiencing whiplash-associated disorders [J Manipulative Physiol Ther 14 (1991) 409].

  16. [The relationship between whiplash injury and temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Shlomo

    2013-10-01

    This article aims to discuss the possible relationship between rapid extension-flexion of the neck-whiplash injury and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Clinical experience and studies revealed that whiplash injury may cause TMD. The pathophysiology of TMD is described as well as clinical and imaging diagnostic criteria. The treatment modalities for TMD are: physiotherapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and occlusal splints.

  17. Popular physical therapy modalities in the management of whiplash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popular physical therapy modalities in the management of whiplash-associated disorders. ED Watson, Y Coopoo. Abstract. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine current physiotherapy practice in private clinics across the UK in the management of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) injuries. Design.

  18. The iliotibial band in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Ramy; Yoong, Philip; McKean, David; Teh, James L. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    To delineate the spectrum of knee injuries associated with sprains and tears of the distal iliotibial band (ITB). A retrospective review of 200 random MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma was performed. Scans were excluded if there was a history of injury over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. In each scan, the ITB was scored as normal, minor sprain (grade 1), severe sprain (grade 2), and torn (grade 3). The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 27.4 years (range, 9-69 years) and 71.5 % (n = 143) of the patients were male. The ITB was injured in 115 cases (57.5 %). The next most common soft tissue structure injured was the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 53.5 % of cases (n = 107). Grade 1 ITB injury was seen in 90 of these 115 cases (45 %), grade 2 injury in 20 cases, and grade 3 injury in only five cases. There is a significant association between ITB injury and ACL rupture (p < 0.05), as well as acute patellar dislocation (p < 0.05). There were ten cases of significant posterolateral corner injury, and all were associated with ITB injury, including four ITB tears. Only two cases of isolated ITB injury were seen (1 %). ITB injury is common in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially cruciate ligament rupture, posterolateral corner injury, and patellar dislocation. (orig.)

  19. Predicting the risk and severity of acute spinal cord injury after a minor trauma to the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebli, Nikolaus; Rüegg, Tabea B; Wicki, Anina G; Petrou, Nassos; Krebs, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) after a minor trauma to the cervical spine has been reported in patients without preceding neurologic symptoms. Spinal canal stenosis may be the reason for the discrepancy between the severity of the injury and that of the trauma. The spinal canal to vertebral body ratio is often used to assess canal stenosis on conventional radiographs. However, the ratio does not appraise soft-tissue stenosis and canal narrowing at the level of the intervertebral disc. Parameters measured on magnetic resonance (MR) images may thus be more meaningful. The relevance of MR image parameters for predicting the risk and severity of acute SCI in patients after a minor trauma to the cervical spine has not yet been established. To investigate MR image parameters of the cervical spine in patients suffering from acute SCI after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. To investigate the use of these parameters for predicting the risk and severity of acute cervical SCI after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. Retrospective radiological study of consecutive patients. Fifty-two patients suffering from acute cervical SCI and 131 patients showing no neurologic deficits after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. On sagittal MR images: vertebral body diameter, midvertebral canal diameter, disc-level canal diameter, and spinal cord diameter. On lateral conventional radiographs: vertebral body diameter and midvertebral canal diameter. Conventional lateral radiographs and sagittal T2-weighted MR images of the cervical spine (C3-C7) were analyzed. The following calculations were performed using measurements from MR images: the spinal canal to vertebral body ratio, the space available for the cord, and the canal-to-cord ratio. Using measurements from conventional radiographs, the spinal canal to vertebral body ratio was determined. Receiver-operating curves were calculated for evaluating the classification accuracy of the different parameters for predicting the risk

  20. [Experience in management of trauma-related acute abdomen at the "General Ignacio Zaragoza" Regional Hospital in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senado-Lara, Isaac; Castro-Mendoza, Antonio; Palacio-Vélez, Fernando; Vargas-Avila, Arcenio Luis

    2004-01-01

    To know the current state of surgical management of patients with abdominal trauma. We carried out a retrospective, observational, transversal study involving patients with abdominal trauma with clinical files wtih trauma who required surgery during the period of April 1, 1998 through March 30, 2003. There were 72 cases including nine male and 33 female patients. Mechanism of lesion was divided into closed and penetrating trauma, the latter group of patients divided into individuals with blunt wounds or with gunshot wounds. Most frequent early postoperative complication was hemorrhage, while most frequent late postoperative complication was acute renal failure. Causes of death were hypovolemic shock in four patients followed by two cases each with the following pathologies: acute respiratory insufficiency syndrome; myocardial infarct, and septic shock. Abdominal trauma is a frequent pathology in our environment, males the most affected patients, with penetrating trauma main lesion cause. Prolonged surgical time required hemotransfusions, and infectious processes together with processes related with tissular hypoxia are the most common cause of complications and death.

  1. Long-term osseous sequelae after acute trauma of the knee joint evaluated by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemer, F.W.; Bohndorf, K.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and location and to determine the long-term MR changes in patients with edema-like bone marrow abnormalities after acute knee trauma.Design and patients. A cohort of 176 consecutive patients in a 29 month period with acute injury of the knee joint was examined with MRI. Forty-nine patients with bone marrow edema-like signal alteration on the initial MR examination were re-evaluated with MRI after a minimum of 2 years (mean 44 months). Signal alterations and contour abnormalities on the initial and follow-up MR examinations were classified. The volume of the edema was also measured.Results. There was a prevalence of post-traumatic edema-like signal changes of 72% in 176 patients. In the follow-up group (n=49) the initial MR examination showed 80 areas of signal change with a mean volume of 15.5 cm 3 (range 0.25-175 cm 3 ). Thirty-five (44%) were signal changes without other bony or cartilaginous injuries, 19 (24%) were subchondral impaction fractures and 26 (33%) were osteochondral or chondral fractures. Sixty-nine percent of the lesions were located in the lateral, and 29% in the medial joint compartment. Three percent were patellar lesions. In seven of the 49 patients (14%) eight signal changes were seen on the follow-up MR examination. Six lesions were located in the same anatomic area as on the initial MR examination, and two new lesions had developed. The volume of the bone marrow edema was smaller in all persisting lesions (mean volume 2.26 cm 3 , range 0.3-4.8 cm 3 ). Deterioration of the subchondral impaction, chondral/osteochondral fracture or lesions resembling osteonecrosis were not found in any patient.Conclusions. The majority of acute post-traumatic marrow signal changes are found in the lateral compartment and do not show additional osseous or chondral alterations. After a minimum of 2 years acute post-traumatic bone marrow edema-like signal alterations vanish in the majority of patients. Even more severe articular surface

  2. Increasing use of endovascular therapy in acute arterial injuries: analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Brian C; Whitten, Matthew G; Sarfati, Mark; Kraiss, Larry W

    2007-12-01

    The application of endovascular technology for the emergency treatment of traumatic vascular injuries is a new frontier. This study examines recent nationwide use of endovascular therapy in acute arterial traumatic injuries. This retrospective study used the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Cases with a diagnosis of arterial vascular injury were identified according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, and procedure codes for endovascular therapy were selected. A descriptive analysis and multiple regressions were performed to identify variables predictive of outcomes. From 1994 to 2003, 12,732 arterial injuries were identified. Between 1997 (when the first endovascular repair was recorded in the NTDB) and 2003, 7286 open arterial repairs and 281 endovascular repairs were recorded for an overall utilization rate for endovascular procedures of 3.7%. The yearly number of endovascular procedures registered in the NTDB increased 27-fold, from four in 1997 to 107 in 2003. Use of stents substantially increased from 12 in 2000 to 30 in 2003; endograft use increased from one in 2000 to 37 in 2003. Nearly equal numbers of blunt (n = 134) and penetrating (n = 111) injuries were treated. The injury severity score (median, interquartile range [IRQ]) was significantly lower in patients who underwent an endovascular procedure at 13 (IRQ, 9 to 26) for trauma vs patients requiring an open procedure at 20 (IRQ, 10 to 34; P undergoing endovascular repair (8.7 +/- 7.2 vs 13.0 +/- 16.1, P undergoing endovascular procedures (odds ratio, 0.18; P = .029) including those with an arterial injury of the torso or head and neck (odds ratio, 0.51, P = .007). Total length of hospital stay also tended to be lower for patients undergoing endovascular procedures by 18% (P = .064). The use of endovascular therapy in the setting of acute trauma is increasing in a dramatic fashion and is being used to treat a wide variety of vessels injured by blunt

  3. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoennagel, B.P.; Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G.; Großterlinden, L.G.; Rupprecht, M.; Adam, G.; Yamamura, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  4. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoennagel, B.P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Großterlinden, L.G. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Rupprecht, M. [Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Hamburg-Altona, Bleickenallee 38, 22763 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G.; Yamamura, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  5. X-ray signs of traumas of the cervical region of the spinal cord in the acute period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodskaya, Z.L.

    1983-01-01

    The results are analyzed of an X-ray examination of 208 patients with traumas of the cervical region of the spinal column and spinal cord in the acute period of trauma. The authors proposed a scheme that included telespondylography in standard and oblique projections, flebospondylography, discography and pneumomyelography in the Schantz collar with a patient lying on the back. Four types of the spinal cord traumas were diagnosed: compression with osseous elements (76.92%), with sharp discs and strained epidural hematomas (3.85%), isolated contusion of the spinal cord (10.1%) and disorder of the spinal circulation (9.13%). Special emphasis was laid on clinicospondylographic correlations, a critical distance, congenital narrowing of the vertebral canal. The concept of traumatic decompression of the spinal cord was stressed. Symptoms of its contusion and trauma of the spinal circulation were indicated

  6. Rapid Acute Physiology Score versus Rapid Emergency Medicine Score in Trauma Outcome Prediction; a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhjavan-Shahraki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid acute physiology score (RAPS and rapid emergency medicine score (REMS are two physiologic models for measuring injury severity in emergency settings. The present study was designed to compare the two models in outcome prediction of trauma patients presenting to emergency department (ED.Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the two models of RAPS and REMS were compared regarding prediction of mortality and poor outcome (severe disability based on Glasgow outcome scale of trauma patients presenting to the EDs of 5 educational hospitals in Iran (Tehran, Tabriz, Urmia, Jahrom and Ilam from May to October 2016. The discriminatory power and calibration of the models were calculated and compared using STATA 11.Results: 2148 patients with the mean age of 39.50±17.27 years were studied (75.56% males. The area under the curve of REMS and RAPS in predicting in-hospital mortality were calculated to be 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95 and 0.899 (95% CI: 0.86-0.93, respectively (p=0.02. These measures were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.94 and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.90, respectively, regarding poor outcome (p=0.001. The optimum cut-off point in predicting outcome was found to be 3 for REMS model and 2 for RAPS model. The sensitivity and specificity of REMS and RAPS in the mentioned cut offs were 95.93 vs. 85.37 and 77.63 vs. 83.51, respectively, in predicting mortality. Calibration and overall performance of the two models were acceptable.Conclusion: The present study showed that adding age and level of arterial oxygen saturation to the variables included in RAPS model can increase its predictive value. Therefore, it seems that REMS could be used for predicting mortality and poor outcome of trauma patients in emergency settings

  7. Acute knee trauma: value of a short dedicated extremity MR imaging examination for prediction of subsequent treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, E.H.; Nikken, J.J.; Ginai, A.Z.; Krestin, G.P.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Vugt, A.B. van; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the predictive value of a short magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination, in addition to or instead of radiography, performed in patients with acute knee trauma to identify those who require additional treatment versus those who do not and can be discharged without further

  8. Whiplash Syndrome Reloaded: Digital Echoes of Whiplash Syndrome in the European Internet Search Engine Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll-Hussong, Michael

    2017-03-27

    In many Western countries, after a motor vehicle collision, those involved seek health care for the assessment of injuries and for insurance documentation purposes. In contrast, in many less wealthy countries, there may be limited access to care and no insurance or compensation system. The purpose of this infodemiology study was to investigate the global pattern of evolving Internet usage in countries with and without insurance and the corresponding compensation systems for whiplash injury. We used the Internet search engine analytics via Google Trends to study the health information-seeking behavior concerning whiplash injury at national population levels in Europe. We found that the search for "whiplash" is strikingly and consistently often associated with the search for "compensation" in countries or cultures with a tort system. Frequent or traumatic painful injuries; diseases or disorders such as arthritis, headache, radius, and hip fracture; depressive disorders; and fibromyalgia were not associated similarly with searches on "compensation." In this study, we present evidence from the evolving viewpoint of naturalistic Internet search engine analytics that the expectations for receiving compensation may influence Internet search behavior in relation to whiplash injury. ©Michael Noll-Hussong. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 27.03.2017.

  9. The iliotibial band in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ramy; Yoong, Philip; McKean, David; Teh, James L

    2014-10-01

    To delineate the spectrum of knee injuries associated with sprains and tears of the distal iliotibial band (ITB). A retrospective review of 200 random MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma was performed. Scans were excluded if there was a history of injury over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. In each scan, the ITB was scored as normal, minor sprain (grade 1), severe sprain (grade 2), and torn (grade 3). The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 27.4 years (range, 9-69 years) and 71.5% (n = 143) of the patients were male. The ITB was injured in 115 cases (57.5%). The next most common soft tissue structure injured was the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 53.5% of cases (n = 107). Grade 1 ITB injury was seen in 90 of these 115 cases (45%), grade 2 injury in 20 cases, and grade 3 injury in only five cases. There is a significant association between ITB injury and ACL rupture (p knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially cruciate ligament rupture, posterolateral corner injury, and patellar dislocation.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute trauma of the cervical spine: spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, B.B.; Koopmans, R.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectrum of acute injury to the cervical spine was illustrated in this pictorial essay. The appearance of the traumatized cord was discussed, including intramedullary hemorrhage, and the causes of spinal cord compression, such as disk herniation, epidural hematoma, fracture, dislocation and underlying spinal stenosis. The ability of MRI to directly reveal the severity of cord injury and simultaneously indicate the cause of cord compression proved particularly useful in the management of incomplete injury, for which surgical intervention may prevent further deterioration. The protocol for MRI of cervical spinal trauma included sagittal T1-weighted and T2-weighted conventional spin-echo sequences. In addition, transverse T2-weighted gradient-echo images were obtained. MRI`s ability to directly reveal the extent of cord injury was said to be a powerful tool in the management of incomplete injuries where further deterioration could be prevented by timely surgical intervention. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  11. DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF MILD AND MODERATE BRAIN INJURY IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Shadrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors present modern approach to the diagnostics and treatment of children with acute period of mild and moderate brain injury. It is necessary to provide timely diagnostics in children with craniocerebral trauma via neurovisualization: ultrasonic scan and computer tomography of brain (for a diagnostics of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, duplex ultrasonic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (for a detection of traumatic dissections of main arteries of head. The article considers main aspects of treatment of children with craniocerebral injury, describes indications to pathogenetical therapy aimed to compensation of disorders in dynamics of cerebrospinal liquor, microcirculation and antioxidant status.Key words: children, cerebrospinal injury, diagnostics, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:90-93

  12. Misdiagnosing absent pedicle of cervical spine in the acute trauma setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad H. Abduljabbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms.

  13. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, D.; Thomee, E.; Grant, D.; Teh, J.L.; Mansour, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Yoong, P. [Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading (United Kingdom); Yanny, S. [Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2 % (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20 %). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25 %) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75 %) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner. (orig.)

  14. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, D; Yoong, P; Yanny, S; Thomee, E; Grant, D; Teh, J L; Mansour, R

    2015-10-01

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2% (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20%). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25%) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75%) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner.

  15. iPhone-based teleradiology for the diagnosis of acute cervico-dorsal spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jayesh; Sharma, Pranshu; Earl, Alex; Simpson, Mark; Mitchell, J Ross; Goyal, Mayank

    2010-11-01

    To assess the feasibility of iPhone-based teleradiology as a potential solution for the diagnosis of acute cervico-dorsal spine trauma. We have developed a solution that allows visualization of images on the iPhone. Our system allows rapid, remote, secure, visualization of medical images without storing patient data on the iPhone. This retrospective study is comprised of cervico-dorsal computed tomogram (CT) scan examination of 75 consecutive patients having clinically suspected cervico-dorsal spine fracture. Two radiologists reviewed CT scan images on the iPhone. Computed tomogram spine scans were analyzed for vertebral body fracture and posterior elements fractures, any associated subluxation-dislocation and cord lesion. The total time taken from the launch of viewing application on the iPhone until interpretation was recorded. The results were compared with that of a diagnostic workstation monitor. Inter-rater agreement was assessed. The sensitivity and accuracy of detecting vertebral body fractures was 80% and 97% by both readers using the iPhone system with a perfect inter-rater agreement (kappa:1). The sensitivity and accuracy of detecting posterior elements fracture was 75% and 98% for Reader 1 and 50% and 97% for Reader 2 using the iPhone. There was good inter-rater agreement (kappa: 0.66) between both readers. No statistically significant difference was noted between time on the workstation and the iPhone system. iPhone-based teleradiology system is accurate in the diagnosis of acute cervicodorsal spinal trauma. It allows rapid, remote, secure, visualization of medical images without storing patient data on the iPhone.

  16. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Usefulness of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein for Predicting Acute Intracranial Lesions following Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu M. Luoto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe extensive use of computed tomography (CT after acute head injury is costly and carries potential iatrogenic risk. This systematic review examined the usefulness of blood-based glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP for predicting acute trauma-related CT-positive intracranial lesions following head trauma. The main objective was to summarize the current evidence on blood-based GFAP as a potential screening test for acute CT-positive intracranial lesions following head trauma.MethodsWe screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, Scopus, Clinical Trials, OpenGrey, ResearchGate, and the reference lists of eligible publications for original contributions published between January 1980 and January 2017. Eligibility criteria included: (i population: human head and brain injuries of all severities and ages; (ii intervention: blood-based GFAP measurement ≤24 h post-injury; and (iii outcome: acute traumatic lesion on non-contrast head CT ≤24 h post-injury. Three authors completed the publication screening, data extraction, and quality assessment of eligible articles.ResultsThe initial search identified 4,706 articles, with 51 eligible for subsequent full-text assessment. Twenty-seven articles were ultimately included. Twenty-four (89% studies reported a positive association between GFAP level and acute trauma-related intracranial lesions on head CT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GFAP prediction of intracranial pathology ranged from 0.74 to 0.98 indicating good to excellent discrimination. GFAP seemed to discriminate mass lesions and diffuse injury, with mass lesions having significantly higher GFAP levels. There was considerable variability between the measured GFAP averages between studies and assays. No well-designed diagnostic studies with specific GFAP cutoff values predictive of acute traumatic intracranial lesions have been published

  19. Usefulness of the skyline view in the assessment of acute knee trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, G.B.; Mustapha, A.; Reed, M.; Henderson, B.

    2002-01-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of all cases of acute knee injuries in children presenting to the Winnipeg Children's Hospital, University of Manitoba, between Jan. 1, 1994, and Jan. 1, 1995. The mechanism of injury was recorded and all 3 radiographic views (i.e., anterioposterior, lateral and skyline) were available for 171 of 256 total cases. We found a significant association between mechanism of injury and visualization of damage on skyline view radiographs (p < 0.01). The skyline view showed damage in only 1 of the 158 cases involving direct or indirect injury not involving subluxation or dislocation. However, damage was visualized on skyline view radiographs in 7 (54%) of the 13 cases that included a history of subluxation or dislocation. We conclude that in acute knee trauma in children, a skyline view radiograph of the patella should be obtained only when the mechanism of injury includes subluxation or dislocation. When the mechanism does not suggest subluxation or dislocation, the skyline view is unlikely to reveal damage; it adds unnecessary radiation, cost and possible added discomfort for the child. (author)

  20. Usefulness of the skyline view in the assessment of acute knee trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, G.B.; Mustapha, A. [Children' s Hospital of Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre, Section of Orthopedic Surgery, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Reed, M. [Children' s Hospital of Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Henderson, B. [Children' s Hospital of Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre, Section of Orthopedic Surgery, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of all cases of acute knee injuries in children presenting to the Winnipeg Children's Hospital, University of Manitoba, between Jan. 1, 1994, and Jan. 1, 1995. The mechanism of injury was recorded and all 3 radiographic views (i.e., anterioposterior, lateral and skyline) were available for 171 of 256 total cases. We found a significant association between mechanism of injury and visualization of damage on skyline view radiographs (p < 0.01). The skyline view showed damage in only 1 of the 158 cases involving direct or indirect injury not involving subluxation or dislocation. However, damage was visualized on skyline view radiographs in 7 (54%) of the 13 cases that included a history of subluxation or dislocation. We conclude that in acute knee trauma in children, a skyline view radiograph of the patella should be obtained only when the mechanism of injury includes subluxation or dislocation. When the mechanism does not suggest subluxation or dislocation, the skyline view is unlikely to reveal damage; it adds unnecessary radiation, cost and possible added discomfort for the child. (author)

  1. Physiotherapy in a whiplash injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Van Eck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Case ReportObjectives: To describe physiotherapy intervention in an individual with asuspected whiplash injury.Background: The patient was a 29-year old male with complaints of neckpain and tightness following a motor vehicle accident. Methods and Measures: The focus of the case study is physiotherapyassessment and intervention in a stage II whiplash injury. Results: Following intervention, positive changes occurred in outcome measures such as pain, work status and activities of daily living. Conclusion: Physiotherapy intervention is successful in addressing whiplash associated disorders.

  2. Distribution of emergency operations and trauma in a Swedish hospital: need for reorganisation of acute surgical care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Ayoubi Fawzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subspecialisation within general surgery has today reached further than ever. However, on-call time, an unchanged need for broad surgical skills are required to meet the demands of acute surgical disease and trauma. The introduction of a new subspecialty in North America that deals solely with acute care surgery and trauma is an attempt to offer properly trained surgeons also during on-call time. To find out whether such a subspecialty could be helpful in Sweden we analyzed our workload for emergency surgery and trauma. Methods Linköping University Hospital serves a population of 257 000. Data from 2010 for all patients, diagnoses, times and types of operations, surgeons involved, duration of stay, types of injury and deaths regarding emergency procedures were extracted from a prospectively-collected database and analyzed. Results There were 2362 admissions, 1559 emergency interventions; 835 were mainly abdominal operations, and 724 diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopies. Of the 1559 emergency interventions, 641 (41.1% were made outside office hours, and of 453 minor or intermediate procedures (including appendicectomy, cholecystectomy, or proctological procedures 276 (60.9% were done during the evenings or at night. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were admitted with trauma and 29 (11.4% required operation, of whom general surgeons operated on eight (3.1%. Thirteen consultants and 11 senior registrars were involved in 138 bowel resections and 164 cholecystectomies chosen as index operations for standard emergency surgery. The median (range number of such operations done by each consultant was 6 (3–17 and 6 (1–22. Corresponding figures for senior registrars were 7 (0–11 and 8 (1–39. Conclusion There was an uneven distribution of exposure to acute surgical problems and trauma among general surgeons. Some were exposed to only a few standard emergency interventions and most surgeons did not operate on a single patient

  3. Distribution of emergency operations and trauma in a Swedish hospital: need for reorganisation of acute surgical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Ayoubi, Fawzi; Eriksson, Helen; Myrelid, Pär; Wallon, Conny; Andersson, Peter

    2012-09-17

    Subspecialisation within general surgery has today reached further than ever. However, on-call time, an unchanged need for broad surgical skills are required to meet the demands of acute surgical disease and trauma. The introduction of a new subspecialty in North America that deals solely with acute care surgery and trauma is an attempt to offer properly trained surgeons also during on-call time. To find out whether such a subspecialty could be helpful in Sweden we analyzed our workload for emergency surgery and trauma. Linköping University Hospital serves a population of 257 000. Data from 2010 for all patients, diagnoses, times and types of operations, surgeons involved, duration of stay, types of injury and deaths regarding emergency procedures were extracted from a prospectively-collected database and analyzed. There were 2362 admissions, 1559 emergency interventions; 835 were mainly abdominal operations, and 724 diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopies. Of the 1559 emergency interventions, 641 (41.1%) were made outside office hours, and of 453 minor or intermediate procedures (including appendicectomy, cholecystectomy, or proctological procedures) 276 (60.9%) were done during the evenings or at night. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were admitted with trauma and 29 (11.4%) required operation, of whom general surgeons operated on eight (3.1%). Thirteen consultants and 11 senior registrars were involved in 138 bowel resections and 164 cholecystectomies chosen as index operations for standard emergency surgery. The median (range) number of such operations done by each consultant was 6 (3-17) and 6 (1-22). Corresponding figures for senior registrars were 7 (0-11) and 8 (1-39). There was an uneven distribution of exposure to acute surgical problems and trauma among general surgeons. Some were exposed to only a few standard emergency interventions and most surgeons did not operate on a single patient with trauma. Further centralization of trauma care, long

  4. The relationship between chronic whiplash-associated disorder and post-traumatic stress: attachment-anxiety may be a vulnerability factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Elmose Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In more than 90% of whiplash accidents a good explanation regarding the association between trauma mechanism, organic pathology, and persistent symptoms has failed to be provided. Objective: We predicted that the severity of chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD, measured as number of whiplash symptoms, pain duration, pain-related disability, and degree of somatisation would be associated with the number of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD. Secondly, we expected attachment-anxiety to be a vulnerability factor in relation to both PTSD and WAD. Design: Data were collected from 1,349 women and 360 men suffering from WAD from the Danish Society for Polio, Traffic, and Accident Victims. The PTSD symptoms were measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. All three core PTSD clusters were included: re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Attachment security was measured along the two dimensions, attachment-anxiety and attachment-avoidance, by the Revised Adult Attachment Scale. Results: PTSD symptoms were significantly related to the severity of WAD. In particular, the PTSD clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal were associated with the number of whiplash symptoms, disability, and somatisation. Attachment-anxiety was significantly related to PTSD symptoms and somatisation but not to pain and disability. A co-morbidity of 38.8% was found between the PTSD diagnosis and WAD, and about 20% of the sample could be characterised as securely attached. Conclusions: The PTSD clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal were significantly associated with severity of WAD. The study emphasises the importance of assessing PTSD symptomatology after whiplash injury. Furthermore, it highlights that attachment theory may facilitate the understanding of why some people are more prone to develop PTSD and WAD than others.For abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  5. Seizures after very mild head or spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Ronit; Boaz, Mona; Sadeh, Menachem; Eilam, Anda; Dabby, Ron; Lampl, Yair

    2013-03-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of seizures in the general population. Several studies have shown an increased risk of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury, depending on risk factors, such as severity and time post trauma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the appearance of late seizures after a very mild head trauma or whiplash injury. All patients admitted to the emergency room after a very mild head trauma or whiplash injury during 2008-2010 were evaluated prospectively within 24 hours of the event and followed up 1 year later for evaluation of seizure appearance. The appearance of seizures in the head trauma or whiplash injury group was compared to a control group of orthopedic injury patients. A total of 2999 patients were included in the study--2005 patients with involvement of head and spine trauma and 994 in an orthopedic control group. Three patients (0.1%) out of the whole study group developed seizures: 2 (0.18%) in the head trauma group and 1 (0.1%) in the control group. The conclusion of the study was that post trauma seizure incidence is not significantly different in patients with very mild head or spine trauma and is similar respective to subjects with no non-head or cervical spine injury. This may have medico-legal repercussions.

  6. MRI of car occupants with whiplash injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyvodic, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Dolinis, J. [National Injury Surveillance Unit, Bedford Park, SA (Australia)]|[National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Moore, V.M. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ryan, G.A. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Slavotinek, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Whyte, A.M. [Ashford Hospital Specialist Centre, SA (Australia); Hoile, R.D. [Ashford Hospital Specialist Centre, SA (Australia); Taylor, G.W. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document and investigate the prognostic significance of features seen on MRI of patients with whiplash injury following relatively minor road traffic crashes. MRI was obtained shortly and at 6 months after the crash using a 0.5 T imager. The images were assessed independently by two radiologists for evidence of fracture or other injury; loss of lordosis and spondylosis were also recorded. Clinical examinations were used to assess the status of patients initially and at 6 months. The results of the independent MRI and clinical investigations were then examined for association using statistical tests. Initial MRI was performed on 29 patients, of whom 19 had repeat studies at 6 months; 48 examinations were thus examined. Apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, only one abnormality was detected: an intramedullary lesion consistent with a small cyst or syrinx. There were no statistically significant associations between the outcome of injury and spondylosis or loss of lordosis. No significant changes were found when comparing the initial and follow-up MRI. It appears that MRI of patients with relatively less severe whiplash symptoms reveals a low frequency of abnormalities, apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, which have little short-term prognostic value. Routine investigation of such patients with MRI is not justified in view of the infrequency of abnormalities detected, the lack of prognostic value and the high cost of the procedure. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, H; Aström, P G

    1996-09-01

    This study investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with whiplash injury and the effects of a rehabilitation programme. Fourteen patients with a whiplash injury and 34 healthy subjects participated in this study. The ability to appreciate both movement and the position of the head with respect to the trunk was investigated. Active head repositioning was significantly less precise in the whiplash subjects compared to the control group. Repositioning was more precise in whiplash subjects after the 5-week rehabilitation programme. There was no correlation between error of repositioning in patients and pain intensity. It is probable that cervicocephalic kinesthesia is linked to sensory information from the extensive muscular and articular proprioceptive system. A flexion-extension injury to the neck may result in dysfunction of this system.

  8. Sociale, økonomiske og kulturelle aspekter ved whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Stenager, Elsebeth; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2010-01-01

    The sequelae following whiplash injuries (WL) entail considerable human costs and expenses for both treatment and social services, especially public income benefits. Frequently, many players are involved after WL and good intersectional collaboration is therefore essential to counter the WL...

  9. Functional health status in subjects after a motor vehicle accident, with emphasis on whiplash associated disorders: design of a descriptive, prospective inception cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helders Paul JM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with acute and chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders. Methods/Design The objective is to describe the design of an inception cohort study with a 1-year follow-up to determine risk factors for the development of symptoms after a low-impact motor vehicle accident, the prognosis of chronic disability, and costs. Victims of a low-impact motor vehicle accident will be eligible for participation. Participants with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of 7 or more will be classified as experiencing post-traumatic neck pain and will enter the experimental group. Participants without complaints (a NDI score less than 7 will enter the reference group. The cohort will be followed up by means of postal questionnaires and physical examinations at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Recovery from whiplash-associated disorders will be measured in terms of perceived functional health, and employment status (return to work. Life tables will be generated to determine the 1-year prognosis of whiplash-associated disorders, and risk factors and prognostic factors will be assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Discussion Little is known about the development of symptoms and chronic disability after a whiplash injury. In the clinical setting, it is important to identify those people who are at risk of developing chronic symptoms. This inception prospective cohort study will provide insight in the influence of risk factors, of the development of functional health problems, and costs in people with whiplash-associated disorders.

  10. Absent cervical spine pedicle and associated congenital spinal abnormalities - a diagnostic trap in a setting of acute trauma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildermuth Simon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital spinal abnormalities can easily be misdiagnosed on plain radiographs. Additional imaging is warranted in doubtful cases, especially in a setting of acute trauma. Case Presentation This patient presented at the emergency unit of our university hospital after a motor vehicle accident and was sent to our radiology department for imaging of the cervical spine. Initial clinical examination and plain radiographs of the cervical spine were performed but not conclusive. Additional CT of the neck helped establish the right diagnosis. Conclusion CT as a three-dimensional imaging modality with the possibility of multiplanar reconstructions allows for the exact diagnosis and exclusion of acute traumatic lesions of the cervical spine, especially in cases of doubtful plain radiographs and when congenital spinal abnormalities like absent cervical spine pedicle with associated spina bifida may insinuate severe trauma.

  11. Absent cervical spine pedicle and associated congenital spinal abnormalities - a diagnostic trap in a setting of acute trauma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Scheffel, Hans; Wildermuth, Simon; Leschka, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul

    2010-11-09

    Congenital spinal abnormalities can easily be misdiagnosed on plain radiographs. Additional imaging is warranted in doubtful cases, especially in a setting of acute trauma. This patient presented at the emergency unit of our university hospital after a motor vehicle accident and was sent to our radiology department for imaging of the cervical spine. Initial clinical examination and plain radiographs of the cervical spine were performed but not conclusive. Additional CT of the neck helped establish the right diagnosis. CT as a three-dimensional imaging modality with the possibility of multiplanar reconstructions allows for the exact diagnosis and exclusion of acute traumatic lesions of the cervical spine, especially in cases of doubtful plain radiographs and when congenital spinal abnormalities like absent cervical spine pedicle with associated spina bifida may insinuate severe trauma.

  12. Increased neck muscle activity and impaired balance among females with whiplash-related chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....

  13. Blunt abdominal trauma with handlebar injury: A rare cause of traumatic amputation of the appendix associated with acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe traumatic appendicitis in a 7-year-old boy who presented after sustaining blunt abdominal trauma to his right lower abdomen secondary to bicycle handlebar injury. With diffuse abdominal pain following injury, he was admitted for observation. Computed axial tomography (CT obtained at an outside hospital demonstrated moderate stranding of the abdomen in the right lower quadrant. The CT was non-contrasted and therefore significant appendiceal distention could not be confirmed. However, there was a calcified structure in the right pelvis with trace amount of free fluid. Patient was observed with conservative management and over the course of 15 h his abdominal pain continued to intensify. With his worsening symptoms, we elected to take him for diagnostic laparoscopy. In the operating room we found an inflamed traumatically amputated appendix with the mesoappendix intact. We therefore proceeded with laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathology demonstrated acute appendicitis with fecalith. It was unclear as to whether the patient's appendicitis and perforation were secondary to fecalith obstruction, his blunt abdominal trauma or if they concurrently caused his appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is a common acute surgical condition in the pediatric population and continues to be a rare and unique cause of operative intervention in the trauma population.

