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Sample records for acute viral encephalomyelitis

  1. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Hareaki; Shiga, Yusei; Ichikawa, Nobumichi.

    1988-01-01

    A previously healthy 39-year-old woman suddenly became stuporous following a slight upper respiratory infection. She went into a coma within a few hours. On admission to our hospital, adenine arabinoside was administered upon the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, but it had no apparent effect. The patient showed moderate leukocytosis, but no other abnormal laboratory data. Serological examinations for virus titer were all negative. A CT scan on the 9th day showed a diffuse low-density area extending into the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, but no contrast-enhancement effect or midline shift was observed. She has since remained in a coma, and repeated CT scans have revealed marked ventricular dilatation. The clinical course, laboratory data, and CT findings suggest acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis cannot exactly be ruled out. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a widespread white-matter lesion, while positron-emission CT demonstrated a dysfunction in both the white and gray matter. (author)

  3. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldemeyer, K.S.; Smith, R.R.; Harris, T.M.; Edwards, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  4. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Typical Radiologic Findings: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin R, Luis G; Posada A, Marcela; Sanchez M, Luisa C

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old female patient developed neurological symptoms after a classical episode of dengue. The physical examination reveled no fever, no neurological focalization, and an altered mental status (Glasgow 12/15). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patient showed clinical improvement following treatment with steroids. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is classically described as a uniphasic syndrome occurring in association with systemic viral infection (parainfectious encephalomyelitis) or immunization or vaccination (post vaccination encephalomyelitis). Pathologically, there is perivascular inflammation, edema, and demyelination within the CNS. Clinically, patients present with rapidly progressing focal or multifocal neurologic dysfunction. The treatment for ADEM is targeted at suppressing inflammation in the brain through the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as intravenous corticosteroids.

  5. MRI findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Oh, Sei Jung; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, So Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Acute disseminate encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease of probable autoimmune etiology. The MR images of patients with clinically suspected ADEM were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical symptoms occurred 5 days to 1 month after viral upper respiratory infection (4) and Coxsakie viral infection (1). The symptoms had begun with fever (3), headache (3), sore throat (1), and drowsy mental state (1), which progressed with monophasic course to altered mental change (2), extremity weakness (2), seizure (1) and/or cerebellar symptom (1). MRI findings of ADEM showed patchy (4), non hemorrhagic (5), asymmetric (5) high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images. The number of the lesions was mostly multiple (4). The lesions mainly involved the brain stem (3) and subcortical while matter (3). Follow-up MR images of 13 days to 20 days after high dose steroid therapy showed marked improvement in two of three, which well corrected with clinical manifestations. MR finding of multiple, patchy, nonhemorrhagic and asymmetric lesions in subcortical white matter and brain stem on T2-weighted images seem to be characteristic features of ADEM, but nonspecific. Therefore, clinical correlation is required in evaluating ADEM.

  6. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A case series and review of literatures

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    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare immune mediated and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually affects children. It is a monophasic disorder related with multifocal neurologic symptoms. In this paper, we report seven cases of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in pediatrics in addition; a review of literatures is presented.

  7. CT-verified intracranial calcifications and contrast enhancement in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

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    Ipsen, P. [Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease which follows viral infection or vaccination. We report the CT findings in a 13-year-old boy with ADEM after infection with Epstein-Barr virus. After 11 days, the patient developed intracranial calcifications in addition to demyelinating lesions. This is a rare finding in ADEM. (orig.) With 4 figs., 15 refs.

  8. CT-verified intracranial calcifications and contrast enhancement in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipsen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease which follows viral infection or vaccination. We report the CT findings in a 13-year-old boy with ADEM after infection with Epstein-Barr virus. After 11 days, the patient developed intracranial calcifications in addition to demyelinating lesions. This is a rare finding in ADEM. (orig.)

  9. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  10. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel; Laney, Ernest John; La Colla, Luca; Alper, Gulay

    2014-01-01

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10 -3 and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 , respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  11. [Can acute disseminated encephalomyelitis progress in a deferred way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, B; Garaizar-Axpe, C; Ruiz Espinosa, C; Prats-Viñas, J M

    To report on the heterogeneity with regard to the clinical course of the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). A 5 year old boy suffered of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis of unknown origin. This child suffered two episodes of different neurologic symptoms separated by several weeks. Based on the clinical manifestations and typical appearance of magnetic resonance imaging findings and the absence of oligoclonal bands in CSF immunoglobulins, multiple sclerosis (MS) was ruled out. We postulate that the recurrent symptoms in our patient could be explained as a multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). Favourable outcome after simultaneous treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin is emphasized in this report.

  12. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; Akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis

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    Politi, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread autoimmune demyelinating condition, which principally affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The typical presentation is that of multifocal neurologic disturbances accompanied by change in mental status. CSF analysis reveals lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein content, but may also yield normal results. MRI is regarded as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice and typically demonstrates involvement of deep cerebral hemispheric and subcortical white matter as well as lesions in the basal ganglia, gray-white junction, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Unlike multiple sclerosis (MS), ADEM has a monophasic course and a favorable long-term prognosis. (orig.) [German] Die akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis (ADEM) ist eine akut auftretende autoimmune demylinisierende Erkrankung der weissen Substanz, die hauptsaechlich Gehirn und Rueckenmark befaellt. Ueblicherweise tritt sie nach einer Infektion oder Impfung auf. Die Entwicklung einer fokalen oder multifokalen neurologischen Funktionsstoerung ist das Kennzeichen der klinischen Praesentation der ADEM. Lymphozytaere Pleozytose und Eiweisserhoehung sind typische Befunde in der Liquoruntersuchung. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl. Die ADEM-Laesionen sind typischerweise gross, multipel und asymmetrisch. Sie koennen in den Gross- und Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, im Hirnstamm und im Rueckenmark lokalisiert sein. Die subkortikale und die zentrale weisse Substanz sind am haeufigsten befallen. Weniger haeufig ist die graue Substanz der Thalami und der Basalganglien betroffen. Im Gegensatz zur Multiplen Sklerose (MS) ist die Prognose der ADEM im Allgemeinen guenstig. (orig.)

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. A descriptive study in Tehran, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samile, N; Hassan, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency, etiology (viral infection or vaccination), presenting signs and symptoms, response to therapy, complication and course of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in our hospitals. A 2-year retrospective, descriptive, chart review of children with final diagnosis of ADEM in 2 hospitals (Hazrat Rasool and Mofid in Tehran, Iran during 2000-2002) was carried out. The diagnosis is based upon clinical presentation, physical examination and ruling out of other disease (imaging, laboratories and so forth) of expert pediatric neurologists. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was documented in all cases by characteristics MRI changes included inflammation and demyelination in subcortical or periventricular regions. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were diagnosed in 15 patients. More than half of patients were between 9-14 years old. It was rare in 1-5 years old children. It had an abrupt onset, preceding infection/vaccination with no gender differences. Approximately 46.4% of cases had a recent upper respiratory tract illness. Varicella zoster virus infection, urinary tract infection, and mycoplasma pneumoniae were observed. Presentation signs included ataxia, decreased consciousness, fever plus nausea/vomiting, cranial nerve involvement, dysarthric speech, convulsion, hemiparesis, paresthesia, meningismus, and headache. We identified inflammation and demyelination in subcortical than periventricular lesions by magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis was excellent with low mortality rate (6.6%). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is common in our children, possibly because of the high prevalence of causative infections. Due to advances in control of traditional exanthematous diseases such as measle, rubella and so forth, most cases of ADEM in this study followed non-specific upper respiratory infections. Differentiation of ADEM from a single episode of multiple sclerosis is difficult. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis should be carried out

  14. Persistent pseudobulbar affect secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhendong; Luo, Shijian; Ou, Jianying; Huang, Rihe; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient’s principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke ab...

  15. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

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    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  16. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report of effective early immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.; Ramayani, O. R.; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic acute non-vasculitic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse neurologic signs and symptoms coupled with evidence of multifocal lesions of demyelination on neuroimaging. Despite the long-standing recognition of ADEM as a specific entity, no consensus definition of ADEM had been reached until recently. Historically, different definitions of ADEM have been in published cases of pediatric and adult patients, which varied as to whether events required (1) monofocal or multifocal clinical features, (2) a change in mental status, and (3) a documentation of previous infection or immunization. The treatment has been given to the patient such as supportive therapy and high dose corticosteroids.

  17. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Review of Eleven Cases in Childhood in North of Iran

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    Ali Nikkhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it is thought to be immune-mediated. The prognosis is favorable, with most children making a full recovery. Objectives: The present report analyzed different clinical presentations, response to treatment and outcome in a series of 11 patients with ADEM who referred to our tertiary center in north of Iran from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective simple descriptive review, eleven cases with ADEM admitted in the neurology ward from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled. The clinical findings and laboratory and imaging results of patients were reviewed. All of these cases were evaluated with neurological examination, serologic tests for bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis (especially, herpes simplex virus and brain MRI without contrast. After discharge, patients were followed for at least six months (6 to 12 months clinically and radiologically. Results: Of 11 children, 8 were male and 3 female. Their ages ranged between 4 and 10 years. The mean interval between the preceding infection and symptoms of encephalomyelitis was nine days. The most common presenting symptoms were ataxia in 45.4%, fever and headache in 36.4% and altered consciousness in 18.2% of patients. Neurological examination revealed pyramidal motor signs such as brisk deep tendon reflexes (hyperreflexia (81.8%, cranial nerve involvement (18.2%, dysarthria (9.1% and abnormal movements (9.1%. We followed up these patients in long-term for 6 to 12 months. Only in 1 child who received IVIG, mild ataxia had reminded. Conclusions: The prognosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is favorable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ADEM would probably reduce morbidity.

  18. Persistent pseudobulbar affect secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Zhendong Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient's principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke about sad news or other sad things; the durations of these unmanageable emotions were often less than 30 sec, and they occurred at frequencies that ranged from one to several times a day. Occasionally, she laughed uncontrollably while people were talking despite a lack of funny or sad stimuli in the conversation or the surrounding environment. Thus, her social functioning was impaired. This case indicates that the long-term PBA can occur secondarily to ADEM, and this possibility should be considered clinically to ensure timely identification and treatment.

  19. MR findings in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wha Young; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the distribution of lesion and the characteristics of the MR findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children. We evaluated the differences in the imaging findings and the clinical outcomes between the patients with deep gray matter involvement and the patients without deep gray matter involvement. We retrospectively reviewed the 62 MR examinations of 21 patients who were discharged with the clinical diagnosis of ADEM. The patients were aged from 13 months to 12 years old (mean age: 4.5 years). Follow-up MR examinations were done one to 5 times (mean: 3 times) for 2 weeks to 4 years (mean: 3 months) after the initial examination. We compared the signal intensity on T2WI, the enhancement and residue on the MR images and the clinical outcomes between the patients with deep gray matter involvement and the patients without deep gray matter involvement. A total of 21 patients had white matter abnormalities on their initial MR. Fifteen patients (71%) had foci of increased signal intensity on T2WI in the deep gray matter: thalamus (n=15), globus pallidus (n=14) and putamen (n=10). On the follow-up images, all patients showed decreased signal intensity and enhancement of their lesion. We could not find the significant differences in signal intensity, enhancement and residue on the MRIs and also the clinical outcomes between the patients with deep gray matter involvement and the patients without deep gray matter involvement (<.05). There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the imaging and the clinical outcomes between the ADEM patients with deep gray matter involvement and those ADEM patients without deep gray matter involvement

  20. Neurologic and MRI Abnormalities in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and Response to Plasmapheresis

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the clinical course and MRI findings and response to plasmapheresis were determined by a retrospective record review of 13 children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM admitted to St Christopher’s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA, during 1998-2003.

  1. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis on the basis of clinical course

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    Yun Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy. ADEM is considered an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by an environmental stimulus in genetically susceptible individuals. The diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical and radiological features. Most children with ADEM initially present with fever, meningeal signs, and acute encephalopathy. The level of consciousness ranges from lethargy to frank coma. Deep and subcortical white-matter lesions and gray-matter lesions such as thalami and basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are associated with ADEM. In a child who presents with signs of encephalitis, bacterial and viral meningitis or encephalitis must be ruled out. Sequential MRI is required to confirm the diagnosis of ADEM, as relapses with the appearance of new lesions on MRI may suggest either multiphasic ADEM or multiple sclerosis (MS. Pediatric MS, defined as onset of MS before the age of 16, is being increasingly recognized. MS is characterized by recurrent episodes of demyelination in the CNS separated in space and time. The McDonald criteria for diagnosis of MS include evidence from MRI and allow the clinician to make a diagnosis of clinically definite MS on the basis of the interval preceding the development of new white matter lesions, even in the absence of new clinical findings. The most important alternative diagnosis to MS is ADEM. At the initial presentation, the 2 disorders cannot be distinguished with certainty. Therefore, prolonged follow-up is needed to establish a diagnosis.

  2. Post-infective transverse myelitis following Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with radiological features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

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    Williams Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-infectious autoimmune demyelination of the central nervous system is a rare neurological disorder typically associated with exanthematous viral infections. We report an unusual presentation of the condition and a previously undocumented association with Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an acute myelopathy three days after discharge following acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Imaging studies of the spine ruled out an infective focus and no other lesions were seen within the cord. Diffuse, bilateral white matter lesions were seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and our patient was diagnosed as having a post-infective demyelination syndrome that met the diagnostic criteria for an acute transverse myelitis. Our patient clinically and radiologically improved following treatment with steroids. Conclusions The novel association of a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection with post-infectious autoimmune central nervous system demyelination should alert the reader to the potentially causative role of this common organism, and gives insights into the pathogenesis. The unusual dissociation between the clinical presentation and the location of the radiological lesions should also highlight the potential for the condition to mimic the presentation of others, and stimulates debate on the definitions of acute transverse myelitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and their potential overlap.

  3. THE ROLE OF CONTARST ENHANCEMENT IN VISUALIZATION OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

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    A.A. Alikhanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been described the results of MRI and ct neurovisualization with contrast enhancement in 38 children with clinical diagnosis acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE. The distribution of contrast agents in regions of ADE has been studied and the role of contrast enhancement in diagnosis of its has been estimated. Contrast media application allows to detect brain lesions, to identificate the real volume of cerebral tissue included in pathological process and to estimate the efficacy of treatment of ADE. Investigated variants of MRCM (gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobutrol and RCM (iopromide distribution in zones of brain lesions in patients with ade are the basis for specificity increase of ADE diagnosis.Key words: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, contrast enhancement, children.

  4. Relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H.; Kojima, K.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, M.

    1992-01-01

    A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  5. Relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection: MRI findings

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    Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H. (1. Dept. (Neurology) of Internal Medicine, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kojima, K.; Abe, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Koyanagi Hospital, Saga (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.).