  14. The evaluation of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 for patients with acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Gyu; Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Myung Joon; Kang, Ik Won; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 for patients with mild acute trauma of the spine. Between July 1998 and June 2002, 36 patients with acute spinal trauma underwent MRI within four months of injury. One, whose clinal symptoms indicated neurological paralysis, was excluded form our study. A superconductive 1.0-T MRI scanner was used, and conventional T1W1, T2W1, and additional fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 were performed. Two radiologists compared conventional T2-weighted sagittal imaging and fat-saturation T2-weighted sagittal imaging in terms of the extension of increased high signal intensities in soft tissue and vertebral bodies, bone marrow signal change, disk herniation, and signal change of the disk. The detection rate of focal high signal intensities in soft tissue and bone marrow was significantly higher at fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 than at conventional T2W1. Fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 is useful for the evaluation of patients with mild acute spinal trauma without neurological impairment

  15. The evaluation of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2WI for patients with acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Gyu; Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Myung Joon; Kang, Ik Won; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2WI for patients with mild acute trauma of the spine. Between July 1998 and June 2002, 36 patients with acute spinal trauma underwent MRI within four months of injury. One, whose clinal symptoms indicated neurological paralysis, was excluded form our study. A superconductive 1.0-T MRI scanner was used, and conventional T1W1, T2W1, and additional fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 were performed. Two radiologists compared conventional T2-weighted sagittal imaging and fat-saturation T2-weighted sagittal imaging in terms of the extension of increased high signal intensities in soft tissue and vertebral bodies, bone marrow signal change, disk herniation, and signal change of the disk. The detection rate of focal high signal intensities in soft tissue and bone marrow was significantly higher at fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 is useful the evaluation of patients with mild acute spinal trauma without neurological impairment

  16. Integrating technical and non-technical skills coaching in an acute trauma surgery team training: Is it too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alken, Alexander; Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Weenk, Mariska; Yauw, Simon; Fluit, Cornelia; van Goor, Harry

    2017-08-25

    Research on effective integration of technical and non-technical skills in surgery team training is sparse. In a previous study we found that surgical teachers predominantly coached on technical and hardly on non-technical skills during the Definitive Surgical and Anesthetic Trauma Care (DSATC) integrated acute trauma surgery team training. This study aims to investigate whether the priming of teachers could increase the amount of non-technical skills coaching during such a training. Coaching activities of 12 surgical teachers were recorded on audio and video. Six teachers were primed on non-technical skills coaching prior to the training. Six others received no priming and served as controls. Blind observers reviewed the recordings of 2 training scenario's and scored whether the observed behaviors were directed on technical or non-technical skills. We compared the frequency of the non-technical skills coaching between the primed and the non-primed teachers and analyzed for differences according to the trainees' level of experience. Surgical teachers coached trainees during the highly realistic DSATC integrated acute trauma surgery team training. Trainees performed damage control surgery in operating teams on anesthetized porcine models during 6 training scenario's. Twelve experienced surgical teachers participated in this study. Coaching on non-technical skills was limited to about 5%. The primed teachers did not coach more often on non-technical skills than the non-primed teachers. We found no differences in the frequency of non-technical skills coaching based on the trainees' level of experience. Priming experienced surgical teachers does not increase the coaching on non-technical skills. The current DSATC acute trauma surgery team training seems too complex for integrating training on technical and non-technical skills. Patient care, Practice based learning and improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study on whiplash injury patients. Minimum 10-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Daisuke; Okada, Eijiro; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a prospective long-term follow-up study to assess associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and changes in clinical symptoms, as well as factors relating to the prognosis of symptoms. A total of 133 patients with acute whiplash injury between 1993 and 1996 participated in this follow-up study. They underwent neurological examinations by spine surgeons and second MRI scans of the cervical spine were obtained. They also filled out a questionnaire regarding cervical symptoms and the accident details. The items evaluated by MRI were a decrease in the signal intensity of the intervertebral disc; anterior compression of the dura and the spinal cord; posterior disc protrusion; disc space narrowing; and foraminal stenosis. Relations between the presence/absence of degenerative changes on MRI, accident details, and patients' symptoms were assessed by calculating the adjusted odds ratio (OR). Progression of some degenerative changes was recognized on MRI in 98.5% of the 133 whiplash injury patients, and clinical symptoms diminished in more than a half of the 133 patients. There were no statistically significant associations between MRI findings and changes in clinical symptoms. The prognosis for neck pain tended to be poor after accidents with double collisions (rear-end collision followed by front-end collision) [adjusted OR 5.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-29.71] and accidents with serious car damage (2.87, 1.03-7.99). The prognosis for stiff shoulders tended to be poor in women (2.83, 1.23-6.51); and the prognosis for numbness in the upper extremities tended to be poor after accidents with serious car damage (3.39, 1.14-10.06). This study demonstrated that progression of degenerative changes of the cervical spine on MRI was not associated with clinical symptoms during the 10-year period after whiplash injury. (author)

  18. Acute trauma-induced Budd-Chiari syndrome; Syndrome de Budd-Chiari aigu d`origine traumatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izard, G.; Houri, R.; Randrianasolo, S.; Gailleton, R. [Centre Hospitalier General, 65 - Tarbes (France)

    1995-09-01

    The diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome is based on clinical signs including liver enlargement and ascites and findings of complementary examinations: echography, echo-Doppler, cat scanning (CT-scan), magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, pressure readings, laparoscopy and biopsy. Trauma is rarely reported as a cause of acute Budd-Chiari syndrome. In some cases, the trauma is so violent the supra-hepatic veins are ruptured and the dramatic outcome leaves no time for the syndrome to develop. In others, the resulting haematomas form a compression block of the supra hepatic vessels. The mechanism of the trauma in our case appears to have been unreported to date. Four days after a violent motorcycle accident, a 33-year-old man developed an acute Budd-Chiari syndrome probably due to partial and temporary thrombosis of the left and middle supra hepatic veins. A side-to-side porto-cava anastomosis with a calibrated venous graft was performed in an emergency procedure. Outcome was quite favourable and after a 4 year follow-up, the patient is in good health. (authors). 13 refs.

  19. Differences in postinjury auditory system pathophysiology after mild blast and nonblast acute acoustic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Nicholas; Lai, Jesyin; Shi, Riyi; Bartlett, Edward L

    2017-08-01

    Hearing difficulties are the most commonly reported disabilities among veterans. Blast exposures during explosive events likely play a role, given their propensity to directly damage both peripheral (PAS) and central auditory system (CAS) components. Postblast PAS pathophysiology has been well documented in both clinical case reports and laboratory investigations. In contrast, blast-induced CAS dysfunction remains understudied but has been hypothesized to contribute to an array of common veteran behavioral complaints, including learning, memory, communication, and emotional regulation. This investigation compared the effects of acute blast and nonblast acoustic impulse trauma in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. An array of audiometric tests were utilized, including distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), auditory brain stem responses (ABR), middle latency responses (MLR), and envelope following responses (EFRs). Generally, more severe and persistent postinjury central auditory processing (CAP) deficits were observed in blast-exposed animals throughout the auditory neuraxis, spanning from the cochlea to the cortex. DPOAE and ABR results captured cochlear and auditory nerve/brain stem deficits, respectively. EFRs demonstrated temporal processing impairments suggestive of functional damage to regions in the auditory brain stem and the inferior colliculus. MLRs captured thalamocortical transmission and cortical activation impairments. Taken together, the results suggest blast-induced CAS dysfunction may play a complementary pathophysiological role to maladaptive neuroplasticity of PAS origin. Even mild blasts can produce lasting hearing impairments that can be assessed with noninvasive electrophysiology, allowing these measurements to serve as simple, effective diagnostics. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blasts exposures often produce hearing difficulties. Although cochlear damage typically occurs, the downstream effects on central auditory processing are less clear

  20. Facet joint injuries in acute cervical spine trauma : evaluation with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeon Ju; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Keon; Kwon, Hyeok Po; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Yun, Seong Mun [Dongkang General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate injury patterns of facet joints and associated soft tissue injuries in patients with acute traumatic cervical facet joint injuries. From among patients with cervical spine trauma, 27 with facet joint injuries, as seen on CT and MRI, were chosen for this study. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the location of facet joint injury, the presence or absence of facet dislocation or fracture, and other associated fractures. MR images were analyzed with regard to ligament injury, intervertebral disc injury, intervertebral disc herniation, and spinal cord injury. The most common location of facet joint injury was C6-7 level(n=10), followed by C5-6(n=8). Among these 27 patients with facet joint injuries, 12(44%) had bilateral injuries and 15(56%) unilateral injuries. Facet fractures were present in 17 cases(63%) and the fracture of inferior facet was more frequent than superior. Patterns of fracture were vertical, transverse, or comminuted, but vertical fracture was the most common. Various degrees of dislocation were observed in patients with facet fractures. Fractures other than facet included pillar(n=11), lamina(n=6), transverse process(n=14), body(n=13), and spinous process(n=3). On MR images, anterior longitudinal ligament injury was found in 8 patients(30%), posterior longitudinal ligament injury in 4(15%), and interspinous ligament injury in 20(74%). Twelve patients(44%) had spinal cord injuries including edema(n=8) and hemorrhage(n=4). Among patients with disc abnormalities, 11(41%) had intervertebral disc injuries, and traumatic disc herniations were found in nine. Traumatic cervical facet joint injuries were manifested as various patterns and frequently associated with other fractures or soft tissue injuries. Analysis of CT and MR findings of these injury patterns helped formulate a therapeutic plan and determine of prognosis.

  1. Facet joint injuries in acute cervical spine trauma : evaluation with CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeon Ju; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Keon; Kwon, Hyeok Po; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Yun, Seong Mun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate injury patterns of facet joints and associated soft tissue injuries in patients with acute traumatic cervical facet joint injuries. From among patients with cervical spine trauma, 27 with facet joint injuries, as seen on CT and MRI, were chosen for this study. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the location of facet joint injury, the presence or absence of facet dislocation or fracture, and other associated fractures. MR images were analyzed with regard to ligament injury, intervertebral disc injury, intervertebral disc herniation, and spinal cord injury. The most common location of facet joint injury was C6-7 level(n=10), followed by C5-6(n=8). Among these 27 patients with facet joint injuries, 12(44%) had bilateral injuries and 15(56%) unilateral injuries. Facet fractures were present in 17 cases(63%) and the fracture of inferior facet was more frequent than superior. Patterns of fracture were vertical, transverse, or comminuted, but vertical fracture was the most common. Various degrees of dislocation were observed in patients with facet fractures. Fractures other than facet included pillar(n=11), lamina(n=6), transverse process(n=14), body(n=13), and spinous process(n=3). On MR images, anterior longitudinal ligament injury was found in 8 patients(30%), posterior longitudinal ligament injury in 4(15%), and interspinous ligament injury in 20(74%). Twelve patients(44%) had spinal cord injuries including edema(n=8) and hemorrhage(n=4). Among patients with disc abnormalities, 11(41%) had intervertebral disc injuries, and traumatic disc herniations were found in nine. Traumatic cervical facet joint injuries were manifested as various patterns and frequently associated with other fractures or soft tissue injuries. Analysis of CT and MR findings of these injury patterns helped formulate a therapeutic plan and determine of prognosis

  2. Clinical and functional outcomes of acute lower extremity compartment syndrome at a Major Trauma Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollo, Loreto; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Acute lower extremity compartment syndrome (CS) is a condition that untreated causes irreversible nerve and muscle ischemia. Treatment by decompression fasciotomy without delay prevents permanent disability. The use of intracompartmental pressure (iCP) measurement in uncertain situations aids in diagnosis of severe leg pain. As an infrequent complication of lower extremity trauma, consequences of CS include chronic pain, nerve injury, and contractures. The purpose of this study was to observe the clinical and functional outcomes for patients with lower extremity CS after fasciotomy. Retrospective chart analysis for patients with a discharge diagnosis of CS was performed. Physical demographics, employment status, activity at time of injury, injury severity score, fracture types, pain scores, hours to fasciotomy, iCP, serum creatine kinase levels, wound treatment regimen, length of hospital stay, and discharge facility were collected. Lower extremity neurologic examination, pain scores, orthopedic complications, and employment status at 30 days and 12 months after discharge were noted. One hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred and eight patients were assessed at 12 months. Eighty-one percent were male. Motorized vehicles caused 51% of injuries in males. Forty-one percent of injuries were tibia fractures. Acute kidney injury occurred in 2.4%. Mean peak serum creatine kinase levels were 58,600 units/ml. Gauze dressing was used in 78.9% of nonfracture patients and negative pressure wound vacuum therapy in 78.2% of fracture patients. About 21.6% of patients with CS had prior surgery. Nearly 12.9% of patients required leg amputation. Around 81.8% of amputees were male. Sixty-seven percent of amputees had associated vascular injuries. Foot numbness occurred in 20.5% of patients and drop foot palsy in 18.2%. Osteomyelitis developed in 10.2% of patients and fracture nonunion in 6.8%. About 14.7% of patients underwent further orthopedic surgery

  3. Surgical fasciectomy of the trapezius muscle combined with neurolysis of the Spinal accessory nerve; results and long-term follow-up in 30 consecutive cases of refractory chronic whiplash syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Michael

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic problems from whiplash trauma generally include headache, pain and neck stiffness that may prove refractory to conservative treatment modalities. As has previously been reported, such afflicted patients may experience significant temporary relief with injections of local anesthetic to painful trigger points in muscles of the shoulder and neck, or lasting symptomatic improvement through surgical excision of myofascial trigger points. In a subset of patients who present with chronic whiplash syndrome, the clinical findings suggest an affliction of the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI, SAN by entrapment under the fascia of the trapezius muscle. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of SAN neurolysis in chronic whiplash syndrome. Methods A standardized questionnaire and a linear visual-analogue scale graded 0-10 was used to assess disability related to five symptoms (pain, headache, insomnia, weakness, and stiffness before, and one year after surgery in a series of thirty consecutive patients. Results The preoperative duration of symptoms ranged from seven months to 13 years. The following changes in disability scores were documented one year after surgery: Overall pain decreased from 9.5 +/- 0.9 to 3.2 +/- 2.6 (p Conclusions Entrapment of the spinal accessory nerve and/or chronic compartment syndrome of the trapezius muscle may cause chronic debilitating pain after whiplash trauma, without radiological or electrodiagnostic evidence of injury. In such cases, surgical treatment may provide lasting relief.

  4. Assessing the gap between the acute trauma workload and the capacity of a single rural health district in South Africa. What are the implications for systems planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D L; Aldous, C; Thomson, S R

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on a single rural health district in South Africa, and attempts to establish the burden of disease and to review the capacity of the district hospitals to deal with this load. Ethical approval to undertake this study was obtained from both the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal and the Department of Health. The audit was performed over a 6-month period in the four district hospitals of rural Sisonke District. There were four components to this audit. 1. Information on the hospital incidence of acute trauma in Sisonke was also sourced from the epidemiology unit of the Department of Health in Pietermaritzburg 2. Each of the district hospitals was visited and the medical manager was interviewed. The medical manager was asked to complete the World Health Organization's Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care. (SAT). 3. The operative registers were reviewed to determine the number of index cases for trauma. This information was used to determine the unmet need of acute trauma in the district. 4. Each hospital was classified according to the Trauma Society of South Africa (TSSA) guidelines for levels of trauma care. The annual incidence of trauma in the Sisonke District is estimated to be 1,590 per 100,000 population. Although there appeared to be adequate infrastructure in the district hospitals, the SAT revealed significant deficits in terms of capacity of staff to adequately treat and triage acute trauma patients. There is a significant unmet need for trauma care in Sisonke. The four district hospitals can best be classified as Level IV centers of trauma care. There is a significant burden of trauma in the Sisonke District, yet the capacity to deal with this burden is inadequate. Although the physical infrastructure is adequate, the deficits relate to human resources. The strategic choices are between enhancing the district hospitals' capacity to deal with acute trauma, or deciding to bypass them completely and

  5. Trauma quality improvement: The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service experience with the development of a comprehensive structure to facilitate quality improvement in rural trauma and acute care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Damian Luiz

    2015-01-03

    Improving the delivery of efficient and effective surgical care in rural South Africa is a mammoth task bedevilled by conflict between the stakeholders, who include rural doctors, surgeons, ancillary staff, researchers, educators and administrators. Management training is not part of most medical school curricula, yet as they progress in their careers, many clinicians are required to manage a health system and find the shift from caring for individual patients to managing a complex system difficult. Conflict arises when management-type interventions are imposed in a top-down manner on surgical staff suspicious of an unfamiliar field of study. Another area of conflict concerns the place of surgical research. Researchers are often accused of not being sufficiently focused on or concerned about the tasks of service delivery. This article provides an overview of management theory and describes a comprehensive management structure that integrates a model for health systems with a strategic planning process, strategic planning tools and appropriate quality metrics, and shows how the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, successfully used this structure to facilitate and contextualise a diverse number of quality improvement programmes and research initiatives in the realm of rural acute surgery and trauma. We have found this structure to be useful, and hope that it may be applied to other acute healthcare systems.

  6. Psychobiology of PTSD in the acute aftermath of trauma: Integrating research on coping, HPA function and sympathetic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2013-02-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  8. Predicting recovery from whiplash injury in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The effect of expectation of recovery on the recovery rate of whiplash patients in the primary care setting is not known. Whiplash patients were assessed in a primary care setting within 1 week of their collision for their expectations of recovery and were re-examined 3 months later for recovery. Initial expectations of recovery predicted recovery. According to adjusted odds ratios, subjects who expected 'to get better slowly' had a recovery rate that was nearly 1.9 times that of subjects with poor recovery expectations. Subjects who expected 'to get better soon' had a recovery rate that was 2.6 times greater than either of those with poor recovery expectations. In the primary care setting, asking patients with whiplash about their expectations of recovery is a useful predictor of their outcome.

  9. Effect of lidocaine on spinal cord lipid peroxide levels after acute spinal cord trauma in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın, A.S.; Özer, F.; Pamir, N.; Emerk, K.

    1991-01-01

    A standard spinal cord trauma was performed on control and lidocaine-treated (5 mg/kg. i.p.) rats. Spinal cord lipid peroxide levels in the lidocaine-trcaled group were significantly lower than those of controls. No significant difference was observed in plasma lipid peroxide levels. Our results suggest a protective role of lidocaine against lipid peroxidation after experimental spinal cord trauma in rats.

  10. To What Degree Does Active Cervical Range of Motion Differ Between Patients With Neck Pain, Patients With Whiplash, and Those Without Neck Pain? : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenneberg, Martijn S; Rood, Michiel; de Bie, Rob; Schmitt, Maarten A; Cattrysse, Erik; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify differences in active cervical range of motion (aCROM) between patients with neck pain and those without neck pain, in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and nontraumatic neck pain, and in patients with acute complaints versus those with chronic complaints.

  11. US of acute scrotal trauma: optimal technique, imaging findings, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurdulian, Corinne; Mittelstaedt, Carol A; Chong, Wui K; Fielding, Julia R

    2007-01-01

    The primary causes of scrotal trauma are blunt, penetrating, degloving, and electrical burn injuries to scrotal contents. Knowledge of the scrotal anatomy and appropriate imaging techniques are key for accurate evaluation of scrotal injuries. Ultrasonography (US) is the first-line imaging modality to help guide therapy for scrotal trauma, except in degloving injury, which results in scrotal skin avulsion. Blunt injury (eg, from an athletic accident or motor vehicle collision) is the most common cause of scrotal trauma, followed by penetrating injury from gunshot or other assault. Trauma often may result in hematoma, hydrocele, hematocele, testicular fracture, or testicular rupture. The timely diagnosis of rupture, based on a US finding of discontinuity of the echogenic tunica albuginea, is critical because emergent surgery results in salvage of the testis in 80%-90% of rupture cases. The radiologist should be familiar also with other nuances associated with penetrating trauma, iatrogenic and postoperative complications, and electrical injury. Color flow and duplex Doppler imaging are highly useful techniques not only for assessing testicular viability and perfusion but also for evaluating associated vascular injuries such as pseudoaneurysms. A thorough familiarity with the US findings of scrotal trauma helps facilitate appropriate management. Supplemental material available at radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/2/357/DC1. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  12. Hyperextension strain of ``whiplash`` injuries to the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olson, P.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Everson, L.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Winemiller, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ``whiplash`` injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  13. Does cervical kyphosis relate to symptoms following whiplash injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    , and with the prognosis one year following a whiplash injury. MRI was performed in 171 subjects about 10 d after the accident, and 104 participated in the pain recording at 1-year follow-up. It was demonstrated that postures as seen on MRI can be reliably categorized and that a straight spine is the most frequent...... is not significantly associated with chronic whiplash associated pain. Moreover, it is a clear clinical implication that pain should not be ascribed to a straight spine on MRI. We suggest that future trials on cervical posture focus upon the presence of kyphotic deformity rather than just on the absence of lordosis....

  14. MRI in the assessment of the supportive soft tissues of the cervical spine in acute trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiper, M.D.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We carried out a retrospective analysis of imaging and clinical findings in 52 children with a history of cervical spinal trauma. No patient had evidence of a fracture on plain films or CT. All had MRI at 1.5 T because of persistent or delayed symptoms, unexplained findings of injury or instability, or as further assessment of the extent of soft-tissue injury. Clinical follow-up ranged from 6 months to 3.5 years. MRI was evaluated for its influence on therapy and outcome. MRI was positive in 16 (31 %) of 52 patients. Posterior soft-tissue or ligamentous injury was the most common finding in the 10 patients with mild to moderate trauma, while acute disc bulges and longitudinal ligament disruption, each seen in one case, were uncommon. MRI was superior to CT for assessment of the extent of soft-tissue injury and for identification of spinal cord injuries and intracanalicular hemorrhage in the six patients with more severe trauma. MRI specifically influenced the management of all four patients requiring surgery by extending the level of posterior stabilization. No patients with normal MRI or any of the 10 with radiographically stable soft-tissue injury on MRI, developed delayed clinical or radiographic evidence of instability or deformity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  15. Acute stress disorder and defense mechanisms: a study of physical trauma patients admitted to an emergency hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Márcia Rosane Moreira; Zatti, Cleonice; Spader, Mariana Lunardi; Malgarim, Bibiana Godoi; Salle, Emílio; Piltcher, Renato; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; Bastos, Andre Goettems; Freitas, Lúcia Helena

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) encompasses a set of symptoms that can arise in individuals after exposure to a traumatic event. This study assessed the defense mechanisms used by victims of physical trauma who developed ASD. This was a controlled cross-sectional study of 146 patients who suffered physical trauma and required hospitalization. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate ASD symptoms based on DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, in addition to the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). Ten participants (6.85%) received a positive diagnosis of ASD, and 136, (93.15%) a negative diagnosis. The majority of the sample consisted of men with median age ranging from 33.50 to 35.50. The most prevalent defense mechanisms among the 10 patients with ASD were cancellation and devaluation, which belong to the neurotic and immature factors, respectively. Positive associations between the presence of symptoms from criterion B of the DSM-5 and defense mechanisms from the DSQ were found. These included the mechanisms of undoing, projection, passive aggression, acting out, autistic fantasy, displacement, and somatization. Patients with ASD employed different defense mechanisms such as undoing and devaluation when compared to patients not diagnosed with ASD. These results mark the importance of early detection of ASD symptoms at a preventative level, thereby creating new possibilities for avoiding exacerbations related to the trauma, which represents an important advance in terms of public health.

  16. MRI in the assessment of the supportive soft tissues of the cervical spine in acute trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiper, M.D.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective analysis of imaging and clinical findings in 52 children with a history of cervical spinal trauma. No patient had evidence of a fracture on plain films or CT. All had MRI at 1.5 T because of persistent or delayed symptoms, unexplained findings of injury or instability, or as further assessment of the extent of soft-tissue injury. Clinical follow-up ranged from 6 months to 3.5 years. MRI was evaluated for its influence on therapy and outcome. MRI was positive in 16 (31 %) of 52 patients. Posterior soft-tissue or ligamentous injury was the most common finding in the 10 patients with mild to moderate trauma, while acute disc bulges and longitudinal ligament disruption, each seen in one case, were uncommon. MRI was superior to CT for assessment of the extent of soft-tissue injury and for identification of spinal cord injuries and intracanalicular hemorrhage in the six patients with more severe trauma. MRI specifically influenced the management of all four patients requiring surgery by extending the level of posterior stabilization. No patients with normal MRI or any of the 10 with radiographically stable soft-tissue injury on MRI, developed delayed clinical or radiographic evidence of instability or deformity. (orig.)

  17. Amygdala Reactivity and Anterior Cingulate Habituation Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Maintenance After Acute Civilian Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Kim, Ye Ji; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Reddy, Renuka; Ely, Timothy D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Hudak, Lauren A; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-06-15

    Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from the emergency department of a large level I trauma center within 24 hours of trauma. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline and approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after trauma. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate symptom recovery trajectories. Thirty-one individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging around the 1-month assessment, passively viewing fearful and neutral face stimuli. Reactivity (fearful > neutral) and habituation to fearful faces was examined. Amygdala reactivity, but not habituation, 5 to 12 weeks after trauma was positively associated with the PTSD symptom intercept and predicted symptoms at 12 months after trauma. Habituation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with the slope of PTSD symptoms, such that decreases in ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation over repeated presentations of fearful stimuli predicted increasing symptoms. Findings point to neural signatures of risk for maintaining PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Specifically, chronic symptoms were predicted by amygdala hyperreactivity, and poor recovery was predicted by a failure to maintain ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to fearful stimuli. The importance of identifying patients at risk after trauma exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Craniocerebral trauma in acute surgical management. Primary care in a general community hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, W; Karches, C

    1996-11-01

    Head traumas frequently occur in polytrauma patients but are also found as isolated injuries. In our hospital trauma center without a neurosurgical department, in a 21-month period, 489 patients with head/brain trauma were treated. This represents 6.5% of all patients treated in the trauma and reconstructive surgery clinic. In commotio cerebri (CC = 89.5% of the patients) constant conservative management and an uneventful course were observed; in 69 patients with contusio cerebri, 18 craniotomy operations had to be performed. In contrast, in only two cases was reoperation because of recurrent hematoma necessary. In four cases with complex and/or additional injuries, transfer to a neurosurgical center took place, and in two cases photophone consultation with that center was used. The mortality was 14.5%. The diagnostic and therapeutic regimens for the different types of injury and the requirements for the management of head/brain trauma in trauma centers without neurosurgical departments are presented: emergency service and medical staff, emergency room management, intensive care management, qualified neurological examination, X-ray imaging, including CT scan, OP-room equipment and trained surgeons. If these requirements are not available in a given hospital, early transfer of all patients for whom surgical management could be necessary to a neurosurgical department should be attempted. Only in patients with severe bleeding must immediate craniotomy be performed even in hospitals which do not have all the above mentioned facilities. In patients with intracerebral bleeding, bleeding in the dorsal fossa, injury of brain nerves, carotid artery or sinus cavernosus injuries, frontobasal injuries with liquor fistula or pneumonencephalon, transfer of the patients to specialized neurosurgical centers is indicated. With this selection, we obtained the same results in a trauma center without a neurosurgical department as reported in the literature. This avoids overloading

  19. Coping and emotional distress during acute hospitalization in older persons with earlier trauma: the case of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimron, Lee; Cohen, Miri

    2012-06-01

    Older persons with earlier trauma are often more vulnerable to stresses of old age. To examine the levels of emotional distress in relation to cognitive appraisal of acute hospitalization and coping strategies in Holocaust survivors compared with an age- and education-matched group of elderly persons without Holocaust experience. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Holocaust survivors, 65 years and older, hospitalized for an acute illness, and 57 age-, education- and hospital unit-matched people without Holocaust experience. Participants completed appraisal and coping strategies (COPE) questionnaires, and the brief symptoms inventory (BSI-18). Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of emotional distress, appraised the hospitalization higher as a threat and lower as a challenge, and used more emotion-focused and less problem-focused or support-seeking coping strategies than the comparison group. Study variables explained 65% of the variance of emotional distress; significant predictors of emotional distress in the final regression model were not having a partner and more use of emotion-focused coping. The latter mediated the relation of group variable and challenge appraisal to emotional distress. Health professionals must be aware of the potential impact of the hospital environment on the survivors of Holocaust as well as survivors of other trauma. Being sensitive to their specific needs may reduce the negative impact of hospitalization.

  20. Role of Complement C5 in Experimental Blunt Chest Trauma-Induced Septic Acute Lung Injury (ALI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kalbitz

    Full Text Available Severe blunt chest trauma is associated with high mortality. Sepsis represents a serious risk factor for mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. In septic patients with ARDS complement activation products were found to be elevated in the plasma. In single models like LPS or trauma complement has been studied to some degree, however in clinically highly relevant double hit models such as the one used here little data is available. Here, we hypothesized that absence of C5 is correlated with a decreased inflammatory response in trauma induced septic acute lung injury.12 hrs after DH in mice the local and systemic cytokines and chemokines were quantified by multiplex bead array or ELISA, activated caspase-3 by western blot. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Sidak's multiple comparison test (significance, p≤ 0.05.In lung tissue interleukin (IL-6, monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF was elevated in both C5-/- mice and wildtype littermates (wt, whereas caspase-3 was reduced in lungs after DH in C5-/- mice. Systemically, reduced keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC levels were observed after DH in C5-/- compared to wt mice. Locally, lung myeloperoxidase (MPO, protein, IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated after DH in C5-/- compared to wt.In the complex but clinically relevant DH model the local and systemic inflammatory immune response features both, C5-dependent and C5-independent characteristics. Activation of caspase-3 in lung tissue after DH was C5-dependent whereas local inflammation in lung tissue was C5-independent.

  1. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseljen Ottar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM, conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173 were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal, and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6 for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6 for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1 for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a

  2. Cognitive activity limitations one year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Jens Bak; Norup, Anne; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    -acute rehabilitation in the Eastern part of Denmark during a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Methods: Level of consciousness was assessed consecutively during rehabilitation and at 1 year post-trauma. Severity of traumatic brain injury was classified according to duration of post-traumatic amnesia. The cognitive...... of consciousness during the first year post-trauma. At follow-up 33-58% of patients had achieved functional independence within the cognitive domains on the Cog-FIM. Socio-economic status, duration of acute care and post-traumatic amnesia were significant predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Substantial recovery...

  3. Simulation Method for Whiplash Injury Prediction Using an Active Human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, J.; Meijer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in seat design over the last decade for rear‐impact crash scenarios, the burden for insurance companies seemed to be so high that in several EU countries the legislation concerning claims for whiplash injury has recently been made more stringent. Many studies have been performed

  4. Whiplash, Real or Not Real? : A Review and New Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Dierckx, Rudi; Otte, Andreas; Holstege, Gert; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) describes a heterogeneous group of symptoms, which develops frequently after an unexpected rear-end car collision. In some of these patients, the symptoms persist for years. There is an ongoing scientific debate about the existence of tissue injury to support this

  5. Early versus delayed decompression in acute subaxial cervical spinal cord injury: A prospective outcome study at a Level I trauma center from India

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Vaghani, Gaurang; Siddiqui, Saquib; Sawhney, Chhavi; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Atin; Kale, S. S.; Sharma, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study was done with the aim to compare the clinical outcome and patients’ quality of life between early versus delayed surgically treated patients of acute subaxial cervical spinal cord injury. The current study was based on the hypothesis that early surgical decompression and fixations in acute subaxial cervical spinal cord trauma is safe and is associated with improved outcome as compared to delayed surgical decompression. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 patients were recrui...

  6. The treatment of acute soft tissue trauma in Danish emergency rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, F; Langberg, Henning

    1997-01-01

    Rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft tissue injuries. A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms (n = 5) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions. Complete answers were received ...

  7. The Experience of Witnessing Patients' Trauma and Suffering among Acute Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary E.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research provides evidence of workplace injuries to those in the nursing profession. Research on workplace stress and burnout among medical professionals is also well known; however, the profession of acute care nursing has not been examined with regards to work-related stress. This qualitative study focused on acute care nurses'…

  8. Early Acute Kidney Injury based on Serum Creatinine or Cystatin C in Intensive Care Unit after Major Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Zand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common problem in critically ill patients and is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, serum cystatin C has been shown to be superior to creatinine in early detection of renal function impairment. We compared estimated GFR based on serum cystatin C with estimated GFR based on serum creatinine for early detection of renal dysfunction according to the RIFLE criteria. Methods: During 9 months, three hundred post trauma patients that were referred to the intensive care unit of a referral trauma hospital were recruited. Serum creatinine and serum cystatin C were measured and the estimated GFR within 24 hours of ICU admission was calculated. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI according to the RIFLE criteria within 2nd to 7th day of admission. Results: During the first week of ICU admission,21% of patients experienced AKI. After adjusting for major confounders, only the patients with first day's serum cystatin level higher than 0.78 mg/l were at higher risk of first week AKI (OR=6.14, 95% CI: 2.5-14.7, P<0.001. First day’s serum cystatin C and injury severity score were the major risk factors for ICU mortality (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 1.7-7.4, P=0.001 and (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 1.5-14, P=0.007, respectively. Conclusion: Within 24 hours after admission in ICU due to multiple trauma, high serum cystatin C level may have prognostic value in predicting early AKI and mortality during ICU admission. However, such correlation was not seen neither with creatinine nor cystatin C based GFR.

  9. Relationship of echocardiographic and coronary angiographic findings in patients with acute myocardial infarction secondary to penetrating cardiac trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Wilfredy; Morales, Carlos Hernando; Senior, Juan Manuel; Benjumea, William Yesid; Sanchez, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    Patients with cardiac wounds could experience a posttraumatic acute myocardial infarction (PAMI) as a complication. Usually, this complication is explained by occlusion of a coronary artery, but sometimes, it cannot be explained by this pathophysiologic finding. This study aimed to determine the incidence of PAMI, make an approximation of PAMI pathophysiology, and propose management strategies. A prospective observational study was conducted at San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellin, Colombia. During 12 months, we studied 51 patients with a history of a cardiac stab injury. We evaluated variables, such as Revised Trauma Score (RTS), surgical and anesthetic data, and possible risk factors. Diagnosis of PAMI was based on electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and troponin I serum levels. All PAMI patients had an coronary angiography. Risk factors possibly related to the development of PAMI were explored. Fifty-one patients were evaluated; three died (5.9%). Of the patients, 35 (68.62%) did not develop PAMI, 6 (11.76%) developed PAMI with coronary injury, and 10 (19.6%) experienced PAMI without coronary injury (PAMIWCI). An RTS of 5.3 or lower and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 9 or lower were risk factors associated with PAMIWCI (relative risk, 11.55; p = 0.03). We did not find a relationship between PAMI and the use of psychoactive substances or other comorbidities. Patients with penetrating cardiac trauma may develop PAMIWCI. Active search for PAMI must be done in all patients with cardiac stab wound trauma, even those without artery coronary injury or symptoms suggestive of coronary ischemia. It is likely that Glasgow Coma Scale score of 9 of lower and RTS of 5.3 of lower for patients with cardiac injury are associated with the development of PAMIWCI.

  10. Reducing acute stress in a 16-year old using trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Madelon Brigitte; Beer, Renée; Jozine van Zelm van Eldik, Margreet; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra; Last, Bob Fred

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for the treatment of acute stress in an adolescent. METHODS: A combination of TF-CBT and EMDR was provided to a 16-year-old girl with distressing memories,

  11. Risk Factors of Poor Prognosis after Whiplash Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Suissa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash, a common injury following motor vehicle crashes, is associated with high costs and a prognosis that is variable and difficult to predict. In this paper, we review findings from the Quebec cohort epidemiological study on predictive factors of recovery from whiplash injury after a motor vehicle crash. We formed a population-based incident cohort of all 4,759 individuals who sustained a whiplash injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash in the province of Québec, Canada, in 1987, and followed these patients for up to seven years. The data were obtained from the universal automobile insurance plan (SAAQ that covers all seven million residents of the Province for all vehicular-related injuries. From this cohort, we formed the cohort of 3,014 for whom a police report was completed. For this cohort, we obtained data on crash-related factors directly from the police report. We also formed the cohort of 2,627 subjects who had strictly a whiplash injury, without associated injuries. For this cohort, the data on signs and symptoms were obtained from the medical charts kept by the SAAQ. For both cohorts, data on the outcome, the recovery time from whiplash, was obtained from the SAAQ databases. The crash-related cohort study found that socio-demographic factors associated with a longer recovery from whiplash include older age, female sex, having dependents and not being employed full time and that each decreases the rate of recovery by 14 to 16 per cent. Factors related to the crash conditions indicate that being in a truck or bus, with a decrease of 52% in the rate of recovery, being a passenger in the vehicle (15%, colliding with a moving vehicle (16%, and a side or frontal collision (15% all decrease the rate of recovery. We introduce a combined risk score that predicts longer recovery. In the cohort of subjects with signs and symptoms, the median recovery time was 32 days and 12% of subjects had still not recovered after 6 months. The signs

  12. Role of early minimal-invasive spine fixation in acute thoracic and lumbar spine trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Polytraumatized patients following a severe trauma suffer from substantial disturbances of the immune system. Secondary organ dysfunction syndromes due to early hyperinflammation and late immunparalysis contribute to adverse outcome. Consequently the principle of damage control surgery / orthopedics developed in the last two decades to limit secondary iatrogenic insult in these patients. New percutaneous internal fixators provide implants for a damage control approach of spinal trauma in polytraumatized patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of minimal-invasive instrumentation in the setting of minor and major trauma and to discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks of this procedure. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective analysis of 76 consecutive patients (mean age 53.3 years with thoracolumbar spine fractures following major or minor trauma from August 2003 to January 2007 who were subjected to minimal-invasive dorsal instrumentation using CD Horizon ® Sextant TM Rod Insertion System and Longitude TM Rod Insertion System (Medtronic ® Sofamor Danek. Perioperative and postoperative outcome measures including e.g. local and systemic complications were assessed and discussed. Results: Forty-nine patients (64.5% suffered from minor trauma (Injury Severity Score < 16. Polytraumatized patients (n=27; 35.5% had associated chest (n=20 and traumatic brain injuries (n=22. For mono- and bisegmental dorsal instrumentation the Sextant TM was used in 60 patients, whereas in 16 longer ranging instrumentations the (prototype Longitude TM system was implanted. Operation time was substantially lower than in conventional approach at minimum 22.5 min for Sextant and 36.2 min for Longitude TM , respectively. Geriatric patients with high perioperative risk according to ASA classification benefited from the less invasive approach and lack of approach-related complications including no substantial blood loss

  13. The Risk of Acute Spinal Cord Injury After Minor Trauma in Patients With Preexisting Cervical Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Victor; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Holly, Langston T

    2015-10-01

    Cervical stenosis patients are commonly advised to undergo surgery due to the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) after a traumatic event. However, the actual risk of SCI in this scenario is unknown. To evaluate the risk of SCI after minor trauma in a cohort of prospectively followed cervical stenosis patients. Clinical and radiographical analysis was performed in 55 nonoperatively treated patients evaluated between 2009 and 2014. Each patient was asked standardized questions including: 1) whether a previous physician recommended neck surgery, 2) whether a physician indicated that they would become paralyzed after a traumatic event, and 3) whether they experienced a traumatic event during the follow-up period. The mean age was 65, with a mean modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score of 16.6. The mean canal diameter was 6.1 mm. Nineteen patients (35%) had evidence of intramedullary T2 signal abnormality. Thirty-one patients (56%) were previously recommended for surgery. Twenty-six patients (47%) were told that they would be paralyzed after a motor vehicle accident or fall unless surgery was performed. Ten patients (18%) experienced a traumatic event during the follow-up, with none sustaining an SCI. Asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic cervical stenosis patients are commonly recommended to undergo surgery due to risk of paralysis after a traumatic event. SCI was not observed after minor trauma in our cohort of prospectively followed patients. It seems that occurrence of SCI in this patient population after minor trauma is likely smaller than many physicians surmise, yet will require future prospective study in a large cohort of patients.

  14. Isometric muscle fatigue of the paravertebral and upper extremity muscles after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovic, Pejana; Gojanovic, Marija Definis; Berberovic, Marina; Pavlovic, Marko; Lesko, Josip; Galic, Gordan; Pandza, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) result from injury of neck structures that most often occur during traffic accidents as a result of rapid acceleration-deceleration. The dominant symptoms manifest in the musculoskeletal system and include increased fatigue. Because of the frequency of whiplash injuries, a simple, cheap and useful diagnostic tool is needed to differentiate whiplash injury from healthy patients or those faking symptoms. To determine muscle fatigue in patients with whiplash injury in six body positions. Analytical cross-sectional study. Emergency center, university hospital. We studied patients with whiplash injury from vehicular traffic accidents who presented to the emergency center within 6 hours of sustaining the injury. We determined whiplash injury grade according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF) classification and measured isometric muscle endurance in six different body positions. Control subjects for each patient were matched by age, gender and anthropomorphic characteristics. Cut-off values were determined to distinguish patients with whiplash injury from controls and for determination of injury grade . QTF grade, time to muscle fatigue in seconds. From September 2013 to September 2016, we enrolled 75 patients with whiplash injury and 75 matching control subjects. In all six positions, the patients with whiplash injury felt muscle fatigue faster than equivalent controls (P muscle fatigue decreased with increasing injury grades in all six positions. Assignment to the patient or control group and to injury grade could be predicted with more than 90% accuracy on the basis of time to muscle fatigue. The most efficient position was the highest injury grade, by which 99.9% of the patients were accurately categorized. Isometric muscle endurance correlated with whiplash injury grade in all six positions (P muscle endurance and the appearance of isometric muscle fatigue during testing can be a useful indicator of whiplash injury and grade. The size

  15. Does cervical kyphosis relate to symptoms following whiplash injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for developing long-lasting neck pain after whiplash injuries are still largely unrevealed. In the present study it was investigated whether a kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, as opposed to a straight or a lordotic spine, was associated with the symptoms at baseline......, and with the prognosis one year following a whiplash injury. MRI was performed in 171 subjects about 10 d after the accident, and 104 participated in the pain recording at 1-year follow-up. It was demonstrated that postures as seen on MRI can be reliably categorized and that a straight spine is the most frequent...... appearance of the cervical spine in supine MRI. In relation to symptoms it was seen that a kyphotic deformity was associated with reporting the highest intensities of headache at baseline, but not with an increased risk of long-lasting neck pain or headache. In conclusion, a kyphotic deformity...

  16. Musical hallucination following whiplash injury: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Y M; de Carpentier, J P

    2012-06-01

    A musical hallucination is defined as a form of auditory hallucination characterised by the perception of music in the absence of external acoustic stimuli. It is infrequently cited in the literature, although population studies suggest a greater prevalence. The aetiology of this unusual disorder remains unclear. A 70-year-old man with acquired hearing loss suffered a whiplash injury in a low-speed road traffic accident, and subsequently presented with bilateral 'tinnitus.' On closer questioning, he described hearing orchestral music. There was no evidence of psychosis, delirium or intoxication, and the patient was managed expectantly. This patient represents the first published case of musical hallucination precipitated by whiplash injury. We explore the possible pathophysiological underpinnings of musical hallucination and highlight the need for a greater awareness of this disorder. A management strategy is suggested.

  17. Alcohol-associated acute head trauma in human subjects is associated with early deficits in serum ionized Mg and Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, B M; Memon, Z S; Altura, B T; Cracco, R Q

    1995-01-01

    Acute head trauma (AHT) (caused by motor vehicle accidents that did not produce loss of consciousness or observed brain lesions on CT scan, or falls) was found to result in early (1-8 h after injury) serum deficits in ionized magnesium (IMg2+) and ionized calcium (ICa2+) assessed with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Total Mg (TMg) and other electrolytes as well as serum biochemical analytes were all within the normal reference ranges. AHT patients with acute alcohol intoxication (BAC > or = 150 mg/dl) or alcohol abuse (BAC > 200 mg/dl) demonstrated deficits (15-35% less than normal) in IMg2+, but serum TMg levels were normal as were electrolytes and serum biochemical analytes. AHT patients with alcohol intoxication or alcohol abuse required hospitalization for 1-3 days prior to release, whereas AHT patients without alcohol intoxication were released in less than 24 h. The ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and vascular reactivity, was significantly elevated in AHT patients with alcohol intoxication but not in AHT patients without alcohol intoxication or abuse. These serum divalent cation changes early after traumatic brain injury could be of considerable practicable diagnostic value in the assessment of alcohol-associated head injury. Use of ion-selective electrodes to accurately measure IMg2+ could serve as a logical basis for monitoring the response of the body to AHT.

  18. Literature review of trauma-informed care: Implications for mental health nurses working in acute inpatient settings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allyson; Hutchinson, Marie; Hurley, John

    2017-08-01

    Trauma-informed care (TIC) is increasingly recognized as an approach to improving consumers' experience of, and outcomes from, mental health services. Deriving consensus on the definition, successful approaches, and consumer experiences of TIC is yet to be attained. In the present study, we sought to clarify the challenges experienced by mental health nurses in embedding TIC into acute inpatient settings within Australia. A systematic search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify primary research conducted on the topic of TIC. A narrative review and synthesis of the 11 manuscripts retained from the search was performed. The main findings from the review indicate that there are very few studies focussing on TIC in the Australian context of acute mental health care. The review demonstrates that TIC can support a positive organizational culture and improve consumer experiences of care. The present review highlights that there is an urgency for mental health nurses to identify their role in delivering and evaluating TIC, inclusive of undertaking training and clinical supervision, and to engage in systemic efforts to change service cultures. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. The Effectiveness of Infrared Thermography in Patients with Whiplash Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Seo; Farhadi, Hooman F.; Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Kun Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to visualize the subjective symptoms before and after the treatment of whiplash injury using infrared (IR) thermography. Methods IR thermography was performed for 42 patients who were diagnosed with whiplash injury. There were 19 male and 23 female patients. The mean age was 43.12 years. Thermal differences (ΔT) in the neck and shoulder and changes in the thermal differences (ΔdT) before and after treatment were analyzed. Pain after injury was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment (ΔVAS). The correlations between ΔdT and ΔVAS results before and after the treatment were examined. We used Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging equipment of Dorex company for IR thermography. Results The skin temperature of the neck and shoulder immediately after injury showed 1-2℃ hyperthermia than normal. After two weeks, the skin temperature was normal range. ΔT after immediately injuy was higher than normal value, but it was gradually near the normal value after two weeks. ΔdT before and after treatment were statistically significant (pthermography can be a reliable tool to visualize the symptoms of whiplash injury and the effectiveness of treatment in clinical settings. PMID:25932296

  20. Cognitive function and distress after common whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, A

    1997-02-01

    In a prospective study 29 patients fulfilled the criteria of Whiplash-Associated Disorders grade III in the Quebec classification. One month postinjury, computerized neuropsychological tests, a clinical interview and the symptom checklist SCL-90-R were administered. Three whiplash scales were extrapolated from SCL-90-R: pain, subjective cognitive difficulties and sleep disorders. SCL-90-R was repeated 6 months later. One month after the accident, 85% of the patients had resumed work. Subjective cognitive disturbances, however, were frequent but unrelated to test performances, which were within the normal range. Patients reporting stressful life events unrelated to the injury had more symptoms and elevated levels of distress on all SCL-90-R syndrome scales. At follow-up their distress was unchanged, and subjective cognitive function had deteriorated. Stressful life events unrelated to the accident and a high level of distress 1 month postinjury may augment the risk of "late whiplash syndrome". Reassessment 3-6 weeks postinjury as recommended by the Quebec Task Force should include assessment of complicating social factors and a psychological symptom checklist.

  1. The Torg-Pavlov ratio for the prediction of acute spinal cord injury after a minor trauma to the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebli, Nikolaus; Wicki, Anina G; Rüegg, Tabea B; Petrou, Nassos; Eisenlohr, Heidrun; Krebs, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    Acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) has been observed in some patients after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. The discrepancy between the severity of the trauma and the clinical symptoms has been attributed to spinal canal stenosis. However, to date, there is no universally established radiological parameter for identifying critical spinal stenosis in these patients. The spinal canal-to-vertebral body ratio (Torg-Pavlov ratio) has been proposed for assessing developmental spinal canal stenosis. The relevance of the Torg-Pavlov ratio for predicting the occurrence and severity of acute cervical SCI after a minor trauma to the cervical spine has not yet been established. To investigate the Torg-Pavlov ratio values of the cervical spine in patients suffering from acute cervical SCI after a minor trauma to the cervical spine and the use of the Torg-Pavlov ratio for identifying patients at risk of cervical SCI and predicting the severity and course of symptoms. Retrospective radiological study of consecutive patients. Forty-five patients suffering from acute cervical SCI and 68 patients showing no neurologic symptoms after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. Midvertebral sagittal cervical spinal canal diameter and the sagittal vertebral body diameter. Calculation of the Torg-Pavlov ratio values. Conventional lateral radiographs of the cervical spine (C3-C7) were analyzed to determine the Torg-Pavlov ratio values. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for evaluating the classification accuracy of the Torg-Pavlov ratio for predicting SCI. The Torg-Pavlov ratio values in the SCI group were significantly (pPavlov ratio cutoff value of 0.7 yielded the greatest positive likelihood ratio for predicting the occurrence of SCI. However, there were no significant differences in the Torg-Pavlov ratio values between the different American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Score groups and between patients with complete, partial, and no recovery of

  2. Acute phase complications following traumatic spinal cord injury in Dutch level 1 trauma centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, K.C. van; Schouten, E.J.; Hofstede, J.; Meent, H. van de; Holtslag, H.R.; Berg-Emons, R.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and nature of complications during the acute phase following traumatic spinal cord injury and to explore the relationship between number of complications and length of hospital stay. DESIGN: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. PATIENTS: A total of 54 patients with

  3. [Post-traumatic psychosis: the contribution of an acute post-immediate trauma to a dynamic theorization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessoles, P

    2006-10-01

    In his recent publication (2004), in which he favors the psycho-dynamic approach, M. Bertrand underlines the importance of traumatic matter at the heart of new clinical, methodological and epistemological challenges of psychopathology. Our contribution ("post-traumatic psychosis") comes within that prospect in reference to the semiology of traumas generated by extreme situations, such as the tsunami in South Asia (December 2004), the terrorist attacks in Madrid (March 2004) or the hostage taking in North Ossetia (September 2004). Four principle sets of themes lead us to suggest a traumatic psychosis when the person shows symptoms of a neurotic psychic structure: 1. There's no traumatic representation or psychic inscription of the event. Sideration (and its stupor-like confusion symptoms) or panic flight (together with hallucinations or acute delirious fits) often illustrate this first clinical aspect. 2. According to the psychodynamic frame of reference, psychic processes tend to ignore the pleasure/displeasure principle. They are governed by the "invasion" of affects of pain and compulsion to repeat. 3. The models of neurosis and psychic conflict are not efficient in the management of the "quota of affect" and the drive influence. 4. It would be necessary to add, from a psychopathological point of view, the appearance of temporary fits of mental confusion, self-destructive and autolysis behavior. The frame of reference of a DSM IV type "descriptive" psychopathology (ie acute Stress Disorder) seems to de inadequate to convey the implemented post traumatic stakes. If trying to soothe the symptoms is undeniably important, psychic disorganizations that generate a semiology that is essentially present in the symptomatology of the psychoses cannot be ignored. A first clinical approach makes it possible to specify the argumentation of our proposal: "a post-traumatic psychosis". It is supported by five main syndromic classes: 1) the symptoms are often more or less

  4. Novel variants in the PRDX6 Gene and the risk of Acute Lung Injury following major trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Localio A Russell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 is involved in redox regulation of the cell and is thought to be protective against oxidant injury. Little is known about genetic variation within the PRDX6 gene and its association with acute lung injury (ALI. In this study we sequenced the PRDX6 gene to uncover common variants, and tested association with ALI following major trauma. Methods To examine the extent of variation in the PRDX6 gene, we performed direct sequencing of the 5' UTR, exons, introns and the 3' UTR in 25 African American cases and controls and 23 European American cases and controls (selected from a cohort study of major trauma, which uncovered 80 SNPs. In silico modeling was performed using Patrocles and Transcriptional Element Search System (TESS. Thirty seven novel and tagging SNPs were tested for association with ALI compared with ICU at-risk controls who did not develop ALI in a cohort study of 259 African American and 254 European American subjects that had been admitted to the ICU with major trauma. Results Resequencing of critically ill subjects demonstrated 43 novel SNPs not previously reported. Coding regions demonstrated no detectable variation, indicating conservation of the protein. Block haplotype analyses reveal that recombination rates within the gene seem low in both Caucasians and African Americans. Several novel SNPs appeared to have the potential for functional consequence using in silico modeling. Chi2 analysis of ALI incidence and genotype showed no significant association between the SNPs in this study and ALI. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any association beyond single SNP analyses. Conclusions This study revealed novel SNPs within the PRDX6 gene and its 5' and 3' flanking regions via direct sequencing. There was no association found between these SNPs and ALI, possibly due to a low sample size, which was limited to detection of relative risks of 1.93 and above. Future studies may focus on the role of

  5. Recovery from acute whiplash - The role of coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J; Spanjer, J; Fidler, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Victims of car accidents who initiated compensation claim procedures at a Dutch insurance company and presented themselves with neck complaints were sent a questionnaire containing neck-related questions and questions regarding the coping styles used shortly

  6. Dental Trauma Part 1- Acute Management of Luxation/Displacement Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemal, Serpil; Singh, Parmjit; Tomson, Rachel; Kelleher, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Fortunately, traumatic dental injuries are a relatively uncommon occurrence in general dental practice. However, when they do present, timely diagnosis and treatment of such injuries is essential to maximize the chance of a successful outcome. This is the first part of a two-part series on traumatic dental injuries that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Part one will cover acute management of luxation/displacement injuries that primarily affect the supporting structures of the tooth, while part two will cover the management of fracture injuries associated with teeth and the alveolar bone. Clinical relevance: A simple, step-by-step approach in the diagnosis and clinical management of acute luxation/displacement injuries should be part of a dental clinician's knowledge.

  7. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  8. Delayed acute spinal cord injury following intracranial gunshot trauma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jason S; Richardson, R Mark; Gean, Alisa D; Stiver, Shirley I

    2012-04-01

    The authors report the case of a patient who presented with a hoarse voice and left hemiparesis following a gunshot injury with trajectory entering the left scapula, traversing the suboccipital bone, and coming to rest in the right lateral medullary cistern. Following recovery from the hemiparesis, abrupt quadriparesis occurred coincident with fall of the bullet into the anterior spinal canal. The bullet was retrieved following a C-2 and C-3 laminectomy, and postoperative MR imaging confirmed signal change in the cord at the level where the bullet had lodged. The patient then made a good neurological recovery. Bullets can fall from the posterior fossa with sufficient momentum to cause an acute spinal cord injury. Consideration for craniotomy and bullet retrieval should be given to large bullets lying in the CSF spaces of the posterior fossa as they pose risk for acute spinal cord injury.

  9. Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtveit Solbjørg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99; N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45. Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model

  10. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok; Ciolino, Jody D.; Alden, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  11. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  12. Acute haemolysis, DIC and renal failure after transfusion of uncross-matched blood during trauma resuscitation: illustrative case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellino, J; Elahie, A L; Warkentin, T E

    2018-02-19

    The aims of this study were to report a patient with acute haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) after transfusing uncross-matched red blood cell (RBC) units and to identify the frequency of this complication. Uncross-matched RBC units are commonly transfused in emergencies, but the frequency of acute HTR is unknown. We describe a male stabbing victim who received three units of uncross-matched RBC units complicated by acute intravascular HTR, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and renal failure. We identified 14 studies evaluating the frequency of acute HTR post-emergency transfusion of uncross-matched RBC units. Acute HTR was shown by haemoglobinuria, free-plasma haemoglobin and methemalbumin, with anti-K and anti-Fy a eluted from recipient red cells; acute DIC featured severe hypofibrinogenemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated fibrin D-dimer and multiple bilateral renal infarcts. Two of the three transfused units reacted with pre-existing RBC alloantibodies [anti-K (titre, 128), anti-Fy a (titre, 512)], explained by transfusion 25 years earlier. Our literature review found the frequency of acute HTR following emergency transfusion of uncross-matched RBC units to be 2/3998 [0·06% (95% CI, 0·01-0·21%)]. Although emergency transfusion of uncross-matched blood is commonly practiced at trauma centres worldwide, with low risk of acute HTR (acute HTR with severe complications. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Acute psychological trauma in the critically ill: Patient and family perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadzko, Volha; Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Johnson, Margaret M; Gajic, Ognjen; Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V

    2017-07-01

    Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families. Fifty patients and 44 family members were interviewed following ICU discharge. Patients reported a high level of psychological distress. The families' perception of patient's stress level correlated with the patient's self-estimated stress level both in daily life (rho=0.59; ppsychological stress during an ICU stay; the presence of family, and physician's attention are categorized as important mitigating factors. Patients and families identified several practical recommendations which may help assuage the psychological burden of the ICU stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of the open abdomen: clinical recommendations for the trauma/acute care surgeon and general surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Luis G

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, the surgical approach to managing abdominal injuries was to assess the extent of trauma, repair any damage and close the abdomen in one definitive procedure rather than leave the abdomen open. With advances in medicine, damage control surgery using temporary abdominal closure methods is being used to manage the open abdomen (OA) when closure is not possible. Although OA management is often observed in traumatic injuries, the extension of damage control surgery concepts, in conjunction with OA, for the management of the septic patient requires that the general surgeon who is faced with these challenges has a comprehensive knowledge of this complex subject. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to the acute care and general surgeon on the use of OA negative pressure therapy (OA-NPT; ABTHERA™ Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, KCI, an ACELITY Company, San Antonio, TX) for OA management. A literature review of published evidence, clinical recommendations on managing the OA and a case study demonstrating OA management using OA-NPT have been included. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Upper Extremity Compartment Syndrome in a Patient with Acute Gout Attack but without Trauma or Other Typical Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 30-year-old Polynesian male with a severe gout flare of multiple joints and simultaneous acute compartment syndrome (ACS of his right forearm and hand without trauma or other typical causes. He had a long history of gout flares, but none were known to be associated with compartment syndrome. He also had concurrent infections in his right elbow joint and olecranon bursa. A few days prior to this episode of ACS, high pain and swelling occurred in his right upper extremity after a minimal workout with light weights. A similar episode occurred seven months prior and was attributed to a gout flare. Unlike past flares that resolved with colchicine and/or anti-inflammatory medications, his current upper extremity pain/swelling worsened and became severe. Hand and forearm fasciotomies were performed. Workup included general medicine, rheumatology and infectious disease consultations, myriad blood tests, and imaging studies including Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography. Additional clinical history suggested that he had previously unrecognized recurrent exertional compartment syndrome that led to the episode of ACS reported here. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS presents a difficult diagnosis when presented with multiple symptoms concurrently. This case provides an example of one such diagnosis.

  16. MR diagnosis and clinical management of whiplash injury syndrome of spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shixu; Lin Daiying; Wu Xianheng; Zeng Xianting

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the MR manifestations of whiplash injury syndrome of spinal cord. Methods: MR images of 21 cases diagnosed as whiplash injury syndrome were retrospectively studied. Those images included transverse and sagittal views and coronal scan had been performed in some cases. Results: MRI inspection safely and objectively reveals the extent of the spinal injury, and helps the anticipation of the prognosis. Conclusion: MRI is the first choice of the imaging modalities assessing the whiplash injury syndrome of the spinal cord. An early diagnosis is valuable to clinical management and rehabilitation

  17. A prospective study of 39 patients with whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, M; Smed, A; Jespersen, H

    1997-01-01

    of whiplash injury were examined clinically three times; within 14 days, after 1 month and finally 7 months postinjury. In addition, MRI of the brain and the cervical spine, neuropsychological tests and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were done one month postinjury and repeated after 6 months, if abnormalities...... were found. RESULTS: The total recovery rate (asymptomatic patients) was 29% after 7 months. MRI was repeated in 6 patients. The correlation between MRI and the clinical findings was poor. Cognitive dysfunction as a symptom of brain injury was not found. Stress at the same time predicted more symptoms...

  18. Sociale, økonomiske og kulturelle aspekter ved whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Stenager, Elsebeth; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2010-01-01

    The sequelae following whiplash injuries (WL) entail considerable human costs and expenses for both treatment and social services, especially public income benefits. Frequently, many players are involved after WL and good intersectional collaboration is therefore essential to counter the WL...... patients' tendency not to return to their jobs. There is a need for further research i) to identify evidence-based prophylaxis and treatment, ii) to monitor medical diagnoses in relation to social benefits to support research opportunities and iii) to assess whether other social solutions comprise...

  19. MRI detection of unsuspected vertebral injury in acute spinal trauma: incidence and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiyum, M.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; McCall, I.W.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Multilevel spinal injury is well recognised. Previous studies reviewing the radiographs of spinal injury patients have shown an incidence of 15.2% of unsuspected spinal injury. It is recognised that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify injuries that are not demonstrated on radiographs. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and significance of spinal injuries using MRI in comparison with radiographs.Design and patients. The radiographs and MR images of 110 acute spinal injury patients were reviewed independently of each other and the findings were then correlated to determine any unsuspected injury.Results. MRI detected vertebral body bone bruises (microtrabecular bone injury) in 41.8% of spinal injury patients which were not seen on radiographs. These bone bruises were best appreciated on sagittal short tau inversion recovery MR sequences and seen at contiguous and non-contiguous levels in relation to the primary injury.Conclusion. This level of incidence of bone bruises has not previously been appreciated. We recommend that patients undergoing MRI for an injured segment of the spine are better assessed by MRI of the entire spine at the same time to exclude further injury. (orig.)

  20. Trauma Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute outcomes of isolated cerebral contusions in children with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 14 to 15 after blunt head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Paul; Cabrera, Keven I; Kuppermann, Nathan; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-05-01

    Little data exist to guide the management of children with cerebral contusions after minor blunt head trauma. We therefore aimed to determine the risk of acute adverse outcomes in children with minor blunt head trauma who had cerebral contusions and no other traumatic brain injuries on computed tomography (i.e., isolated cerebral contusions). We conducted a secondary analysis of a public use data set originating from a prospective cohort study performed in 25 PECARN (Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) emergency departments of children younger than 18 years with blunt head trauma resulting from nontrivial injury mechanisms and with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15. In this analysis, we included only children with isolated cerebral contusions. We defined a normal mental status as a GCS score of 15 and no other signs of abnormal mental status. Acute adverse outcomes included intubation longer than 24 hours because of the head trauma, neurosurgery, or death from the head injury. Of 14,983 children with GCS scores of 14 or 15 who received cranial computed tomography scans in the parent study, 152 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.2%) had cerebral contusions, of which 54 (35.8%) of 151 with available data were isolated. The median age of those with isolated cerebral contusions was 9 years (interquartile range, 1-13); 31 (57.4%) had a normal mental status. Of 36 patients with available data on isolated cerebral contusion size, 34 (94.4%) were described as small. 43 (79.6%) of 54 patients with isolated cerebral contusions were hospitalized, including 16 (29.6%) of 54 to an intensive care unit. No patients with isolated cerebral contusions died, were intubated longer than 24 hours for head trauma, or required neurosurgery (95% confidence interval for all outcomes, 0-6.6%). Children with small isolated cerebral contusions after minor blunt head trauma are unlikely to require further acute intervention, including neurosurgery, suggesting that

  2. MRI assessment of the alar ligaments in the late stage of whiplash injury - a study of structural abnormalities and observer agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakenes, J.; Moen, G.; Nordli, H. [Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen Medical School (Norway); Kaale, B.R. [Firda Medical Centre, Sandane (Norway); Gilhus, N.E. [Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen Medical School (Norway); Rorvik, J. [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen Medical School (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    Our aim was to characterise and classify structural changes in the alar ligaments in the late stage of whiplash injuries by use of a new MRI protocol, and to evaluate the reliability and the validity of this classification. We studied 92 whiplash-injured and 30 uninjured individuals who underwent proton density-weighted MRI of the craniovertebral junction in three orthogonal planes. Changes in the alar ligaments (grades 0-3) based on the ratio between the high signal area and the total cross-sectional area were rated twice at a 4-month interval, independently by three radiologists. Inter- and intraobserver statistics were calculated by ordinary and weighted kappa. Cases classified differently were reviewed to identify potential causes for disagreement. The alar ligaments were satisfactorily demonstrated in all cases (244 ligaments in 122 individuals). The lesions, 2-9 years after the injury, varied from small high-signal spots to high signal throughout the cross-sectional area. Signal was highest near the condylar insertion in 82 of 94 ligaments, indicating a lesion near that insertion, and near the dental insertion in eight, indicating a medial lesion. No grade 2 or 3 lesion was found in the control group. At least two observers assigned the same grade to 214 ligaments (87.7%) on the second occasion. In 30 ligaments (12.3%) this agreement was not obtained. Pair-wise interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was fair to moderate (0.31-0.54) in the first grading, improving to moderate (0.49-0.57) in the second. Intraobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was moderate to good (0.43-0.70). Whiplash trauma can cause permanent damage to the alar ligaments, which can be shown by high-resolution proton density-weighted MRI. Reliability of classification of alar ligament lesions needs to be improved. (orig.)

  3. Persistent pseudomyopia following a whiplash injury in a previously emmetropic woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fintan E. Hughes

    2017-12-01

    It is important that such cases are identified at presentation, as early intervention can improve outcomes in accommodative spasm and reduce the long term psychological effects often associated with whiplash injuries.

  4. The course of serum inflammatory biomarkers following whiplash injury and their relationship to sensory and muscle measures: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Sterling

    Full Text Available Tissue damage or pathological alterations are not detectable in the majority of people with whiplash associated disorders (WAD. Widespread hyperalgisa, morphological muscle changes and psychological distress are common features of WAD. However little is known about the presence of inflammation and its association with symptom persistence or the clinical presentation of WAD. This study aimed to prospectively investigate changes in serum inflammatory biomarker levels from the acute (3 months stages of whiplash injury. It also aimed to determine relationships between biomarker levels and hyperalgesia, fatty muscle infiltrates of the cervical extensors identified on MRI and psychological factors. 40 volunteers with acute WAD and 18 healthy controls participated. Participants with WAD were classified at 3 months as recovered/mild disability or having moderate/severe disability using the Neck Disability Index. At baseline both WAD groups showed elevated serum levels of CRP but by 3 months levels remained elevated only in the moderate/severe group. The recovered/mild disability WAD group had higher levels of TNF-α at both time points than both the moderate/severe WAD group and healthy controls. There were no differences found in serum IL-1β. Moderate relationships were found between hyperalgesia and CRP at both time points and between hyperalgesia and IL-1β 3 months post injury. There was a moderate negative correlation between TNF-α and amount of fatty muscle infiltrate and pain intensity at 3 months. Only a weak relationship was found between CRP and pain catastrophising and no relationship between biomarker levels and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results of the study indicate that inflammatory biomarkers may play a role in outcomes following whiplash injury as well as being associated with hyperalgesia and fatty muscle infiltrate in the cervical extensors.