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Biomarker to Differentiate Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis From Multiple Sclerosis at First Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wint Yan; Massoumzadeh, Parinaz; Najmi, Safa; Salter, Amber; Heaps, Jodi; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Mar, Soe

    2018-01-01

    There are no clinical features or biomarkers that can reliably differentiate acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from multiple sclerosis at the first demyelination attack. Consequently, a final diagnosis is sometimes delayed by months and years of follow-up. Early treatment for multiple sclerosis is recommended to reduce long-term disability. Therefore, we intend to explore neuroimaging biomarkers that can reliably distinguish between the two diagnoses. We reviewed prospectively collected clinical, standard MRI and diffusion tensor imaging data from 12 pediatric patients who presented with acute demyelination with and without encephalopathy. Patients were followed for an average of 6.5 years to determine the accuracy of final diagnosis. Final diagnosis was determined using 2013 International Pediatric MS Study Group criteria. Control subjects consisted of four age-matched healthy individuals for each patient. The study population consisted of six patients with central nervous system demyelination with encephalopathy with a presumed diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and six without encephalopathy with a presumed diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome at high risk for multiple sclerosis. During follow-up, two patients with initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were later diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Diffusion tensor imaging region of interest analysis of baseline scans showed differences between final diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis patients, whereby low fractional anisotropy and high radial diffusivity occurred in multiple sclerosis patients compared with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis patients and the age-matched controls. Fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity measures may have the potential to serve as biomarkers for distinguishing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from multiple sclerosis at the onset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY PARAMETERS IN DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN CHILDREN

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    V. B. Voitenkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research objective was to evaluate the importance of neurophysiological methods in diagnosing the state of visual, somatosensory and motor pathways condition in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM in children.Materials and methods. Twenty-four children with a debut of multiple sclerosis, 15 children with debute of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and 20 neurologically healthy children of the comparison group were examined. All patients were evaluated by neurologist, brain MRI and CSF analysis (isoelectrofocusing to oligoclonal IgG, oligoclonal bands test, visual evoked potentials (VEP, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP.Results. In children with MS asymmetry of the conduction along the motor pathways on the spinal level was higher than in patients with ADEM and controls, functional state of somatosensory cortex neurons was lower and conduction along somatosensory pathways on the spinal level was slower – all differences significant. According to the visual evoked potentials, in more than half of the cases, there was an increase in the latency of the P100 peak. Also in MS group there was a significant disruption of the visual pathway in 54% of the cases. Neurophysiological changes in 58% of cases were demyelinating, and violations of the axonal type occurred in 37% of cases.Conclusions. Neurophysiological diagnostic methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials are highly informative for the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. More pronounced spinal lesions in early stages of MS than in ADEM in children may be the cause of the neurophysiologic differences, and prevalence of the sensory system involvement at this stage may be the reason behind more extended SSEP abnormalities comparing with TMS. VEP changes may reflect primary

  12. Two Cases of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Following Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Yasui, Naoko; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present two cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV). Case 1 experienced diplopia and developed an unstable gait 14 days after a second vaccination of Cervarix. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an isolated small, demyelinating lesion in the pontine tegmentum. Case 2 experienced a fever and limb dysesthesia 16 days after a second vaccination of Gardasil. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense lesion in the pons with slight edema on a T2-weighted image. Both cases resolved completely. It is important to accumulate further data on confirmed cases of ADEM temporally associated with HPV vaccination. PMID:27803416

  13. Enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis and Japanese encephalitis can be distinguished by topographic distribution of inflammation and specific intraneuronal detection of viral antigen and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K T; Ng, K Y; Ong, K C; Ng, W F; Shankar, S K; Mahadevan, A; Radotra, B; Su, I J; Lau, G; Ling, A E; Chan, K P; Macorelles, P; Vallet, S; Cardosa, M J; Desai, A; Ravi, V; Nagata, N; Shimizu, H; Takasaki, T

    2012-08-01

    To investigate if two important epidemic viral encephalitis in children, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalomyelitis and Japanese encephalitis (JE) whose clinical and pathological features may be nonspecific and overlapping, could be distinguished. Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infected cases were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. All 13 cases of EV71 encephalomyelitis collected from Asia and France invariably showed stereotyped distribution of inflammation in the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex and meninges. Anterior pons, corpus striatum, thalamus, temporal lobe, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex were always uninflamed. In contrast, the eight JE cases studied showed inflammation involving most neuronal areas of the central nervous system, including the areas that were uninflamed in EV71 encephalomyelitis. Lesions in both infections were nonspecific, consisting of perivascular and parenchymal infiltration by inflammatory cells, oedematous/necrolytic areas, microglial nodules and neuronophagia. Viral inclusions were absent. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays were useful to identify the causative virus, localizing viral antigens and RNA, respectively, almost exclusively to neurones. The stereotyped distribution of inflammatory lesions in EV71 encephalomyelitis appears to be very useful to help distinguish it from JE. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  14. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, M; Lorenzon, G; Mesaglio, S

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed.

  15. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, M.; Lorenzon, G.; Mesaglio, S.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  16. Clinical features and outcome of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM: An outlook from South India

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    Maramattom Boby

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an uncommon inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis that may follow infections, vaccinations or occur spontaneously. Most of the large series of this disorder were published in the pre-MRI era. Subsequently there has been a paucity of data regarding this entity. Aims: We sought to describe our experience with ADEM across 2 hospitals from Kerala, Sree chitra tirunal institute of medical sciences, thiruvanthapuram and the Indo-american Brain and spine center, Vaikom. We wanted to look at the clinico-radiological parameters of this patient population as well as the functional outcome following ADEM. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients seen in these two centers over a period of 9 years from 1995 to 2003 were analyzed in a retrospective-prospective design. MRI, CT scans, laboratory investigations, nerve conduction parameters and modified rankin outcome scores at last follow up were also noted. Results: The clinico-radiological profile of our patients was comparable to that of patients described in the literature. Relapse was uncommon although transient reappearance of prior symptoms during subsequent illness was common. Possible multiple sclerosis could be diagnosed only in one patient during follow up. Mortality was low ( Conclusions: ADEM deserves to be distinguished from MS in our population as there seems to be a low likelihood of recurrence or relapse. Although mortality rates have improved greatly, survivors are left with a plethora of disabilities and are functionally impaired. Future studies should focus on specific disabilities and treatment options to further improve outcomes in ADEM

  17. 1H-MRS for the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: insight into the acute-disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Sira, Liat; Miller, Elka; Artzi, Moran; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Constantini, Shlomi; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Differentiating ADEM from other inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, is not always conclusive using conventional MRI. To evaluate longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) changes that distinguish ADEM from other inflammatory disorders. MRI/MRS scans were performed in seven patients with ADEM during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Partial recovery was detected between the acute and chronic phases in choline/creatine ratio. Major elevation of lipids and reduction in myo-inositol/creatine ratio was detected in all patients during the acute phase, followed by a reduction in lipids peak and elevation above normal in myo-inositol/creatine ratio during the chronic phase. Consistent and unique MRS changes in metabolite ratios between the acute and chronic presentations of the disease were found. To the best of our knowledge, these patterns have not been described in other inflammatory disorders and might assist in the early diagnosis of ADEM. (orig.)

  18. Rehabilitation outcomes after combined acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korupolu, Radha; Ngo, Thien; Hack, Nawaz; Escott, Edward; Salles, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year old female presented with acute tetraparesis and areflexia. Initial imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Minimal clinical response with intravenous steroids prompted further work up. Limited nerve conduction studies suggested possible acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy, a rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Repeat imaging was compatible with polyradiculopathy indicating concomitance of ADEM and GBS. The patient suffered severe motor deficits and neuropathic pain. Slow but significant functional recovery was noted after intensive inpatient rehabilitation followed by continued rehabilitation via home health services.

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanya, K.S.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Jayakumar, P.N.; Ravishankar, S.; Kamble, R.B.; Panicker, J.; Nagaraja, D.

    2007-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually a monophasic illness characterized by multiple lesions involving gray and white matter. Quantitative MR techniques were used to characterize and stage these lesions. Eight patients (seven males and one female; mean age 19 years, range 5 to 36 years) were studied using conventional MRI (T2- and T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRS ratios were calculated for the lesion and for normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Three patients were imaged in the acute stage (within 7 days of the onset of neurological symptoms) and five in the subacute stage (after 7 days from the onset of symptoms). ADC values in NAWM were in the range 0.7-1.24 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 (mean 0.937 ± 0.17 mm/s 2 ). ADC values of ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.37-0.68 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 (mean 0.56 ± 0.16 mm/s 2 ) and 1.01-1.31 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 (mean 1.24 ± 0.13 mm/s 2 ) in the subacute stage. MRS ratios were obtained for all patients. NAA/Cho ratios were in the range 1.1-3.5 (mean 1.93 ± 0.86) in the NAWM. NAA/Cho ratios within ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.63-1.48 (mean 1.18 ± 0.48) and 0.29-0.84 (mean 0.49 ± 0.22) in the subacute stage. The ADC values, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the acute and subacute stages (P < 0.001, P < 0.027, P < 0.047, respectively). ADC values were significantly different between lesions in the acute (P < 0.009) and subacute stages (P < 0.005) with NAWM. In addition, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the subacute stage and NAWM (P < 0.006, P < 0.007, respectively). ADEM lesions were characterized in the acute stage by restricted diffusion and in the subacute stage by free diffusion and a decrease in NAA/Cho ratios. Restricted diffusion and progressive decrease in NAA

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, K.S.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Jayakumar, P.N.; Ravishankar, S.; Kamble, R.B. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panicker, J.; Nagaraja, D. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore (India)

    2007-02-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually a monophasic illness characterized by multiple lesions involving gray and white matter. Quantitative MR techniques were used to characterize and stage these lesions. Eight patients (seven males and one female; mean age 19 years, range 5 to 36 years) were studied using conventional MRI (T2- and T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRS ratios were calculated for the lesion and for normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Three patients were imaged in the acute stage (within 7 days of the onset of neurological symptoms) and five in the subacute stage (after 7 days from the onset of symptoms). ADC values in NAWM were in the range 0.7-1.24 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 0.937 {+-} 0.17 mm/s{sup 2}). ADC values of ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.37-0.68 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 0.56 {+-} 0.16 mm/s{sup 2}) and 1.01-1.31 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 1.24 {+-} 0.13 mm/s{sup 2}) in the subacute stage. MRS ratios were obtained for all patients. NAA/Cho ratios were in the range 1.1-3.5 (mean 1.93 {+-} 0.86) in the NAWM. NAA/Cho ratios within ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.63-1.48 (mean 1.18 {+-} 0.48) and 0.29-0.84 (mean 0.49 {+-} 0.22) in the subacute stage. The ADC values, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the acute and subacute stages (P < 0.001, P < 0.027, P < 0.047, respectively). ADC values were significantly different between lesions in the acute (P < 0.009) and subacute stages (P < 0.005) with NAWM. In addition, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the subacute stage and NAWM (P < 0.006, P < 0.007, respectively). ADEM lesions were characterized in the acute stage by restricted diffusion and in the subacute stage by free diffusion and a decrease in NAA/Cho ratios

  1. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: the role of brain and spinal cord MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, Pek-Lan; Cheng, Pui-Wai; Chan, Fu-Luk; Ho, Hok-Kung; Wong, Virginia C.N.; Goh, Winnie

    2002-01-01

    Background. It is recognised that the clinical and radiological spectrum of childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is wide. Objective. To determine whether initial MRI features are predictive of clinical outcome and to determine the role of MRI in the management of ADEM. Materials and methods. The MRI scans of ten consecutive children (eight boys, two girls), clinically and radiologically diagnosed to have ADEM, were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up MRI was available for eight patients. Results. Lesions ranged from small and punctate (<1 cm) to moderate sized and confluent (4-5 cm) to diffuse and extensive. Spinal cord lesions, seen in five of seven children, were contiguous or segmental. Seven children (70%) made good clinical recovery while three children (30%) remained severely handicapped. There was no correlation between the site, extent and pattern of involvement and clinical outcome. However, the evolution of MRI findings on follow-up correlated well with the subsequent clinical course and outcome. Conclusions. Although the extent and site of lesions on initial MRI scans are not predictive of clinical outcome, early MRI of the brain and spine is useful in aiding clinical diagnosis, and subsequent follow-up MRI is helpful in monitoring disease progression. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of viral protein-2 encoding gene of avian encephalomyelitis virus from field specimens in Central Java region, Indonesia

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    Aris Haryanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Avian encephalomyelitis (AE is a viral disease which can infect various types of poultry, especially chicken. In Indonesia, the incidence of AE infection in chicken has been reported since 2009, the AE incidence tends to increase from year to year. The objective of this study was to analyze viral protein 2 (VP-2 encoding gene of AE virus (AEV from various species of birds in field specimen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification using specific nucleotides primer for confirmation of AE diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 AEV samples are isolated from various species of poultry which are serologically diagnosed infected by AEV from some areas in central Java, Indonesia. Research stage consists of virus samples collection from field specimens, extraction of AEV RNA, amplification of VP-2 protein encoding gene by RT-PCR, separation of RT-PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and data analysis. Results: Amplification products of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV by RT-PCR methods of various types of poultry from field specimens showed a positive results on sample code 499/4/12 which generated DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp. Sensitivity test of RT-PCR amplification showed that the minimum concentration of RNA template is 127.75 ng/μl. The multiple alignments of DNA sequencing product indicated that positive sample with code 499/4/12 has 92% nucleotide homology compared with AEV with accession number AV1775/07 and 85% nucleotide homology with accession number ZCHP2/0912695 from Genbank database. Analysis of VP-2 gene sequence showed that it found 46 nucleotides difference between isolate 499/4/12 compared with accession number AV1775/07 and 93 nucleotides different with accession number ZCHP2/0912695. Conclusions: Analyses of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV with RT-PCR method from 13 samples from field specimen generated the DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp from one sample with

  4. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi; Ishii, Yasushi.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T 2 -weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author)

  5. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T{sub 2}-weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author).

  6. A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-01-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset. (author)

  7. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following influenza vaccination: report of a case with callosal disconnection syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Motomi; Takagi, Daisuke; Nagao, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of callosal disconnection syndrome as a rare manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). A dextral 48-year-old Japanese woman received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in mid-November 2011. Twenty days later, she was found to be in a daze. Subsequently, she developed abnormal behavior and gait disturbance, and she was disoriented regarding time and place. Nystagmus and abnormal ocular movements were absent. Upper limb power was normal, whereas her lower limbs were mildly weak. Tendon reflexes were normally evoked without pathological reflexes. There was no sensory impairment. Serum CRP levels were slightly elevated; other routine laboratory tests, thyroid functions, and vitamin B1 levels were within the normal range. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed that it was acellular with a protein level of 54 mg/dl and high myelin basic protein level. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR images revealed a large hyperintense lesion in the corpus callosum, but the lower part of the splenium was spared. Flow voids were observed in the pericallosal arteries. She was diagnosed with post-vaccination ADEM and vigorously treated with an intravenous infusion of methylprednisolone (1 g/day for 6 days) and immunoglobulin (1.2 g/kg). Gait disturbance and disorientation rapidly improved; however, tactile anomia, ideomotor apraxia, ideational apraxia, and agraphia of the left hand were present one month after onset. She had no aphasia or alexia.Interestingly, the patient's left unilateral agraphia was more prominent in kana than kanji (an article in Japanese text) for polysyllabic words, whereas she could write kana characters to dictation. Changes in the sequential order of kana characters within a word were observed. These findings were similar to those observed in pure agraphia associated with lesions in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus. Thus, an interhemispheric mechanism is probably involved in the selection and

  8. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis onset: evaluation based on vaccine adverse events reporting systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pellegrino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological features of post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM by considering data from different pharmacovigilance surveillance systems. METHODS: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS database and the EudraVigilance post-authorisation module (EVPM were searched to identify post vaccine ADEM cases. Epidemiological features including sex and related vaccines were analysed. RESULTS: We retrieved 205 and 236 ADEM cases from the EVPM and VAERS databases, respectively, of which 404 were considered for epidemiological analysis following verification and causality assessment. Half of the patients had less than 18 years and with a slight male predominance. The time interval from vaccination to ADEM onset was 2-30 days in 61% of the cases. Vaccine against seasonal flu and human papilloma virus vaccine were those most frequently associated with ADEM, accounting for almost 30% of the total cases. Mean number of reports per year between 2005 and 2012 in VAERS database was 40±21.7, decreasing after 2010 mainly because of a reduction of reports associated with human papilloma virus and Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has a high epidemiological power as it is based on information on adverse events having occurred in over one billion people. It suffers from lack of rigorous case verification due to the weakness intrinsic to the surveillance databases used. At variance with previous reports on a prevalence of ADEM in childhood we demonstrate that it may occur at any age when post vaccination. This study also shows that the diminishing trend in post vaccine ADEM reporting related to Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B and human papilloma virus vaccine groups is most likely not [corrected] due to a decline in vaccine coverage indicative of a reduced attention to this adverse drug reaction.