  5. Measuring satisfaction: factors that drive hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems survey responses in a trauma and acute care surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Iannuzzi, James C; Stassen, Nicole A; Bankey, Paul E; Gestring, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Hospital quality metrics now reflect patient satisfaction and are measured by Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Understanding these metrics and drivers will be integral in providing quality care as this process evolves. This study identifies factors associated with patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS survey responses in trauma and acute care surgery patients. HCAHPS survey responses from acute care surgery and trauma patients at a single institution between 3/11 and 10/12 were analyzed. Logistic regression determined which responses to individual HCAHPS questions predicted highest hospital score (a rating of 9-10/10). Demographic and clinical variables were also analyzed as predictors of satisfaction. Subgroup analysis for trauma patients was performed. In 70.3 per cent of 182 total survey responses, a 9-10/10 score was given. The strongest predictors of highest hospital ranking were respect from doctors (odds ratio [OR] = 24.5, confidence interval [CI]: 5.44-110.4), doctors listening (OR: 9.33, CI: 3.7-23.5), nurses' listening (OR = 8.65, CI: 3.62-20.64), doctors' explanations (OR = 8.21, CI: 3.5-19.2), and attempts to control pain (OR = 7.71, CI: 3.22-18.46). Clinical factors and outcomes (complications, intensive care unit/hospital length of stay, mechanism of injury, and having an operation) were nonsignificant variables. For trauma patients, Injury Severity Score was inversely related to score (OR = 0.93, CI: 0.87-0.98). Insurance, education, and disposition were also tied to satisfaction, whereas age, gender, and ethnicity were nonsignificant. In conclusion, patient perception of interactions with the healthcare team was most strongly associated with satisfaction. Complications did not negatively influence satisfaction. Insurance status might potentially identify patients at risk of dissatisfaction. Listening to patients, treating them with respect, and explaining the care plan are integral to a

  6. Randomized clinical trial of conservative treatment for patients with whiplash-associated disorders: considerations for the design and dynamic treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten-Peeters, G G M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Neeleman-van der Steen, Catharina W M; Hurkmans, John C A M; Wams, Ria W A; Oostendorp, R A B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whiplash concerns a considerable problem to health care. Available evidence from systematic reviews indicates beneficial effects of active interventions for patients with whiplash injury. In order to evaluate whether a general practitioner or a physiotherapist should provide these active

  7. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  8. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 4 – Noninvasive Interventions for Chronic WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens.

  9. Dry needling and exercise for chronic whiplash - a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvlis Tina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic whiplash is a common and costly problem. Sensory hypersensitivity is a feature of chronic whiplash that is associated with poor responsiveness to physical treatments such as exercise. Modalities such as dry-needling have shown some capacity to modulate sensory hypersensitivity, suggesting that when combined with advice and exercise, such an approach may be more effective in the management of chronic whiplash. The primary aim of this project is to investigate the effectiveness of dry-needling, advice and exercise for chronic whiplash. Method/Design A double-blind randomised controlled trial will be conducted. 120 participants with chronic whiplash, grade II will be randomised to receive either 1 dry-needling, advice and exercise or 2 sham dry-needling, advice and exercise. All participants will receive an educational booklet on whiplash. Participants who are randomised to Group 1 will receive 6 treatments of combined dry-needling and exercise delivered in the first 3 weeks of the 6 week program, and 4 treatments of exercise only in the last 3 weeks of the program. Participants randomised to Group 2 will receive an identical protocol, except that a sham dry-needling technique will be used instead of dry-needling. The primary outcome measures are the Neck Disability Index (NDI and participants' perceived recovery. Outcomes will be measured at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after randomization by an assessor who is blind to the group allocation of the participants. In parallel, an economic analysis will be conducted. Discussion This trial will utilise high quality trial methodologies in accordance with CONSORT guidelines. The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined treatment approach for the management of chronic whiplash. Trial registration ACTRN12609000470291

  10. Acute complete paraplegia of 8-year-old girl caused by spinal cord infarction following minor trauma complicated with longitudinal signal change of spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kosei; Tanaka, Yuji; Kanai, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Yasushi

    2017-05-01

    Spinal cord infarction followed by minor trauma in pediatric patients is rare and causes serious paralysis. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is a possible diagnosis and there have been no consecutive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports. Here, we report a case of an acute complete paraplegia with spinal cord infarction and longitudinal spinal cord signal change following minor trauma in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl presented to our hospital emergency services with total paraplegia 2 h after she hit her back and neck after doing a handstand and falling down. She completely lost pain, temperature sensation, and a sense of vibration below her bilateral anterior thighs. Four hours later on MRI, the T2-weighted sequence showed no spinal cord compression or signal change in vertebral bodies. The patient was treated with rehabilitation after complete bed rest. A week after the trauma, the T2-weighted sequence indicated longitudinal extension of the lesion between T11 and C6 vertebral level with ring-shaped signal change. In addition, the diffusion-weighted MRI showed increased signal below C6 vertebral level. Two weeks after the trauma, we performed the T2 star sequence images, which showed minor bleeding at T11 vertebral area and spinal cord edema below C6. Four weeks after the trauma, MRI showed minor lesion at C6 vertebral level, but spinal cord atrophy was observed at T11 vertebral level without disc signal change. Thirteen weeks after the trauma, her cervical spinal cord became almost intact and severe atrophy of the spinal cord at T11 vertebral level. At 1 year following her injury, complete paraplegia remained with sensory loss below T11 level. Her clinical presentation, lack of evidence for other plausible diagnosis, and consecutive MRI findings made FCE at T11 vertebral level with pencil-shaped softening the most likely diagnosis. In addition, consecutive cervical MRI indicated minor cervical spinal cord injury. This Grand Round case highlights

  11. A preliminary RCT of a mind body skills based intervention addressing mood and coping strategies in patients with acute orthopaedic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Hageman, Michiel; Strooker, Joost; ter Meulen, Dirk; Vrahas, Mark; Ring, David

    2015-04-01

    To test the acceptability and feasibility of a mind body skills-based intervention (RRCB) and estimate its preliminary effect in reducing disability and pain intensity as compared to standard care (SC) in patients with acute musculoskeletal trauma. Randomised controlled trial. Level I trauma centre. Adult patients with acute fractures at risk for chronic pain and disability based on scores on two coping with pain measures who presented to an orthopedic trauma center and met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Participants were randomied to either RRCB with SC or SC alone. Disability (short musculoskeletal functional assessment, SMFA) and pain (Numerical Analogue Scale). coping strategies (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS and Pain Anxiety Scale, PAS) and mood (CESD Depression and PTSD checklist). Among the 50 patients consented, two did not complete the initial assessment. Of these, the first four received the intervention as part of an open pilot and the next 44 were randomised (24 RRCBT and 20 UC) and completed initial assessment. We combined the patients who received RRCB into one group, N=28. Of the entire sample, 34 completed time two assessments (24 RRCBT and 10 SC). The RRCB proved to be feasible and accepted (86% retention, 28 out of 24 completers). Analyses of covariance ANCOVA showed a significant (p<05) improvement and large effect sizes for all time two main study variables (.2-.5) except pain with activity where the effect size was medium (.08). Improvement for pain at rest was not significantly higher in the RRCB as compared to the control, for a small effect size (.03). The RRCB is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious. Level 1 prognostic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  13. Investigation of the Effect of Neck Muscle Active Force on Whiplash Injury of the Cervical Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of neck muscle activation on whiplash neck injury of the occupants of a passenger vehicle under different severities of frontal and rear-end impact collisions. The finite element (FE model has been used as a versatile tool to simulate and understand the whiplash injury mechanism for occupant injury prevention. However, whiplash injuries and injury mechanisms have rarely been investigated in connection with neck active muscle forces, which restricts the complete reappearance and understanding of the injury mechanism. In this manuscript, a mixed FE human model in a sitting posture with an active head-neck was developed. The response of the cervical spine under frontal and rear-end collision conditions was then studied using the FE model with and without neck muscle activation. The effect of the neck muscle activation on the whiplash injury was studied based on the results of the FE simulations. The results indicated that the neck active force influenced the head-neck dynamic response and whiplash injury during a collision, especially in a low-speed collision.

  14. Difference in balance measures between patients with chronic ankle instability and patients after an acute ankle inversion trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J. S.; Kingma, I.; Blankevoort, L.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2010-01-01

    Neuromuscular control of the ankle is disturbed in patients with chronic ankle instability due to an initial ankle inversion trauma. Static balance is assumed to be a measure for this disturbance. Functional (ankle) scores are another way to evaluate ankle impairment. The hypothesis was that there

  15. UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE MILITARY TRAUMA SYSTEM: WORKING TOWARDS IMPROVED OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    sleep deprivation . All of these issues would require the expertise of critical care providers to achieve optimal outcomes. Trauma presents a...relating to the growing shortage of qualified physician intensivists will be examined as well as the impact on overall patient outcomes. Definitions

  16. Postural stability in patients with different types of head and neck trauma in comparison to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman-Marton, Revital; Arlazoroff, Aharon; Dvir, Zeevi

    2016-01-01

    Dizziness is a common complaint in patients following mild head or neck trauma, but neurological signs are usually rare or absent. The aim of the study was to compare postural control in patients with different types of head and neck trauma to healthy subjects. Balance function was evaluated by computerized dynamic platform posturography (CDPP) in 57 dizzy patients with whiplash injury (n = 11), mild head trauma without loss of consciousness (HTNLC) (n = 23), whiplash injury and mild head trauma without loss of consciousness (WHTNLC) (n = 12) and mild head trauma with loss of consciousness (n = 11) and in 14 healthy subjects. Compared to healthy subjects and after adjustment for inter-group age differences, sway index (SI) was significantly higher in patients with WHTNLC in three of the tests. There were no significant differences within the patient group according to type of injury. When time following the injury was considered, the SI was non-significantly higher within the first week after trauma compared to other time intervals. The severity of the postural abnormality in patients with head and/or neck trauma is not uniform and is influenced by the type of trauma.

  17. Structural and construct validity of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire in adults with acute whiplash-associated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2015-01-01

    [CES-D]). RESULTS: The mean age of the 130 participants was 42.1 years (standard deviation [SD]=13.2), and 70% were women. Twenty-six percent had WAD I, 73.1% had WAD II, and 0.8% had WAD III. Mean time since injury was 6.5 days (SD=4.9). The mean WDQ score was 49.8 (SD=29.1). Our analysis suggested...... WDQ score and the NDI, the Bournemouth questionnaire, the SF-36 physical function, and the NRS (for the neck, shoulder, mid and low back pain) satisfying a priori hypotheses. We found a priori hypothesized moderate correlations between the WDQ, and the CES-D and SF-36 mental function. CONCLUSIONS...

  18. Head trauma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2013-11-01

    The Chinese Head Trauma Data Bank (CHTDB) has been established, which includes 7,145 hospitalised cases with acute head trauma patients in 47 hospitals. We explored factors that might affect the outcome of acute traumatic brain injury. There was no statistical difference in the mortality rate between male (7.5%) and female (7.2%) patients (P>0.05). The mortality rate in children (65 years) was 7.3%, 7.2% and 9.0%, respectively (P>0.05). The mortality rate of patients with mild (2.7%), moderate (5.0%) and severe (21.8%) head trauma was significantly different (P40 mm Hg was 6.3%, 21.4% and 93.1%, respectively (Phead trauma data bank in China, has one of the largest numbers of cases of any head trauma data bank in the world. Our major findings on mortality may be helpful to neurosurgeons for predicting the outcome of acute head trauma patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre- and post-operative gait analysis for evaluation of neck pain in chronic whiplash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginsburg Glen M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic neck pain after whiplash is notoriously refractory to conservative treatment, and positive radiological findings to explain the symptoms are scarce. The apparent disproportionality between subjective complaints and objective findings is significant for the planning of treatment, impairment ratings, and judicial questions on causation. However, failure to identify a symptom's focal origin with routine imaging studies does not invalidate the symptom per se. It is therefore of a general interest both to develop effective therapeutic strategies in chronic whiplash, and to establish techniques for objectively evaluation of treatment outcomes. Methods Twelve patients with chronic neck pain after whiplash underwent pre- and postoperative computerized 3D gait analysis. Results Significant improvement was found in all gait parameters, cervical range-of-motion, and self reported pain (VAS. Conclusion Chronic neck pain is associated with abnormal cervical spine motion and gait patterns. 3D gait analysis is a useful instrument to assess the outcome of treatment for neck pain.

  20. HPN-07, a free radical spin trapping agent, protects against functional, cellular and electrophysiological changes in the cochlea induced by acute acoustic trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ewert

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of the structural and functional changes associated with auditory pathologies induced by exposure to acute acoustic trauma AAT. In the present study, we examined the otoprotective effects of 2,4-disulfophenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (HPN-07, a nitrone-based free radical trap, on the physiological and cellular changes in the auditory system of chinchilla following a six-hour exposure to 4 kHz octave band noise at 105 dB SPL. HPN-07 has been shown to suppress oxidative stress in biological models of a variety of disorders. Our results show that administration of HPN-07 beginning four hours after acoustic trauma accelerated and enhanced auditory/cochlear functional recovery, as measured by auditory brainstem responses (ABR, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE, compound action potentials (CAP, and cochlear microphonics (CM. The normally tight correlation between the endocochlear potential (EP and evoked potentials of CAP and CM were persistently disrupted after noise trauma in untreated animals but returned to homeostatic conditions in HPN-07 treated animals. Histological analyses revealed several therapeutic advantages associated with HPN-07 treatment following AAT, including reductions in inner and outer hair cell loss; reductions in AAT-induced loss of calretinin-positive afferent nerve fibers in the spiral lamina; and reductions in fibrocyte loss within the spiral ligament. These findings support the conclusion that early intervention with HPN-07 following an AAT efficiently blocks the propagative ototoxic effects of oxidative stress, thereby preserving the homeostatic and functional integrity of the cochlea.

  1. Laminoplasty versus conservative treatment for acute cervical spinal cord injury caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament after minor trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong; Chen, Liang; Dong, Ren-Bin; Feng, Yu; Yang, Hui-Lin; Tang, Tian-Si

    2014-02-01

    No reports to date have accurately evaluated the management for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) after minor trauma. To assess whether outcomes of laminoplasty is better than conservative treatment. A retrospective study. Thirty-one patients underwent surgery (L group) and 29 patients underwent conservative treatment (C group). Disability, muscle strength, sensation, and general health status. Patients were managed according to routine clinical practice and the results between groups were compared. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed at admission, discharge, 6 months and at the final visit. Causes for trauma, duration of hospital stay, and complication were also evaluated. Causes for trauma included falling, traffic accidents and sports. Mixed and segmental types were the most frequent cause of OPLL resulting into SCI. Duration of hospital stay and complications were less in the L group. Motor and sensory scores increased in the L group at discharge (p.05); scores improved significantly in the C group at 6 months (p.05); scores in the L group were higher than in the C group at each time point after surgery (p.05). Lordotic angle and range of motion were maintained in both the groups, with no significance between groups (p>.05). High-signal intensity decreased at 6 months (p.05); Significant difference was detected between the groups at 6 months and at the final visit (ptrauma. Although spontaneous improvement of SCI without surgery is often observed, laminoplasty has more satisfactory outcomes, prevents late compression of cord, and reduces perioperative complications, although with no significant benefit in cervical alignment and range of motion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HPN-07, a free radical spin trapping agent, protects against functional, cellular and electrophysiological changes in the cochlea induced by acute acoustic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Donald; Hu, Ning; Du, Xiaoping; Li, Wei; West, Matthew B; Choi, Chul-Hee; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of the structural and functional changes associated with auditory pathologies induced by exposure to acute acoustic trauma AAT). In the present study, we examined the otoprotective effects of 2,4-disulfophenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (HPN-07), a nitrone-based free radical trap, on the physiological and cellular changes in the auditory system of chinchilla following a six-hour exposure to 4 kHz octave band noise at 105 dB SPL. HPN-07 has been shown to suppress oxidative stress in biological models of a variety of disorders. Our results show that administration of HPN-07 beginning four hours after acoustic trauma accelerated and enhanced auditory/cochlear functional recovery, as measured by auditory brainstem responses (ABR), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), compound action potentials (CAP), and cochlear microphonics (CM). The normally tight correlation between the endocochlear potential (EP) and evoked potentials of CAP and CM were persistently disrupted after noise trauma in untreated animals but returned to homeostatic conditions in HPN-07 treated animals. Histological analyses revealed several therapeutic advantages associated with HPN-07 treatment following AAT, including reductions in inner and outer hair cell loss; reductions in AAT-induced loss of calretinin-positive afferent nerve fibers in the spiral lamina; and reductions in fibrocyte loss within the spiral ligament. These findings support the conclusion that early intervention with HPN-07 following an AAT efficiently blocks the propagative ototoxic effects of oxidative stress, thereby preserving the homeostatic and functional integrity of the cochlea.

  3. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  4. Recycling and Reinforcing Intimomedial Flap of the Infrarenal Aorta Using Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in Patients With Acute Trauma With Bowel Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Milan; Radojkovic, Milan; Djordjevic, Predrag; Rancic, Dejan; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Rancic, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    We present a patient with blunt abdominal trauma with severe acute right limb ischemia and clinical signs of diffuse peritonitis. Computed tomography angiography showed circumferential dissection of the infrarenal aorta with occlusion of the right common iliac artery. We opted for simultaneous abdomen exploration and open repair of injured aorta. Critical weakening of the aortic wall with imminent rupture was identified intraoperatively. Aortotomy cranially from bifurcation showed circumferential intimomedial dissection. The fixation of fragile intimomedial flap of aortic dissection was achieved with reinforcement using an anterior longitudinal ligament. The long aortoiliac arteriotomy was repaired using a great saphenous vein patch. Patient had uneventful postoperative course and was discharged after 7 days. In patients with abdominal polytrauma with peritonitis, and no available endovascular tools, open surgery for circumferential aortic dissection is possible and successful. Described reinforcement of the posterior aortic wall to the anterior longitudinal ligament should be added to the armamentarium of aortic injury treatment.

  5. From trauma debriefing to trauma support: A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the basis of the current model used by Traumaclinic. The principles of that model are summarised and examples given of the application of the approach to specific cases. Keywords: acute stress disorder, critical incident stress debriefing, trauma recovery, trauma support. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2005, 15(2): ...

  6. Pathology and Treatment of Traumatic Cervical Spine Syndrome: Whiplash Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Tanaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic cervical syndrome comprises the various symptoms that occur as a result of external force such as that of a traffic accident. In 1995, the Quebec Task Force on whiplash-associated disorders (WAD formulated the Quebec classification, with accompanying clinical practice guidelines. These guidelines were in accordance with the stated clinical isolated or combined symptoms of the syndrome: neck pain, headaches, dizziness, numbness of head or face, eye pain, vision loss, double vision, tinnitus, hearing loss, nausea, and numbness and/or weakness of extremities. In recent years, cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia or fibromyalgia has been recognized as a major notable cause of a variety of symptoms, although many clinical questions remain regarding the pathology of this syndrome. Therefore, its diagnosis and treatment should be conducted extremely carefully. While the Quebec classification and its guidelines are very useful for the normalization and standardization of symptoms of traumatic cervical syndrome, in the future, we would like to see the emergence of new guidelines that better address the diversity of this disease.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of PTSD in the context of chronic whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Rachael Louise; Kenardy, Justin; Sterling, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are common and involve both physical and psychological impairments. Research has shown that persistent posttraumatic stress symptoms are associated with poorer functional recovery and physical therapy outcomes. Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has shown moderate effectiveness in chronic pain samples. However, to date, there have been no clinical trials within WAD. Thus, this study will report on the effectiveness of TF-CBT in individuals meeting the criteria for current chronic WAD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned to either TF-CBT or a waitlist control, and treatment effects were evaluated at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up using a structured clinical interview, self-report questionnaires, and measures of physiological arousal and sensory pain thresholds. Clinically significant reductions in PTSD symptoms were found in the TF-CBT group compared with the waitlist at postassessment, with further gains noted at the follow-up. The treatment of PTSD was also associated with clinically significant improvements in neck disability, physical, emotional, and social functioning and physiological reactivity to trauma cues, whereas limited changes were found in sensory pain thresholds. This study provides support for the effectiveness of TF-CBT to target PTSD symptoms within chronic WAD. The finding that treatment of PTSD resulted in improvements in neck disability and quality of life and changes in cold pain thresholds highlights the complex and interrelating mechanisms that underlie both WAD and PTSD. Clinical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  8. [Clinical development of acute noise-induced acoustic trauma. An evaluation of a study of 250 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suc, B; Poulet, M; Asperge, A; Vix, J; Barberot, J P; Doucet, F

    1994-01-01

    Traumatic damage on Cochlea (250 cases) induced by assault gun (F.A.M.A.S.) consists in tinitus and hearing impairement on 6000 Hz. Noise's effects are specific to one Cochlea. Dissociated developments of both tinitus and hearing loss show that their anatomical sites are different. Acoustic injury entails definitive haire cells lesions, cellular biochemical and vascular changes. The treatment that reestablishes or raises cochlear blood flow entails recovery in 80% of cases provided that it is given within 48 hours after the trauma.

  9. Implementation of a guideline-based clinical pathway of care to improve health outcomes following whiplash injury (Whiplash ImPaCT: protocol of a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy Rebbeck

    2016-04-01

    Discussion: This research is significant as it will be the first study to address the heterogeneity of whiplash by implementing a clinical pathway of care that matches evidence-based interventions to projected risk of poor recovery. The results of this trial have the potential to change clinical practice for WAD, thereby maximising treatment effects, improving patient outcomes, reducing costs and maintaining the compulsory third party system.

  10. Laparoscopy in abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distal pancreatectomy has been advised. Laparoscopy has been successfully used both in acute and delayed distal pancreatectomies following trauma. It has been reported that magnification obtained through laparoscopic camera allows excellent identification of vessels and dissection of pancreas from splenic artery and ...

  11. Neurological Surgery of Trauma,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Neurosurgical aspects of Neurogenic Bladder , Urological aspects of Neurogenic Bladder , Sympathetic Blockade, An Acute Cervical Cord Syndrome, Autonomic Hyperreflexia, Physical and Vocational Rehabilitation....Hematomas Associated with Penetrating Wounds, Infection Complicating Penetrating Craniocerebral trauma, Tangential Wounds of Scalp and Skull, Through and

  12. Are Prevalent Self-reported Cardiovascular Disorders Associated with Delayed Recovery From Whiplash-associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmlöf, Lina; Côté, Pierre; Holm, Lena W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders (CVD) and recovery from whiplash associated disorder (WAD) after a traffic collision. METHODS:: This study was based on the Saskatchewan Government Insurance cohort, including...

  13. Applying the Quebec Task Force criteria as a frame of reference for studies of whiplash injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; van Es, FD; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    Research prior to 1995 showed a diversity of either inclusion or exclusion criteria (or both) for diagnosing whiplash injury. As a consequence, the Quebec Task Force (QTF) developed expert-based criteria, which may be considered as a the 'new' gold standard. Here, we examined the inclusion criteria

  14. Changes in pain, disability, and muscle activation patterns in chronic whiplash patients after ambulant myofeedback training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerlienke; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate changes in pain, disability, and muscle activation patterns in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) after 4 weeks of myofeedback training. Methods: Eleven WAD patients received ambulatory myofeedback training, during

  15. Melatonin for chronic whiplash syndrome with delayed melatonin onset randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringen, S. van; Jansen, T.; Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of melatonin in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and delayed melatonin onset. Design: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. One-week baseline was followed by a 4-week treatment period with either melatonin or placebo. In the

  16. Noise-intolerance and state-dependent factors in patients with whiplash associated disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhorst, M.G.B.G.; Meeldijk, S.J.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Toor, T. van; Lousberg, R.; Ganzevles, P.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in which the level of noise-intolerance in patients with a Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) was compared to healthy matched control subjects. In addition, the relationship between state-dependent factors (as headache, neck pain, fatigue and tension) and

  17. Relationship between self-reported disability and functional capacity in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Reneman, Michiel F.; Verhoeven, Jan; van der Palen, Job

    Purpose Patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report symptoms and disability. Neither the relationship between self-reported disability and functional capacity, nor its predictors have been investigated in patients with WAD. This was the purpose of this study. Method This was a

  18. Ketamine Patient Controlled Analgesia for Acute Pain in Trauma Patients: A Randomized, Active Comparator Controlled, Blinded, Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    than 35 kg/m2, (2) history of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, (3) acute kidney injury (defined as serum creatinine increase of 2-3 times...median breakthrough opioid use over the course of treatment (10 mg [0.63-19.38 mg] vs. 10 mg [4.38-22.5 mg], P=0.55). Subjects received a similar...coronary artery disease or heart failure 26 had a history of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia 22 had renal dysfunction (acute or chronic) 7 met

  19. A randomised clinical trial of a comprehensive exercise program for chronic whiplash: trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latimer Jane

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash is the most common injury following a motor vehicle accident. Approximately 60% of people suffer persistent pain and disability six months post injury. Two forms of exercise; specific motor relearning exercises and graded activity, have been found to be effective treatments for this condition. Although the effect sizes for these exercise programs, individually, are modest, pilot data suggest much larger effects on pain and disability are achieved when these two treatments are combined. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this comprehensive exercise approach for chronic whiplash. Methods/Design A multicentre randomised controlled trial will be conducted. One hundred and seventy-six participants with chronic grade I to II whiplash will be recruited in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. All participants will receive an educational booklet on whiplash and in addition, those randomised to the comprehensive exercise group (specific motor relearning and graded activity exercises will receive 20 progressive and individually-tailored, 1 hour exercise sessions over a 12 week period (specific motor relearning exercises: 8 sessions over 4 weeks; graded activity: 12 sessions over 8 weeks. The primary outcome to be assessed is pain intensity. Other outcomes of interest include disability, health-related quality of life and health service utilisation. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 14 weeks, 6 months and 12 months by an assessor who is blinded to the group allocation of the subjects. Recruitment is due to commence in late 2009. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a simple treatment for the management of chronic whiplash. Trial registration ACTRN12609000825257

  20. A novel adaptation of a parent-child observational assessment tool for appraisals and coping in children exposed to acute trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs) annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents) remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child-parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent-child processes) and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child-parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8-13) and parents (n=25 child-parent dyads) completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral) and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant). Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent-child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent-child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping solutions following a PTE. More research should examine the relationships of

  1. Predictors of the Clinical Outcome After Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy for Acute Trauma-Related Symptomatic Medial Meniscal Tear in Patients More Than 60 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofu, Hakan; Oner, Ali; Camurcu, Yalkin; Gursu, Sarper; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Sahin, Vedat

    2016-06-01

    To determine predictors of the clinical outcome after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy performed for acute trauma-related medial meniscal tear leading to mechanical symptoms in patients more than 60 years of age. In this retrospective study with 4.1 years' follow-up, the clinical data of 154 arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomies were evaluated. The body mass index (BMI), duration of symptoms, the hip-knee-ankle angle, type of the meniscal tear, presence of any chondral lesions, degenerative changes in the patellofemoral joint, the status of the cruciate ligaments and lateral meniscus, and the presence of any plica or synovitis were the independent variables. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale were the instruments used as outcome measures. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the major predictors. The mean VAS score for 154 knees evaluated in this study improved from 5.6 points preoperatively to 2.3 points at the latest follow-up. The mean Lysholm score improved from 43 points to 72.7 points. VAS and Lysholm scores at the latest follow-up were significantly worse in patients with a preoperative BMI ≥ 26 kg/m(2), hip-knee-ankle angle > 5°, grade III or IV chondral lesion of the medial compartment according to Outerbridge classification, degenerative changes in patellofemoral joint surfaces, and an anterior cruciate ligament that was either partially ruptured or degenerative with increased laxity. A preoperative BMI ≥ 26 kg/m(2), Outerbridge grade III or IV chondral lesion of the medial compartment of the operated knee joint diagnosed during arthroscopic intervention, degenerative changes in patellofemoral joint surfaces, and the presence of an anterior cruciate ligament either partially ruptured or degenerative with increased laxity should be considered as the major predictors of the clinical outcome after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy performed for acute trauma-related symptomatic medial meniscal tear in patients

  2. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 3 – Interventions for Subacute WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  3. Acute right heart failure after hemorrhagic shock and trauma pneumonectomy-a management approach: A blinded randomized controlled animal trial using inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Andrea L; Sjoholm, Lars O; Goldberg, Amy; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Sharp, Thomas E; Wallner, Markus; Berretta, Remus M; Poole, Lauren A; Wu, Jichuan; Wolfson, Marla R

    2017-02-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy causes an acute increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The increase in PVR and right ventricular (RV) afterload leads to acute RV failure, thus reducing left ventricular (LV) preload and output. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) lowers PVR by relaxing pulmonary arterial smooth muscle without remarkable systemic vascular effects. We hypothesized that with hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy, iNO can be used to decrease PVR and mitigate right heart failure. A hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model was developed using sheep. Sheep received lung protective ventilatory support and were instrumented to serially obtain measurements of hemodynamics, gas exchange, and blood chemistry. Heart function was assessed with echocardiography. After randomization to study gas of iNO 20 ppm (n = 9) or nitrogen as placebo (n = 9), baseline measurements were obtained. Hemorrhagic shock was initiated by exsanguination to a target of 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure. The resuscitation phase was initiated, consisting of simultaneous left pulmonary hilum ligation, via median sternotomy, infusion of autologous blood and initiation of study gas. Animals were monitored for 4 hours. All animals had an initial increase in PVR. PVR remained elevated with placebo; with iNO, PVR decreased to baseline. Echo showed improved RV function in the iNO group while it remained impaired in the placebo group. After an initial increase in shunt and lactate and decrease in SvO2, all returned toward baseline in the iNO group but remained abnormal in the placebo group. These data indicate that by decreasing PVR, iNO decreased RV afterload, preserved RV and LV function, and tissue oxygenation in this hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model. This suggests that iNO may be a useful clinical adjunct to mitigate right heart failure and improve survival when trauma pneumonectomy is required.

  4. Acute brain trauma, lung injury, and pneumonia: more than just altered mental status and decreased airway protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Parker J; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Bosarge, Patrick L; Wagener, Brant M

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even when patients survive the initial insult, there is significant morbidity and mortality secondary to subsequent pulmonary edema, acute lung injury (ALI), and nosocomial pneumonia. Whereas the relationship between TBI and secondary pulmonary complications is recognized, little is known about the mechanistic interplay of the two phenomena. Changes in mental status secondary to acute brain injury certainly impair airway- and lung-protective mechanisms. However, clinical and translational evidence suggests that more specific neuronal and cellular mechanisms contribute to impaired systemic and lung immunity that increases the risk of TBI-mediated lung injury and infection. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of that immune impairment, we review here the current clinical data that support TBI-induced impairment of systemic and lung immunity. Furthermore, we also review the animal models that attempt to reproduce human TBI. Additionally, we examine the possible role of damage-associated molecular patterns, the chlolinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and sex dimorphism in post-TBI ALI. In the last part of the review, we discuss current treatments and future pharmacological therapies, including fever control, tracheostomy, and corticosteroids, aimed to prevent and treat pulmonary edema, ALI, and nosocomial pneumonia after TBI. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Tube thoracostomy complications in patients with acute blunt thoracic trauma due to road traffic accidents - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Shaikh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the differences in the frequency and types of Tube thoracostomy complications (TICs) between two groups of patients (A and B)With blunt thoracic trauma (BIT), as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA). Study Design: Prospective, comparative study. Place and duration of Study: Dawadrrii General Hospital (DGH), a level II trauma center, Riyadh, from December 4, 2011 to December 3, 2012. Methodology: The problem of a high number and variety of TICs' resulting due to various technical aspects of tube thoracostomy (IT) are highlighted in this study. This is a prospective comparative study enrolling a total of 140 patients with BTT due to RTA, referred to this hospital with indwelling Tube thoracostomies (TIs) (group A) or undergoing TTs at this hospital (group B) by a single thoracic surgeon within 10-15 minutes of arrival. Patients' demographic and clinical details were recorded and confirmed with the referring physicians, if necessary. The two groups were matched for age, gender, indications for ITs and the number and types of accompanying injuries. Informed consent was obtained before the procedure. Results were analyzed using SPSS v 19. Statistical significance achieved was translated into p values at 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the J 19 patients, who satisfied the inclusion criteria, group A had 49 (41.2%) and group B, 70 (58.8%) patients. Males were in he majority in both groups. A total of 130 chest tubes were placed in 119 patients. Contralateral chest tubes were indicated in 3 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (table I). The overall TTCs rate was 61.5% (80/130), with the majority in group A (88.7%; p= 0.0001). The number of technical, infective and miscellaneous TTC in group A and B were 47 (92.2%), 6 (85.7%), 18 (81.8%), and 4 (7.8%), 1(14.3%), and 4 (18.2%), respectively (table II). The majority of the chest tubes in group A were smaller than 28 Fr (p=0.0001; RR=2.98; 95% CI=2.17-4.10). Mortality due to TT in

  6. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Structural and biochemical abnormalities in the absence of acute deficits in mild primary blast-induced head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Michael K; Race, Nicholas; Zheng, Lingxing; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha M; Acosta, Glen; Park, Jonghyuck; Shi, Riyi

    2016-03-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT), if not fatal, is nonetheless potentially crippling. It can produce a wide array of acute symptoms in moderate-to-severe exposures, but mild BINT (mBINT) is characterized by the distinct absence of acute clinical abnormalities. The lack of observable indications for mBINT is particularly alarming, as these injuries have been linked to severe long-term psychiatric and degenerative neurological dysfunction. Although the long-term sequelae of BINT are extensively documented, the underlying mechanisms of injury remain poorly understood, impeding the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies. The primary goal of this research was to recapitulate primary mBINT in rodents in order to facilitate well-controlled, long-term investigations of blast-induced pathological neurological sequelae and identify potential mechanisms by which ongoing damage may occur postinjury. A validated, open-ended shock tube model was used to deliver blast overpressure (150 kPa) to anesthetized rats with body shielding and head fixation, simulating the protective effects of military-grade body armor and isolating a shock wave injury from confounding systemic injury responses, head acceleration, and other elements of explosive events. Evans Blue-labeled albumin was used to visualize blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise at 4 hours postinjury. Iba1 staining was used to visualize activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages in areas of peak BBB compromise. Acrolein, a potent posttraumatic neurotoxin, was quantified in brain tissue by immunoblotting and in urine through liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days postinjury. Locomotor behavior, motor performance, and short-term memory were assessed with open field, rotarod, and novel object recognition (NOR) paradigms at 24 and 48 hours after the blast. Average speed, maximum speed, and distance traveled in an open-field exploration paradigm did not show significant

  8. Terrorism, Trauma and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, M M; Chandrashekhar, N; Raju, Uma; Jog, S S; Arora, P

    2005-10-01

    Terrorist attacks, armed conflict and all forms of catastrophe, tax our ability to cope, understand and respond to the situation. Children are more vulnerable. 16 children, victims of a terrorist attack in an army residential camp were managed for their physical injuries and evaluated for psychological trauma. All patients recovered from physical injuries, except one baby of two months, who died due to severe chest trauma. 5 children presented with Acute Stress Reaction. 3 recovered well and two, showed persistent poor scholastic performance even after one year. A terrorist attack, not only results in physiscal scars but also causes psychological trauma, which requires emotional support and needs to be followed up on a long term basis.

  9. Facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Pancreatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa Martin, Gimel; Morales Portuondo, Kelvis; Baez Franco, Zenia

    2010-01-01

    Pancreas is an intra-abdominal organ in retroperitoneal location chow trauma is uncommon. Degree classification helps in more effective treatment practice and in decrease of complications appeared s consequence of traumas or the surgical treatment, which may be simple or involves large resections. The case of a patient with closed abdominal trauma of 3 days course. Diagnostic and clinic and complementary examinations were carried out being necessary surgical treatment. The aim of present paper was to expose the clinical elements, complementary results and surgical findings in this patient, as well as to motivate the suspicion of this affection in abdominal trauma. (author)

  11. Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Whiplash-Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Sophie Lykkegaard; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Sterling, Michele

    -catastrophizing, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months post-injury (n=227, whiplash-grade I-III), we identified trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms using Latent Growth Mixture Modeling. Predictors were tested using multinomial logistic regression, and group mean difference......-injured is needed. The current study aimed to identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms following whiplash-injury and test predictors and functional outcomes of such trajectories. Methods:In a prospective cohort design assessing pain, pain-related disability, fear-avoidance-beliefs, pain...... in pain-related disability (psychosocial and physical) at 6 months was tested as outcome. Results: Three trajectories were identified: -“Low-stable” (73.4%) with little or no posttraumatic stress symptoms over time, - “High-decreasing” (9.5%) with high initial levls of posttraumatic stress symptoms...

  12. Education of patients after whiplash injury: is oral advice any better than a pamphlet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge

    2008-01-01

    information was observed and the question how patients should be educated to reduce the risk of chronicity after whiplash is worth further investigation, since no treatment have been proven to prevent long-lasting symptoms, and all forms of advice or educational therapy are so cheap that even a modest effect......STUDY DESIGN: Randomized parallel-group trial with 1-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether education of patients communicated orally by a specially trained nurse is superior to giving patients a pamphlet after a whiplash injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Long-lasting pain and physical...... outcome parameters, even though the outcome tended to be better for the group receiving personal advice. CONCLUSION: Prognosis did not differ between patients who received personal education and those who got a pamphlet. However, a systematic tendency toward better outcome with personal communicated...

  13. A novel adaptation of a parent–child observational assessment tool for appraisals and coping in children exposed to acute trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L. Marsac

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. Objective: The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child–parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent–child processes and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child–parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. Method: As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8–13 and parents (n=25 child–parent dyads completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Results: Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant. Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent–child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent–child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. Conclusions: The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping

  14. The value of trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynne; Clark, David E

    2008-06-01

    Trauma registries are databases that document acute care delivered to patients hospitalised with injuries. They are designed to provide information that can be used to improve the efficiency and quality of trauma care. Indeed, the combination of trauma registry data at regional or national levels can produce very large databases that allow unprecedented opportunities for the evaluation of patient outcomes and inter-hospital comparisons. However, the creation and upkeep of trauma registries requires a substantial investment of money, time and effort, data quality is an important challenge and aggregated trauma data sets rarely represent a population-based sample of trauma. In addition, trauma hospitalisations are already routinely documented in administrative hospital discharge databases. The present review aims to provide evidence that trauma registry data can be used to improve the care dispensed to victims of injury in ways that could not be achieved with information from administrative databases alone. In addition, we will define the structure and purpose of contemporary trauma registries, acknowledge their limitations, and discuss possible ways to make them more useful.

  15. 'A closer look upon whiplash, postconcussion syndrome and posttraumatic headache. Differences and similarities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Summary Post-whiplash, -concussion and -traumatic headache are all well-known entities described after accidents. Over the years they gave rise to discussion about the cause, treatment and consequences. Over the years the frequency of each of these diagnoses has varied. But are they really three ...... different syndromes? If so, what are the characteristics and differences in treatment or long-term management? Is it clinical useful to distinguish the three? And what about the prognosis?...

  16. Radiology of spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassel, E.E.; Cooper, P.W.; Rubenstein, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The early diagnostic management of patients with acute spinal canal trauma may be among the most difficult injuries referred to a trauma centre. No standardized protocol exists. Radiographic examinations commence with plain films, including special views. Further radiographic studies, if required, vary and include CT, myelography and conventional tomography. CT and metrizamide myelography are complementary. In more complicated fracture-dislocations, all of the above investigations may be necessary. Recent advances, including water-soluble contrast media, the lateral C1-2 puncture and CT, now offer faster, safer and more thorough follow-up investigations with less radiation exposure. Patients with multiple injuries, previously considered too severely injured to undergo further neurologic investigations, may now be more adequately assessed early in the acute phase of injury such that appropriate surgical decompression or stabilization may be performed. The maximum attainable neurologic improvement for such individuals may be better realized with the improved radio-diagnostic capabilities available

  17. Elevated [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake in chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder suggests persistent musculoskeletal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer (11C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain after a rear impact car accident (Whiplash Associated Disorder grade II and 14 healthy controls were investigated. Patients displayed significantly elevated tracer uptake in the neck, particularly in regions around the spineous process of the second cervical vertebra. This suggests that whiplash patients have signs of local persistent peripheral tissue inflammation, which may potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker. The present investigation demonstrates that painful processes in the periphery can be objectively visualized and quantified with PET and that (11C-D-deprenyl is a promising tracer for these purposes.

  18. Trunk sway in patients with and without, mild traumatic brain injury after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, O; Schuster, C; Sellner, J; Ettlin, T; Allum, J H J

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the addition effect of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on the balance control of patients who simultaneously suffered a whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Dizziness is common in patients suffering from whiplash injury with or without a MTBI, but data is lacking about the additional balance problems and dizziness caused by MTBI. 44 patients with WAD and MTBI and 36 WAD patients without MTBI participated in the study. A dizziness handicap index (DHI) was used to quantify self-perceived handicap. Balance control was assessed using measures of trunk sway for a battery of stance and gait tests. Patients with WAD and MTBI perceived significantly higher dizziness and unsteadiness (higher score in DHI Emotional category) and had greater trunk sway than WAD patients without MTBI for stance tasks and complex gait tasks (e.g. walking up and down stairs). Both groups had greater sway than controls for these tasks. Both groups of patients showed equal reductions in trunk sway with respect to controls for simple gait tasks (e.g. walking while rotating the head). A similar pattern of balance impairment was present in patients with whiplash injury with and without MTBI. However, the impairment was greater for stance and complex gait tasks in WAD patients with MTBI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validity of the neck disability index, Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire, and problem elicitation technique for measuring disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan Lucas; O'Leary, Elizabeth F.; Niere, Ken R.; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2003-01-01

    The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) were developed to measure self-perceived disability from neck pain, including that which may arise from whiplash injury. However, there is little data specifically concerning their validity for whiplash-associated

  20. Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Tony; Caulfield, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes some classic causes of trauma and symptoms that can result when a child has been traumatized. Lists several factors that effect the degree to which a child is affected by trauma. Categories a wide range of behaviors displayed by the victims into three groups: affect, memories, and behaviors. Discusses various considerations when…

  1. Imaging of laryngeal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Minerva; Leuchter, Igor; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Dulguerov, Pavel; Varoquaux, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging of laryngeal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva, E-mail: Minerva.Becker@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Leuchter, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Leuchter@hcuge.ch [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-facial Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Platon, Alexandra, E-mail: Alexandra.Platon@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D., E-mail: Christoph.Becker@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Dulguerov, Pavel, E-mail: Pavel.Dulguerov@hcuge.ch [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-facial Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Varoquaux, Arthur, E-mail: Arthur.Varoquaux@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed.

  3. The influence of time in captivity, food intake and acute trauma on blood analytes of juvenile Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, John P; Tuomi, Pam A; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2015-01-01

    The Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, has experienced regionally divergent population trends over recent decades. One potential mechanism for this disparity is that local factors cause reduced health and, therefore, reduced survival of individuals. The use of blood parameters to assess sea lion health may help to identify whether malnutrition, disease and stress are important drivers of current trends, but such assessments require species-specific knowledge of how parameters respond to various health challenges. We used principal components analysis to identify which key blood parameters (principal analytes) best described changes in health for temporarily captive juvenile Steller sea lions in known conditions. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the changes in principal analytes with food intake, time in captivity and acute trauma associated with hot-iron branding and transmitter implant surgery. Of the 17 blood parameters examined, physiological changes for juvenile sea lions were best described using the following six principal analytes: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, globulin, platelets, glucose and total bilirubin. The white blood cell counts and total bilirubin declined over time in captivity, whereas globulin increased. Elevated red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and total bilirubin and reduced globulin values were associated with lower food intake. After branding, white blood cell counts were elevated for the first 30 days, while globulin and platelets were elevated for the first 15 days only. After implant surgery, red blood cell counts and globulin remained elevated for 30 days, while white blood cell counts remained elevated during the first 15 days only. Glucose was unassociated with the factors we studied. These results were used to provide expected ranges for principal analytes at different levels of food intake and in response to the physical challenges of branding and implant surgery

  4. Significant clinical, neuropathological and behavioural recovery from acute spinal cord trauma by transplantation of a well-defined somatic stem cell from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schira, Jessica; Gasis, Marcia; Estrada, Veronica; Hendricks, Marion; Schmitz, Christine; Trapp, Thorsten; Kruse, Fabian; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-02-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types have been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically effective. Thus far, stem cells of human sources grafted into spinal cord mostly included barely defined heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell populations derived from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood. Here, we have transplanted a well-defined unrestricted somatic stem cell isolated from human umbilical cord blood into an acute traumatic spinal cord injury of adult immune suppressed rat. Grafting of unrestricted somatic stem cells into the vicinity of a dorsal hemisection injury at thoracic level eight resulted in hepatocyte growth factor-directed migration and accumulation within the lesion area, reduction in lesion size and augmented tissue sparing, enhanced axon regrowth and significant functional locomotor improvement as revealed by three behavioural tasks (open field Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor score, horizontal ladder walking test and CatWalk gait analysis). To accomplish the beneficial effects, neither neural differentiation nor long-lasting persistence of the grafted human stem cells appears to be required. The secretion of neurite outgrowth-promoting factors in vitro further suggests a paracrine function of unrestricted somatic stem cells in spinal cord injury. Given the highly supportive functional characteristics in spinal cord injury, production in virtually unlimited quantities at GMP grade and lack of ethical concerns, unrestricted somatic stem cells appear to be a highly suitable human stem cell source for clinical application in central nervous system injuries.

  5. The influence of time in captivity, food intake and acute trauma on blood analytes of juvenile Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, John P.; Tuomi, Pam A.; Mellish, Jo-Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    The Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, has experienced regionally divergent population trends over recent decades. One potential mechanism for this disparity is that local factors cause reduced health and, therefore, reduced survival of individuals. The use of blood parameters to assess sea lion health may help to identify whether malnutrition, disease and stress are important drivers of current trends, but such assessments require species-specific knowledge of how parameters respond to various health challenges. We used principal components analysis to identify which key blood parameters (principal analytes) best described changes in health for temporarily captive juvenile Steller sea lions in known conditions. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the changes in principal analytes with food intake, time in captivity and acute trauma associated with hot-iron branding and transmitter implant surgery. Of the 17 blood parameters examined, physiological changes for juvenile sea lions were best described using the following six principal analytes: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, globulin, platelets, glucose and total bilirubin. The white blood cell counts and total bilirubin declined over time in captivity, whereas globulin increased. Elevated red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and total bilirubin and reduced globulin values were associated with lower food intake. After branding, white blood cell counts were elevated for the first 30 days, while globulin and platelets were elevated for the first 15 days only. After implant surgery, red blood cell counts and globulin remained elevated for 30 days, while white blood cell counts remained elevated during the first 15 days only. Glucose was unassociated with the factors we studied. These results were used to provide expected ranges for principal analytes at different levels of food intake and in response to the physical challenges of branding and implant surgery

  6. Case report: whiplash-associated disorder from a low-velocity bumper car collision: history, evaluation, and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Stuberg, Wayne; DeJong, Stacey; Gold, Kurt V; Nystrom, N Ake

    2004-09-01

    Case report of a patient with a whiplash-associated disorder following a bumper car collision. Imaging studies failed to provide an anatomic explanation for the debilitating symptoms. To report a chronic, debilitating pain syndrome after a low-velocity bumper car collision while using complex range-of-motion data for the diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical indication in whiplash-associated disorder. The controversy of whiplash-associated disorder mainly concerns pathophysiology and collision dynamics. Although many investigations attempt to define a universal lesion or determine a threshold of force that may cause permanent injury, no consensus has been reached. Eight years after a low-velocity collision, the patient underwent surgical excision of multiple painful trigger points in the posterior neck. Computerized motion analysis was used for pre- and postoperative evaluations. Surgical treatment resulted in an increase in total active range of motion by 20%, reduced intake of pain medication, doubled the number of work hours, and generally led to a dramatic improvement in quality of life. This case of whiplash-associated disorder after a low-velocity collision highlights the difficulty in defining threshold of injury in regard to velocity. It also illustrates the value of computerized motion analysis in confirming the diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder and in the evaluation of prognosis and treatment.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Prediction of the Relationship between Whiplash Injury and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hee Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWhiplash injury can cause internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and lead to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. Our aim was to evaluate whether the initial clinical findings in TMD patients with whiplash injury are correlated with their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics.Materials and methodsThis case–control study involved 219 patients (135 women, 84 men; mean age: 37.84 years who visited our orofacial pain clinic with TMD; TMD was diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria for TMD Axis I. Patients were categorized into three groups based on the presence and type of macrotrauma: in the “wTMD” group, patients had suffered whiplash injury; patients in the “pTMD” group had post-traumatic TMD; the “iTMD” group comprised patients who had presented with TMD symptoms and had sustained no macrotrauma. We investigated the presence of disk displacement, effusion, disk deformity, and condylar degeneration, and changes in the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM. To evaluate the severity of TMD pain and objectively analyze symptoms, we used a visual analog scale (VAS, palpation index (PI, neck PI, dysfunction index, and craniomandibular index (CMI.ResultsThe VAS scores, and the severity indexes of the TMD including PI, neck PI, and CMI were highest in the wTMD patients. Atrophy of the LPM was most commonly seen in the wTMD group, as was disk deformity. In wTMD patients only, VAS score was significantly correlated with stress; it was correlated with headache in wTMD and iTMD patients. The clinical symptoms of TMD were not correlated with MRI findings in the wTMD group. However, alterations in the LPM were strongly correlated with disk displacement.ConclusionIf clinicians recognize alterations in the LPM and disk displacement in the TMJ, they will better understand the clinical symptoms and pathophysiology of TMD with whiplash injury. Whiplash injury may lead to TMD via different mechanisms from other macrotraumas.

  8. Trauma Center Staffing, Infrastructure, and Patient Characteristics that Influence Trauma Center Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faul, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most effective use of trauma center resources helps reduce morbidity and mortality, while saving costs. Identifying critical infrastructure characteristics, patient characteristics and staffing components of a trauma center associated with the proportion of patients needing major trauma care will help planners create better systems for patient care.   Methods: We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank-Research Dataset to determine the proportion of critically injured patients requiring the resources of a trauma center within each Level I-IV trauma center (n=443. The outcome variable was defined as the portion of treated patients who were critically injured. We defined the need for critical trauma resources and interventions (“trauma center need” as death prior to hospital discharge, admission to the intensive care unit, or admission to the operating room from the emergency department as a result of acute traumatic injury. Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM was used to determine how hospital infrastructure, staffing Levels, and patient characteristics contributed to trauma center need.     Results: Nonprofit Level I and II trauma centers were significantly associated with higher levels of trauma center need. Trauma centers that had a higher percentage of transferred patients or a lower percentage of insured patients were associated with a higher proportion of trauma center need.  Hospital infrastructure characteristics, such as bed capacity and intensive care unit capacity, were not associated with trauma center need. A GLM for Level III and IV trauma centers showed that the number of trauma surgeons on staff was associated with trauma center need. Conclusion: Because the proportion of trauma center need is predominantly influenced by hospital type, transfer frequency, and insurance status, it is important for administrators to consider patient population characteristics of the catchment area when planning the

  9. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Imhof, H.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  10. Trauma Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y. Kong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available “Major Trauma. Dr. Kong, please come to the Trauma Unit immediately. Dr. Kong, please come to the Trauma Unit immediately.” Even though I have been working at Edendale Hospital as a trauma registrar for over a year, whenever I hear this announcement over the hospital intercom system, my heart beats just a little faster than normal. When I first arrived at Edendale my colleagues told me that the adrenaline rush I would experience after being called out to attend a new emergency would decrease over time, and indeed they were right. However, it is also true to say that on some occasions more than others, it is still felt more strongly than ever.

  11. Tailbone trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in snow or on ice. Alternative Names Coccyx injury Images Tailbone (coccyx) References Choi SB, Cwinn AA. Pelvic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  12. Mechanisms of Coagulation Abnormalities and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    one of four treatment groups: 1) C- control, 2) T- trauma ( laparotomy ), 3) H- hemorrhage (MAP 35mmHg x 60 minutes), 4) TH- trauma+hemorrhage. After...types and degrees of injury. Specifically we are examining laparotomy vs. hind limb fracture and various degrees of shock to determine the relative...Massive Transfusion Protocol Activation: In Press (J Trauma Acute Care Surgery ) Cripps MW, Kutcher ME, McCreery RC, Crane IM, Greenberg MD, Cachola LM

  13. Expectancies mediate the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work following whiplash injury: A 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, J S; Thibault, P; Adams, H; Milioto, M; Ditto, B; Sullivan, M J L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that perceived injustice is a risk factor for work disability in individuals with whiplash injury. At present, however, little is known about the processes by which perceived injustice impacts on return to work. The purpose of this study was to examine whether expectancies mediated the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work in patients with whiplash injury. One hundred and fifty-two individuals (81 men, 71 women) with a primary diagnosis of whiplash injury completed self-report measures of pain intensity, perceived injustice and return-to-work expectancies following admission to a rehabilitation programme. Work status was assessed 1 year after discharge. Consistent with previous research, high scores on a measure of perceived injustice were associated with prolonged work disability. Results indicated that high perceptions of injustice were associated with low return-to-work expectancies. Causal mediation analyses revealed that expectancies fully mediated the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work. The findings suggest that intervention techniques designed to target expectancies could improve return-to-work outcomes in patients with whiplash injury. Discussion addresses the processes by which expectancies might impact on return-to-work outcomes and the manner in which negative return-to-work expectancies might be modified through intervention. The study confirms that expectancies are the mechanism through which perceived injustice impacts return to work following whiplash injury. The findings suggest that interventions designed to specifically target return-to-work expectancies might improve rehabilitation outcomes in patients with whiplash injury. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of abdominal trauma is blunt trauma, gunshot wounds and stab wounds are rare. Most commonly injured organs in abdominal cavity are the spleen and the liver.Conclusions. Early diagnosis is very important and include precise phisical examination and all available diagnostic methods. The final decission about the method of treatmet depends on patients clinical condition, surgeon’s experience and other local conditions.

  15. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of whiplash-associated disorder addressing thoracic and cervical spine impairments: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pho, Cuong; Godges, Joe

    2004-09-01

    Clinical case report. To describe a physical therapy program addressing impairments of the upper thoracic and cervical spine region for an individual with a whiplash-associated disorder. A 32-year-old female with complaint of diffuse posterior cervical and upper thoracic region pain was evaluated 2 weeks following a motor vehicle accident. The patient reported that she was unable to sit for longer than 10 minutes or perform household duties for longer than 1 hour. In addition, she was unable to perform her tasks as a postal worker or participate in her customary running and aerobic exercise activities because of pain in the cervical and upper thoracic region. An examination for physical impairments was performed, including the measurement of cervical range of motion using the CROM device, and the assessment of soft tissue and segmental mobility of the upper thoracic and cervical spine regions. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire was used to assess functional limitations and disability. Manual therapy and therapeutic exercises were applied to address the identified impairments. Manual therapy techniques included soft tissue mobilization, joint mobilization, and joint manipulation. The patient's cervical range of motion was improved and the disability score improved from 25% to 19.5% 3 days after the initial session addressing the thoracic spine. Following a second session also addressing thoracic spine impairments and the use of therapeutic exercises for 7 days, the disability score improved to 11.1%. At the final visit 17 days following the third visit, which focused on addressing the cervical spine impairments, there was complete resolution of signs and symptoms and disability. Interventions addressing the impairments of the upper thoracic and cervical spine region were associated with reducing pain, increasing cervical range of motion, and facilitating return to work and physical activities in a patient with a whiplash-associated disorder. There is a need

  17. Geriatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sasha D; Holcomb, John B

    2015-12-01

    The landscape of trauma is changing due to an aging population. Geriatric patients represent an increasing number and proportion of trauma admissions and deaths. This review explores recent literature on geriatric trauma, including triage criteria, assessment of frailty, fall-related injury, treatment of head injury complicated by coagulopathy, goals of care, and the need for ongoing education of all surgeons in the care of the elderly. Early identification of high-risk geriatric patients is imperative to initiate early resuscitative efforts. Geriatric patients are typically undertriaged because of their baseline frailty being underappreciated; however, centers that see more geriatric patients do better. Rapid reversal of anticoagulation is important in preventing progression of brain injury. Anticipation of difficult disposition necessitates early involvement of physical therapy for rehabilitation and case management for appropriate placement. Optimal care of geriatric trauma patients will be based on the well established tenets of trauma resuscitation and injury repair, but with distinct elements that address the physiological and anatomical challenges presented by geriatric patients.

  18. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  19. A new stratified risk assessment tool for whiplash injuries developed from a prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela

    2013-01-01

    within 72 h, examination prior to 10 days postinjury, capable of written/spoken Danish, without other injuries/fractures, pre-existing significant somatic/psychiatric disorder, drug/alcohol abuse and previous significant pain/headache). 688 (438 women and 250 men) participants were interviewed...... and number of sick-listing days were related (Kruskal-Wallis, pimpact of the event questionnaire (p... (prelationship with risk stratification. ANALYSIS: Findings confirm previous studies reporting intense neck pain/headache and distress as predictors for work disability after whiplash. Neck...

  20. Ballistic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Devi Munishwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunshot injuries are rather serious but uncommon type of trauma in India. Radiologists can contribute substantially in the evaluation and treatment of patients with gunshot wounds. Foreign bodies that enter a patient as a result of trauma are contaminated and produce a range of symptoms. Oral and maxillofacial gunshot injuries are usually fatal due to close proximity with vital structures. Here, we report a case in which radiographic evidence of foreign bodies in the right orofacial region exposed a history of a gunshot injury. The patient did not have any major complaints except for reduced mouth opening. These foreign bodies were clinically silent for approximately 12 years.

  1. What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Patrícia; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Frigo, Lucio; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Santos, Larissa Aline; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; De Marchi, Thiago; Tairova, Olga; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2014-03-01

    Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm(2); 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-1β and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.

  2. Maintaining a balance: a focus group study on living and coping with chronic whiplash-associated disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihlebæk Camilla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little qualitative insight into how persons with chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder cope on a day to day basis. This study seeks to identify the symptoms persons with Whiplash-Associated Disorder describe as dominating and explore their self-initiated coping strategies. Methods Qualitative study using focus groups interviews. Fourteen Norwegian men and women with Whiplash-Associated Disorder (I or II were recruited to participate in two focus groups. Data were analyzed according to a phenomenological approach, and discussed within the model of Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS. Results Participants reported neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction following their whiplash injury. Based on the intensity of symptoms, participants divided everyday life into good and bad periods. In good periods the symptoms were perceived as manageable. In bad periods the symptoms intensified and took control of the individual. Participants expressed a constant notion of trying to balance their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal. In good periods participants experienced coping by expecting good results from the strategies they used. In bad periods they experienced no or negative relationships between their behavioral strategies and their complaints. Conclusions Neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction were reported as participants' main complaints. A constant notion of balancing between their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal, was described.

  3. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    contusion-wound with intraocular foreign body exhibited higher percentage of eyes with 0.1 or lower vision acute. The worst results were found in those eyes affected by simple wounds (25% and contusion-wounds (15.3%. Late complications such as cataracts, corneal leukomas and retinal detachment, occurred more frequently. The type of trauma causing the highest number of complications was wound cause by intraocular foreign bodies.

  4. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... 66. CME FEBRUARY 2011 Vol.29 No.2. Eye trauma. To a clinician without experience, a person with an eye injury presents a dilemma. This article should reassure you that methodical assessment and treatment of most injuries is simple and within the ambit of every doctor. JONatHaN PONs, MB ChB, Dip ...

  5. TRAUMA SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and track this epidemic. A number of socio-political changes have continued, and these will impact on the trauma patterns seen in the country. Gun control legislation has been enforced since the turn of the millennium, and there have been ongoing attempts to demilitarise society by removing assault weapons. The ongoing ...

  6. Trauma Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    There are two main trends in psychological approaches to human suffering related to what we term trauma. Although they have their respective limitations both approaches may help us explore and alleviate human suffering. One trend, primarily using concepts like traumatic events and traumatisation ...

  7. TRAUMA SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deaths due to other trauma types (gunshot wounds, road traffic fatalities and assault) ... the axillary artery was ligated during surgery. Type of ... Left axillary artery. Ischaemic left upper limb. 3. Fifth intercostal space on the left. Bilateral pneumothorax and haemothorax still present at autopsy. (intercostal drain only inserted on ...

  8. Return to work helps maintain treatment gains in the rehabilitation of whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael; Adams, Heather; Thibault, Pascal; Moore, Emily; Carriere, Junie S; Larivière, Christian

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relation between return to work and the maintenance of treatment gains made over the course of a rehabilitation intervention. The study sample consisted of 110 individuals who had sustained whiplash injuries in rear collision motor vehicle accidents and were work-disabled at the time of enrolment in the study. Participants completed pre- and post-treatment measures of pain severity, disability, cervical range of motion, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and catastrophizing. Pain severity was assessed again at 1-year follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, 73 participants had returned to work and 37 remained work-disabled. Analyses revealed that participants who returned to work were more likely to maintain treatment gains (77.5%) than participants who remained work-disabled (48%), χ = 6.3, P work and the maintenance of treatment gains remained significant (β = 0.30, P processes by which prolonged work-disability might contribute to the failure to maintain treatment gains. Important knowledge gaps still remain concerning the individual, workplace, and system variables that might play a role in whether or not the gains made in the rehabilitation of whiplash injury are maintained. Clinical implications of the findings are also addressed.

  9. Distribution characteristics of meridian sinew (jingjin) syndrome in 313 cases of whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-meng; Zhao, Yan; Xue, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Qun-ce; Wu, Xiu-yan; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xin; Zhao, Joanna; He, Frank D; Kong, Jun-hui; Wang, Tian-fang

    2015-03-01

    To investigate and analyze the characteristics of Meridian Sinew (Jingjin) syndrome in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). From August 2010 to September 2011, 313 WAD cases from New York and California states were collected. The survey mostly collects the information of "Sinew Knotted Points" and symptoms of four types of Meridian Sinew differentiation-Taiyang, Shaoyin, Shaoyang and Yangming. Among the cases which are on the average of medium injury level, the higher frequency of "Sinew Knotted Points" tenderness were found on Jianwaishu (SI 14), Jianzhongshu (SI 15), Tianchuang (SI 16), C3-6 Spinous Process, Dazhui (GV 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Tianliao (SJ 15) and Tianding (LI 17). The most commonly presented symptoms were widespread spasm and tenderness in the neck (Taiyang), difficulty in lateral flexion (Shaoyang), problems of extension and flexion (Taiyang), and stiffness and pain during neck movement (Yangming). Among the cases, 237 cases (75.72%) were related to Taiyang Meridian Sinew syndrome, 82 cases (26.20%) to Shaoyin syndrome and 175 (55.91%) and 176 (56.23%) cases to Shaoyang and Yangming syndrome respectively. The most of cases presented in a combination format. The syndrome distribution under Grade I, II and III reflected that more combination of the Meridian Sinew syndromes in the whiplash injury patients which is resulted from more severity of injury. It is practical to identify the location of abnormality through Meridian Sinew differentiation, considering both "Sinew Knotted Points" tenderness and corresponding symptoms, for the local neck symptoms of WAD.

  10. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  11. Education by general practitioners or education and exercises by physiotherapists for patients with whiplash-associated disorders? : A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Neeleman-van der Steen, Catharina W M; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; Hendriks, Erik J M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Oostendorp, Rob A B

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of education and advice given by general practitioners (GPs) with education, advice, and active exercise therapy given by physiotherapists (PTs) for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND

  12. Education by general practitioners or education and exercises by physiotherapists for patients with whiplash-associated disorders? A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten-Peeters, G G; Neeleman-van der Steen, Catharina W M; van der Windt, D.A.; Hendriks, E.J.; Verhagen, Arianne P; Oostendorp, R A

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of education and advice given by general practitioners (GPs) with education, advice, and active exercise therapy given by physiotherapists (PTs) for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND

  13. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma : intrusive memories and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306194503; Holmes, Emily A

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an

  14. Recognition and management of common acute conditions of the oral cavity resulting from tooth decay, periodontal disease, and trauma: an update for the family physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul C; Kanjirath, Preetha

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of common and/or significant diseases of the oral cavity that the family physician is likely to encounter, with an emphasis on pathogenesis, recognition, complications, and management. Topics reviewed include the sequelae of dental caries, periodontal disease, and trauma. Prevention and early intervention strategies are emphasized. Recent updates and practical issues for the family physician are highlighted.

  15. Modelo experimental de trauma medular agudo produzido por aparelho estereotáxico modificado Experimental model of acute spinal cord injury produced by modified steriotaxic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.J. Torres

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 55 ratos machos da espécie Rattus novergicus, variedade Wistar, com o objetivo de propor um modelo experimental de trauma medular produzido por aparelho estereotáxico modificado, capaz de reproduzir clinicamente lesões medulares padronizadas. Após realização de laminectomia dorsal de T13, utilizou-se peso compressivo de 50,5g (25 animais - grupo I ou 70,5g (30 animais - grupo II, durante cinco minutos, comprimindo a medula espinhal. Os animais foram assistidos durante oito dias, por meio de testes comportamentais para avaliar a sensibilidade dolorosa, a capacidade motora, o posicionamento tátil e proprioceptivo e a capacidade de manter-se em plano inclinado. No grupo I, observaram-se déficits neurológicos moderados e transitórios, que variaram entre os animais. No grupo II, foi possível obter um trauma padronizado, caracterizado por paraplegia bilateral e simétrica dos membros posteriores, perda de propriocepção e da sensibilidade dolorosa de todos os animais. A utilização do aparelho estereotáxico desenvolvido permite reproduzir clinicamente trauma medular padronizado em ratos, de maneira simples, econômica e satisfatória, o que poderá proporcionar avanços nas investigações terapêuticas, abrangendo doenças neurodegenerativas, como é o caso do trauma medular agudo.Fifty-five male rats (Rattus novergicus, Wistar variety, were used with the purpose of suggesting an experimental model of spinal cord trauma performed by using a modified stereotaxic equipment capable to reproduce clinically (standardized pattern spinal cord injury. After dorsal laminectomy of T13, a compression was performed with 50.5g (25 animals - group I or 70.5g (30 animals - group II during five minutes on spinal cord. The animals were assisted during eight days by behavioral tests to evaluate painful sensibility, motor capacity, proprioceptive and tactil placing, and stability on inclined plan. In the group I, moderate and transitory

  16. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics

    2006-07-01

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging of spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchberger, W.; Springer, P.; Birbamer, G.; Judmaier, W.; Kathrein, A.; Daniaux, H.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the acute and chronic stages of spinal trauma. 126 MR examinations of 120 patients were evaluated retrospectively. In 15 cases of acute spinal cord injury, correlation of MR findings with the degree of neurological deficit and eventual recovery was undertaken. Cord anomalies in the acute stage were seen in 16 patients. Intramedullary haemorrhage (n=6) and cord transection (n=2) were associated with complete injuries and poor prognosis, whereas patients with cord oedema (n=7) had incomplete injuries and recovered significant neurological function. In the chronic stage, MR findings included persistent cord compression in 8 patients, syringomyelia or post-traumatic cyst in 12, myelomalacia in 6, cord atrophy in 9, and cord transection in 7 patients. In acute spinal trauma, MR proved useful in assessing spinal cord compression and instability. In addition, direct visualisation and characterisation of posttraumatic changes within the spinal cord may offer new possibilities in establishing the prognosis for neurological recovery. In the later stages, potentially remediable causes of persistent or progressive symptoms, such as chronic spinal cord compression or syringomyelia can be distinguished from other sequelae of spinal trauma, such as myelomalacia, cord transection or atrophy. (orig.) [de

  18. Are People With Whiplash-Associated Neck Pain Different from People With Nonspecific Neck Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with non......-specific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain presenting to a secondary care spine centre answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified....... At presentation patients with WAD were statistically different to patients without WAD for almost all characteristics investigated. While most differences were small (1.1 points on an 11-point pain rating scale and 11 percentage points on the Neck Disability Index) others including the presence of dizziness...