  9. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

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    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  10. Comparative brain stem lesions on MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis.

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    Zhengqi Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, neuromyelitis optica (NMO, and multiple sclerosis (MS. OBJECTIVES: To investigate comparative brain stem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. METHODS: Sixty-five adult patients with ADEM (n = 17, NMO (n = 23, and MS (n = 25 who had brain stem lesions on MRI were enrolled. Morphological features of brain stem lesions among these diseases were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with ADEM had a higher frequency of midbrain lesions than did patients with NMO (94.1% vs. 17.4%, P<0.001 and MS (94.1% vs. 40.0%, P<0.001; patients with NMO had a lower frequency of pons lesions than did patients with MS (34.8% vs. 84.0%, P<0.001 and ADEM (34.8% vs. 70.6%, P = 0.025; and patients with NMO had a higher frequency of medulla oblongata lesions than did patients with ADEM (91.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001 and MS (91.3% vs. 36.0%, P<0.001. On the axial section of the brain stem, the majority (82.4% of patients with ADEM showed lesions on the ventral part; the brain stem lesions in patients with NMO were typically located in the dorsal part (91.3%; and lesions in patients with MS were found in both the ventral (44.0% and dorsal (56.0% parts. The lesions in patients with ADEM (100% and NMO (91.3% had poorly defined margins, while lesions of patients with MS (76.0% had well defined margins. Brain stem lesions in patients with ADEM were usually bilateral and symmetrical (82.4%, while lesions in patients with NMO (87.0% and MS (92.0% were asymmetrical or unilateral. CONCLUSIONS: Brain stem lesions showed various morphological features among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. The different lesion locations may be helpful in distinguishing these diseases.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  14. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-liang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.

  15. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defined level and is thus indicative of recent infection as IgM anti-HBc may persist in low titres for a prolonged period. SAMJ. ARTICLES. Detection of HBeAg in the serum is important in the clinical evaluation of a patient with HBV infection as it usually correlates with viral replication, active liver damage and infectivity.3 ...

  16. MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebellitis and myelitis in infancy: likely topographic variant of a single process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuno, J. R.; Menor, F.; Esteban, M. J.; Pamies, J.; Gomez-Gosalvez, F. A.; Jover, J.

    2003-01-01

    To describe MR images of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE) in a paediatric group, particularly focused on its likely topographic variants, cerebellitis and myelitis, its evolution, and the differential diagnosis between it an an initial outbreak of multiple sclerosis. Initial and follow-up cranial MR images were retrospectively reviewed for 14 paediatric patients diagnosed with either ADE, cerebellitis or myelitis. In 9 patients, a spinal cord monitoring was included. Three topographic variants have been considered: ADE (7 patients). In the case of ADE, the supratentorial white matter was always affected, the brain stem in five (71%) and the cerebellum in two (28,5%). Basal ganglionic lesions were detected in 5 patients (71%) and cortical lesions in one (14%). Associated spinal cord abnormality was found in five of the six cases in which this study was included (83%). ADE lesions tended to be nodular and poorly differentiated whereas in cerebellitis and myelitis the predominant pattern was one of diffuse damage. Evolution of the lesions was toward reduction/resolution. Follow-up using MR in the medium-term in 6 patients (four ADE and two cerebellitis) did not detect any new lesions. Clinical follow-up of the patients did not show any neurological recurrences in any of them. ADE, cerebillits and myelitis could be topographic variants of a single process with a common pathogeny. As the spinal cord often seems to play a role in ADE, spinal cord monitoring would be recommended, even in the absence of the above-mentioned symptoms. This spinal cord abnormality, which is usually diffuse, plus deep gray matter damage, as well as the disease of monophase course, corroborated by a sequential MR follow-up, is all helpful in the differential diagnosis with multiple sclerosis. Nonetheless, the differential diagnosis between a recurring form of ADE and an encephalomyelitis is practically impossible to make. (Author) 33 refs

  17. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  18. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  19. Visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenkov Vladislav Borisovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate extent and nature of visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis. METHODS: Thirty patients(age 5-12 yearswith acute viral encephalitis underwent visual evoked potentials(VEPinvestigation within 12 days from the appearance of the first signs of disease. Latency and amplitude of P100 peak were compared with normative data and between patients with varicella and tick-borne encephalitis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between children with these two forms of encephalitis. In the whole group in 40% of the cases signs of the visual cortex dysfunction(P100 amplitude loweringand mild slowing of the conductivity along the visual pathways(P100 latency lengtheningwere seen. In 3% of the cases retrobulbar optic neuritis was diagnosed. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that visual pathway have good endurance to the viral encephalitis anatomically, but functionally visual cortex is quite vulnerable towards general disturbances caused by this kind of illness.

  20. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...

  1. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  2. Methodological Challenges in Protein Microarray and Immunohistochemistry for the Discovery of Novel Autoantibodies in Paediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschl, Patrick; Ramberger, Melanie; Höftberger, Romana; Jöhrer, Karin; Baumann, Matthias; Rostásy, Kevin; Reindl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel autoantibody targets in ADEM patients. Sixteen ADEM patients (11 seronegative, 5 seropositive for MOG antibodies) were analysed for potential new biomarkers, using a protein microarray and immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue to identify antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal and glial antigens. Nine candidate antigens were identified in the protein microarray analysis in at least two patients per group. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue did not reveal new target antigens. Although no new autoantibody targets could be found here, future studies should aim to identify new biomarkers for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry methods used here have several limitations, which should be considered in future searches for biomarkers. PMID:28327523

  3. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  4. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness in acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jin Sook; Kim, Kyung Jung; Park, Yang Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hanyang Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Prospective study of gallbladder wall thickness by ultrasonography was performed in 38 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 normal subjects as a control group from June 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows; 1. In normal population, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 1 mm to 3 mm with peak incidence in 2 mm (66%, 33 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 1.9 {+-} 0.6 mm. 2. In acute viral hepatitis, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 2 mm to 8 mm with peak incidence in 3 mm (34%, 13 case), second peak in 4 mm (29%, 11 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 3.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, which is thicker than normal with statistical significance. (p<0.005) 3. In acute viral hepatitis, the mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 4.4 {+-} 1.8 mm in the group of SGOT/SGPT level above 400 IU, and 2.8 {+-} 0.8 mm in the group of SGOT/ SGPT level below 400 IU. This difference is significant statistically. (p<0.05)

  7. Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jin Sook; Kim, Kyung Jung; Park, Yang Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1984-01-01

    Prospective study of gallbladder wall thickness by ultrasonography was performed in 38 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 normal subjects as a control group from June 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows; 1. In normal population, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 1 mm to 3 mm with peak incidence in 2 mm (66%, 33 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 1.9 ± 0.6 mm. 2. In acute viral hepatitis, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 2 mm to 8 mm with peak incidence in 3 mm (34%, 13 case), second peak in 4 mm (29%, 11 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 3.6 ± 1.6 mm, which is thicker than normal with statistical significance. (p<0.005) 3. In acute viral hepatitis, the mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 4.4 ± 1.8 mm in the group of SGOT/SGPT level above 400 IU, and 2.8 ± 0.8 mm in the group of SGOT/ SGPT level below 400 IU. This difference is significant statistically. (p<0.05)

  8. Interferon therapy of acute respiratory viral infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of nasal spray Laferobionum® (100,000 IU/ml in children with acute respiratory viral infections. Materials and methods. The study included 84 children aged 12 to 18 years. Children of the main group (42 persons received Laferobionum® spray in addition to the standard treatment for acute respiratory viral infections. The drug was administered to children of 12–14 years for 2 spray doses in each nasal passage 4–5 times a day at regular intervals (with the exception of sleep time, children aged 14–18 years received 3 spray-doses per each nasal passage 5–6 times a day at regular intervals (excluding sleep time. The course of treatment for all subjects was 5 days. Children of the control group received standard treatment for acute respiratory viral infections without Laferobionum®. Objective research included: auscultation of the heart and lungs, examination of the skin and mucous membranes, measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. All patients underwent a general blood test, a general urinalysis, identification of the pathogen using the method of direct immunofluorescence (in smears taken from the nasal passages in the laboratory “Medical Diagnostic Center of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy”. Results. In the non-epidemic period, the respiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses were the leading viral pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections. The main clinical manifestations of acute respiratory viral infection in the observed patients were signs of general inflammatory and catarrhal syndromes. All patients had not severe course of the disease. The data of the physical examination performed before the beginning of treatment indicated the absence of clinically significant deviations from the cardiovascular system in the children of the main and control groups. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the subjects of both groups were

  9. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made

  10. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  11. Estimating Acute Viral Hepatitis Infections From Nationally Reported Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Stephen; Roberts, Henry; Jiles, Ruth B.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because only a fraction of patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B, and C are reported through national surveillance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we estimated the true numbers. Methods. We applied a simple probabilistic model to estimate the fraction of patients with acute hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C who would have been symptomatic, would have sought health care tests, and would have been reported to health officials in 2011. Results. For hepatitis A, the frequencies of symptoms (85%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (69%) yielded an estimate of 2730 infections (2.0 infections per reported case). For hepatitis B, the frequencies of symptoms (39%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (45%) indicated 18 730 infections (6.5 infections per reported case). For hepatitis C, the frequency of symptoms among injection drug users (13%) and those infected otherwise (48%), proportion seeking care (88%), and percentage reported (53%) indicated 17 100 infections (12.3 infections per reported case). Conclusions. These adjustment factors will allow state and local health authorities to estimate acute hepatitis infections locally and plan prevention activities accordingly. PMID:24432918

  12. Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at pdysphagia. PMID:25479843

  13. [Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at p<0.05. Changes in the oral phase (prolonged pauses) and pharyngeal phase (wheezing, coughing and gagging) of swallowing were found. A significant increase in respiratory rate between pre- and post-feeding times was found, and it was determined that almost half of the infants had tachypnea. An association was observed between the swallowing disorder scores and a decrease in oxygen saturation. Infants whose caregivers reported feeding difficulties during hospitalization stated a significantly greater number of changes in the swallowing evaluation. The intra-rater agreement was considered to be very good. Infants with acute viral bronchiolitis displayed swallowing disorders in addition to changes in respiratory rate and measures of oxygen saturation. It is suggested, therefore, that infants displaying these risk factors have a higher probability of dysphagia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  15. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  16. Simultaneous presentation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) after enteroviral infection: can ADEM present as the first manifestation of SLE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-M; Son, C-N; Chang, H W; Kim, S-H

    2015-05-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) includes a broad range of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating CNS disorder characterized by encephalopathy and multifocal lesions predominantly involving the white matter on brain magnetic resonance imaging. ADEM associated with SLE has been only rarely reported. We report an unusual case of a 17-year-old girl who developed ADEM after enteroviral infection as the first manifestation of SLE. The authors emphasize that the patient's illness was preceded by enteroviral infection and that ADEM occurred before any other symptoms of SLE, which makes this case unique. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, including evaluation of the contrast-enhancing effect on lesions by Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori; Matsuo, Michimasa

    1996-01-01

    Many papers on the MR features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been published, but only a few described contrast-enhanced MRI for this disease. In this study, we analyzed serial changes in MR features and the contrast-enhancing effect on lesions in five patients (5 men, 4-19 years old) discharged with the final diagnosis of ADEM. Hyperintense lesions in brain/spinal cord were demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images in all cases, but not all lesions were enhanced by Gd-DTPA. In the follow-up study many lesions disappeared, but some lesions were enlarged and some new lesions were found. These findings suggest that, although ADEM is clinically monophasic, some cases may progress with the coexistence of reducing, vanishing, and new lesions. Some clinically acute lesions were not enhanced. This might be explained by the following reasons; lesions on various phases coexist, the damage to the blood-brain barrier in the lesions is of different degrees even if it is on the same phase, and the duration of acute phase activity is short. Additionally, some hyperintense lesions remained for a long time on T2-weighted images in spite of the absence of clinical manifestation. That hyperintense area might reflect edema caused by incomplete repair of the blood-brain barrier. From our evaluation of these five cases, MRI is not useful for the diagnosis and follow-up study of ADEM. (author)

  18. How Can Viral Dynamics Models Inform Endpoint Measures in Clinical Trials of Therapies for Acute Viral Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available Acute viral infections pose many practical challenges for the accurate assessment of the impact of novel therapies on viral growth and decay. Using the example of influenza A, we illustrate how the measurement of infection-related quantities that determine the dynamics of viral load within the human host, can inform investigators on the course and severity of infection and the efficacy of a novel treatment. We estimated the values of key infection-related quantities that determine the course of natural infection from viral load data, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The data were placebo group viral load measurements collected during volunteer challenge studies, conducted by Roche, as part of the oseltamivir trials. We calculated the values of the quantities for each patient and the correlations between the quantities, symptom severity and body temperature. The greatest variation among individuals occurred in the viral load peak and area under the viral load curve. Total symptom severity correlated positively with the basic reproductive number. The most sensitive endpoint for therapeutic trials with the goal to cure patients is the duration of infection. We suggest laboratory experiments to obtain more precise estimates of virological quantities that can supplement clinical endpoint measurements.

  19. Encefalomielite disseminada aguda e vacinação antimeningocócica A e C: relato de caso Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: association with meningococcal A and C vaccine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco O. Py

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de paciente do sexo feminino, de 25 anos, que desenvolveu encefalomielite aguda disseminada (EDA iniciando-se cinco dias após vacinação para meningococcus A e C (Pasteur-Meríeux na campanha de vacinação realizada em dezembro de 1995 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Houve excelente resposta clínica e neurorradiológica após tratamento com corticosteróides em altas doses (pulsoterapia. Não foram encontrados relatos sobre a associação entre a vacina antimeningocócica e a EDA. A associação entre EDA e leptospirose ou infecções por Mycoplasma sugerem porém que a síndrome pode ser precipitada não só por viroses ou vacinação antiviral como também pela exposição do organismo a proteínas e polissacarídeos de bactérias.A 25-year-old woman developed acute disseminated post-vaccinal encephalomyelitis (ADEM following vaccination with A plus C meningococcal vaccine (Pasteur-Merieux. Fast disappearance of symptoms and gradual resolution of MR1 demyelinating lesions occurred after steroid treatment with high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone. To our knowledge, ADEM has not been previously described in association with meningococcal vaccine. Although most cases of ADEM occur following viral infections and vaccination, the syndrome has previously been related to leptospirosis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. This suggests that it may also be related to exposure to polysaccharide-protein vaccines such as the Group A plus Group C meningococcal vaccine.