  19. Urethral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, B.M.; Hricak, H.; Dixon, C.; McAninch, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of MR imaging in posterior urethral trauma. Fifteen patients with posttraumatic membranous urethral strictures underwent prospective MR imaging with a 1.5-T unit before open urethroplasty. All patients had transaxial T1-weighted (500/20) and T2-weighted (2,500/70) spin-echo images and T2-weighted sagittal and coronal images (matrix, 192 x 256; section thickness, 4 mm with 20% gap). Conventional retrograde and cystourethrography were performed preoperatively. Compared with conventional studies, MR imaging defined the length and location of the urethral injury and provided additional information regarding the direction and degree of prostatic and urethral dislocation

  20. Images in kidney trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed

  1. Tratamiento osteopático en una lesión por Whiplash. Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Morcillo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: El caso que presentamos a continuación se trata de un hombre de 25 años. Acude a consulta a los diez días de sufrir un accidente de tráfico y con un diagnóstico médico de whiplash o latigazo cervical. El paciente refiere dolor y disminución de la movilidad en la región cervical, dorsal alta, lumbosacra y mareos leves desde el accidente. Objetivos: Explicar el mecanismo de la lesión por Whiplash; valoración de los resultados obtenidos tras el tratamiento osteopátic...

  2. Participation in trauma research: is there evidence of harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael G; Resick, Patricia A; Waldrop, Angela E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2003-06-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of trauma research participation upon trauma survivors. Empirical data regarding reactions to research participation would be very useful to address the question of whether it is harmful for trauma survivors to participate in trauma studies. We examined participant reactions to different trauma assessment procedures in domestic violence (N = 260), rape (N = 108), and physical assault (N = 62) samples. Results indicated that participation was very well tolerated by the vast majority of the trauma survivors. Participants generally found that the assessment experience was not distressing and was, in fact, viewed as an interesting and valuable experience. The findings suggest that trauma survivors are not too fragile to participate in trauma research even in the acute aftermath of a traumatic experience.

  3. A high admission syndecan-1 level, a marker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, is associated with inflammation, protein C depletion, fibrinolysis, and increased mortality in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between markers of acute endothelial glycocalyx degradation, inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality after trauma.......To investigate the association between markers of acute endothelial glycocalyx degradation, inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality after trauma....

  4. A National Coordinating Center for Trauma Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Plenary Paper in 2014 and published in the J of Trauma Acute Care Surgery in 2015 (Vol 79;3, 335-342) Impact on the management of blunt splenic injury...findings and products to military and civilian trauma audiences. IMPACT As we have just completed Year 1 of a three-year period of performance...performance for this Agreement. There are no changes that impact expenditures or in the care of human subjects. The NTRR development funded through

  5. Can the dissociative PTSD subtype be identified across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Műllerová, Jana; Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie

    2016-08-01

    For over a century, the occurrence of dissociative symptoms in connection to traumatic exposure has been acknowledged in the scientific literature. Recently, the importance of dissociation has also been recognized in the long-term traumatic response within the DSM-5 nomenclature. Several studies have confirmed the existence of the dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype. However, there is a lack of studies investigating latent profiles of PTSD solely in victims with PTSD. This study investigates the possible presence of PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD based on self-reports (N = 787). Moreover, we assessed if a number of risk factors resulted in an increased probability of membership in a dissociative compared with a non-dissociative PTSD class. The results of LCA revealed a two-class solution with two highly symptomatic classes: a dissociative class and a non-dissociative class across both samples. Increased emotion-focused coping increased the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class across both samples. Social support reduced the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class but only in the victims of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) suffering from whiplash. The results are discussed in light of their clinical implications and suggest that the dissociative subtype can be identified in victims of incest and victims of MVA suffering from whiplash meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD.

  6. The development of insomnia or the plasticity of good sleep? A preliminary study of acute changes in sleep and insomnia resulting from an analogue trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele; Gradisar, Michael; Pulford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The present preliminary study aimed to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the development of insomnia. An analogue stressor (i.e., trauma video) was used to prevent presleep cognitive de-arousal. Subsequent changes in nocturnal sleep and sleep-related attentional processing were examined. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a cognitive arousal (trauma video; age: M = 22.9, SD = 4.3, 6 male, 11 female) or control (pleasant video; age: M = 23.8, SD = 5.8, 7 male, 10 female) condition. Although no significant differences were found for presleep cognitive de-arousal (p = .39), the cognitive arousal group experienced a significant worsening in sleep latency (p = .048, partial η(2) = .12) and an increase in sleep-related attentional bias (p = .032, d = 0.51) following the manipulation. However, changes in sleep and attentional bias were not maintained. Vulnerability to stress did not significantly account for any change in attentional bias, arousal, or sleep. These findings challenge current conceptualizations of the development of insomnia, yet also supporting the notion that good sleep is a default state that protects individuals from sleep disturbance.

  7. Trauma Systems: Origins, Evolution, and Current Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigneri, Danielle A; Beldowicz, Brian; Jurkovich, Gregory J

    2017-10-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among patients 46 years or younger, and having a system in place for the care of the injured is of paramount importance to the health of a community. The growth and development of civilian trauma systems has not been an easy process. The concept of regionalized health care that the trauma system models has been emulated by other specialized and time-sensitive areas of medicine, notably stroke and acute cardiac events. Continued process improvement, public education, support and involvement, a sound infrastructure, and integrated technology should remain our focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coronary artery dissection following chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Agarwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest trauma has a high rate of mortality. Coronary dissection causing myocardial infarction (MI following blunt chest trauma is rare. We describe the case of an anterior MI following blunt chest trauma. A 39-year-old male was received in our hospital following a motorcycle accident. The patient was asymptomatic before the accident. The patient underwent craniotomy for evacuation of hematoma. He developed severe chest pain and an electrocardiogram (ECG revealed anterior ST segment elevation following surgery. Acute coronary event was medically managed; subsequently, coronary angiogram was performed that showed dissection in the left anterior coronary artery, which was stented.

  9. Organizational network in trauma management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Chiara

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, as in other western countries, trauma is a leading cause of death during the first four decades of life, with almost 18.000 of deaths per year. Since 80s organized systems for trauma care, including a pre-hospital emergency medical system and a network of hospitals designated as Trauma Centres, have been developed in north American countries. Effectiveness of trauma systems has been investigated comparing the post-system to the pre-system trauma care with the method of panel evaluation of preventable death rates and comparison of observed survival with expected probability of survival. In Italy, a pre-hospital emergency medical system has been implemented on a national scale, while a trauma network has not been developed. Nowadays, trauma patients are often admitted to the closest hospital, independently from local resources. The Superior Council of Ministry of Health has presented in 2004 a new trauma system model (SIAT based on the recognition in the field of patients with more serious injuries and the transportation to general hospitals with resources and multidisciplinary teams specialized in trauma care (trauma team. The designation of few trauma team hospitals, one highly specialized Centre (CTS and two area Centres (CTZ every two millions of inhabitants allows each Centre to treat at least 250 severe trauma patients per year to increase experience. Less severe injured patients may be treated in non-trauma team acute care facilities, according to the inclusive system model. The development of trauma team services in some Italian hospitals has demonstrated an increase in survival and a decrease in preventable death rate from 42% to 7,6%. Economic studies of Ministry of Health have established that the implementation of a trauma system model on a national scale with a 25% decrease of preventable trauma deaths and disabilities would save 7500 million of euros of public money. Therefore, in our country the concentration of severely

  10. A Civilian/Military Trauma Institute: National Trauma Coordinating Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    maxillofacial Trauma, Trauma Mental Health, Neurosurgery, Craniofacial, Anesthesiology, and Burn Surgery . Page | 5 A. National Coordinating...research information to the trauma community 3. Breakouts included; Trauma/Critical Care, Orthopedic Trauma, Emergency Care, Trauma Nursing, Oral ...was presented at the 2012 Annual American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) meeting in September 2012, in Kauai, Hawaii (Appendix A

  11. The role of plain radiography in paediatric wrist trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaar, Annelie; Bentohami, Abdelali; Kessels, Jasper; Bijlsma, Taco S.; van Dijkman, Bart A.; Maas, Mario; Wilde, Jim C. H.; Goslings, J. Carel; Schep, Niels W. L.

    2012-01-01

    Acute wrist trauma in children is one of the most frequent reasons for visiting the emergency department (ED). Radiographic imaging in children with wrist trauma is mostly performed routinely to confirm or rule out a fracture. The aim of this study was to determine how many radiographs of the wrist

  12. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  13. A survey of physical therapists' clinical practice patterns and adherence to clinical guidelines in the management of patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, Marie B; Edgar, Kristen L; Smith, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    To explore the clinical practice of physical therapists and examine adherence to clinical guidelines for treating patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD). A cross-sectional electronic survey was sent to 1484 licensed physical therapists from the Orthopedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association and the American Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapists. The survey included demographic data and two clinical vignettes describing patients with acute and chronic WAD. The chi-square test was used to analyze responses. There were 291(19.6%) responses to the survey. Of those, 237 (81.4%) provided data for vignette 1 and 204 (70.1%) for vignette 2. One hundred and eighty (76.6%) respondents reported familiarity with evidence-based or clinical practice guidelines for treating patients with WAD. Of those, 71.5% (n = 128) indicated that they followed them more than 50% of the time. Therapists with an advanced certification were more likely to be familiar with clinical guidelines than those who were not certified (Ppsychological distress and some outcome measures. Significant differences in clinical practice (P<0.01) were found between therapists who were and were not familiar with guidelines and those with and without an advanced certification. Advanced certification and knowledge of guidelines appeared to play a role in the clinical practice of physical therapists treating patients with WAD. Further research is needed to explore factors affecting knowledge translation from research to clinical practice and to evaluate the outcomes of patients with WAD when clinical guidelines are applied in practice.

  14. Acute hyperextension/valgus trauma to the elbow in top-level adult male water polo goalkeepers: a cause of osteochondritis disecans of the capitellum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, Eduard; Ivkovic, Alan; Boric, Igor; Jankovic, Sasa; Radic, Andrej; Hudetz, Damir

    2013-09-01

    We report on 2 cases of hyperextension/valgus elbow injuries in two adult male national team water polo goalkeepers. Both were healthy and had never sustained any major injuries of the elbow. Mechanism and type of injury in both of them was identical. Different medical treatment protocols of these injuries possibly have led to different outcomes, with one of them developing osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Inadequate medical treatment of acute impact elbow injuries could lead to osteochondritis disecans of the elbow in top-level adult male water polo goalkeepers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acupuncture for Treating Whiplash Associated Disorder: A Systematic Review of Randomised Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woong Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of whiplash associated disorder (WAD. Twenty databases were searched from their inceptions to Oct. 2013. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs of acupuncture (AT, electroacupuncture (EA, or dry needling (DN for the treatment of WAD were considered eligible. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool. Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included RCTs have serious methodological flaws. Four of the RCTs showed effectiveness of AT, AT in addition to usual care (UC, AT in addition to herbal medicine (HM or EA was more effective than relaxation, sham EA, sham EA in addition to HM or UC for conditioned pain modulation (CPM and alleviating pain. In one RCT, DN in addition to physiotherapy (PT had no effect compared to sham-DN in addition to PT for the reduction of pain. None of the RCTs showed that AT/EA/DN was more effective than various types of control groups in reducing disability/function. One RCT did not report between-group comparisons of any outcome measures. The evidence for the effectiveness of AT/EA/DN for the treatment of WAD is limited. Therefore, more research in this area is warranted.

  16. Statistical analysis of 4 types of neck whiplash injuries based on classical meridian theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yemeng; Zhao, Yan; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Hui; Wu, Xiuyan; Zhang, Qunce; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Tianfang

    2015-01-01

    As one component of the Chinese medicine meridian system, the meridian sinew (Jingjin, (see text), tendino-musculo) is specially described as being for acupuncture treatment of the musculoskeletal system because of its dynamic attributes and tender point correlations. In recent decades, the therapeutic importance of the sinew meridian has become revalued in clinical application. Based on this theory, the authors have established therapeutic strategies of acupuncture treatment in Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) by categorizing four types of neck symptom presentations. The advantage of this new system is to make it much easier for the clinician to find effective acupuncture points. This study attempts to prove the significance of the proposed therapeutic strategies by analyzing data collected from a clinical survey of various WAD using non-supervised statistical methods, such as correlation analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis. The clinical survey data have successfully verified discrete characteristics of four neck syndromes, based upon the range of motion (ROM) and tender point location findings. A summary of the relationships among the symptoms of the four neck syndromes has shown the correlation coefficient as having a statistical significance (P syndrome factors are more related to the Liver, as originally described in classical theory. The hypothesis of meridian sinew syndromes in WAD is clearly supported by the statistical analysis of the clinical trials. This new discovery should be beneficial in improving therapeutic outcomes.

  17. Function in patients with cervical radiculopathy or chronic whiplash-associated disorders compared with healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Wibault, Johanna; Dedering, Åsa; Peterson, Gunnel

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine whether any differences in function and health exist between patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) due to disk disease scheduled for surgery and patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and to compare measures of patients' physical function with those obtained from healthy volunteers. This is a cross-sectional study of patients with CR (n = 198) and patients with chronic WAD (n = 215). Patient data were compared with raw data previously obtained from healthy people. Physical measures included cervical active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand grip strength. Self-rated measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), neck disability (Neck Disability Index), self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier). Patient groups exhibited significantly lower performance than the healthy group in all physical measures (P .09). There was a general trend toward worse results in the CR group than the WAD group, with significant differences in neck active range of motion, left hand strength for women, pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier, and Self-Efficacy Scale (P < .0001). Patients had worse values than healthy individuals in almost all physical measures. There was a trend toward worse results for CR than WAD patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laterality judgments are not impaired in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Ashley; Motlagh, Helena; Sterling, Michele

    2013-02-01

    Impaired integration of the body schema with motor processes may contribute to painful and/or restricted movement in chronic pain. Laterality judgment tasks assess this integration of the body schema with motor processes. The purpose of this study was to assess if patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are impaired on laterality judgment tasks. Accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for foot and neck laterality tasks were assessed in 64 (35 female) patients with chronic (>6 months) WAD and 24 (14 female) asymptomatic subjects. Pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms, cold pain thresholds (CPT) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were collected for patients with WAD. The effect of WAD and body part on laterality task performance was assessed. For patients with WAD, the correlations between neck task performance and pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain thresholds were assessed. There was no effect of group on laterality performance. Subjects showed better RT (p laterality task in patients with WAD. Cervical spine PPT were significantly correlated with accuracy (r = 0.36) and RT (r = 0.29) in patients with WAD. These findings suggest that patients with chronic WAD are not impaired on neck or foot laterality judgment tasks. Laterality training is not indicated in the management of chronic WAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acceleration-caused injury of the cervical spine. Whiplash injury; Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaeule. HWS-Schleudertrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedig, Hans-Dieter (eds.) [Kanzlei Dr. W.G. Schmidt, Sonthofen (Germany); Graf, Michael; Grill, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Acceleration injuries of the cervical spine are mostly caused by car accidents. Due to the high traffic density and the increasing number of car accidents with personal injuries the number of concerned persons is also increasing. A large percentage of injured persons suffer ongoing troubles following ineffective therapy trials up to occupational disability. Therefore the whiplash injury is a significant medical and legal problem. The book includes contributions of international experts on the latest state of research and the actual knowledge on the controversial discussed field. An interdisciplinary forum discusses medical, injury-mechanical, consultant-related and legal questions and therapeutic approaches that might be successful. [German] Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule treten ueberwiegend nach Autounfaellen auf. Aufgrund der hohen Verkehrsdichte und der steigenden Anzahl an Verkehrsunfaellen mit Personenschaeden steigt auch die Zahl der Betroffenen stetig an. Einer grossen Zahl von Unfallgeschaedigten, die nach kurzer Zeit beschwerdefrei leben koennen, steht leider eine wachsende Zahl von Betroffenen mit anhaltenden Beschwerden, erfolglosen Therapieversuchen bis hin zur Berufsunfaehigkeit gegenueber. Das 'HWS-Schleudertrauma' stellt nach wie vor ein erhebliches medizinisches und rechtliches Problem dar. In diesem Buch beschreiben international ausgewiesene Experten den neuesten Forschungsstand, das aktuelle Wissen und die Lehrmeinungen auf diesem kontrovers diskutierten und komplexen Gebiet. In einem interdisziplinaeren Ansatz werden medizinische, verletzungsmechanische, gutachterliche und gerichtliche Fragestellungen diskutiert und Erfolg versprechende Therapieansaetze eroertert. Aerzte, Juristen, Versicherungen und Betroffene werden in einen gemeinsamen Dialog gebracht, mit dem Ziel, konstruktive Loesungen zu erarbeiten. Eine praktische Arbeitshilfe - das Buch fuer alle, die mit dieser Problematik befasst sind. (orig.)

  20. Optimized cervical spine bone SPET for detection of facet joint injury after whiplash injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Bower, G.D.; Taylor, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The most frequent origin for chronic cervical pain in patients with a remote history of whiplash injury is the cervical facet joints. Exact localization of facet joint injury is difficult and currently advocated methods include multiple invasive diagnostic injections. Optimization of 99 Tc m -HDP cervical SPET (CSPET) to accurately localize facet joint pathology was attempted and the results correlated with clinical localization relying on focal joint tenderness and passive movement methods. Imaging was performed on a dual-headed gamma camera system using an elliptical orbit over 360 deg. The patient's neck was flexed to eliminate the cervical lordosis. Reconstructed CSPET images were reorientated into the long axis of the vertebral bodies. CSPET studies were independently scored by two observers blinded to the clinical and other imaging information and correlated with clinical localization and response to radiofrequency ablation. 54 patients have been studied using this technique in a prospective study. Early patient follow-up data will be presented. CSPET was felt to be clinically useful by pain therapists in targeting treatment

  1. Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.

  2. Highlighting intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with severe acute brain trauma Ressaltando a monitorização da pressão intracraniana em pacientes com traumatismo cerebral agudo grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. E Falcão

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial pressure (ICP monitoring was carried out in 100 patients with severe acute brain trauma, primarily by means of a subarachnoid catheter. Statistical associations were evaluated between maximum ICP values and: 1 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores; 2 findings on computed tomography (CT scans of the head; and 3 mortality. A significant association was found between low GCS scores (3 to 5 and high ICP levels, as well as between focal lesions on CT scans and elevated ICP. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with ICP > 40 mm Hg than in those with ICP Monitorização da pressão intracraniana (PIC foi adotada em 100 pacientes com traumatismo cerebral agudo grave, usando-se preferencialmente um catéter subaracnóide. Associações estatísticas foram avaliadas entre valores máximos de PIC e : 1 número de pontos na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG; 2 achados na tomografia computadorizada (TC da cabeça; e 3 mortalidade. Encontrou-se associação significante entre baixo número de pontos (3 a 5 na ECG e PIC elevada, assim como entre lesões focais na TC e hipertensão intracraniana. A mortalidade foi significantemente maior em pacientes com PIC > 40 mm Hg do que naqueles com PIC < 20 mm Hg.

  3. The Temporal Development of Fatty Infiltrates in the Neck Muscles Following Whiplash Injury: An Association with Pain and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James; Pedler, Ashley; Kenardy, Justin; Galloway, Graham; Jull, Gwendolen; Sterling, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Background Radiological findings associated with poor recovery following whiplash injury remain elusive. Muscle fatty infiltrates (MFI) in the cervical extensors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic pain have been observed. Their association with specific aspects of pain and psychological factors have yet to be explored longitudinally. Materials and Findings 44 subjects with whiplash injury were enrolled at 4 weeks post-injury and classified at 6 months using scores on the Neck Disability Index as recovered, mild and moderate/severe. A measure for MFI and patient self-report of pain, loss of cervical range of movement and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were collected at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-injury. The effects of time and group and the interaction of time by group on MFI were determined. We assessed the mediating effect of posttraumatic stress and cervical range of movement on the longitudinal relationship between initial pain intensity and MFI. There was no difference in MFI across all groups at enrollment. MFI values increased in the moderate/severe group and were significantly higher in comparison to the recovered and mild groups at 3 and 6 months. No differences in MFI values were found between the mild and recovered groups. Initial severity of PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and MFI at 6 months. Initial ROM loss did not. Conclusions MFI in the cervical extensors occur soon following whiplash injury and suggest the possibility for the occurrence of a more severe injury with subsequent PTSD in patients with persistent symptoms. PMID:21698170

  4. The temporal development of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles following whiplash injury: an association with pain and posttraumatic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Elliott

    Full Text Available Radiological findings associated with poor recovery following whiplash injury remain elusive. Muscle fatty infiltrates (MFI in the cervical extensors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with chronic pain have been observed. Their association with specific aspects of pain and psychological factors have yet to be explored longitudinally.44 subjects with whiplash injury were enrolled at 4 weeks post-injury and classified at 6 months using scores on the Neck Disability Index as recovered, mild and moderate/severe. A measure for MFI and patient self-report of pain, loss of cervical range of movement and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were collected at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-injury. The effects of time and group and the interaction of time by group on MFI were determined. We assessed the mediating effect of posttraumatic stress and cervical range of movement on the longitudinal relationship between initial pain intensity and MFI. There was no difference in MFI across all groups at enrollment. MFI values increased in the moderate/severe group and were significantly higher in comparison to the recovered and mild groups at 3 and 6 months. No differences in MFI values were found between the mild and recovered groups. Initial severity of PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and MFI at 6 months. Initial ROM loss did not.MFI in the cervical extensors occur soon following whiplash injury and suggest the possibility for the occurrence of a more severe injury with subsequent PTSD in patients with persistent symptoms.

  5. Preceding trauma in childhood hematogenous bone and joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Kallio, Markku J T; Lankinen, Petteri; Peltola, Heikki; Kallio, Pentti E

    2014-03-01

    Preceding trauma may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of hematogenous bone and joint infections. Among 345 children with an acute hematogenous bone and/or joint infection, 20% reported trauma during a 2-week period leading to infection. Blunt impact, bruises, or excoriations were commonly reported. The rate was similar to that in the general pediatric population obtained from the literature. In the study group, patients with and without trauma were similar in age, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, length of hospitalization, and late sequelae. Preceding minor trauma did not prove to be significant as an etiological or as a prognostic factor.

  6. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technology Assessment Printer Friendly Version Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin SHIB 03-24- ... with important information about the hazards of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma when using fall arrest systems. ...

  7. Trauma Facts for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…

  8. Anaesthesia for trauma patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in trauma patients can be used. However, some modifications have been made to adapt it to unstable trauma patients, where reawakening the patient is not an option because of the need for emergency airway control (Figure 3).4. Anaesthetists working in high-volume trauma centers should determine their own algorithm, ...

  9. Trauma resuscitation time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olden, G.D.J. van; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.; Goris, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Documenting the timing and organisation of trauma resuscitation can be utilised to assess performance standards, and to ensure a high quality of trauma resuscitation procedures. Since there is no European literature available on trauma resuscitation time (TRT) in the emergency room, the aim of this

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression of the Neck Disability Index: Assessment If Subscales Are Equally Relevant in Whiplash and Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P Multiple linear regression modeling revealed high internal consistency with all coefficients reaching significance (P < .0001). The 4 NDI subscales exerting the greatest effect were, in decreasing order, Sleeping, Lifting, Headaches, and Pain Intensity. A 2-factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.

  11. The Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire cross-cultural adaptation into Dutch and evaluation of its psychometric properties in a population with subacute and chronic whiplash associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y. van der; Helders, P.J.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. Cross-cultural adaptation of an outcome questionnaire. Objective. The aim of the study was to cross-culturally adapt the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire (NBQ) for the Dutch language in a population of people with subacute and chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), and to assess

  12. [Trauma and emergency thoracoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmann, J; Vrastyák, J; Svoboda, P; Kantorová, I; Zelnícek, P; Cierny, M

    1996-08-01

    Authors present their first experience with urgent videothoracoscopy in polytraumatism and in isolated thoracic trauma patients. During the prospective study in 1993-1995 thoracoscopically was treated 41 (18%) from 229 multiple trauma patients including thorax trauma, hospitalised in our Institute. Thoracoscopy underwent 62 (4%) from 1452 patients with simple thoracic trauma. Thoracoscopy has been indicated above all for continued bleeding into peritoneal cavity, for suspected diafragmatic injury and for the diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic complications. Authors suggest that thoracoscopy is in experienced hands and adequatelly equipped workplaces an accurate and safe method for the diagnosis and in some cases also for therapy of hemodynamic stabile patients with thoracic trauma.

  13. The trauma ecosystem: The impact and economics of new trauma centers on a mature statewide trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, David J; Pracht, Etienne E; Leitz, Pablo T; Spain, David A; Staudenmayer, Kristan L; Tepas, Joseph J

    2017-06-01

    Florida serves as a model for the study of trauma system performance. Between 2010 and 2104, 5 new trauma centers were opened alongside 20 existing centers. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of trauma system expansion on system triage performance and trauma center patients' profiles. A statewide data set was queried for all injury-related discharges from adult acute care hospitals using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for 2010 and 2014. The data set, inclusion criteria, and definitions of high-risk injury were chosen to match those used by the Florida Department of Health in its trauma registry. Hospitals were classified as existing Level I (E1) or Level II (E2) trauma centers and new E2 (N2) centers. Five N2 centers were established 11.6 to 85.3 miles from existing centers. Field and overall trauma system triage of high-risk patients was less accurate with increased overtriage and no change in undertriage. Annual volume at N2 centers increased but did not change at E1 and E2 centers. In 2014, Patients at E1 and E2 centers were slightly older and less severely injured, while those at N2 centers were substantially younger and more severely injured than in 2010. The injured patient-payer mix changed with a decrease in self-pay and commercial patients and an increase in government-sponsored patients at E1 and E2 centers and an increase in self-pay and commercial patients with a decrease in government-sponsored patients at N2 centers. Designation of new trauma centers in a mature system was associated with a change in established trauma center demographics and economics without an improvement in trauma system triage performance. These findings suggest that the health of an entire trauma system network must be considered in the design and implementation of a regional trauma system. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV; epidemiological, level IV.

  14. Are People With Whiplash-Associated Neck Pain Different From People With Nonspecific Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-10-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with nonspecific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain who presented to a secondary-care spine center answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified into a group of either those with WAD or those with nonspecific neck pain. We compared the outcomes of baseline characteristics of the 2 groups, as well as pain intensity and activity limitation at follow-ups of 6 and 12 months. Results A total of 2578 participants were included in the study. Of these, 488 (19%) were classified as having WAD. At presentation, patients with WAD were statistically different from patients without WAD for almost all characteristics investigated. While most differences were small (1.1 points on an 11-point pain-rating scale and 11 percentage points on the Neck Disability Index), others, including the presence of dizziness and memory difficulties, were substantial. The between-group differences in pain and disability increased significantly (Pneck pain. Conclusion People referred to secondary care with WAD typically had more self-reported pain and disability and experienced worse outcomes than those with nonspecific neck pain. Caution is required when interpreting the longitudinal outcomes due to lower-than-optimal follow-up rates. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 2. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(10):894-901. Epub 3 Sep 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6588.

  15. The pain drawing as an instrument for identifying cervical spine nerve involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoff, Gabriella; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Peterson, Gunnel; Bertilson, Bo Christer; Elf, Madeleine; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a standardized assessment of pain drawing with regard to clinical signs of cervical spine nerve root involvement. This cross-sectional study included data collected in a randomized controlled study. Two hundred and sixteen patients with chronic (≥6 months) whiplash-associated disorders, grade 2 or 3, were included in this study. The validity, sensitivity, and specificity of a standardized pain drawing assessment for determining nerve root involvement were analyzed, compared to the clinical assessment. In addition, we analyzed the interrater reliability with 50 pain drawings. Agreement was poor between the standardized pain drawing assessment and the clinical assessment (kappa =0.11, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.20). Sensitivity was high (93%), but specificity was low (19%). Interrater reliability was good (kappa =0.64, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.76). The standardized pain drawing assessment of nerve root involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders was not in agreement with the clinical assessment. Further research is warranted to optimize the utilization of a pain/discomfort drawing as a supportive instrument for identifying nerve involvement in cervical spinal injuries.

  16. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P   0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  18. Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    support hospital. J Trauma 2007; 63:805 813. 16. Pidcoke HF, Aden JK, Mora AG, et al. Ten year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and...107:378 387. 47. Ostrowski SR , Sørensen AM, Larsen CF, Johansson PI. Thrombelastography and biomarker profiles in acute coagulopathy of trauma: a...preoperative coagulation screening assays. Curr Hematol Rep 2004; 3:324 330. 93. Johansson PI, Stissing T, Bochsen L, Ostrowski SR . Thrombelastography and

  19. Ultrasonography in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C

    2017-01-01

    .9%) facilities. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was used in a non-uniform fashion by multiple specialties in Danish trauma facilities. Very few images from FAST examinations were stored and documentation was scanty. National guidelines on application and documentation of ultrasonography in trauma are called for.......BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) protocol is considered beneficial in emergent evaluation of trauma patients with blunt or penetrating injury and has become integrated into the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol. No guidelines exist as to the use....... Twenty-one (95.5%) of the guidelines included and recommended FAST as part of trauma assessment. The recommended person to perform the examination was the radiologist in n = 11 (50.0%), the surgeon in n = 6 (27.3%), the anesthesiologist in n = 1 (4.5%), and unspecified in n = 3 (13.6%) facilities. FAST...

  20. Management of duodenal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Guo-qing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Duodenal trauma is uncommon but nowadays seen more and more frequently due to the increased automobile accidents and violent events. The management of duodenal trauma can be complicated, especially when massive injury to the pancreatic-duodenal-biliary complex occurs simultaneously. Even the patients receive surgeries in time, multiple postoperative complications and high mortality are common. To know and manage duodenal trauma better, we searched the recent related literature in PubMed by the keywords of duodenal trauma, therapy, diagnosis and abdomen. It shows that because the diagnosis and management are complicated and the mortality is high, duodenal trauma should be treated in time and tactfully. And application of new technology can help improve the management. In this review, we discussed the incidence, diagnosis, management, and complications as well as mortality of duodenal trauma. Key words: Duodenum; Wounds and injuries; Diagnosis; Therapeutics

  1. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  3. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  4. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  7. Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Iwao; Ohta, Masaru; Samoto, Ken; Hamamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111 In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24

  8. Correlation between Exposure to Bomechanical Stress and Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William HM Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most discussed questions in WAD is: can an injury of the cervical spine occur in low velocity collisions? Before this question can be answered, the term 'low velocity' and the kind of collisions must first be defined. From the study of Meyer et al. (1994 it is known that the speed change due to collision, Dv, is a suitable parameter to express the biomechanical stress acting on a person in a car collision. This study also showed that from a biomechanical point of view, a bumper car collision is comparable to a normal car collision. In the case of a rear-end collision, Meyer et al. found that the biomechanical stress acting on persons exposed to bumper car collisions (Dv at a fun fair in Germany can be as high as 15 km/h. In literature, one case could be found of an 8-year-old girl with 'whiplash' after being exposed to a bumper car collision at a fun fair (Kamieth 1990. In the Netherlands, a 13-year survey of persons who were admitted to emergency units of hospitals by the 'Consument en Veiligheid' foundation, showed 14 persons with WAD complaints after being exposed to bumper car collisions at a fun fair. In comparison to the enormous amounts of bumper car collisions, these figures are negligible. With regard to these data, one could argue that low velocity collisions can be defined as those where Dv is below 15 km/h. However, it should be noted that the kind of collision is important. From the work of Becke et al. (1999 and Becke and Castro (2000, we know that in side collisions with a Dv of just 3 km/h, head contact with the side window of the car is possible; it can be expected that in such cases the cervical spine will also be exposed to some biomechanical stress (notice however, that not every head contact is automatically equal to an injury of the cervical spine!. In conclusion, before using expressions like 'low velocity collisions', its definition with regard to Dv as well as the kind of collision, has to be discussed. With

  9. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P0.05). Assessment of driving in an advanced driving simulator for approximately 15min revealed

  10. Characteristics and status of Korean medicine use in whiplash-associated disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nohyeon; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-Riong; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Jung, Chan Yung; Ruan, Diana; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2018-04-06

    Patients are free to choose conventional or Korean medicine treatment under the dual medical system in Korea, and the prevalence of patients who choose Korean medicine treatment for whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) is high. This study analyzed the sociodemographic characteristics and medical service use in this population to provide healthcare providers with basic usage information of complementary and alternative medicine for WAD. A total of 8291 outpatients who registered under automobile insurance coverage and visited the main branch of Jaseng Hospital of Korean Medicine from April 1, 2014 to August 10, 2016 were included. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms, and accident and treatment-related details were collected from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify baseline factors predictive of total treatment duration. The most prevalent demographic of patients who chose Korean medicine for WAD treatment was males in their thirties whose initial visit to the hospital was 16.1 ± 94.1 days from the accident. Neck pain accompanied by low back pain (57.0%) was the most common complaint, and for singular pain, neck pain (13.5%) was the most prevalent. Baseline numeric rating scale (NRS) pain levels were generally moderate (4-6) regardless of area. Patients received 7.2 ± 10.2 sessions of treatment for 32.6 ± 55.3 days. The most commonly prescribed treatment modalities in order of highest frequency were acupuncture, cupping, pharmacopuncture, and herbal medicine, which collectively accounted for > 90% of treatments. Acupuncture was administered 29.0 ± 40.8 times, and cupping 14.0 ± 18.7 times as the two highest frequency treatments. In multivariate regression analysis, longer treatment periods were found to be associated with higher NRS, older age, and delayed initial visits at baseline. This study highlights the characteristics and Korean medicine use of WAD

  11. Mandibular condylar fractures and acute atlanto-axial subluxation Part 2 A physiopathological factor for the cervical spine sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutilli, T; Corbacelli, A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physiopathology of the acute cervical injure in the event of mandibular condylar fractures. As in the Part 1, 25 non-consecutive cases of condylar mandibular fractures (16 males and 9 females, mean age: 22.96/range 14-36 years) observed and treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the University of L'Aquila, have been studied. Types of fractures examined included: unilateral: 19 cases (solitary: 12; associated with other mandibular fractures: 7, homolateral: 2); bilateral: 6 cases (equivalent: 2, not equivalent: 4). A control group was constituted of 10 patients, 5 males and 5 females, aged from 19 to 24 years (mean range: 21.6) suffering from acute isolated cervical distorsion (whiplash). The study has been performed by means of the analysis of X-ray and computed tomography (CT)-CT/3D of the mandibular condylar regions, the occipital-atlanto-axial structures and the cervical region. In all the patients the following constant alterations that link up with these fractures have been observed: the rotation of atlas, the atlanto-axial subluxation and the derangement of the occipital-atlanto-epistropheal joint, homolateral to the side of the mandibular condylar fracture. The cervical spine shows the constant loss of physiological lordosis with hinge between C3 and C4. In the whiplash, as the authors have been able to assess in the control group, there are no alterations of occipital-atlanto-axial joint and the kinetic vector is placed on the longitudinal plane. In the mandibular condylar fractures the kinetic mechanism is completely different regarding the whiplash. The point of entry is the chin and the kinetic vector is oriented down-up, sometimes oblique in the opposite side. Subsequently the kinetic force is transmitted throughout the mandibular structure and causes the condylar or bicondylar fracture. The kinetic vector is placed before on the vertical plane, then on the horizontal plane and later on the vertical

  12. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, S.; Kantarci, M.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented

  13. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: suateren@atauni.edu.tr; Kantarci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Okur, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented.