  20. Prognostic Value of Cytochrome C and Cytokines in Acute Viral Encephalopathy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cytochrome c and cytokines were evaluated as prognostic predictors in 29 children (ages 9 mos to 9 yrs 11 mos with viral acute encephalopathies and multiple organ failure at Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

  1. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

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    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co‐detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  2. Evaluation of adults with acute viral hepatitis a and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, R; Yolbas, I; Dal, T; Demirpençe, Ö; Kaya, S; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, Ö; Çelen, M K; Tekin, A

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries HAV infection is very common in the first years of life and it is often asymptomatic. However especially in regions of intermediate endemicity, exposure to the virus may delay and outbreaks of hepatitis A may be encountered in adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors of adults with acute viral hepatitis A. In present study we evaluated 203 patient with acute viral hepatitis A, who were admitted to four different hospitals of three cities of Turkey between January 2000-December 2011, retrospectively. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A was performed by laboratory findings and clinically. In a total of 203 patients, 120 (59.1%) patients were male and 83 (40.9%) were female. Mean age of cases with acute viral hepatitis A was 24.7 +11.8 years (ranged 15 to 82 years old). Acute viral hepatitis A were seen in patient who were 15-20 years and 21-30 years old, commonly. Jaundice (74%), fatigue (68%), nausea- vomiting (56%) and dark urine (48%) were the most common symptoms in cases. Prolonged cholestasis (6.8%) was the most common atypical manifestation. Prolonged jaundice was more frequent in the cases with positive HBsAg (P viral hepatitis A can cause atypical presentations such as prolonged cholestasis, acute kidney injury and fulminant hepatitis. Some precautions such as routine vaccination program, improvement of hygiene conditions and informing people about it, should be taken for reducing of acute viral hepatitis A infection incidence.

  3. Evaluation of Possible Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

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    Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis.

  4. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

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    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer.

  5. Immunological and molecular epidemiological characteristics of acute and fulminant viral hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Husain, Syed A; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Kar, Premashis

    2011-05-23

    Hepatitis A virus is an infection of liver; it is hyperendemic in vast areas of the world including India. In most cases it causes an acute self limited illness but rarely fulminant. There is growing concern about change in pattern from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the adult population. In-depth analysis of immunological, viral quantification and genotype of acute and fulminant hepatitis A virus. Serum samples obtained from 1009 cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis was employed for different biochemical and serological examination. RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified using nested PCR for viral quantification, sequencing and genotyping. Immunological cell count from freshly collected whole blood was carried out by fluorescence activated cell sorter. Fulminant hepatitis A was mostly detected with other hepatic viruses. CD8+ T cells count increases in fulminant hepatitis to a significantly high level (P = 0.005) compared to normal healthy control. The immunological helper/suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) ratio of fulminant hepatitis was significantly lower compared to acute cases. The serologically positive patients were confirmed by RT-PCR and total of 72 (69.2%) were quantified and sequenced. The average quantitative viral load of fulminant cases was significantly higher (P viral load defines the severity of the fulminant hepatitis A. Phylogenetic analysis of acute and fulminant hepatitis A confirmed genotypes IIIA as predominant against IA with no preference of disease severity.

  6. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

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    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  7. Effects of time after infection, mosquito genotype, and infectious viral dose on the dynamics of Culex tarsalis vector competence for western equine encephalomyelitis virus.

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    Mahmood, Farida; Chiles, Robert E; Fang, Ying; Green, Emily N; Reisen, William K

    2006-06-01

    The vector competence of Culex tarsalis Coquillett for the BFS 1703 strain of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) changed significantly as a function of time after infection, mosquito genotype, and infectious virus dose. After ingesting a high virus dose (5 log10 plaque-forming units [PFU]/0.1 ml), female of the susceptible high virus producer (HVP) strain rapidly amplified the virus, developed a disseminated infection, and efficiently transmitted WEEV by 4 days postinfection (dpi). The quantity of virus expectorated peaked at 4 dpi (mean 3.4 log10 PFU), and the percentage of females transmitting per os peaked at 7 dpi (80%); both measures of transmission subsequently decreased to low levels throughout the remainder of infected life. HVP females imbibing a low virus dose (3 log10 PFU/0.1 ml) were infected less frequently and took longer to amplify virus to levels recorded for the high virus dose group and did not transmit virus efficiently, thereby indicating midgut infection and escape barriers were dose and time dependent. These data emphasized the importance of elevated avian viremias in Cx. tarsalis vector competence. Females from the WEEV-resistant (WR) strain and two wild-type strains from Kern and Riverside counties were significantly less susceptible to infection at both high and low doses than was the HVP strain. Overall, females with a high virus titer more frequently had a disseminated infection, but there did not seem to be a distinct threshold demarcating this relationship. In marked contrast, all infected females transmitting virus had body titers >4.3 log10 PFU, and most had titers >4.8 log10 PFU. These data indicated that not all females with a disseminated infection transmitted virus because of the presence of one or more salivary gland barriers.

  8. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

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    Arden, Amir David

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  9. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli V; Vieira, Graciete O; Vieira, Tatiana O; Cruz, Álvaro A; Guimarães, Armênio C; Teles, Carlos; Camargos, Paulo; Cruz, Constança M S

    To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461). The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40), modifier effect p=0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30) and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69) were other identified risk factors for asthma. Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort,

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    Heli V. Brandão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72 h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461. The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40, modifier effect p = 0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30 and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69 were other identified risk factors for asthma. Conclusion: Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma.

  12. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

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    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  13. Immunological and molecular epidemiological characteristics of acute and fulminant viral hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus is an infection of liver; it is hyperendemic in vast areas of the world including India. In most cases it causes an acute self limited illness but rarely fulminant. There is growing concern about change in pattern from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the adult population. Objective In-depth analysis of immunological, viral quantification and genotype of acute and fulminant hepatitis A virus. Methods Serum samples obtained from 1009 cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis was employed for different biochemical and serological examination. RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified using nested PCR for viral quantification, sequencing and genotyping. Immunological cell count from freshly collected whole blood was carried out by fluorescence activated cell sorter. Results Fulminant hepatitis A was mostly detected with other hepatic viruses. CD8+ T cells count increases in fulminant hepatitis to a significantly high level (P = 0.005) compared to normal healthy control. The immunological helper/suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) ratio of fulminant hepatitis was significantly lower compared to acute cases. The serologically positive patients were confirmed by RT-PCR and total of 72 (69.2%) were quantified and sequenced. The average quantitative viral load of fulminant cases was significantly higher (P hepatitis A. Phylogenetic analysis of acute and fulminant hepatitis A confirmed genotypes IIIA as predominant against IA with no preference of disease severity. PMID:21605420

  14. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection

  15. The Role of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Acute Viral Hepatitis: an Evidence-based Case Report

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    Indra Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to review the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in acute viral hepatitis. Methods: following literature searching according to the clinical question on Pubmed and Cochrane Library. After filtered with our inclusion and exclusion criteria, one meta-analysis and two randomized clinical trials are obtained. Through critical appraisal, it was concluded that the articles meet the criteria for validity and relevance. Results: the article found that there is a positive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the activity of serum transaminases and cholestasis indexes. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or to refute effects of  ursodeoxycholic acid on disease’s course as well as the viral load. Conclusion: better method of clinical trials are needed to obtain a valid and applicable result for daily practice. Key words: ursodeoxycholic acid, acute viral hepatitis

  16. Acute psychosis followed by fever: Malignant neuroleptic syndrome or viral encephalitis?

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    Stojanović Zvezdana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is rare, but potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic medications. It is sometimes difficult to diagnose some clinical cases as neuroleptic malignant syndrome and differentiate it from the acute viral encephalitis. Case report. We reported a patient diagnosed with acute psychotic reaction which appeared for the first time. The treatment started with typical antipsychotic, which led to febrility. The clinical presentation of the patient was characterised by the signs and symptoms that might have indicated the neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as central nervous system viral disease. In order to make a detailed diagnosis additional procedures were performed: electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the head, lumbar puncture and a serological test of the cerebrospinal fluid. Considering that after the tests viral encephalitis was ruled out and the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome made, antipsychotic therapy was immediately stopped. The patient was initially treated with symptomatic therapy and after that with atypical antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete recovery. Conclusion. We present the difficulties of early diagnosis at the first episode of acute psychotic disorder associated with acute febrile condition. Concerning the differential diagnosis it is necessary to consider both neuroleptic malignant syndrome and viral encephalitis, i.e. it is necessary to make the neuroradiological diagnosis and conduct cerebrospinal fluid analysis and blood test. In neuroleptic malignant syndrome treatment a combined use of electroconvulsive therapy and low doses of atypical antipsychotic are confirmed to be successful.

  17. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T. T.; van Doornum, Gerard J.; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Nams, Nguyen V.; Kager, P. A.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control

  18. Asociación de encefalomielitis diseminada aguda y síndrome de Guillain-Barré en un adulto Association between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain Barré syndrome in an adult

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    Miguel A. Pagano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La encefalomielitis diseminada aguda (EMDA y el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB son reconocidas como entidades distintas, que afectan diferentes sectores del sistema nervioso, pero que comparten varias características tales como la patogenia autoinmune, el impacto sobre la mielina y el antecedente de infección viral o vacunación una a cuatro semanas previas al cuadro clínico. Se presenta un paciente varón de 41 años de edad que consultó por presentar fiebre, debilidad en miembros inferiores y somnolencia dos semanas posteriores a episodio agudo de gastroenteritis. Al ingreso se constató deterioro del sensorio (obnubilación hiperreflexia patelar, Babinski bilateral y vejiga neurogénica. Veinticuatro horas después desarrolló paraplejía flácida y arreflexia generalizada, requiriendo asistencia respiratoria mecánica por insuficiencia respiratoria. El líquido cefalorraquídeo mostró pleocitosis mononuclear e hiperproteinorraquia. El estudio electrofisiológico evidenció importante disminución de las velocidades de conducción en ambos nervios ciáticos poplíteos externos, compatible con polineuropatía desmielinizante. La resonancia magnética nuclear mostró imágenes compatibles con desmielinización en cerebro, protuberancia y segmentos medulares dorsales. Se realizó diagnóstico de ASEMDA-SGB e inició tratamiento con metilprednisolona e inmunoglobulina intravenosa. Evolucionó favorablemente, recuperando las funciones motoras, vesical y la sensibilidad, siendo capaz de deambular luego de seis meses. La asociación de EMDA y SGB (ASEMDA-SGB es una condición infrecuente, generalmente señalada como de mal pronóstico, en la cual un diagnóstico precoz y un rápido y enérgico tratamiento pueden mejorar substancialmente la evolución.Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are commonly recognized as separated entities involving different parts of the nervous system. However, they share

  19. Acute Viral Respiratory Infection Rapidly Induces a CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion-like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V

    2015-11-01

    Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

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    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  1. A child with acute encephalopathy associated with quadruple viral infection

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    Keiko eNakata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available infection does not always result in AE. The risk factors for developing infantile AE upon such infection remain to be determined. Here we report an infant with AE coinfected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 and three picornaviruses: coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68, and human parechovirus (HPeV. EV-D68 was vertically transmitted to the infant from his mother. CVA6 and HPeV were likely transmitted to the infant at the nursery school. HHV-6 might have been re-activated in the patient. It remains undetermined which pathogen played the central role in the AE pathogenesis. However, active, simultaneous infection by four viruses likely evoke a cytokine storm, leading to the pathogenesis of AE. Conclusion: Infant cases with active quadruple infection by potentially AE-causing viruses have seldom been reported, partly because systematic nucleic acid-based laboratory tests on picornaviruses are not common. We propose that simultaneous viral infection may serve as a risk factor for the development of AE.

  2. Absence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reduces mortality of acute viral myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hisako; Hoshi, Masato; Mouri, Akihiro; Tashita, Chieko; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Saito, Kuniaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in mice is an established model for viral myocarditis. Previously, we have demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an L-tryptophan - kynurenine pathway (KP) enzyme, affects acute viral myocarditis. However, the roles of KP metabolites in EMCV infection remain unclear. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is one of the key regulatory enzymes, which metabolizes kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine in the KP. Therefore, we examined the role of KMO in acute viral infection by comparing between KMO -/- mice and KMO +/+ mice. KMO deficiency resulted in suppressed mortality after EMCV infection. The number of infiltrating cells and F4/80 + cells in KMO -/- mice was suppressed compared with those in KMO +/+ mice. KMO -/- mice showed significantly increased levels of serum KP metabolites, and induction of KMO expression upon EMCV infection was involved in its effect on mortality through EMCV suppression. Furthermore, KMO -/- mice showed significantly suppression of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 on day 2 and CXCL1 on day 4 after infection. These results suggest that increased KP metabolites reduced chemokine production, resulting in suppressed mortality upon KMO knockdown in EMCV infection. KP metabolites may thus provide an effective strategy for treating acute viral myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shian, W.J.; Chi, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shian, W.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Tao-Yuan Veterans Hospital, No. 100, Sec 3, Cheng-Kung Rd, City of Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chi, C.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Acute onset of encephalomyelitis with atypical lesions associated with dual infection of Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Richard; Newman, Shelley J; Grunenwald, Caroline M; Crews, Amanda; Hodshon, Amy; Su, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    A two-year-old male, neutered, basset hound-beagle mix with progressive neurological impairment was examined postmortem. Grossly, the dog had multiple raised masses on the spinal cord between nerve roots. Microscopically, the dog had protozoal myeloencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona were detected in the CNS by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sarcocysts in formalin-fixed muscle were negative for Sarcocystis by PCR. Banked serum was negative for T. gondii using the modified agglutination test, suggesting an acute case of T. gondii infection or immunosuppression; however, no predisposing immunosuppressive diseases, including canine distemper, were found. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dual T. gondii and S. neurona infection in a dog. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. CHOLECYSTITIS AS A CAUSE OF ABDOMINAL PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS A AND B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Radunović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, usually caused by gallstones in the cystic duct, which causes attacks of severe pain. At least 95% of the population with acute inflammation of the gallbladder have gallstones. Acute viral hepatitis is the liver inflammation accompanied by nausea, faintness, vomiting, pain below the right rib arch, jaundice. The presence of acute cholecystitis intensifies the existing symptoms. The aim of the paper was to show the incidence of the gallbladder inflammation in patients with acute hepatitis A or B. This retrospective-prospective study involved 110 patients treated for viral hepatitis A or B and had severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. The selected sample involved more male examinees - 63 (62% compared to female ones - 47 (38%. The most frequent age of examinees was 30-50 years, 82 (83%, and cholecystitis during hepatitis was also most common in the age group 30-50 years, 28 (73% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B - 21 (55% examinees than in patients with acute hepatitis A - 17 (45% examinees. Ultrasound examination, performed in 24 (63% examinees showed gallstones in inflamed gallbladder, while 14 (37% examinees had the inflammation of the gallbladder without gallstones. The most common cause of severe abdominal pain in patients with acute liver infection caused by HAV and HBV infection was the gallbladder, 38 (34.5% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B, 21 (55% examinees, than in those with an acute hepatitis A, 17 (45% examinees.

  7. ACUTE BILATERAL VIRAL NECROTIZING RETINITIS : AN UNCOMMON CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Ku.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old male with a history of high grade fever 2 days, diarrhea 3 times and vomiting 2 times presented with diminution of vision in right eye of 1 days duration. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was counting finger 1 meter with no pin hole im provement and 20/20 ( S nellen ’ s in the right and left eye respectively. Fundus examination RE revealed white lesion in geographic fashion with clear edge involving macula and in left eye small peanut size white lesion present at paramacular area. Clinicall y a diagnosis of acute necrotizing was made. We started treatment by intra venous antiviral and systemic steroid. ELISA (serum and PCR (aqueous were positive for herpes simplex virus ( I ndex above 1.1 i.e. 1.54 . 1,2 The lesions showed a good response to t he above treatment. At 2 months follow - up, lesion had resolved well with BCVA of 20/40 and 20/20 in right and left eye respectively

  8. Parvovirus B19 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Acute Liver Failure: An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Non-A-E Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kee Ho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.

  9. Using multifaceted education to improve management in acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Hannah; Oakley, Juliette; Pierrepoint, Marcus; Powell, Colin

    2015-07-01

    To establish current bronchiolitis management across hospitals in Wales, improve compliance with national guidelines and standardise evidence-based clinical practice. A complete audit cycle with implementation of a multifaceted education bundle prior to the follow-up audit. Twelve acute paediatric departments between 1 November and 31 December in 2012 and 2013. All infants under 12 months with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. The first audit assessed management of bronchiolitis with reference to both the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) guidelines and local hospital guidelines. Following analysis and dissemination of these results, an education bundle was implemented nationwide, with completion of the audit cycle to assess change. Compliance with SIGN recommendations for investigation, treatment and discharge. Compliance with the education bundle requirements also assessed in 2013. Data were collected for 1599 infants. The education bundle was delivered in all hospitals. The level of severity, defined by oxygen saturations in air at presentation, length of stay and paediatric intensive care unit transfers, was equivalent for both years. Mean compliance percentage (95% CI) across Wales significantly improved between 2012 and 2013, with compliance with investigations increasing from 50% (46% to 53%) to 71% (68% to 74%), with management increasing from 65% (61% to 68%) to 74% (71% to 77%), and overall compliance improving from 38% (37% to 39%) to 59% (56% to 62%) in 2013. This audit demonstrated a significant improvement in compliance following implementation of our educational bundle. This has enabled improvement in standardised and evidence-based patient care across Wales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. A Rapid Blood Test To Determine the Active Status and Duration of Acute Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianyu; Finn, Caroline; Parrett, Christopher J; Dhume, Kunal; Hwang, Ji Hae; Sidhom, David; Strutt, Tara M; Li Sip, Yuen Yee; McKinstry, Karl K; Huo, Qun

    2017-11-10

    The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses. Here, we report a nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can help overcome this major challenge. The new test is based on the analysis of virus-elicited immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody present in the protein corona of a gold nanoparticle surface upon mixing the gold nanoparticles with blood sera. Studies conducted on mouse models of influenza A virus infection show that the test gives positive responses only in the presence of a recent acute viral infection, approximately between day 14 and day 21 following the infection, and becomes negative thereafter. When used together with the traditional serology testing, the nanoparticle test can determine clearly whether a positive serology response is due to a recent or historical viral infection. This new blood test can provide critical clinical information needed to optimize further treatment and/or to determine if further quarantining should be continued.

  11. Acute viral gastroenteritis in children hospitalized in Iksan, Korea during December 2010 - June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Whoan So

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Viral etiology is common in cases of children with acute diarrhea, and antibiotic therapy is usually not required. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution of common viruses among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Methods: We included 186 children who suffered from acute diarrhea and were hospitalized at the Wonkwang University Hospital Pediatric ward from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 in this study. Stool samples were collected and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR was used to simultaneously determine the viral etiology such as rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus.&lt;br&gt; Results: Causative viruses were detected in 72 of the 186 cases (38.7%. The mean age of the viruspositive cases was 1 year and 9 months (range, 1 month to 11 years. Rotavirus was detected in 50/186 (26.9%; norovirus, in 18/186 (9.7%; and astrovirus, in 3/186 cases (1.6%. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the cases. Proportions of norovirus genogroups I and II were 21.1% and 78.9%, respectively. Four of the 51 rotavirus-positive cases (7.8% had received rotavirus vaccination at least once. The mean duration of diarrhea was 2.8 days (range, 1 to 10 days and vomiting occurred in 39 of the 72 cases (54.2%.&lt;br&gt; Conclusion: Viral etiology was confirmed in about one-third of the children with acute diarrhea, and the most common viral agent was rotavirus, followed by norovirus.

  12. Biochemical and muscle studies in patients with acute onset post-viral fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Preedy, V R; Smith, D G; Salisbury, J R; Peters, T J

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate in detail various biochemical and pathophysiological indices of muscle pathology in acute onset post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS). METHODS--Twenty three patients with PVFS (of mean duration 4.6 years) were subjected to needle biopsy for histomorphometry and total RNA contents. Plasma analysis included serology and creatine kinase activities. Indices of whole body mass were also measured--namely, whole body potassium content and plasma carnosinase activities. RESULTS--Abo...

  13. INFLUENZA AND ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EMERGENCY CREWS OF MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections have a great social significance during epidemic rise of morbidity and demand differential diagnosis of pneumonia with bacterial etiology and consultation with an infectious disease doctor in case of seeing patients in non-core hospitals. This article highlights the problem of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections’ early diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of influenza and other respiratory extremely similar. The differential diagnosis must take into account the presence of mixed infection in the same patient. According to the results of consultative infectious ambulance teams in 2014-2016, quality of diagnostics of this infectious pathology was examined. Observed deaths in persons later seeking medical treatment, not receiving timely antiviral therapy and related to high-risk groups: patients with obesity, chronic alcohol intoxication, diabetes, pregnant women. Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections, more complicated by pneumonia, people in the older age group, indicating the need for timely medical evacuation of patients older than 60 years. In some cases, in the diagnosis of influenza was helped by the results of laboratory studies (especially the trend to leukopenia and a positive rapid test. It should be noted that a negative rapid test for influenza was not a reason for exclusion of the diagnosis “influenza”.

  14. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Ali Hassan; Abdou, Ahmed Saheh; Ustadi, Abdulla M; Saleh, Ahmed Alhaj; Younis, Nadeem Javeed; Doleh, Wafa F

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis. This was a hospital based observational study, conducted at Infectious Diseases Unit, Rashid Hospital Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from July 2004 to June 2007. The patients with clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and who had CSF Gram stain/culture positive, CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis with negative Gram stain and culture but blood culture positive for bacteria and patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of viral meningitis supported by CSF chemical analysis with negative Gram stain and culture as well as negative blood culture for bacteria were included in the study. CT scan brain was done for all patients before lumber puncture and CSF and blood samples were collected immediately after admission. CSF chemical analysis including lactate level was done on first spinal tap. The CSF lactate level was tested by Enzymatic Colorimetric method. A total 95 adult patients of acute meningitis (53 bacterial and 42 viral) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among 53 bacterial meningitis patients, Neisseria meningitides were isolated in 29 (54.7%), Strept. Pneumoniae in 18 (33.96%), Staph. Aureus in 2 (3.77%), Klebsiell Pneumoniae in 2 (3.77%), Strept. Agalactiae in 1 (1.8%) and E. Coli in 1 (1.8%). All the patients with bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate > 3.8 mmol/l except one, whereas none of the patients with viral meningitis had lactate level > 3.8 mmol/l. The mean CSF lactate level in bacterial meningitis cases amounted to 16.51 +/- 6.14 mmol/l, whereas it was significantly lower in viral group 2.36 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p < .0001. CSF lactate level was significantly high in bacterial than viral meningitis and it can provide pertinent, rapid and reliable diagnostic information. Furthermore, CSF lactate level can also differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral one in a quick

  15. Viral Etiologies of Acute Respiratory Infections among Hospitalized Vietnamese Children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anh, Ha Do Lien; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Nghiem, My Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hoang, Thanh Hang Thi; Do, Quang Ha; Le van, Tan; Tran, Tan Thanh; Wills, Bridget; van Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Vo, Minh Hien; Vo, Cong Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Tran, Tinh Hien; de Jong, Menno D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to

  16. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose

  17. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, V.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  18. Acute Respiratory Viral Infection in Children: Modern Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Baranov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children. ARVI take one of the leading places in a childhood morbidity structure. The article provides an overview of the clinical guidelines developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia» for acute respiratory infections in children. These guidelines summarize the experience of the leading world and domestic specialists, contain scientific and practical data that correspond to the most relevant trends in the management of children with this pathology. The authors present modern information on the etiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical findings and differential diagnosis of various nosological forms of acute respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The general (strategic principles of drug-free and drug treatment are discussed in detail.

  19. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egan Erin A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL, therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL. Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate

  20. Viral infections in acute graft-versus-host disease: a review of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lana X; Worswick, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    While immunosuppressive therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) advances, viral reactivation has been found to be an increasingly common complication in these patients. Dermatologists may often be consulted on inpatient services for evaluation. We investigated the literature for the role of viral infections in aGVHD and review the current evidence regarding management. Articles in the public domain regarding aGVHD, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, hepatitis viruses, parvovirus B19, and respiratory viruses were included. Dermatologic findings vary between different viral antigens, and some infections may be a marker for the development of aGVHD or worsen prognosis. The heterogeneous cohorts of the studies reviewed often preclude direct comparison between results. The relationship between viral reactivation and aGVHD may be bidirectional and is worthy of further exploration. Additional studies are needed to determine appropriate prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Acute Viral Hepatitis: an Evidence-based Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Indra

    2015-10-01

    to review the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in acute viral hepatitis. following literature searching according to the clinical question on Pubmed and Cochrane Library. After filtered with our inclusion and exclusion criteria, one meta-analysis and two randomized clinical trials are obtained. Through critical appraisal, it was concluded that the articles meet the criteria for validity and relevance. the article found that there is a positive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the activity of serum transaminases and cholestasis indexes. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or to refute effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on disease's course as well as the viral load. better method of clinical trials are needed to obtain a valid and applicable result for daily practice.

  2. Burden and Seasonality of Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections among Outpatients in Southern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David; Bodinayake, Champica K; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; Hsiang, Jeremy; Nicholson, Bradley; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Østbye, Truls; Reller, Megan E; Woods, Christopher W; Tillekeratne, L Gayani

    2017-07-01

    In tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. We determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern Sri Lanka. From March 2013 to January 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). Nasal/nasopharyngeal samples were tested in duplicate using antigen-based rapid influenza testing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses. Monthly proportion positive was calculated for each virus. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify associations between sociodemographic/clinical information and viral detection. Of 571 subjects, most (470, 82.3%) were ≥ 5 years of age and 53.1% were male. A respiratory virus was detected by PCR in 63.6% ( N = 363). Common viral etiologies included influenza (223, 39%), human enterovirus/rhinovirus (HEV/HRV, 14.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 4.2%), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 3.9%). Both ILI and influenza showed clear seasonal variation, with peaks from March to June each year. RSV and hMPV activity peaked from May to July, whereas HEV/HRV was seen year-round. Patients with respiratory viruses detected were more likely to report pain with breathing (odds ratio [OR] = 2.60, P = 0.003), anorexia (OR = 2.29, P respiratory viruses detected. ILI showed clear seasonal variation in southern Sri Lanka, with most activity during March to June; peak activity was largely due to influenza. Targeted infection prevention activities such as influenza vaccination in January-February may have a large public health impact in this region.

  3. A novel host-proteome signature for distinguishing between acute bacterial and viral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kfir Oved

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections are often clinically indistinguishable, leading to inappropriate patient management and antibiotic misuse. Bacterial-induced host proteins such as procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and Interleukin-6, are routinely used to support diagnosis of infection. However, their performance is negatively affected by inter-patient variability, including time from symptom onset, clinical syndrome, and pathogens. Our aim was to identify novel viral-induced host proteins that can complement bacterial-induced proteins to increase diagnostic accuracy. Initially, we conducted a bioinformatic screen to identify putative circulating host immune response proteins. The resulting 600 candidates were then quantitatively screened for diagnostic potential using blood samples from 1002 prospectively recruited patients with suspected acute infectious disease and controls with no apparent infection. For each patient, three independent physicians assigned a diagnosis based on comprehensive clinical and laboratory investigation including PCR for 21 pathogens yielding 319 bacterial, 334 viral, 112 control and 98 indeterminate diagnoses; 139 patients were excluded based on predetermined criteria. The best performing host-protein was TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.91, which was consistently up-regulated in viral infected patients. We further developed a multi-protein signature using logistic-regression on half of the patients and validated it on the remaining half. The signature with the highest precision included both viral- and bacterial-induced proteins: TRAIL, Interferon gamma-induced protein-10, and CRP (AUC of 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.96. The signature was superior to any of the individual proteins (P<0.001, as well as routinely used clinical parameters and their combinations (P<0.001. It remained robust across different physiological systems

  4. Viral etiology and clinical profiles of children with severe acute respiratory infections in China.

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    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available No comprehensive analysis is available on the viral etiology and clinical characterization among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI in China during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and post-pandemic period.Cohort of 370 hospitalized children (1 to 72 months with SARI from May 2008 to March 2010 was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA specimens were tested by a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets. The viral distribution and its association with clinical character were statistically analyzed.Viral pathogen was detected in 350 (94.29% of children with SARI. Overall, the most popular viruses were: enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV (54.05%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (51.08%, human bocavirus (BoCA (33.78%, human parainfluenzaviruse type 3 (PIV3 (15.41%, and adenovirus (ADV (12.97%. Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus (IFV but was only detected in 20 (5.41% of children. Moreover, detection rate of RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV among suburb participants were significantly higher than that of urban area (P<0.05. Incidence of VSARI among suburb participants was also significant higher, especially among those of 24 to 59 months group (P<0.05.Piconaviruses (EV/RV and paramyxoviruses are the most popular viral pathogens among children with SARI in this study. RSV and hMPV significantly increase the risk of SARI, especially in children younger than 24 months. Higher incidence of VSARI and more susceptibilities to RSV and hMPV infections were found in suburban patients.

  5. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  6. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, P hepatitis A.