  14. RADIOLOGY EDUCATION: A PILOT STUDY TO ASSESS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS REGARDING IMAGING IN TRAUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saad; Saeed, Muhammad Anwar; Shah, Noreen; Nadeem, Naila

    2015-01-01

    Trauma remains one of the most frequent presentations in emergency departments. Imaging has established role in setting of acute trauma with ability to identify potentially fatal conditions. Adequate knowledge of health professionals regarding trauma imaging is vital for improved healthcare. In this work we try to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging in trauma as well as identify most effective way of imparting radiology education. This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted at Aga Khan University Medical College & Khyber Girls Medical College, to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging protocols practiced in initial management of trauma patients. Only 40 & 20% respectively were able to identify radiographs included in trauma series. Very few had knowledge of correct indication for Focused abdominal sonography in trauma. Clinical radiology rotation was reported as best way of learning radiology. Change in curricula & restructuring of clinical radiology rotation structure is needed to improve knowledge regarding Trauma imaging.

  15. Parieto-occipital hypoperfusion in late whiplash syndrome: first quantitative SPET study using technetium-99m bicisate (ECD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, A.; Ettlin, T.; Fierz, L.; Mueller-Brand, J.

    1996-01-01

    Brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with N,N''-1,2-ethylene-diylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester dihydrochloride (ECD) was performed on ten patients with a clinically high grade late whiplash syndrome and on 11 controls. Two independent readers blinded to the clinical diagnosis were able to separate the ten patients from normal controls. All these patients had qualitative bilateral parieto-occipital hypoperfusion. To confirm this, the perfusion rate of parieto-occipital over global (perfusion index) was calculated after drawing elliptical regions of interest in transversal-oblique slices. The perfusion indices in patients were significantly lower than in controls as tested by the Mann-Whitney U test. This quantitative study proves our recent qualitatively analysed observation. (orig./MG)

  16. ACR appropriateness criteria blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jonathan H; Cox, Christian W; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Kirsch, Jacobo; Brown, Kathleen; Dyer, Debra Sue; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; Ravenel, James G; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Imaging is paramount in the setting of blunt trauma and is now the standard of care at any trauma center. Although anteroposterior radiography has inherent limitations, the ability to acquire a radiograph in the trauma bay with little interruption in clinical survey, monitoring, and treatment, as well as radiography's accepted role in screening for traumatic aortic injury, supports the routine use of chest radiography. Chest CT or CT angiography is the gold-standard routine imaging modality for detecting thoracic injuries caused by blunt trauma. There is disagreement on whether routine chest CT is necessary in all patients with histories of blunt trauma. Ultimately, the frequency and timing of CT chest imaging should be site specific and should depend on the local resources of the trauma center as well as patient status. Ultrasound may be beneficial in the detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pericardial hemorrhage; transesophageal echocardiography is a first-line imaging tool in the setting of suspected cardiac injury. In the blunt trauma setting, MRI and nuclear medicine likely play no role in the acute setting, although these modalities may be helpful as problem-solving tools after initial assessment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trauma and the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Witnessing horrible things may leave a person scarred for life — an effect usually referred to as psychological trauma. We do not know exactly what it does or how it worms its way into our psyche, but psychological trauma has been linked to a wide range of fear- and depression-related symptoms

  18. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  19. Trauma - the malignant epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    murdered by the time he is aged 35 years.5 Trauma is respon- sible for the deaths of ISO000 Americans each ... people than malignant disease, hean disease and AIDS com- bined.7. South Mrica. South Africa has no ... away trauma patients, the IeU has also to refuse care for those patients who.require intensive monitoring ...

  20. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...

  1. Haemostatic resuscitation in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Par I.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the recent developments in and evolvement of next generation haemostatic resuscitation in bleeding trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: Mortality from major trauma is a worldwide problem, and massive haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Developmen...

  2. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanworth, Simon J; Morris, Timothy P; Gaarder, Christine

    2010-01-01

    transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. METHODS : Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability......ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens...... of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive...

  3. Adult Dental Trauma: What Should the Dental Practitioner Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ravi; Rasaratnam, Lakshmi; Alani, Aws; Djemal, Serpil

    2016-08-01

    The management of adult dental trauma can be a daunting challenge for practitioners at any level. Like medical emergencies, initial management can have a large influence on prognosis. It is important that practitioners understand the basic principles of managing the acute presentations of dental trauma. This article aims to illustrate a step-by-step approach in order to improve the management within general dental practice for better outcomes for patients.

  4. Improving spinal trauma management in non-specialist centres

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Alex; Galloway, Kate; Dinneen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the vertebral column are increasing in incidence. Even though spinal trauma is increasingly being managed in specialist units, these patients often still initially present to district general hospitals. Due to lack of exposure to these patients, the attending Orthopaedic Senior House Officer may not always be aware of current best practice in the acute management of these patients beyond immediate Advance Trauma Life Support measures. There is concern that initiation of managemen...

  5. Lack of Gender and Age Differences in Pain Measurements Following Exercise in People with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickmans, Kelly; Malfliet, Anneleen; De Kooning, Margot; Goudman, Lisa; Hubloue, Ives; Schmitz, Tom; Goubert, Dorien; Aguilar-Ferrandiz, Maria Encarnacion

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) present persistent pain in the absence of structural pathology. In these people, altered central pain processing and central sensitization are observed. The role of personal factors, such as gender and age, on pain processing mechanisms in chronic WAD, however, is still unclear. This study investigated possible gender- and age-related differences in self-reported and experimental pain measurements in people with chronic WAD. Besides the exercise-induced response on pain measurements between gender and age subgroups was recorded. Case-control study. University Hospital, Brussels. Self-reported pain and experimental pain measurements (pressure pain thresholds [PPT], occlusion cuff pressure, temporal summation, and conditioned pain modulation) were performed in 52 individuals (26 chronic WAD patients and 26 healthy controls), before and after a submaximal cycle exercise. Lower PPTs and occlusion cuff pressures were shown in chronic WAD in comparison with healthy controls. No gender and age differences regarding PPTs, occlusion cuff pressures and conditioned pain modulation were found in chronic WAD. Within the chronic WAD group, men showed higher self-reported pain compared to women and younger adults showed enhanced generalized pain facilitation compared to older adults. In addition, chronic WAD patients are able to inhibit exercise-induced hyperalgesia, but no gender and age differences in pain response following exercise were found. This study was sufficiently powered to detect differences between the chronic WAD and control group. However, a sufficient power was not reached when patients were divided in age and gender groups. Furthermore, only mechanical stimuli were included in the experimental pain measurements. Besides, psychosocial factors were not taken into account. Some alterations of altered pain processing are present in chronic WAD patients, however not in response to exercise. No gender and

  6. The relationship between insurance claim closure and recovery after traffic injuries for individuals with whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eleanor; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Carroll, Linda J

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if time to claim closure was similar to time to self-reported recovery in a no fault motor vehicle collision insurance system. A prospective cohort of traffic injured adults with a whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) was assembled. We excluded participants who applied for benefits after 42 days of the collision, who were in hospital for more than two days and participants who were not followed up at least once after their injury. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, six weeks, three-, six-, nine- and 12-months after the collision. The mean age of the cohort was 39 years and 66% were female. The mean number of days until claim closure and for self-reported recovery was 291days and 134 days, respectively. We found those who had their claim closed at each follow-up period had lower levels of disability and were more likely to report they were recovered than participants with open claims. We conclude that time to claim closure could be used as an outcome measure in traffic collision; however, this measure should be used with caution since it over-estimates the true time to recovery. Implications for Rehabilitation Time to claim closure as an outcome measure for whiplash-associated disorders has been criticized in the literature because it is thought that closure is not reflective of the health status of the individual. We found that claim closure was associated with lower levels of disability, but the time to claim closure was significantly longer than the time to self-reported recovery. Time to claim closure may be used with caution as a "proxy" measure of recovery from an injury; however, it must be noted that it over-estimates the true time of recovery.

  7. To What Degree Does Active Cervical Range of Motion Differ Between Patients With Neck Pain, Patients With Whiplash, and Those Without Neck Pain? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenneberg, Martijn S; Rood, Michiel; de Bie, Rob; Schmitt, Maarten A; Cattrysse, Erik; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G

    2017-07-01

    To quantify differences in active cervical range of motion (aCROM) between patients with neck pain and those without neck pain, in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and nontraumatic neck pain, and in patients with acute complaints versus those with chronic complaints. Seven bibliographic databases were searched from inception to April 2015. In addition, a manual search was performed. Full articles on a numerical comparison of aCROM in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic control persons of similar ages were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies and assessed risk of bias. Two reviewers extracted the data. Pooled mean differences of aCROM were calculated using a random-effects model. The search yielded 6261 hits; 27 articles (2366 participants, 13 low risk of bias) met the inclusion criteria. The neck pain group showed less aCROM in all movement directions compared with persons without neck pain. Mean differences ranged from -7.04° (95% CI, -9.70° to -4.38°) for right lateral bending (11 studies) to -89.59° (95% CI, -131.67° to -47.51°) for total aCROM (4 studies). Patients with WADs had less aCROM than patients with nontraumatic neck pain. No conclusive differences in aCROM were found between patients with acute and patients with chronic complaints. Patients with neck pain have a significantly decreased aCROM compared with persons without neck pain, and patients with WADs have less aCROM than those with nontraumatic neck pain. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, H.; Nightingale, R. W.; Dang, A. B. C.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. Methods A previous...

  9. Balance, dizziness and proprioception in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders complaining of dizziness: A prospective randomized study comparing three exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Julia; Peterson, Gunnel; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-04-01

    Dizziness and unsteadiness are common symptoms following a whiplash injury. To compare the effect of 3 exercise programs on balance, dizziness, proprioception and pain in patients with chronic whiplash complaining of dizziness. A sub-analysis of a randomized study. One hundred and forty subjects were randomized to either a physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise, with a behavioural approach (NSEB) or prescription of general physical activity (PPA) group. Pre intervention, 3, 6 and 12 months post baseline they completed the University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire (UCLA-DQ), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for, dizziness at rest and during activity and physical measures (static and dynamic clinical balance tests and head repositioning accuracy (HRA)). There were significant time by group differences with respect to dizziness during activity and UCLA-Q favouring the physiotherapy led neck specific exercise group with a behavioural approach. Within group analysis of changes over time also revealed significant changes in most variables apart from static balance. Between and within group comparisons suggest that physiotherapist led neck exercise groups including a behavioural approach had advantages in improving measures of dizziness compared with the general physical activity group, although many still complained of dizziness and balance impairment. Future studies should consider exercises specifically designed to address balance, dizziness and cervical proprioception in those with persistent whiplash. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep muscle pain, tender points and recovery in acute whiplash patients: a 1-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Qerama, Erisela; Kongsted, Alice

    2008-01-01

    determined in injured and non-injured body regions at specific time-points after injury. Thirty-six of 157 WAD grade 2 patients (22.9%) had not recovered, defined as reduced work capacity after 1 year. Non-recovered patients had higher total tender point scores after 12 (p

  11. Dental Trauma Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment for traumatic dental injuries are very complex owing to the multiple trauma entities represented by six luxation types and nine fracture types affecting both the primary and the permanent dentition. When it is further considered that fracture and luxation injuries are often...... problems in selecting proper treatment for some of these trauma types. To remedy this situation, an Internet-based knowledge base consisting of 4000 dental trauma cases with long-term follow up is now available to the public and the professions on the Internet using the address http://www.Dental...

  12. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... is Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) [for posttraumatic stress disorder]? - Duration: 2:01. Veterans Health Administration 27,844 ...

  13. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  14. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  15. Pediatric Ocular Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the most common causes of eye injuries in children? Pediatric eye trauma most often occurs at school ... should happen when a child gets an eye injury? A child that sustains an eye injury should seek immediate ...

  16. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... MST. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/msthom... Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  17. Paediatric trauma care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The injury prevention ... for even more injuries than motor vehicle accidents, accounting for almost as many trauma admissions, as is also seen .... IS Secondly, seat-belt legislation and enforcement have only recently come into effect, despite ...

  18. Thromboembolic Complications Following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    these physiologic derangements, it is estimated that hypercoagulable disorders, such as factor V Leiden and hyperhomocysteinemia, may be present in...risk factors of venous thrombosis. Hum Genet 2001;109:369-84. 3. Knudson MM, Ikossi DG. Venous thromboembolism after trauma. Curr Opin Crit Care...R E V I E W A R T I C L E Thromboembolic complications following trauma Daniel F. McLaughlin, Charles E. Wade, Howard R. Champion, Jose Salinas, and

  19. Quality of trauma care and trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Sánchez, F I; Ballesteros Sanz, M A; Cordero Lorenzana, L; Guerrero López, F

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic disease is a major public health concern. Monitoring the quality of services provided is essential for the maintenance and improvement thereof. Assessing and monitoring the quality of care in trauma patient through quality indicators would allow identifying opportunities for improvement whose implementation would improve outcomes in hospital mortality, functional outcomes and quality of life of survivors. Many quality indicators have been used in this condition, although very few ones have a solid level of scientific evidence to recommend their routine use. The information contained in the trauma registries, spread around the world in recent decades, is essential to know the current health care reality, identify opportunities for improvement and contribute to the clinical and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Airway management in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration.

  1. Trauma team activation: Not just for trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoenix Vuong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialized trauma teams have been shown to improve outcomes in critically injured patients. At our institution, an the American College of Surgeons Committee on trauma level I Trauma center, the trauma team activation (TTA criteria includes both physiologic and anatomic criteria, but any attending physician can activate the trauma team at their discretion outside criteria. As a result, the trauma team has been activated for noninjured patients meeting physiologic criteria secondary to nontraumatic hemorrhage. We present two cases in which the trauma team was activated for noninjured patients in hemorrhagic shock. The utilization of the TTA protocol and subsequent management by the trauma team are reviewed as we believe these were critical factors in the successful recovery of both patients. Beyond the primary improved survival outcomes of severely injured patients, trauma center designation has a “halo effect” that encompasses patients with nontraumatic hemorrhage.

  2. Patterns of ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)

  3. Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000 in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001 in extension, 47% (p = 0.000 and 28% (p Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated

  4. Time factors associated with CT scan usage in trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung Kon Jin, P.H.P.; Geene, A.R. van; Linnau, K.F.; Jurkovich, G.J.; Ponsen, K.J.; Goslings, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: While computed tomography (CT) scan usage in acute trauma patients is currently part of the standard complete diagnostic workup, little is known regarding the time factors involved when CT scanning is added to the standard workup. An analysis of the current time factors and intervals in a high-volume, streamlined level-1 trauma center can potentially expose points of improvement in the trauma resuscitation phase. Materials and methods: During a 5-week period, data on current time factors involved in CT scanned trauma patients were prospectively collected. All consecutive trauma patients seen in the Emergency Department following severe trauma, or inter-hospital transfer following initial stabilizing elsewhere, and that underwent CT scanning, were included. Patients younger than 16 years of age were excluded. For all eligible patients, a complete time registration was performed, including admission time, time until completion of trauma series, time until CT imaging, and completion of CT imaging. Subgroup analyses were performed to differentiate severity of injury, based on ISS, and on primary or transfer presentations, surgery, and ICU admittance. Results: Median time between the arrival of the patient and completion of the screening X-ray trauma series was 9 min. Median start time for the first CT scan was 82 min. The first CT session was completed in a median of 105 min after arrival. Complete radiological workup was finished in 114 min (median). In 62% of all patients requiring CT scanning, a full body CT scan was obtained. Patients with ISS >15 had a significant shorter time until CT imaging and time until completion of CT imaging. Conclusion: In a high-volume level-1 trauma center, the complete radiological workup of trauma patients stable enough to undergo CT scanning, is completed in a median of 114 min. Patients that are more severely injured based on ISS were transported faster to CT, resulting in faster diagnostic imaging.

  5. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, D.F.; Osborne, D.R.S.; Radkowski, M.A.; Leonidas, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended.

  6. Resuscitative goals and new strategies in severe trauma patient resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Guerrero, J J; Freire-Aragón, M D; Serrano-Lázaro, A; Quintana-Díaz, M

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic injuries represent a major health problem all over the world. In recent years we have witnessed profound changes in the paradigm of severe trauma patient resuscitation, new concepts regarding acute coagulopathy in trauma have been proposed, and there has been an expansion of specific commercial products related to hemostasis, among other aspects. New strategies in severe trauma management include the early identification of those injuries that are life threatening and require surgical hemostasis, tolerance of moderate hypotension, rational intravascular volume replacement, prevention of hypothermia, correction of acidosis, optimization of oxygen carriers, and identification of those factors required by the patient (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, tranexamic acid, fibrinogen, cryoprecipitates and prothrombin complex). However, despite such advances, further evidence is required to improve survival rates in severe trauma patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merten, D.F.; Osborne, D.R.S.; Leonidas, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

  8. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Trauma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is the most common non-obstetrical cause of death in pregnant women. Pregnancy must always be suspected in any female trauma patient of childbearing age until proved otherwise. Unique changes in anatomy and physiology that takes place during pregnancy alter the pathophysiology and location of maternal injuries in pregnancy, which may be significantly different from the non-pregnant state. Trauma from road traffic accidents, falls and domestic violence are the most common causes of abdominal blunt trauma. As pregnancy progresses, the change of accidental injury increases. Head and neck injuries, respiratory failure, and hypovolemic shock constitute the most frequent causes of trauma related maternal death in pregnancy. Even the pregnant woman with minor injuries should be carefully observed. Initial management is directed at resuscitation and stabilization of the mother that takes precedence over that of the fetus, unless vital signs cannot be maintained and perimortem cesarean section decided upon. Fetal monitoring should be maintained after satisfactory resuscitation and stabilization of the mother. Preventive measures include proper seat belt use and identifying and counseling victims of suspected domestic violence.

  10. Male genital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references

  11. Maternofetal Trauma in Craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jordan; Oppenheimer, Adam; Al-Mufarrej, Faisal; Pet, Mitchell; Arakawa, Chris; Cunningham, Michael; Gruss, Joseph; Hopper, Richard; Birgfeld, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Premature cranial suture fusion may prevent neonatal skull malleability during birth, increasing the risk of unplanned cesarean delivery and neonatal birth trauma caused by cephalopelvic disproportion. We sought to determine the incidence of perinatal maternofetal complications in cases of craniosynostosis. Records of children presenting with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis to a tertiary pediatric hospital from 1996 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively with focus on birth history and birth-related complications. Six hundred eighteen births were reviewed. Rates of cesarean delivery among mothers of children with craniosynostosis [n = 201 (32.5 percent)] exceeded the overall regional rate of 24.5 percent (OR, 1.50; p delivery occurred in 19.7 percent of births, and were most associated with nulliparous mothers, breech fetal presentations, and lambdoid or multisuture synostosis patterns. Eleven neonates (1.8 percent) exhibited cranial birth trauma, including cephalohematoma and subgaleal hematoma. Neonates with sagittal or multisuture synostosis patterns were more likely to suffer birth trauma and had a higher mean head circumference than those who did not (81st versus 66th percentile, p birth trauma is increased-for mothers in the form of increased cesarean delivery risk, and for fetuses in the form of subgaleal and subperiosteal perinatal bleeding. Difficult maternal labor may be mediated especially by multisuture or lambdoid synostosis, whereas fetal birth trauma may be mediated to a greater extent by large head size. Prenatal diagnosis of craniosynostosis could influence decision-making in the management of labor. Risk, IV.

  12. Circulating Histones Are Mediators of Trauma-associated Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Simon T.; Zhang, Nan; Manson, Joanna; Liu, Tingting; Dart, Caroline; Baluwa, Florence; Wang, Susan Siyu; Brohi, Karim; Kipar, Anja; Yu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To investigate the pathological roles of circulating histones in trauma-induced lung injury. Methods: Circulating histone levels in patients with severe trauma were determined and correlated with respiratory failure and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Their cause–effect relationship was studied using cells and mouse models. Measurements and Main Results: In a cohort of 52 patients with severe nonthoracic blunt trauma, circulating histones surged immediately after trauma to levels that were toxic to cultured endothelial cells. The high levels were significantly associated with the incidence of acute lung injury and SOFA scores, as well as markers of endothelial damage and coagulation activation. In in vitro systems, histones damaged endothelial cells, stimulated cytokine release, and induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and myeloperoxidase release. Cellular toxicity resulted from their direct membrane interaction and resultant calcium influx. In mouse models, cytokines and markers for endothelial damage and coagulation activation significantly increased immediately after trauma or histone infusion. Pathological examinations showed that lungs were the predominantly affected organ with edema, hemorrhage, microvascular thrombosis, and neutrophil congestion. An anti-histone antibody could reduce these changes and protect mice from histone-induced lethality. Conclusions: This study elucidates a new mechanism for acute lung injury after severe trauma and proposes that circulating histones are viable therapeutic targets for improving survival

  13. Spinal cord lesion by minor trauma as an early sign of Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tavares Brum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple System Atrophy (MSA is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson´s Disease (PD. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after diagnosis he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4-C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D—predominantly on the left side—, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected he underwent an MRI which revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type multiple system atrophy (MSA. In our case we hypothesise that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment.

  14. Trauma, imagery and the therapeutic relationship: Langu's story ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case narrative provides a source for examining many aspects of the psychological impact of trauma and the path to healing, as well as the dilemmas and challenges faced by therapists working with traumatised individuals. Keywords: acute stress disorder, case narrative, case study, cognitive therapy, guided imagery, ...

  15. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue......+other had significantly higher plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, annexinV, d-dimer, IL6, syndecan-1, solubel thrombomodulin, and reduced protein C and factor XIII levels (all p...

  16. [Dropped Head Syndrome after whiplash injury in a patient treated for a Hodgkin's lymphoma by mantle field radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, M; Ferroir, J-P; Huguet, F; Deluen, F; Pène, F; Marseguerra, R; Touboul, E

    2013-02-01

    The authors report a case of Dropped Head Syndrome with an unusually rapid onset after an accident in a patient with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma cured by chemotherapy and mantle field radiotherapy and compare this case to the rare published cases of chronic Dropped Head Syndrome occurring after this type of treatment. A 56-year-old man was treated at the age 36 years for supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma by chemotherapy and mantle field radiotherapy according to a standard technique and standard doses (40Gy, 20 fractions, 27 days). Seventeen years after the end of treatment, he experienced a violent whiplash injury, rapidly followed by a Dropped Head Syndrome, similar to the cases of chronic Dropped Head Syndrome already described in the context of Hodgkin's lymphoma (permanent flexion of the head, only reduced in the supine position). Physical and neurophysiological examination, electromyogram, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of Dropped Head Syndrome. Very few treatment options are available for the major disability related to Dropped Head Syndrome. This type of subacute onset of Dropped Head Syndrome has not been previously described. The good results of radiation therapy after chemotherapy allow a dose reduction to 30Gy in the involved regions. This, together with recent progress in treatment planning, should allow eradication of these complications. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  18. The return-to-work process of individuals sick-listed because of whiplash-associated disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sarah; Møller, Anne; Stoltenberg, C.

    2014-01-01

    in individuals sick-listed for more than eight weeks in six Danish municipalities. RTW in individuals sick-listed due to WAD was compared to that in those sick-listed for other musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). METHODS: Information about long-term sick-listed individuals in six Danish municipalities was retrieved...... sick-listed due to WAD and 3,204 individuals were sick-listed due to other MSDs. After 6 months, the RTW was significantly lower in the WAD group. OR for RTW in the WAD group was 0.29 (0.18-0.49) compared to the MSD group. The RTW process for both groups stabilised after two years of follow-up; 44......% returned to work in the WAD group as compared to 58% in the MSD group. CONCLUSION: Sick-listed individuals with whiplash-associated disorder are less likely to return to work than individuals who are sick-listed because of other musculoskeletal disorders. In both groups, RTW stabilised after two years...

  19. Trauma cardiaco cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Camilo; Vargas, Fernando; Guzmán, Fernando; Zárate, Alejandro; Correa, José L.; Ramírez, Alejandro; Quintero, Diana M.; Ramírez, Erika M.

    2016-01-01

    El trauma cardiaco constituye una de las primeras causas de mortalidad en la población general. Requiere alto índice de sospecha en trauma cerrado severo, mecanismo de desaceleración y en presencia de signos indirectos como: equimosis, huella del volante o del cinturón en el tórax anterior. Las lesiones incluyen: conmoción cardiaca, ruptura cardiaca, lesión cardiaca indirecta como la trombosis coronaria aguda, lesión aórtica, lesión del pericardio y herniación cardiaca. Entre las manifestacio...

  20. Sonography of scrotal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meka Srinivasa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to depict the spectrum of scrotal injuries in blunt trauma. Scrotal injuries are not very common and are mostly due to blunt trauma from direct injury, sports injuries or motor vehicle accidents. To minimize complications and ensure testicular salvage, rapid and accurate diagnosis is necessary. High-resolution USG is the investigation of choice, as it is readily available, accurate and has been seen to improve outcomes. An understanding of and familiarity with the sonographic appearance of scrotal injuries on the part of the radiologist/sonographer is therefore of key importance.

  1. Ischemic Stroke Following Multiple Traumas in a Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jung Lin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an uncommon disorder in children but an increasingly recognized cause of disability. Acute stroke may be attributable to trauma, but this topic is seldom discussed. In limited reports, most ischemic strokes following trauma were detected after a considerable delay. Early recognition of stroke following trauma might reduce secondary neurologic complications. We report a case of posterior cerebral artery area infarct following multiple traumas in a child. A comprehensive etiologic survey was undertaken and discussed. Although the definite pathogenesis is still unclear, adequate, individualized, and uncomplicated management can significantly affect the outcome.

  2. EXERCISE, MANUAL THERAPY AND POSTURAL RE-EDUCATION FOR UNCONTROLLED EAR TWITCHING AND RELATED IMPAIRMENTS AFTER WHIPLASH INJURY: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Kelsey; Feldner, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders and the interventions used to remediate them are well documented in physical therapy literature. However, specific interventions for spasms of the neck musculature that also involve constant ear twitching have yet to be addressed. The purpose of this case report is twofold. First, to describe comprehensive physical therapy management and outcomes for a subject with uncontrolled ear twitching and related musculoskeletal impairments, and second, to discuss the physical therapist's approach to evidence-based care when faced with a paucity of literature addressing physical therapy interventions for subjects with uncontrolled ear twitching. The subject was a 14-year-old female who sustained a right anterolateral whiplash injury when struck in the head by a volleyball seven months prior to physical therapy. Beginning five months after that injury, she experienced uncontrolled and constant superior/inferior movement of her right ear (hereafter described in this report as a twitch) in addition to facial and cervical pain from her initial injury. She was unable to participate in high school athletics due to her pain. A multimodal treatment approach including exercise, manual therapy, and postural reeducation was utilized during the subject's episode of care. After eight treatment sessions, the subjects's cervical range of motion and upper extremity strength improved. The reported frequency of ear twitching decreased, as did reports of neck and shoulder pain. In addition, her Neck Disability Index improved from a score of 22, indicating moderate disability, to 9, indicating mild disability and she was able to return to sport activity. With limited research to direct intervention, clinical reasoning was utilized to formulate an effective therapeutic intervention. A combination of manual therapy, exercise, and postural reeducation intervention was effective for this subject and could assist in guiding interventions for similarly unique clinical

  3. Cranium-brain trauma in computed tomographs - diagnosis and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrasse, K.

    1982-01-01

    For the successful treatment of intracranial complications in the case of cranium-brain trauma a quick and exact diagnosis is necessary. The goal of this work was to test and evaluate the effectivity of computed tomography for neurotraumatology. Using 565 patients, who were acutely or at one time suffering from a cranium-brain trauma, the high validity of computed tomography for these injuries was proven. The following areas in question were studied with respect to the value of computed tomography in comparison to them: angiography, X-ray diagnostic, echoencephalography, brain scintigraphy, electroencephalography and neurological-psychopathological findings from cranium-brain trauma. Statement possibilities and difficulties of computed tomography are discussed in the cases of the following neurotraumatological diseases: extracranial hematomas; acute cranium-brain traumas; traumatic arachnoidal bleeding; diffuse brain edema; transtentorial herniation and brain contusions. At the end the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the case of cranium-brain trauma are presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Gênero e trauma Gender and trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio Ary Dillon Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As conseqüências sociais e psicológicas da violência urbana sobre os parentes e amigos de pessoas vitimadas por mortes violentas (homicídio, suicídio ou acidentes são analisadas à luz das diferenças de gênero. A literatura especializada nesta área propõe que mulheres e homens vivenciam experiências traumáticas de forma peculiar. Porém, os traumas típicos são diferentes em cada gênero, deixando em aberto a questão sobre quanto das diferenças entre as respostas se devem a gênero e quanto se devem ao tipo de trauma. Testamos a hipótese de que as mulheres são mais suscetíveis à desordem de estresse pós-trauma (DEPT numa situação traumática comum, usando dados qualitativos e quantitativos. Comparamos os sintomas do trauma e as percepções sobre o significado da perda de seus entes queridos. A amostra, de 425 mulheres (62% e 265 homens (38%, foi retirada de uma lista de parentes de pessoas que sofreram morte violenta na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Incluímos trinta relatos de parentes e amigos próximos das vítimas diretas. Os resultados revelaram que 54% das mulheres e 41% dos homens tiveram o cotidiano alterado depois da morte de um parente/amigo. Há diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos problemas de saúde e na diversão. Essa área foi a mais afetada, atingindo metade dos entrevistados. Uma variável intimamente correlacionada com os sintomas da DEPT é o contato com o corpo: controlando a extensão do contato (fez o reconhecimento do corpo; viu, mas não reconheceu e nem viu nem reconheceu. Em cada uma dessas categorias, as mulheres foram mais afetadas do que os homens. O artigo conclui que as mulheres sentem mais as perdas do que os homens, mas que parte das diferenças não são internas aos gêneros, mas externas a eles, dependendo das interações e dos contatos pessoais.The social and psychological consequences endured by friends and relatives of people victimized by violent death (homicide, suicide or

  5. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... views 4:50 Prolonged Exposure for PTSD - Duration: 2:45. Veterans Health Administration 53,436 views 2: ...

  7. Trauma Aware & Safety Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The interwoven issues of trauma and safety have swept through college campuses over the last decade, and they've arrived at doors of admission offices, encouraging officials to think more carefully about those concerns and take a closer look at how they handle them. Experts recommend in this atmosphere that admission offices discuss these topics…

  8. Dental Trauma Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg

    2012-01-01

    Diagnose and treatment of traumatic dental injuries is very complex due to the multiple trauma entities represented by 6 lunation types and 9 fracture types affecting both the primary and the permanent dentition. When it is further considered that fracture and lunation injuries are often combined...

  9. Imaging of vertebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This translation of the toolbook published in the 'US-ART' series, offers invaluable help to medical radiologists in the diagnostic imaging and evaluation of complex vertebral traumas which are on the rise, inter alia due to increasingly dangerous leisure sports. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Obesity in pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Cordelie E; Arbabi, Saman; Nathens, Avery B; Vavilala, Monica S; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-04-01

    The implications of childhood obesity on pediatric trauma outcomes are not clearly established. Anthropomorphic data were recently added to the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) Research Datasets, enabling a large, multicenter evaluation of the effect of obesity on pediatric trauma patients. Children ages 2 to 19years who required hospitalization for traumatic injury were identified in the 2013-2014 NTDB Research Datasets. Age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI) were calculated. Outcomes included injury patterns, operative procedures, complications, and hospital utilization parameters. Data from 149,817 pediatric patients were analyzed; higher BMI percentiles were associated with significantly more extremity injuries, and fewer injuries to the head, abdomen, thorax and spine (p values Obese children also had significantly longer lengths of stay and more frequent ventilator requirement. Among children admitted after trauma, increased BMI percentile is associated with increased risk of death and potentially preventable complications. These findings suggest that obese children may require different management than nonobese counterparts to prevent complications. Level III; prognosis study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. When Trauma Hinders Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Donald A.