  7. Dynamics of the cytotoxic T cell response to a model of acute viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, William S; Emerson, Ryan O; Lindau, Paul; Vignali, Marissa; Snyder, Thomas M; Desmarais, Cindy; Sanders, Catherine; Utsugi, Heidi; Warren, Edus H; McElrath, Juliana; Makar, Karen W; Wald, Anna; Robins, Harlan S

    2015-04-01

    A detailed characterization of the dynamics and breadth of the immune response to an acute viral infection, as well as the determinants of recruitment to immunological memory, can greatly contribute to our basic understanding of the mechanics of the human immune system and can ultimately guide the design of effective vaccines. In addition to neutralizing antibodies, T cells have been shown to be critical for the effective resolution of acute viral infections. We report the first in-depth analysis of the dynamics of the CD8(+) T cell repertoire at the level of individual T cell clonal lineages upon vaccination of human volunteers with a single dose of YF-17D. This live attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine yields sterile, long-term immunity and has been previously used as a model to understand the immune response to a controlled acute viral infection. We identified and enumerated unique CD8(+) T cell clones specifically induced by this vaccine through a combined experimental and statistical approach that included high-throughput sequencing of the CDR3 variable region of the T cell receptor β-chain and an algorithm that detected significantly expanded T cell clones. This allowed us to establish that (i) on average, ∼ 2,000 CD8(+) T cell clones were induced by YF-17D, (ii) 5 to 6% of the responding clones were recruited to long-term memory 3 months postvaccination, (iii) the most highly expanded effector clones were preferentially recruited to the memory compartment, and (iv) a fraction of the YF-17D-induced clones could be identified from peripheral blood lymphocytes solely by measuring clonal expansion. The exhaustive investigation of pathogen-induced effector T cells is essential to accurately quantify the dynamics of the human immune response. The yellow fever vaccine (YFV) has been broadly used as a model to understand how a controlled, self-resolving acute viral infection induces an effective and long-term protective immune response. Here, we extend this

  8. MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebellitis and myelitis in infancy: likely topographic variant of a single process; Imagen en RM de encefalomielitis aguda diseminada, cerebelitis y mielitis en la infancia: probables variantes topograficas de un mismo proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuno, J. R.; Menor, F.; Esteban, M. J.; Pamies, J. [Hospital Universitario Infantil La Fe (Spain); Gomez-Gosalvez, F. A. [Hospital Verge dels Liris de Alcoi (Spain); Jover, J. [Hospital General de Elda (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To describe MR images of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE) in a paediatric group, particularly focused on its likely topographic variants, cerebellitis and myelitis, its evolution, and the differential diagnosis between it an an initial outbreak of multiple sclerosis. Initial and follow-up cranial MR images were retrospectively reviewed for 14 paediatric patients diagnosed with either ADE, cerebellitis or myelitis. In 9 patients, a spinal cord monitoring was included. Three topographic variants have been considered: ADE (7 patients). In the case of ADE, the supratentorial white matter was always affected, the brain stem in five (71%) and the cerebellum in two (28,5%). Basal ganglionic lesions were detected in 5 patients (71%) and cortical lesions in one (14%). Associated spinal cord abnormality was found in five of the six cases in which this study was included (83%). ADE lesions tended to be nodular and poorly differentiated whereas in cerebellitis and myelitis the predominant pattern was one of diffuse damage. Evolution of the lesions was toward reduction/resolution. Follow-up using MR in the medium-term in 6 patients (four ADE and two cerebellitis) did not detect any new lesions. Clinical follow-up of the patients did not show any neurological recurrences in any of them. ADE, cerebillits and myelitis could be topographic variants of a single process with a common pathogeny. As the spinal cord often seems to play a role in ADE, spinal cord monitoring would be recommended, even in the absence of the above-mentioned symptoms. This spinal cord abnormality, which is usually diffuse, plus deep gray matter damage, as well as the disease of monophase course, corroborated by a sequential MR follow-up, is all helpful in the differential diagnosis with multiple sclerosis. Nonetheless, the differential diagnosis between a recurring form of ADE and an encephalomyelitis is practically impossible to make. (Author) 33 refs.

  9. A 3-year prospective study of the epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Lin, Guang-Yu; Wang, Qiong; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Lin, Chuang-Xing; Lu, Chang-Dong; Lu, Xue-Dong

    2014-07-01

    The epidemiology of local viral etiologies is essential for the management of viral respiratory tract infections. Limited data are available in China to describe the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections, especially in small-medium cities and rural areas. To determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children, a 3-year study was conducted in Shenzhen, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from eligible children were collected. Influenza and other respiratory viruses were tested by molecular assays simultaneously. Data were analyzed to describe the frequency and seasonality. Of the 2025 children enrolled in the study, 971 (48.0%) were positive for at least one viral pathogen, in which 890 (91.7%) were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 30.5%) and human rhinovirus (HRV; 21.5%). Co-infections were found in 302 cases (31.1%), and dual viral infection was dominant. RSV, HRV and IAV were the most frequent viral agents involved in co-infection. On the whole, the obvious seasonal peaks mainly from March to May were observed with peak strength varying from 1 year to another. This study provides a basic profile of the epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infection in hospitalized children in Shenzhen. The spectrum of viruses in the study site is similar to that in other places, but the seasonality is closely related to geographic position, different from that in big cities in northern China and neighboring Hong Kong. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M; Goldin, R D; Ladva, S [Department of Histopathology, St. Mary' s Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Scheuer, P J [Department of Histopathology, Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, H C [Department of Medicine, St. Mary' s Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au).

  11. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.; Goldin, R.D.; Ladva, S.; Scheuer, P.J.; Thomas, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au)

  12. Viral Heart Disease and Acute Coronary Syndromes - Often or Rare Coexistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Agnieszka; Wiligorska, Natalia; Wiligorska, Diana; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Przybylski, Maciej; Krzyzewski, Rafal; Ziemba, Andrzej; Gil, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Clinical presentation of viral myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndrome and making diagnosis of viral heart disease (VHD) may be challenging. The presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) does not always exclude VHD and these entities can coexist. However, the incidence of co-occurrence of CAD and VHD is not precisely known. Moreover, inflammatory process caused by viruses may result in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The goal of this work is to summarize the current knowledge about co-occurrence of VHD and CAD. This article presents the importance of inflammatory process in both diseases and helps to understand pathophysiological mechanisms underlying their coexistence. It provides information about making differential diagnosis between these entities, including clinical presentation, noninvasive imaging features and findings in endomyocardial biopsy. Although currently there are no standard therapy strategies in coexistence of VHD and CAD, we present some remarkable aspects of treatment of patients, in whom VHD co-occurs with CAD. Viral heart disease may occur both in patients without and with atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries. Destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries can be facilitated by inflammatory process. Increased inflammatory infiltrates in the coronary lesions of patients with VHD can lead to plaques' instability and consequently trigger acute coronary syndrome. In this article we attempted to present that co-occurrence of VHD and CAD may have therapeutic implications and as specific antiviral treatment is currently available, proper diagnosis and treatment can improve patient's condition and prognosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Raul; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  14. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-06-16

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice.

  15. The relation of innate and adaptive immunity with viral-induced acute asthma attacks: Focusing on IP-10 and cathelicidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, T; Akyilmaz, E; Yildirim, D D; Batmaz, S B; Ulger, S T; Aslan, G; Kuyucu, S

    Despite growing evidence suggesting potential association between innate and adaptive immunity in viral-induced acute asthma, there is paucity of data in this area. This study aimed to investigate the association of innate and adaptive immunity with acute asthma attacks by analysing the role of IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D and cytokines. This prospective study included 33 patients with viral-induced acute asthma and 30 children with controlled asthma. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected for virus identification and asthma attack scores assessed in acute asthma group. Blood sampling for IP-10, TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D levels, and spirometric indices were employed. Serum IP-10 and cathelicidin levels of acute asthma group were significantly higher and vitamin D levels were lower than controlled asthma group (IP-10; p=0.006, cathelicidin; p=0.002, vitamin D; pasthma attack severity (p=0.03) in acute asthma group. Higher cathelicidin values showed significant positive relation to IP-10 (beta coefficient: 33, p=0.02). Serum IP-10 levels higher than 38.9pg/ml (sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 47%, p=0.002) were predictive of virus-induced asthma. Serum IP-10 and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly related to viral-asthma attacks (IP-10; aOR: 8.93, p=0.03 and vitamin D; aOR: 0.82, p=0.001). Innate immunity biomarkers such as serum IP-10 and cathelicidin can be used to predict viral-induced acute asthma. These biomarkers may provide potential new treatment targets for acute asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Petrov, Petar; Tchervenjakova, Tanja; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2015-03-01

    Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures. Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7 %), followed by noroviruses (19.4 %), enteric adenoviruses (7.5 %), astroviruses (6.0 %), bacteria and parasites (4.5 % each) and sapoviruses (1.4 %). Rotavirus predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (46.3 %) and G2P[4] (21.4 %); for astroviruses, type 1a was the most common, while the GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in five cases, with Salmonella sp. as the most prevalent, while parasites were found in ten stool samples, with Giardia intestinalis in five cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associated with viral infections and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with a temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Paula Cardin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical and laboratory profile, follow-up, and outcome of a series of cases of acute viral myositis. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of suspected cases under observation in the emergency department was performed, including outpatient follow-up with the recording of respiratory infection and musculoskeletal symptoms, measurement of muscle enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, transaminases (AST and ALT, blood count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the acute phase and during follow-up until normalization. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009, 42 suspected cases were identified and 35 (27 boys were included. The median age was 7 years and the diagnosis was reported in 89% in the first emergency visit. The observed respiratory symptoms were cough (31%, rhinorrhea (23%, and fever (63%, with a mean duration of 4.3 days. Musculoskeletal symptoms were localized pain in the calves (80%, limited ambulation (57%, gait abnormality (40%, and muscle weakness in the lower limbs (71%, with a mean duration of 3.6 days. There was significant increase in CPK enzymes (5507 ± 9180 U/L, LDH (827 ± 598 U/L, and AST (199 ± 245 U/L, with a tendency to leukopenia (4590 ± 1420 leukocytes/mm3. The complete recovery of laboratory parameters was observed in 30 days (median, and laboratory and clinical recurrence was documented in one case after 10 months. CONCLUSION: Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self-limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses.

  18. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Silvana Paula; Martin, Joelma Gonçalves; Saad-Magalhães, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Describe the clinical and laboratory profile, follow-up, and outcome of a series of cases of acute viral myositis. A retrospective analysis of suspected cases under observation in the emergency department was performed, including outpatient follow-up with the recording of respiratory infection and musculoskeletal symptoms, measurement of muscle enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), transaminases (AST and ALT), blood count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the acute phase and during follow-up until normalization. Between 2000 and 2009, 42 suspected cases were identified and 35 (27 boys) were included. The median age was 7 years and the diagnosis was reported in 89% in the first emergency visit. The observed respiratory symptoms were cough (31%), rhinorrhea (23%), and fever (63%), with a mean duration of 4.3 days. Musculoskeletal symptoms were localized pain in the calves (80%), limited ambulation (57%), gait abnormality (40%), and muscle weakness in the lower limbs (71%), with a mean duration of 3.6 days. There was significant increase in CPK enzymes (5507±9180U/L), LDH (827±598U/L), and AST (199±245U/L), with a tendency to leukopenia (4590±1420) leukocytes/mm(3). The complete recovery of laboratory parameters was observed in 30 days (median), and laboratory and clinical recurrence was documented in one case after 10 months. Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self-limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Viral etiologies of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infection patients in China, 2009-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhao Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients in 108 sentinel hospitals in 24 provinces of China was conducted from January 2009-September 2013. We enrolled hospitalized all-age patients with ALRI, and collected respiratory specimens, blood or serum collected for diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human influenza virus, adenoviruses (ADV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, human coronavirus (hCoV and human bocavirus (hBoV. We included 28,369 ALRI patients from 81 (of the 108 sentinel hospitals in 22 (of the 24 provinces, and 10,387 (36.6% were positive for at least one etiology. The most frequently detected virus was RSV (9.9%, followed by influenza (6.6%, PIV (4.8%, ADV (3.4%, hBoV (1.9, hMPV (1.5% and hCoV (1.4%. Co-detections were found in 7.2% of patients. RSV was the most common etiology (17.0% in young children aged <2 years. Influenza viruses were the main cause of the ALRIs in adults and elderly. PIV, hBoV, hMPV and ADV infections were more frequent in children, while hCoV infection was distributed evenly in all-age. There were clear seasonal peaks for RSV, influenza, PIV, hBoV and hMPV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ALRIs associated with viral pathogens. RSV is common in young children and prevention measures could have large public health impact. Influenza was most common in adults and influenza vaccination should be implemented on a wider scale in China.

  20. Diagnosing acute HIV infection: The performance of quantitative HIV-1 RNA testing (viral load) in the 2014 laboratory testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Cohen, Stephanie E; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Rose, Charles; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gose, Severin; Fu, Jie; Peters, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    New recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were published in 2014. The updated testing algorithm includes a qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay to resolve discordant immunoassay results and to identify acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is not widely available; therefore, we evaluated the performance of a more widely available quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay, viral load, for diagnosing AHI. We determined that quantitative viral loads consistently distinguished AHI from a false-positive immunoassay result. Among 100 study participants with AHI and a viral load result, the estimated geometric mean viral load was 1,377,793copies/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Relationship between viral load of human bocavirus and clinical characteristics in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Zhong, Li-Li; Xie, Le-Yun; Xiao, Ni-Guang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children. A comprehensive analysis was performed with reference to clinical symptoms and indicators. In the 1 554 specimens, 1 212 (77.99%) were positive for viruses, and 275 (17.70%) were HBoV-positive. In HBoV-positive cases, 94.9% were aged infection, and 230 (83.64%) had mixed infection. There was no significant difference in viral load between children with single infection and mixed infection (P>0.05). The patients with fever had a significantly higher viral load than those without fever (Pacute lower respiratory tract infection (P>0.05). HBoV is one of the important pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Children with a higher viral load of HBoV are more likely to experience symptoms such as fever and wheezing. However, the severity of disease and mixed infection are not significantly related to viral load.

  2. Pivotal advance: CTLA-4+ T cells exhibit normal antiviral functions during acute viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that T cells, which are genetically deficient in CTLA-4/CD152 expression, will proliferate uncontrollably, resulting in lethal autoimmune disease. This and other evidence indicate that CTLA-4 plays a critical role in the negative regulation of effector T cell function. In contrast to expectations, BrdU incorporation experiments demonstrated that CTLA-4 expression was associated with normal or even enhanced in vivo proliferation of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or vaccinia virus infection. When compared with CTLA-4- T cells directly ex vivo, CTLA-4+ T cells also exhibited normal antiviral effector functions following stimulation with peptide-coated cells, virus-infected cells, plate-bound anti-CD3/anti-CTLA-4, or the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18. Together, this indicates that CTLA-4 does not directly inhibit antiviral T cell expansion or T cell effector functions, at least not under the normal physiological conditions associated with either of these two acute viral infections.

  3. Efficacy of Chistonos for Children in the Treatment and Prevention of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Dahaieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex of treatment of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI, acute rhinitis in 43 preschool children was supplemented by endonasal irrigations of Chistonos for children, which is a dosing gel spray containing sea salt, β-carotene, aloe and calendula extracts. A marked local symptomatic relief was registered, as well as an acceleration of the regression of inflammatory changes in the nasal cavity and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease. Prophylactic use of the product in the preseason allowed to decrease the ARVI (including influenza morbidity rate and to reduce the incidence of the severe form of the disease.

  4. A Cyclic Altered Peptide Analogue Based on Myelin Basic Protein 87-99 Provides Lasting Prophylactic and Therapeutic Protection Against Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Mary; Tseveleki, Vivian; Triantafyllakou, Iro; Nteli, Agathi; Tselios, Theodore; Probert, Lesley

    2018-01-31

    In this report, amide-linked cyclic peptide analogues of the 87-99 myelin basic protein (MBP) epitope, a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS), are tested for therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Cyclic altered peptide analogues of MBP 87-99 with substitutions at positions 91 and/or 96 were tested for protective effects when administered using prophylactic or early therapeutic protocols in MBP 72-85 -induced EAE in Lewis rats. The Lys 91 and Pro 96 of MBP 87-99 are crucial T-cell receptor (TCR) anchors and participate in the formation of trimolecular complex between the TCR-antigen (peptide)-MHC (major histocompability complex) for the stimulation of encephalitogenic T cells that are necessary for EAE induction and are implicated in MS. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) applied on the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarboxyl/tert-butyl Fmoc/tBu methodology and combined with the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl). Cyclo(91-99)[Ala 96 ]MBP 87-99 , cyclo(87-99)[Ala 91,96 ]MBP 87-99 and cyclo(87-99)[Arg 91 , Ala 96 ]MBP 87-99 , but not wild-type linear MBP 87-99 , strongly inhibited MBP 72-85 -induced EAE in Lewis rats when administered using prophylactic and early therapeutic vaccination protocols. In particular, cyclo(87-99)[Arg 91 , Ala 96 ]MBP 87-99 was highly effective in preventing the onset and development of clinical symptoms and spinal cord pathology and providing lasting protection against EAE induction.

  5. [Viral respiratory co-infections in pediatric patients admitted for acute respiratory infection and their impact on clinical severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.

  6. An acutely and latently expressed herpes simplex virus 2 viral microRNA inhibits expression of ICP34.5, a viral neurovirulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang; Bertke, Andrea S; Patel, Amita; Wang, Kening; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Krause, Philip R

    2008-08-05

    Latency-associated transcript (LAT) sequences regulate herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency and reactivation from sensory neurons. We found a HSV-2 LAT-related microRNA (miRNA) designated miR-I in transfected and infected cells in vitro and in acutely and latently infected ganglia of guinea pigs in vivo. miR-I is also expressed in human sacral dorsal root ganglia latently infected with HSV-2. miR-I is expressed under the LAT promoter in vivo in infected sensory ganglia. We also predicted and identified a HSV-1 LAT exon-2 viral miRNA in a location similar to miR-I, implying a conserved mechanism in these closely related viruses. In transfected and infected cells, miR-I reduces expression of ICP34.5, a key viral neurovirulence factor. We hypothesize that miR-I may modulate the outcome of viral infection in the peripheral nervous system by functioning as a molecular switch for ICP34.5 expression.

  7. Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Feng, Zongdi; Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Brasky, Kathleen M; Zhou, Yan; Yamane, Daisuke; Perelson, Alan S; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2011-07-05

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an hepatotropic human picornavirus that is associated only with acute infection. Its pathogenesis is not well understood because there are few studies in animal models using modern methodologies. We characterized HAV infections in three chimpanzees, quantifying viral RNA by quantitative RT-PCR and examining critical aspects of the innate immune response including intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression. We compared these infection profiles with similar studies of chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), an hepatotropic flavivirus that frequently causes persistent infection. Surprisingly, HAV-infected animals exhibited very limited induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes in the liver compared with chimpanzees with acute resolving HCV infection, despite similar levels of viremia and 100-fold greater quantities of viral RNA in the liver. Minimal IFN-stimulated gene 15 and IFIT1 responses peaked 1-2 wk after HAV challenge and then subsided despite continuing high hepatic viral RNA. An acute inflammatory response at 3-4 wk correlated with the appearance of virus-specific antibodies and apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes. Despite this, HAV RNA persisted in the liver for months, remaining present long after clearance from serum and feces and revealing dramatic differences in the kinetics of clearance in the three compartments. Viral RNA was detected in the liver for significantly longer (35 to >48 wk) than HCV RNA in animals with acute resolving HCV infection (10-20 wk). Collectively, these findings indicate that HAV is far stealthier than HCV early in the course of acute resolving infection. HAV infections represent a distinctly different paradigm in virus-host interactions within the liver.

  8. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  9. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shogo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. Results Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. Conclusion The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan

  10. Viral Etiologies of Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis in Pakistani Children: Confounding Role of Parechoviruses

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    Muhammad Masroor Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial interventions in the understanding and case management of acute gastroenteritis, diarrheal diseases are still responsible for a notable amount of childhood deaths. Although the rotavirus is known to cause a considerable burden of pediatric diarrheal cases, the roles of other viruses remain undefined for the Pakistani population. This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays. Rotavirus, human parechovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus were detected in 66%, 21%, 19.5%, and 8.5% subjects, respectively. Human parechovirus genotypes, determined through analysis of VP1 gene sequences, showed a great diversity among co-circulating strains. Eighty percent of hospitalized children had dual or multiple viral infections, while 98% parechovirus positive cases were co-infected with rotavirus. The remarkable diversity of viruses associated with the childhood diarrhea in Pakistan calls for large-scale epidemiological surveys, coupled with case control studies, to ascertain their role in clinical manifestations. In addition, these findings also highlight the need for the implementation of up-to-date health interventions, such as the inclusion of a rotavirus vaccine in routine immunization programs for the improvement of quality in child health care.

  11. An unusual association of pleural effusion with acute viral hepatitis A infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakal AK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, Arati Shakya, Devendra Shrestha, Subhash Chandra Shah, Henish Shakya Department of Pediatrics, KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal Abstract: Hepatitis A virus infection is a common public health problem in developing countries primarily due to poor hygiene and sanitation. The clinical features of hepatitis A virus are mostly related to the derangement of liver function with occasional extrahepatic complications. Herein, a 2.5-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and decreased appetite for 4 days, high-colored urine for 3 days, and yellowish discoloration of the eyes for 2 days. On presentation, there was icterus along with hepatomegaly and diminished breath sounds on the right side were noted 1 day after admission. Chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion; however, ultrasonography of chest and abdomen displayed bilateral pleural effusion (right more than left and minimal ascites with thickened gall bladder wall. Immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis-A virus serology was positive. The pleural effusion in this child resolved spontaneously in 10 days. We report this case to highlight that hepatitis A infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in a patient with features of acute hepatitis. However, other common causes of pleural effusion such as tuberculosis and parapneumonic effusions that may coexist with hepatitis, especially in developing world, need to be excluded. Keywords: hepatitis A, pleural effusion, viral hepatitis

  12. Acute HBV infection in humanized chimeric mice has multiphasic viral kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuji; Chung, Tje Lin; Imamura, Michio; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Sen, Suranjana; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tateno, Chise; Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S; Uprichard, Susan L; Dahari, Harel; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2018-03-23

    Chimeric uPA/SCID mice reconstituted with humanized livers are useful for studying HBV infection in the absence of an adaptive immune response. However, the detailed characterization of HBV infection kinetics necessary to enable in-depth mechanistic studies in this novel in vivo HBV infection model is lacking. To characterize HBV kinetics post-inoculation (p.i.) to steady state, 42 mice were inoculated with HBV. Serum HBV DNA was frequently measured from 1 minute to 63 days p.i. Total intrahepatic HBV DNA, HBV cccDNA, and HBV RNA was measured in a subset of mice at 2, 4, 6, 10, and 13 weeks p.i. HBV half-life (t 1/2 ) was estimated using a linear mixed-effects model. During the first 6 h p.i. serum HBV declined in repopulated uPA/SCID mice with a t 1/2 =62 min [95%CI=59-67min]. Thereafter, viral decline slowed followed by a 2 day lower plateau. Subsequent viral amplification was multiphasic with an initial mean doubling time of t 2 =8±3 h followed by an interim plateau before prolonged amplification (t 2 =2±0.5 days) to a final HBV steady state of 9.3±0.3 log copies/ml. Serum HBV and intrahepatic HBV DNA were positively correlated (R 2 =0.98). HBV infection in uPA/SCID chimeric mice is highly dynamic despite the absence of an adaptive immune response. The serum HBV t 1/2 in humanized uPA/SCID mice was estimated to be ∼1 h regardless of inoculum size. The HBV acute infection kinetics presented here is an important step in characterizing this experimental model system so that it can be effectively used to elucidate the dynamics of the HBV lifecycle and thus possibly reveal effective antiviral drug targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the first year of life: association with acute otitis media development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Alvarez-Fernandez, Pedro; Jennings, Kristofer; Trujillo, Rocio; Marom, Tal; Loeffelholz, Michael J; Miller, Aaron L; McCormick, David P; Patel, Janak A; Pyles, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic assays have increased the detection of viruses in asymptomatic individuals. The clinical significance of asymptomatic respiratory viral infection in infants is unknown. High-throughput, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect 13 common respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal specimens collected during 2028 visits from 362 infants followed from near birth up to 12 months of age. Specimens were collected at monthly interval (months 1-6 and month 9) and during upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) episodes. Subjects were followed closely for acute otitis media (AOM) development. Viruses were detected in 76% of 394 URTI specimens and 27% of asymptomatic monthly specimens. Rhinovirus was detected most often; multiple viruses were detected in 29% of the specimens. Generalized mixed-model analyses associated symptoms with increasing age and female sex; detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus, and adenovirus was highly associated with symptoms. Increasing age was also associated with multiple virus detection. Overall, 403 asymptomatic viral infections in 237 infants were identified. Viral load was significantly higher in URTI specimens than asymptomatic specimens but did not differentiate cases of URTI with and without AOM complication. The rate of AOM complicating URTI was 27%; no AOM occurred following asymptomatic viral infections. AOM development was associated with increasing age and infection with RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and bocavirus. Compared to symptomatic infection, asymptomatic viral infection in infants is associated with young age, male sex, low viral load, specific viruses, and single virus detection. Asymptomatic viral infection did not result in AOM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparison of acute infection of calves exposed to a high-virulence or low-virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus or a HoBi-like virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to compare clinical presentation following acute infection of cattle with either a high virulence (HV) BVDV or a low virulence (LV) BVDV to clinical presentation following infection with a viral strain that belongs to an emerging species of pestivirus. The viral st...

  15. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011-2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role.

  16. Principles of etiopathogenetic therapy for acute respiratory viral infections in frequently ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kharitonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis

  17. The diagnosis of symptomatic acute antiretroviral syndrome during the window period with antigen/antibody testing and HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Griffin

    Full Text Available Despite much focus on moving toward a cure to end the epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic there are still thousands of new infections occurring every year in the United States. Although there is ongoing transmission of HIV in the United States and a growing population of people living with HIV, the acute presentation of HIV infection can be challenging to diagnose and is often not considered when patients present to healthcare providers. Although in certain states there are HIV testing laws that require that all persons between the ages of 13 and 64 be offered HIV testing in an opt-out approach, many patient presenting with an acute illness, that would warrant diagnostic testing for HIV, leave without having an HIV test performed for either diagnostic or screening purposes.We describe the case of a woman who presented to medical attention with symptoms later confirmed to be due to acute HIV infection. She was initially discharged from the hospital and only underwent HIV testing with confirmation of her diagnosis after readmission. We describe the algorithm where fourth generation testing combined with HIV viral load testing allowed for the diagnosis of acute HIV prior to the development of a specific immunoglobulin response. Consideration of this diagnosis, improved HIV screening, and understanding of the use of antigen/antibody screening tests, combined with Multispot and HIV viral RNA detection, when appropriate, can allow for early diagnosis of HIV before progression of disease and before undiagnosed patient spread the infection to new contacts.

  18. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  19. Acute viral hepatitis in adults. Comparison of the radioimmunoassay and counterimmunoelectrophoresis methods of detecting HB/sub s/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, R.P.; Teates, C.D.; Galapon, Q.; Barczak, R.; Ling, C.M.; Overby, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) and counterimmunoelectrophoretic (CIE) methods were compared in detecting hepatitis B antigen (HB/sub s/Ag) in 407 acute and 336 convalescent sera of adults with viral hepatitis. The CIE method demonstrated that 41 percent of acute and 28 percent of 14- to 17-day serum specimens were HB/sub s/Ag-positive. The RIA method demonstrated seropositivity in 60 percent of acute and 56 percent of convalescent specimens (P less than .001). Eighty-four percent of coded specimens initially positive for HB/sub s/Ag by RIA were found to have subtype antigenic determinants d or y; 92 percent of the HB/sub s/Ag-negative controls were negative for subtype antigens, confirming the specificity of the RIA test. RIA subtyping data corroborated earlier work with immunodiffusion techniques. (U.S.)

  20. A temporal gate for viral enhancers to co-opt Toll-like-receptor transcriptional activation pathways upon acute infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai A Kropp

    2015-04-01

    macrophages. In a series of pharmacologic, siRNA and genetic loss-of-function experiments we determined that signalling mediated by the TLR-adaptor protein MyD88 plays a vital role for governing the inflammatory activation of the CMV enhancer in macrophages. Downstream TLR-regulated transcription factor binding motif disruption for NFκB, AP1 and CREB/ATF in the CMV enhancer demonstrated the requirement of these inflammatory signal-regulated elements in driving viral gene expression and growth in cells as well as in primary infection of neonatal mice. Thus, this study shows that the prototypical CMV enhancer, in a restricted time-gated manner, co-opts through DNA regulatory mimicry elements, innate-immune transcription factors to drive viral expression and replication in the face of on-going pro-inflammatory antiviral responses in vitro and in vivo and; suggests an unexpected role for inflammation in promoting acute infection and has important future implications for regulating latency.

  1. [Prevalence and risk factors of respiratory viral infection in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X B; Ma, X; Gao, Y; Wen, L F; Li, J; Wang, Z Z; Liu, S

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Methods: Eighty patients with exacerbations of COPD and 50 stable COPD patients were recruited. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for a range of 18 different respiratory viruses using PCR. Results: Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 18 episodes (22.5%) . The most common virus was rhinovirus (33.3%), followed by coronavirus(27.8%), parainfluenza(22.2%), metapneumovirus(11.1%) and influenza virus B(5.6%). The prevalence of viral infection was 8% in the stable COPD patients. In multivariate regression analysis fever was found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 4.99, 95% CI 1.51-16.48, P =0.008). Conclusion: Viral respiratory pathogens were more often detected in respiratory specimens from hospitalized patients with AECOPD than those with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common infecting agent identified. The symptom of fever was associated with viral detection.

  2. Increased KPI containing amyloid precursor protein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Orit; Karussis, Dimitrios M; Korczyn, Amos D; Gurwitz, David; Aronovich, Ramona; Mizrachi-Kol, Rachel; Chapman, Joab

    2007-04-16

    Amyloid precursor protein can be translated from three alternatively spliced mRNAs. We measured levels of amyloid precursor protein isoforms containing the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (KPIAPP), and amyloid precursor protein without the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (KPIAPP) in brain homogenates of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. At the preclinical phase of the disease, both KPIAPP and KPIAPP levels were significantly higher in homogenates from brains of autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, whereas at the acute phase of the disease only KPIAPP remained significantly elevated compared with controls. At the recovery phase, no differences were observed between the groups. The early and isoform-specific elevation of KPIAPP in autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice suggests a possible role for amyloid precursor protein in the immune response mediating the disease.