    2018-01-01

    Many kindergarten teachers have encountered children who enter school lacking the ability to control their behavior, but they may not understand the social and biological processes behind these children's disruptive behavior. The author reviews research into early childhood brain development to explain how trauma and chronic stress can make it…

  12. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  13. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... MST. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/msthom... Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  14. Scintigraphy In skeletal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-05

    Aug 5, 1989 ... sustained during the trauma. Fig. 2. Case 2. Bone scan of the pelvis (anterior view) showing a fracture through the sacro-iliac joint. Case 3. A 67-year-old woman had a Moore prosthesis in the left hip. She presented 2 weeks after having injured her right hip in a fall. Examination revealed pain on movemen~ ...

  15. Fast magnetic resonance imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; McLean, K.

    1995-01-01

    In a prospective comparison between fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and conventional spin-echo in a series of 20 patients, gradient-echo imaging was found to be inferior to spin-echo, especially in the visualization of: spinal cord oedema, and the use of a rapid spin-echo sequence was limited by inferior visualization of hemorrhage. While the use of a combination of these two fast imaging techniques resulted in equivalent results to conventional spin-echo, the increased imaging time suggests that fast MRI cannot, as yet, replace conventional spin-echo techniques in acute spinal trauma. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Diagnostic imaging of the acutely injured patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of pathophysiologic concepts of trauma and reviews the effectiveness of the available imaging modalities in acute trauma of various organ system. Topics covered are chest injuries; abdominal trauma; fractures of long bones; the foot and ankle; the knee; hand and wrist; the elbow; the shoulder; the pelvis hips; the spine; the skull and facial trauma and the clinical assessment of multiple injuries patients. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic techniques of radiography is discussed. Normal anatomy and bone fractures along with soft-tissue injuries are described

  17. Are altered smooth pursuit eye movements related to chronic pain and disability following whiplash injuries? A prospective trial with one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of early smooth pursuit testing to predict chronic whiplash-associated disorders, and to study whether the presence of abnormal smooth pursuit eye movements at one-year follow-up is associated with symptoms at that time. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with one...... collision were determined. RESULTS: Results of early eye movement tests were not associated with the prognosis. Reduced smooth pursuit performance when tested in static cervical rotation at the one-year follow-up was significantly associated with higher neck pain intensity at that time (regression...

  18. Neck exercises, physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity as a treatment for adult whiplash patients with chronic neck pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Inge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients suffer from chronic neck pain following a whiplash injury. A combination of cognitive, behavioural therapy with physiotherapy interventions has been indicated to be effective in the management of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. The objective is to present the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a combined individual physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity program on self-reported general physical function, in addition to neck function, pain, disability and quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain following whiplash injury compared with a matched control group measured at baseline and 4 and 12 months after baseline. Methods/Design The design is a two-centre, RCT-study with a parallel group design. Included are whiplash patients with chronic neck pain for more than 6 months, recruited from physiotherapy clinics and an out-patient hospital department in Denmark. Patients will be randomised to either a pain management (control group or a combined pain management and training (interventiongroup. The control group will receive four educational sessions on pain management, whereas the intervention group will receive the same educational sessions on pain management plus 8 individual training sessions for 4 months, including guidance in specific neck exercises and an aerobic training programme. Patients and physiotherapists are aware of the allocation and the treatment, while outcome assessors and data analysts are blinded. The primary outcome measures will be Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF36, Physical Component Summary (PCS. Secondary outcomes will be Global Perceived Effect (-5 to +5, Neck Disability Index (0-50, Patient Specific Functioning Scale (0-10, numeric rating scale for pain bothersomeness (0-10, SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS, TAMPA scale of Kinesiophobia (17-68, Impact of Event Scale (0-45, EuroQol (0

  19. Neck exercises, physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity as a treatment for adult whiplash patients with chronic neck pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many patients suffer from chronic neck pain following a whiplash injury. A combination of cognitive, behavioural therapy with physiotherapy interventions has been indicated to be effective in the management of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. The objective is to present the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a combined individual physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity program on self-reported general physical function, in addition to neck function, pain, disability and quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain following whiplash injury compared with a matched control group measured at baseline and 4 and 12 months after baseline. Methods/Design The design is a two-centre, RCT-study with a parallel group design. Included are whiplash patients with chronic neck pain for more than 6 months, recruited from physiotherapy clinics and an out-patient hospital department in Denmark. Patients will be randomised to either a pain management (control) group or a combined pain management and training (intervention)group. The control group will receive four educational sessions on pain management, whereas the intervention group will receive the same educational sessions on pain management plus 8 individual training sessions for 4 months, including guidance in specific neck exercises and an aerobic training programme. Patients and physiotherapists are aware of the allocation and the treatment, while outcome assessors and data analysts are blinded. The primary outcome measures will be Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF36), Physical Component Summary (PCS). Secondary outcomes will be Global Perceived Effect (-5 to +5), Neck Disability Index (0-50), Patient Specific Functioning Scale (0-10), numeric rating scale for pain bothersomeness (0-10), SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS), TAMPA scale of Kinesiophobia (17-68), Impact of Event Scale (0-45), EuroQol (0-1), craniocervical

  20. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  1. Training in Trauma Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Patrick M.; Schwab, C William; Haut, Elliott R.; Gracias, Vicente H.; Dabrowski, G Paul; Gupta, Rajan; Pryor, John P.; Kauder, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe outcomes from a clinical trauma surgical education program that places the board-eligible/board-certified fellow in the role of the attending surgeon (fellow-in-exception [FIE]) during the latter half of a 2-year trauma/surgical critical care fellowship. Summary Background Data: National discussions have begun to explore the question of optimal methods for postresidency training in surgery. Few objective studies are available to evaluate current training models. Methods: We analyzed provider-specific data from both our trauma registry and performance improvement (PI) databases. In addition, we performed TRISS analysis when all data were available. Registry and PI data were analyzed as 2 groups (faculty trauma surgeons and FIEs) to determine experience, safety, and trends in errors. We also surveyed graduate fellows using a questionnaire that evaluated perceptions of training and experience on a 6-point Likert scale. Results: During a 4-year period 7,769 trauma patients were evaluated, of which 46.3% met criteria to be submitted to the PA Trauma Outcome Study (PTOS, ie, more severe injury). The faculty group saw 5,885 patients (2,720 PTOS); the FIE group saw 1,884 patients (879 PTOS). The groups were similar in respect to mechanism of injury (74% blunt; 26% penetrating both groups) and injury severity (mean ISS faculty 10.0; FIEs 9.5). When indexed to patient contacts, FIEs did more operations than the faculty group (28.4% versus 25.6%; P FIEs 10.0%). Analysis of deaths using PI and TRISS data failed to demonstrate differences between the groups. Analysis of provider-specific errors demonstrated a slightly higher rate for FIEs when compared with faculty when indexed to PTOS cases (4.1% versus 2.1%; P FIE year; P FIE educational experience “great -5” or “exceptional– 6.” Eighty-five percent consider the current structure of the fellowship (with FIE year) as ideal. Ninety percent would repeat the fellowship. Conclusion: The educational

  2. Volemic Resuscitation in a Patient with Multiple Traumas and Haemorrhagic Shock. Anti-oxidative Therapy Management in Critical Patients. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bedreag Ovidiu Horea; Rogobete Alexandru Florin; Sarandan Mirela; Cradigati Alina Carmen; Nartita Radu; Sandesc Dorel; Papurica Marius

    2016-01-01

    A patient with multiple traumas is usually found in severe haemorrhagic shock. In 40% of the cases, the patient with multiple traumas and haemorrhagic shock cannot recover due to secondary injuries and complications associated with the shock. In this paper we present the case of a male patient 30 years old, who suffered a car accident. The patient is admitted in our hospital with haemorrhagic shock due to femur fracture, acute cranial-cerebral trauma and severe thoracic trauma with bleeding s...

  3. Imaging in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Algemeen Ziekenhuis Maria Middelares, Department of Radiology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  4. Imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  5. Undertriage in trauma: Does an organized trauma network capture the major trauma victim? A statewide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Michael A; Jammula, Shreya; Gross, Brian W; Cook, Alan D; Bradburn, Eric H; Altenburg, Juliet; Von Nieda, Danielle; Morgan, Madison; Rogers, Frederick B

    2018-03-01

    Proper triage of critically injured trauma patients to accredited trauma centers (TCs) is essential for survival and patient outcomes. We sought to determine the percentage of patients meeting trauma criteria who received care at non-TCs (NTCs) within the statewide trauma system that exists in the state of Pennsylvania. We hypothesized that a substantial proportion of the trauma population would be undertriaged to NTCs with undertriage rates (UTR) decreasing with increasing severity of injury. All adult (age ≥15) hospital admissions meeting trauma criteria (ICD-9, 800-959; Injury Severity Score [ISS], > 9 or > 15) from 2003 to 2015 were extracted from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4) database, and compared with the corresponding trauma population within the Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation (PTSF) registry. PHC4 contains all hospital admissions within PA while PTSF collects data on all trauma cases managed at designated TCs (Level I-IV). The percentage of patients meeting trauma criteria who are undertriaged to NTCs was determined and Network Analyst Location-Allocation function in ArcGIS Desktop was used to generate geospatial representations of undertriage based on ISSs throughout the state. For ISS > 9, 173,022 cases were identified from 2003 to 2015 in PTSF, while 255,263 cases meeting trauma criteria were found in the PHC4 database over the same timeframe suggesting UTR of 32.2%. For ISS > 15, UTR was determined to be 33.6%. Visual geospatial analysis suggests regions with limited access to TCs comprise the highest proportion of undertriaged trauma patients. Despite the existence of a statewide trauma framework for over 30 years, approximately, a third of severely injured trauma patients are managed at hospitals outside of the trauma system in PA. Intelligent trauma system design should include an objective process like geospatial mapping rather than the current system which is driven by competitive models of financial and

  6. Early detection of myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma by computed tomography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thung-Lip; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Shih, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Huai-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Shan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Hsu, Kwan-Lih

    2017-02-10

    Blunt cardiac trauma encompasses a wide range of clinical entities, including myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, valve avulsion, pericardial injuries, arrhythmia, and even myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection after blunt chest trauma is rare and may be life threatening. Differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from cardiac contusion at this setting is not easy. Here we demonstrated a case of blunt chest trauma, with computed tomography detected myocardium enhancement defect early at emergency department. Under the impression of acute myocardial infarction, emergent coronary angiography revealed left anterior descending artery occlusion. Revascularization was performed and coronary artery dissection was found after thrombus aspiration. Finally, the patient survived after coronary stenting. Perfusion defects of myocardium enhancement on CT after blunt chest trauma can be very helpful to suggest myocardial infarction and facilitate the decision making of emergent procedure. This valuable sign should not be missed during the initial interpretation.

  7. GLP-1 improves neuropathology after murine cold lesion brain trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DellaValle, Brian; Hempel, Casper; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we address a gap in knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of acute treatment with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist after severe brain trauma. Moreover, it remains still unknown whether GLP-1 treatment activates the protective, anti-neurodegener......OBJECTIVES: In this study, we address a gap in knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of acute treatment with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist after severe brain trauma. Moreover, it remains still unknown whether GLP-1 treatment activates the protective, anti...... brain trauma. METHODS: Severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion in mice and thereafter treated with vehicle, liraglutide, or liraglutide + GLP-1 receptor antagonist. A therapeutic window was established and lesion size post-trauma was determined. Reactive oxygen species were visualized...... the GLP-1 receptor. Reactive species generation was reduced by ∼40-60%. Necrotic and apoptotic tone maintained similar to sham in diseased animals with Lira treatment. Phosphorylation of CREB was markedly increased by Lira in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent manner. CREB-regulated cytoprotective and anti...

  8. Fatal Basilar Thrombosis Possibly Related to Minor Cervical Trauma: A Case Report

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    Elmaz Shaqiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basilar thrombosis is a potentially fatal event, whose traumatic etiology has been repeatedly stated. Methods. We performed the autopsy and the microscopic examination of the brain stem structures from an individual, whose sudden death raised logical suspicions regarding the causative factor. Results. The brain was swollen and clearly hyperemic; a massive basilar thrombus with complete occlusion of the median segment of the basilar artery was macroscopically seen. The brainstem showed an infarcted zone in the pons, with secondary hemorrhagic changes, mainly in the form of multiple petechial hemorrhages. Pontine arteries showed extensive alterations, mainly in the form of severed endothelium, which suggested a thrombotic-traumatic mechanism as the main etiological factor. Conclusions. Minor injuries, such as slight whiplashes, abrupt neck movements, neck trauma related to the slowing down of the vehicles, and critical neck positioning, can all of them explain a thrombotic event in the basilar artery, leading to a fatal occurrence. Other risk factors may obviously concur, but their importance seems unclear.

  9. Acute Paraplegia After General Anesthesia

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    Gholam Hossein Ghaedi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute paraplegia is a rare but catastrophic complication of surgeries performed on aorta and corrective operations of vertebral column. Trauma to spinal cord after spinal anesthesia and ischemia of spinal cord also may lead to acute paraplegia. Acute paraplegia as a complication of general anesthesia in surgeries performed on sites other than aorta and vertebral column is very rare. Here we present a 56 year old woman with acute paraplegia due to spinal cord infarction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia probably caused by atherosclerosis of feeding spinal arteries and ischemia of spinal cord after reduction of blood flow possibly due to hypotension during general anesthesia.

  10. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

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    Fernando Diaz Dilernia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death.

  11. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  12. Racial Differences in Children's Trauma Symptoms Following Complex Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser-Nanney, Rachel; Cherry, Kathryn E; Campbell, Claudia; Trombetta, Elise

    2018-03-01

    Complex trauma exposure has been defined as multiple or chronic interpersonal trauma that begins early in life, which leads to widespread dysregulation. Previous studies have reported that minorities may be at greater risk for trauma exposure and symptoms; yet, racial differences have not been investigated in the context of complex trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine if there are racial disparities in children's trauma exposure and outcomes among 167 child survivors of complex trauma (3-18 years, M = 9.90, SD = 3.92; 61.67% female; 62.2% Black). Black children endorsed a greater number of trauma types and were more likely to have experienced community violence and have been placed in child protective custody than White children. Caregivers of White children endorsed higher levels of select internalizing symptoms and social concerns whereas Black children reported higher levels of sexual concerns than White children. White children who experience complex trauma may be at higher risk for some trauma-related difficulties. Alternatively, caregivers of White children may perceive them to have, or be more willing to acknowledge, higher levels of symptoms than Black children. Future work is needed to further investigate the role of race in disclosure of trauma exposure and related symptoms.

  13. Trauma Tactics: Rethinking Trauma Education for Professional Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Paula; Liddil, Jessica; Eley, Scott; Winfield, Scott

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Trauma Institute (2015), trauma accounts for more than 180,000 deaths each year in the United States. Nurses play a significant role in the care of trauma patients and therefore need appropriate education and training (L. ). Although several courses exist for trauma education, many nurses have not received adequate education in trauma management (B. ; L. ). Trauma Tactics, a 2-day course that focuses on high-fidelity human patient simulation, was created to meet this educational need. This descriptive study was conducted retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the Trauma Tactics course. Pre- and postsurveys, tests, and simulation performance were used to evaluate professional nurses who participated in Trauma Tactics over a 10-month period. Fifty-five nurses were included in the study. Pre- and postsurveys revealed an increase in overall confidence, test scores increased by an average of 2.5 points, and simulation performance scores increased by an average of 16 points. Trauma Tactics is a high-quality course that provides a valuable and impactful educational experience for nurses. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of Trauma Tactics and its impacts on quality of care and patient outcomes.

  14. Strategically Leapfrogging Education in Prehospital Trauma Management: Four-Tiered Training Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Rohit; Vyas, Dinesh; Narayan, Mayur; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-related injury in fast developing countries are linked to 90% of international mortality rates, which can be greatly reduced by improvements in often non-existent or non-centralized emergency medical systems (EMS)-particularly in the pre-hospital care phase. Traditional trauma training protocols-such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), and Basic Life Support (BLS)-have failed to produce an effective pre-hospital ground force of medical first responders. To overcome these barriers, we propose a new four-tiered set of trauma training protocols: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Trauma Training, Acute Trauma Training (ATT), Broad Trauma Training (BTT), and Cardiac and Trauma Training (CTT). These standards are specifically differentiated to accommodate the educational and socioeconomic diversity found in fast developing settings, where each free course is taught in native, lay language while ensuring the education standards are maintained by fully incorporating high-fidelity simulation, video-recorded debriefing, and retraining. The innovative pedagogy of this trauma education program utilizes MOOC for global scalability and a "train-the-trainer" approach for exponential growth-both components help fast developing countries reach a critical mass of first responders needed for the base of an evolving EMS.

  15. Prognosis of patients with whiplash-associated disorders consulting physiotherapy: development of a predictive model for recovery

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    Bohman Tony

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD have a generally favourable prognosis, yet some develop longstanding pain and disability. Predicting who will recover from WAD shortly after a traffic collision is very challenging for health care providers such as physical therapists. Therefore, we aimed to develop a prediction model for the recovery of WAD in a cohort of patients who consulted physical therapists within six weeks after the injury. Methods Our cohort included 680 adult patients with WAD who were injured in Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1997 and 1999. All patients had consulted a physical therapist as a result of the injury. Baseline prognostic factors were collected from an injury questionnaire administered by Saskatchewan Government Insurance. The outcome, global self-perceived recovery, was assessed by telephone interviews six weeks, three and six months later. Twenty-five possible baseline prognostic factors were considered in the analyses. A prediction model was built using Cox regression. The predictive ability of the model was estimated with concordance statistics (c-index. Internal validity was checked using bootstrapping. Results Our final prediction model included: age, number of days to reporting the collision, neck pain intensity, low back pain intensity, pain other than neck and back pain, headache before collision and recovery expectations. The model had an acceptable level of predictive ability with a c-index of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.71. Internal validation showed that our model was robust and had a good fit. Conclusions We developed a model predicting recovery from WAD, in a cohort of patients who consulted physical therapists. Our model has adequate predictive ability. However, to be fully incorporated in clinical practice the model needs to be validated in other populations and tested in clinical settings.

  16. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement Deficits in Patients With Whiplash and Neck Pain are Modulated by Target Predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Malou; Ischebeck, Britta K; de Vries, Jurryt; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Frens, Maarten A; van der Geest, Jos N

    2015-10-01

    This is a cross-sectional study. The purpose of this study is to support and extend previous observations on oculomotor disturbances in patients with neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) by systematically investigating the effect of static neck torsion on smooth pursuit in response to both predictably and unpredictably moving targets using video-oculography. Previous studies showed that in patients with neck complaints, for instance due to WAD, extreme static neck torsion deteriorates smooth pursuit eye movements in response to predictably moving targets compared with healthy controls. Eye movements in response to a smoothly moving target were recorded with video-oculography in a heterogeneous group of 55 patients with neck pain (including 11 patients with WAD) and 20 healthy controls. Smooth pursuit performance was determined while the trunk was fixed in 7 static rotations relative to the head (from 45° to the left to 45° to right), using both predictably and unpredictably moving stimuli. Patients had reduced smooth pursuit gains and smooth pursuit gain decreased due to neck torsion. Healthy controls showed higher gains for predictably moving targets compared with unpredictably moving targets, whereas patients with neck pain had similar gains in response to both types of target movements. In 11 patients with WAD, increased neck torsion decreased smooth pursuit performance, but only for predictably moving targets. Smooth pursuit of patients with neck pain is affected. The previously reported WAD-specific decline in smooth pursuit due to increased neck torsion seems to be modulated by the predictability of the movement of the target. The observed oculomotor disturbances in patients with WAD are therefore unlikely to be induced by impaired neck proprioception alone. 3.

  17. The Treatment of Neck Pain-Associated Disorders and Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Stewart, Gregory; Al-Zoubi, Fadi; Decina, Philip; Descarreaux, Martin; Hayden, Jill; Hendrickson, Brenda; Hincapié, Cesar; Pagé, Isabelle; Passmore, Steven; Srbely, John; Stupar, Maja; Weisberg, Joel; Ornelas, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    The objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline on the management of neck pain-associated disorders (NADs) and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). This guideline replaces 2 prior chiropractic guidelines on NADs and WADs. Pertinent systematic reviews on 6 topic areas (education, multimodal care, exercise, work disability, manual therapy, passive modalities) were assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and data extracted from admissible randomized controlled trials. We incorporated risk of bias scores in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Evidence profiles were used to summarize judgments of the evidence quality, detail relative and absolute effects, and link recommendations to the supporting evidence. The guideline panel considered the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences. Consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi. The guideline was peer reviewed by a 10-member multidisciplinary (medical and chiropractic) external committee. For recent-onset (0-3 months) neck pain, we suggest offering multimodal care; manipulation or mobilization; range-of-motion home exercise, or multimodal manual therapy (for grades I-II NAD); supervised graded strengthening exercise (grade III NAD); and multimodal care (grade III WAD). For persistent (>3 months) neck pain, we suggest offering multimodal care or stress self-management; manipulation with soft tissue therapy; high-dose massage; supervised group exercise; supervised yoga; supervised strengthening exercises or home exercises (grades I-II NAD); multimodal care or practitioner's advice (grades I-III NAD); and supervised exercise with advice or advice alone (grades I-II WAD). For workers with persistent neck and shoulder pain, evidence supports mixed supervised and unsupervised high-intensity strength training or advice alone (grades I-III NAD). A multimodal approach including manual therapy, self-management advice, and exercise is an

  18. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Videolaparoscopia no trauma abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila Varela Velho

    Full Text Available A videolaparoscopia (VL vem contribuindo de forma crescente, para diagnóstico e terapêutica de várias afecções cirúrgicas abdominais, introduzindo profundas mudanças na cirurgia contemporânea. Esse avanço incorporou-se também às urgências traumáticas, fazendo parte da avaliação diagnóstica e, às vezes, da terapêutica do trauma abdominal. Os autores apresentam uma revisão concisa da literatura sobre a VL no trauma, atualizando o tema e discutindo os aspectos mais relevantes das indicações, limitações e complicações do método.

  20. Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

    2013-09-01

    To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated with balance performance or self-perceived dizziness handicap. A total of 29 patients, 20 women and 9 men, age range 22-76 years. Patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness were randomized to either intervention (vestibular rehabilitation) or control. Neck pain intensity, cervical range of motion (CROM), balance and self-perceived dizziness handicap were measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. There were no differences in neck pain intensity or CROM between the 2 groups either at baseline, 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.10-0.89). At baseline, neck pain intensity correlated with CROM (-0.406) and self-perceived dizziness handicap (0.492). CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap and with 1 balance measure (-0.432). Neck pain intensity did not correlate with balance performance (-0.188-0.049). Neck pain intensity and CROM was not influenced by vestibular rehabilitation. Importantly, the programme did not appear to increase pain or decrease neck motion, as initially thought. Neck pain intensity and CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap. CROM also correlated with 1 balance measure.

  1. The Effect of Neck-specific Exercise With, or Without a Behavioral Approach, on Pain, Disability, and Self-Efficacy in Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gunnel; O’Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). Materials and Methods: A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (Pneck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P<0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. Discussion: NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive. PMID:24918474

  2. Alar ligaments: radiological aspects in the diagnosis of patients with whiplash injuries; Stellenwert bildgebender Verfahren in der Diagnostik der Ligg. alaria nach Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaeule

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    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J.; Biederer, J.; Jahnke, Th.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Post-traumatic changes of the alar ligaments have been proposed to be the cause of chronic pain in patients after whiplash injury of the cervical spine. In addition to an asymmetric dens position, widening of the atlantodental distance to more than 12 mm can be an indirect sign of an alar ligament rupture. CT is recommended for detection of a avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle. Isolated ruptures of the alar ligaments are best visualized on MRI. In patients with chronic impairments after whiplash injuries changes of the alar ligaments on MRI must be differentiated from normal variants in healthy individuals. (orig.) [German] Posttraumatische Veraenderungen der Ligg. alaria werden als ursaechlich fuer chronische Beschwerden bei Patienten mit Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule angesehen. Eine asymmetrische Densposition sowie eine Erweiterung der anterioren atlantoaxialen Distanz auf ueber 12 mm koennen auf konventionellen Roentgenaufnahmen ein indirektes Zeichen fuer das Vorliegen einer Fluegelbandverletzung sein. Die Computertomographie ist die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer kondylaeren Ausrissfraktur des Lig. alare. Isolierte akute Bandverletzungen der Ligg. alaria sind hingegen in der MRT direkt nachweisbar. Bei Patienten mit chronischen Beschwerden nach Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule muessen allerdings morphologische Auffaelligkeiten der Ligg. alaria im MRT von Normvarianten abgegrenzt werden. (orig.)

  3. Multivariate analysis of ultrasound-recorded dorsal strain sequences: Investigation of dynamic neck extensions in women with chronic whiplash associated disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David

    2016-08-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD.

  4. Osteopathic treatment of patients with long-term sequelae of whiplash injury: effect on neck pain disability and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerla, Florian; Kaiser, Albrecht K; Gietz, Richard; Kastner, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    The clinical sequelae and manifestation resulting from whiplash injury are defined as late whiplash syndrome (LWS). The objective of this study was to investigate whether a series of osteopathic treatments of patients with LWS may improve their symptoms. The study was designed as a two-phase (pre-post) clinical intervention study. In phase one, the patients received no treatment for 6 weeks; in phase two, they received five test-dependent osteopathic treatments. Forty-two (42) patients (mean age 39 years) suffering from LWS due to car rear-end collisions were included. Five (5) individualized and custom-tailored osteopathic treatments at 1-week intervals were performed. Main outcome parameters were the neck-related pain and disability (determined by the Neck Pain and Disability Scale [NPAD]) and the quality of life (assessed on the SF-36). The presence of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed. A direct comparison between the untreated period and the treatment period revealed clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements in the osteopathic treatment period for the NPAD. In the intervention phase, the NPAD dropped from 41.5 to 26.0 points, which corresponds to an improvement of 37% (95% confidence interval=11.1-19.8; posteopathic treatments had a beneficial effect on the physical as well as the mental aspects of LWS and lives up to its claim of being a complementary modality in the treatment regimen of this condition. Based on these preliminary findings, rigorous randomized controlled studies are warranted.

  5. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA- CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Ratnakumari Billa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the recent times there has been increased incidence of abdominal trauma cases due to several causes. Quick and prompt intervention is needed to decrease the mortality of the patients. So we conducted a study to assess the cause and the management of abdominal trauma cases in our institution. The aim of this study was to know the incidence of blunt and penetrating injuries and their causes, age and sex incidence, importance of various investigations, mode of treatment offered and post-operative complications. To study the cause of death and evolve better management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprises of patients admitted to and operated in various surgical units in the Department of Surgery at Government General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College Guntur, from August 2014 to October 2016. RESULTS Increase incidence seen in age group 20-29 years (30%. Male predominance 77.5%. Mechanism of injury–road traffic accidents 65%. Isolated organ injury–colon and rectum 40%. Other associated injuries–chest injuries with rib fractures 7.5%. Complications–wound infection 17.5%. Duration of hospital stay 8–14 days. Bowel injury management–closure of perforation 84.6%. Resection anastomosis 15.38%. CONCLUSION Thorough clinical examination, diagnostic paracentesis, plain X-ray erect abdomen and ultrasound proved to be very helpful in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries. Spleen is the commonest organ involved in blunt trauma and colon is the commonly injured organ in penetrating abdominal trauma, many patients have associated extremity and axial skeleton injuries. With advances in diagnosis and intensive care technologies, most patients of solid visceral injuries with hemodynamic stability can be managed conservatively. Surgical site infection is the most common complication following surgery. The mortality is high; reason might be patient reaching the hospital late, high incidence of postoperative septic

  6. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of 'reactions to trauma' is dominated by concepts like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The use of such concepts has been criticised but simultaneously integrated in folk-psychology. Connecting emotional and cognitive processes as well as acts - such as in gendered practices - to...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  7. Impaired nutritional status in geriatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F S; Meyer, O W; Chocano-Bedoya, P; Schietzel, S; Gagesch, M; Freystaetter, G; Neuhaus, V; Simmen, H-P; Langhans, W; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients. We enrolled 169 consecutive patients (⩾70 years) admitted to the Geriatric Traumatology Centre (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). On admission to acute care, nutritional status was assessed with the mini nutritional assessment (score23.5=normal). At the same examination, we assessed mental (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS) and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination; MMSE), frailty status (Fried Scale), and number of comorbidities and medications. Further, discharge destination was documented. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. A total of 7.1% of patients were malnourished and 49.1% were ARM. Patients with reduced mental health (GDS⩾5: 30.5 vs 11.5%; P=0.004), impaired cognitive function (MMSE⩽26: 23.6±0.5 vs 26.0±0.6; P=0.004), prevalent frailty (32.5 vs 8%; Pnutritional status (M+ARM). Further, M+ARM patients were twice as likely to be discharged to destinations different to home (odds ratio=2.08; confidence interval 1.07-4.05). In this consecutive sample of geriatric trauma patients, 56.2% had an M+ARM upon admission to acute care, which was associated with indicators of worse physical, mental and cognitive health and predicted a more than twofold greater odds of being discharged to a destination other than home.

  8. Childhood trauma increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in response to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sarah; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Hulbert, Carol A; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of childhood trauma, and post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of psychosis. The current study assessed childhood trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of both childhood trauma and psychosis using the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, in a group of 36 people with first-episode psychosis. Reported rates of clinical level post-psychotic PTSD symptoms, childhood trauma and childhood trauma-related clinical level PTSD symptoms were 47% (95% CI 31-64%), 64% (95% CI 48-80%) and 39% (95% CI 23-55%), respectively. Reporting childhood trauma increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 27-fold (95% CI 2.96-253.80, p = 0.01). Having childhood trauma-related PTSD increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 20-fold (95% CI 3.38-123.25, p = 0.01). These risks were not explained by illness factors such as duration of untreated psychosis, age of onset or severity of psychotic symptoms. Those without post-psychotic PTSD symptoms at clinical levels were unlikely to report childhood trauma (6%; 95% CI 3-8%). These results suggest the cognitive, social and biological consequences of childhood trauma can prevent effective recovery from the trauma of acute first-episode psychosis resulting in post-psychotic PTSD. Treatment strategies for post-psychotic PTSD must address childhood trauma and related PTSD.

  9. Therapeutic ultrasound for acute ankle sprains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; van der Windt, D. A. W. M.; ter Riet, G.; van der Heijden, G. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Ultrasound is used in the treatment of a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders, which include acute ankle sprains. Aim. To evaluate the effects of ultrasound therapy in the treatment of acute ankle sprains. Methods. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group

  10. Variations in levels of care within a hospital provided to acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in levels of care within a hospital provided to acute trauma patients. WWD Stewart, Z Farina, DL Clarke. Abstract. Introduction. Caring for trauma patients is a dynamic process, and it is often necessary to move the trauma patient around the hospital to different locations. This study attempted to document the quality ...

  11. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  12. Whiplash and Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... something else is wrong that sustains the muscle pain, such as poor posture and work habits. Spinal nerves and the spinal cord can be compressed by a herniated disc or bone spur. This usually causes arm pain, but there can also be neck pain. (If ...

  13. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Trauma Systems. An Era of Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, K.W.W.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an inclusive trauma system in the Netherlands during last decade of the past century, has led to an improvement in Dutch trauma care. Eleven trauma regions were formed nationwide each surrounding a level I trauma center. All hospitals in a trauma region were assigned levels I, II

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, Philippe [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-04-15

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  17. Skeletal scintigraphy following incidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The significance of antecedent trauma in skeletal scintigraphy was assessed in 503 patients, of whom 241 (46%) had prior fracture or tooth extraction. In patients with sufficiently accurate histories for site-by-site analysis, 33 of 131 fracture sites and 16 of 83 dental-procedure sites were positive scintigraphically. In general, the frequency of scan positivity diminished as the interval between trauma and scanning increased, but a significant number of patients showed prolonged uptake at fracture sites. Several patterns of uptake suggested trauma rather than metastatic disease. Knowledge of a history of trauma is often critical in bone scan interpretation

  18. Acute folate deficiency in a critically ill patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; Rommes, J. H.; van Toorn, D. W.; Bakker, J.

    1997-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient developed thrombocytopenia and leukopenia due to acute folate deficiency while recovering from a multiple organ failure syndrome. Risk factors for acute folate deficiency are extensive tissue damage due to sepsis, trauma or surgery and acute renal failure requiring renal

  19. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    IL‐1B and MIP‐2  concentrations   reduced  NONE  Brain  conc at 4, 8,  12, or 24h; Dose  response seen;  5000 IV gave  highest  brain  conc  18/Xiong et...by the Operation Brain Trauma Therapy consortium Drugs Secondary Injury Mechanisms Inflammation Axonal Injury Excitotoxicity/ Neurotransmitter ...glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;320:109–112. 45. Nakamura K

  20. Trauma und Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Szyszkowitz, T. (Tessa)

    2007-01-01

    1. Einleitung Ausgehend von der Fragestellung, warum gerade bei Tschetschenen und Palästinensern der Selbstmordterrorismus in den letzten Jahren so populär geworden ist, analysiert die Autorin die Geschichte dieser beiden Völker. Einer der Gründe ist bisher wenig beachtet worden. Der Einfluss eines kollektiven Traumas, das als solches nicht anerkannt, behandelt und auch nicht einer politischen Lösung zugeführt wurde. 2. Geschichte der Palästinenser und Tschetschenen Im Zuge der Err...