  3. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of N-Acetylcysteine in Children with Fulminant Hepatic Failure Caused by Acute Viral Hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A. F.; Abbas, Q.; Haque, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in children aged > 1 month to 16 years admitted with Fulminant Hepatic Failure (FHF) secondary to Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH) in a tertiary care center of a developing country. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Methodology: Medical records of children (> 1 month - 16 years) with FHF admitted with AVH of known etiology who received NAC were reviewed retrospectively. Liver function tests (mean ± SD) at baseline, 24 hours after NAC and before or at the time of discharge/death were recorded and compared via using repeated measures ANOVA(r-ANOVA). Efficacy of NAC is defined in improvement in biochemical markers, liver function test and discharge disposition (survived or died). Mortality associated risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis. P-value and 95 percentage confidence interval were recorded. Results: Forty children (mean age was 80 ± 40 months) with FHF secondary to AVH received NAC. Majority were males (n=25; 63 percentage). Vomiting (75 percentage) and jaundice (65 percentage) were the main presenting symptoms, one-third had hypoglycemic, while 40 percentage had altered sensorium at the time of admission. There was significant statistical difference in liver enzymes and prothrombin time on admission comparing at discharge in children received NAC (p < 0.001). Fifteen (38 percentage) children died. Severe vomiting (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.22, 95 percentage Confidence Interval (CI) 0.05 - 0.8), jaundice (OR 9.3, CI 1.1 - 82.6), inotropic support (OR 20.6, CI 3.5 - 118.3) and mechanical ventilation (OR 4.3, CI 1.1 - 16.6) at the time of admission are associated with risk factors for mortality in children with FHF secondary to AVH. Conclusion: NAC used in children with FHF secondary to AVH is associated with markedly improved liver function

  5. Phyto-inhalation for treatment of complications of acute respiratory viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalations (inhalation of medicinal substances are one of the effective ways to treat upper respiratory tract diseases and colds. Inhalation therapy is used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can be complications of acute respiratory viral infections. The main rules of inhalation are as follows to conduct the procedure better after 1.5 hours after eating; clothes should not impede breathing; the procedure can be carried out only while sitting or standing; solution for the inhaler for treatment of bronchitis should be fresh; it is necessary to strictly keep the prescribed dosage; the time of the procedure should also be respected — usually it is from 1 to 4 minutes, sometimes for adults up to 10 minutes, for children the inhalation period is shorter — 1–2 minutes. Contraindications to inhalation are body temperature above 37.5 degrees; propensity to nasal blee­ding in a patient; propensity to increased arterial pressure, with cardiovascular failure; purulent inflammation of the tonsils; respiratory failure. The procedure should be stopped immediately in case of appearance of adverse symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty in breathing. Therefore, inhalations must be prescribed by a doctor after examination of a patient. During inhalations in rhinitis, you should try to inhale the vapor through the nose. For effective treatment of rhinitis, inhalations from conife­rous plants are very suitable: fir, pine, juniper, larch, from steamed dried chamomile flowers, mint, and blackberry leaves. Honey inhalations can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. Medical herbal inhalation for children should be carried out from the age of two years. This must be done under the constant supervision of an adult. Leaves of coniferous trees: pine, fir, if or juniper, cedar

  6. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug without Antibiotics for Acute Viral Infection Increases the Empyema Risk in Children: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Ferroni, Agnès; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Varon, Emmanuelle; Thumerelle, Caroline; Brémont, François; Fayon, Michael J; Delacourt, Christophe; Ligier, Caroline; Watier, Laurence; Guillemot, Didier

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the risk factors of empyema after acute viral infection and to clarify the hypothesized association(s) between empyema and some viruses and/or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A case-control study was conducted in 15 centers. Cases and controls were enrolled for a source population of children 3-15 years of age with acute viral infections between 2006 and 2009. Among 215 empyemas, 83 cases (children with empyema and acute viral infection within the 15 preceding days) were included, and 83 controls (children with acute viral infection) were matched to cases. Considering the intake of any drug within 72 hours after acute viral infection onset and at least 6 consecutive days of antibiotic use and at least 1 day of NSAIDs exposure, the multivariable analysis retained an increased risk of empyema associated with NSAIDs exposure (aOR 2.79, 95% CI 1.4-5.58, P = .004), and a decreased risk associated with antibiotic use (aOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11-0.97, P = .04). The risk of empyema associated with NSAIDs exposure was greater for children not prescribed an antibiotic and antibiotic intake diminished that risk for children given NSAIDs. NSAIDs use during acute viral infection is associated with an increased risk of empyema in children, and antibiotics are associated with a decreased risk. The presence of antibiotic-NSAIDs interaction with this risk is suggested. These findings suggest that NSAIDs should not be recommended as a first-line antipyretic treatment during acute viral infections in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a patient’s doctor or healthcare provider ...

  8. Encephalomyelitis following rabies vaccination - report of a case and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtelli, Celso Montenegro; Leon, Hector L. Coraspe; Francisco, Luis Miguel; Leite, Luciana S. Batista

    1997-01-01

    Encephalomyelitis is a rare complication following rabies vaccination. In patients with acute or subacute central nervous system illnesses such event must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play important role in diagnosis and prognosis. (author)

  9. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses from recognized pestivirus species bovine viral diarrhea 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 and the proposed pestivirus species HoBi-like virus infect primarily cattle. Exposure of cattle to these viruses can lead to either acute or persistent infections depending on the timing and status of the animal ...

  10. Changes in hepatic perfusion index determined by Tc-99m pertechnetate first pass scintigraphy in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Computerized sequential radionuclide angiography was used to analyze the first pass kinetics of peripherally injected bolus of Tc-99m-pertechnetate. The relative arterial/total hepatic blood flow, the Hepatic Perfusion Index (HPI%), was determined in normal subjects while 20 cases of Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH) were studied serially. In addition, biochemical blood analysis as also carried out. The mean value of HPI in first study of all patients was 61.23% in comparison to 31.12% of control group. The patients were divided into three groups, based upon the duration elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the first study. HPI was found significantly high in first study of each group as compared to controls. In first group there was no significant correlation of mean HPI with other biochemical parameters. In second and third groups, significant correlation were observed between the mean HPI and serum bilirubin, serum alanine trans-aminase with mean HPI in the third group. The serum proteins correlated negatively with HPI in second group. This technique offers a simple, rapid, non-invasive and quantitative method to determine a new index which mostly behaves like other biochemical parameter and can be used to follow the course of acute viral hepatitis. (author)

  11. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Paula Cardin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self‐limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses.

  12. Protection against Acute Lethal Viral Infections with the Native Steroid Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    of gout , hyperlipemia, and in post-coronary patients Protection Against Viral Inftiom With DHEA 311 [Regelson, 19881. In animal models [Yen, 19771 and...3333. Johnson DA, Schultz LD, Bedigian HG (1982): Immunodeficiency and reticulum cell sarcoma in mice segregating for HRS/J and SJL/J genes . Leukemia

  13. Metabolism of 32P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezes, V.; Bukovsky, V.; Drgova, A.; Mezesova, V.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of intraventricularly administered 32 P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of 32 P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs. (author)

  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters acute gammaherpesvirus burden and limits Interleukin 27 responses in a mouse model of viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel A.; Singh, Sam J.; Young, Amy B.; Tolbert, Melanie D.; Bost, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To test whether 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) abuse might increase the susceptibility, or alter the immune response, to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (HV-68) and/or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Methods Groups of experimental and control mice were subjected to three day binges of MDMA, and the effect of this drug abuse on acute and latent HV-68 viral burden were assessed. In vitro and in vivo studies were also performed to assess the MDMA effect on IL-27 expression in virally infected or LPS-exposed macrophages and dendritic cells, and latently infected animals, exposed to this drug of abuse. Results Acute viral burden was significantly increased in MDMA-treated mice when compared to controls. However the latent viral burden, and physiological and behavioral responses were not altered in infected mice despite repeated bingeing with MDMA. MDMA could limit the IL-27 response of HV-68 infected or LPS-exposed macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the ability of this drug to alter normal cytokine responses in the context of a viral infection and/or a TLR4 agonist. Conclusion MDMA bingeing could alter the host’s immune response resulting in greater acute viral replication and reductions in the production of the cytokine, IL-27 during immune responses. PMID:21269783

  15. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  16. Viral etiology and incidence of acute gastroenteritis in young children attending day-care centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vesikari, Timo; Pang, Xiao-Li

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the frequency, morbidity and cause of acute gastroenteritis in children attending day-care centers in Denmark. METHODS: Children with acute diarrhea (> or =2 consecutive loose stools in 24 hours, with duration of ... 19 day-care centers, were included. Gastroenteritis viruses, group A rotavirus, sapoviruses, noroviruses and astroviruses were detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. In addition, stool specimens were cultured for bacterial pathogens. Children who were brought...

  17. Non-oncogenic Acute Viral Infections Disrupt Anti-cancer Responses and Lead to Accelerated Cancer-Specific Host Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Kohlhapp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of increased cancer prevalence and cancer-specific deaths in patients with infections, we investigated whether infections alter anti-tumor immune responses. We report that acute influenza infection of the lung promotes distal melanoma growth in the dermis and leads to accelerated cancer-specific host death. Furthermore, we show that during influenza infection, anti-melanoma CD8+ T cells are shunted from the tumor to the infection site, where they express high levels of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1. Immunotherapy to block PD-1 reverses this loss of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells from the tumor and decreases infection-induced tumor growth. Our findings show that acute non-oncogenic infection can promote cancer growth, raising concerns regarding acute viral illness sequelae. They also suggest an unexpected role for PD-1 blockade in cancer immunotherapy and provide insight into the immune response when faced with concomitant challenges.

  18. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  19. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joon, A; Rao, P; Shenoy, S M; Baliga, S

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both enterically transmitted, resulting in acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in developing countries. They pose major health problems in our country. This study was done to determine prevalence of HAV and HEV in patients presenting with AVH and the co-infection of HAV and HEV in these patients. A cross-sectional study of 2-years duration was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, KMC, Mangalore. A non-random sampling of 958 patients presenting with AVH was considered in the study. On the basis of history, serum samples were analysed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV, respectively using commercially available ELISA kits. Data collected was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The seroprevalence of HAV- and HEV-positive patients were 19.31% and 10.54%, respectively. The seroprevalence of both HAV and HEV in patients with acute viral hepatitis was 11.5%. The prevalence of HAV and HEV among males (68% and 31%) was higher than in females (31% and 20%) and was predominantly seen among young adults. These infections were predominantly seen during end of monsoons and beginning of winter. Though the prevalence of HAV is much higher than that of HEV, co-infection rate of 11.5% mandates the screening for HEV which will be of immense importance in pregnant women and improving levels of personal hygiene among higher socio-economic population. These data will be essential for planning of future vaccination strategies and for better sanitation programme in this part of the country.

  1. Economic costs of outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis due to norovirus in Catalonia (Spain), 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Encarna; Torner, Nuria; Broner, Sonia; Godoy, Pere; Martínez, Ana; Bartolomé, Rosa; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-10-01

    To determine the direct and indirect costs of outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis (AVG) due to norovirus in closed institutions (hospitals, social health centers or nursing homes) and the community in Catalonia in 2010-11. Information on outbreaks were gathered from the reports made by epidemiological surveillance units. Direct costs (medical visits, hospital stays, drug treatment, sample processing, transport, diagnostic tests, monitoring and control of the outbreaks investigated) and indirect costs (lost productivity due to work absenteeism, caregivers time and working hours lost due to medical visits) were calculated. Twenty-seven outbreaks affecting 816 people in closed institutions and 74 outbreaks affecting 1,940 people in the community were detected. The direct and indirect costs of outbreaks were € 131,997.36 (€ 4,888.79 per outbreak) in closed institutions and € 260,557.16 (€ 3,521.04 per outbreak) in community outbreaks. The cost per case was € 161.76 in outbreaks in closed institutions and € 134.31 in community outbreaks. The main costs were surveillance unit monitoring (€ 116,652.93), laboratory diagnoses (€ 119,950.95), transport of samples (€ 69,970.90), medical visits (€ 25,250.50) and hospitalization (€ 13,400.00). The cost of outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis due to norovirus obtained in this study was influenced by the number of people affected and the severity of the outbreak, which determined hospitalizations and work absenteeism. Urgent reporting of outbreaks would allow the implementation of control measures that could reduce the numbers affected and the duration of the illness and thus the costs derived from them.

  2. In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Helluy

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. However, new non-invasive MRI techniques hold great potential in visualizing cardiac non-ischemic inflammatory lesions at high spatial resolution, which could improve the investigation of the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis.Here we present the discovery of a novel endogenous T2* MRI contrast of myocardial lesions in murine models of acute and chronic CVB3 myocarditis. The evaluation of infected hearts ex vivo and in vivo by 3D T2w and T2*w MRI allowed direct localization of virus-induced myocardial lesions without any MRI tracer or contrast agent. T2*w weighted MRI is able to detect both small cardiac lesions of acute myocarditis and larger necrotic areas at later stages of chronic myocarditis, which was confirmed by spatial correlation of MRI hypointensity in myocardium with myocardial lesions histologically. Additional in vivo and ex vivo MRI analysis proved that the contrast mechanism was due to a strong paramagnetic tissue alteration in the vicinity of myocardial lesions, effectively pointing towards iron deposits as the primary contributor of contrast. The evaluation of the biological origin of the MR contrast by specific histological staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that impaired iron metabolism primarily in mitochondria caused iron deposits within necrotic myocytes, which induces strong magnetic susceptibility in myocardial lesions and results in strong T2* contrast.This T2*w MRI technique provides a fast and sensitive diagnostic tool to determine the patterns and the severity of acute and chronic enteroviral myocarditis and the precise localization of

  3. In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helluy, Xavier; Sauter, Martina; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Lykowsky, Gunthard; Kreutner, Jakob; Yilmaz, Ali; Jahns, Roland; Boivin, Valerie; Kandolf, Reinhard; Jakob, Peter M.; Hiller, Karl-Heinz; Klingel, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. However, new non-invasive MRI techniques hold great potential in visualizing cardiac non-ischemic inflammatory lesions at high spatial resolution, which could improve the investigation of the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis. Results Here we present the discovery of a novel endogenous T2* MRI contrast of myocardial lesions in murine models of acute and chronic CVB3 myocarditis. The evaluation of infected hearts ex vivo and in vivo by 3D T2w and T2*w MRI allowed direct localization of virus-induced myocardial lesions without any MRI tracer or contrast agent. T2*w weighted MRI is able to detect both small cardiac lesions of acute myocarditis and larger necrotic areas at later stages of chronic myocarditis, which was confirmed by spatial correlation of MRI hypointensity in myocardium with myocardial lesions histologically. Additional in vivo and ex vivo MRI analysis proved that the contrast mechanism was due to a strong paramagnetic tissue alteration in the vicinity of myocardial lesions, effectively pointing towards iron deposits as the primary contributor of contrast. The evaluation of the biological origin of the MR contrast by specific histological staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that impaired iron metabolism primarily in mitochondria caused iron deposits within necrotic myocytes, which induces strong magnetic susceptibility in myocardial lesions and results in strong T2* contrast. Conclusion This T2*w MRI technique provides a fast and sensitive diagnostic tool to determine the patterns and the severity of acute and chronic enteroviral myocarditis and the precise

  4. Effect of BSA Antigen Sensitization during the Acute Phase of Influenza A Viral Infection on CD11c+ Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Sato

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BSA antigen sensitization during the acute phase of influenza A viral infection enhanced IL-10 production from naive CD4+ T cell interaction with CD11c+ pulmonary APCs. The IL-10 secretion evoked Th2 responses in the lungs with downregulation of Th1 responses and was important for the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs after BSA antigen challenge.

  5. The Importance of Hematological Parameters in Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Alekseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological studies are basic and mandatory in diagnostics and laboratory monitoring of infectious diseases, which led to their inclusion in the modern standards of laboratory examinations of children. Assessment of hematological parameters used for the provisional differential diagnosis of viral or bacterial nature of the disease. For research currently being used increasingly Hematology analyzers, which allows to facilitate and standardize the results. In this paper a comparison and differences hematological parameters practically healthy children and children with respiratory infections. Identified some changes in indicators of haemogram depending on the etiology and character of the clinical course of the disease. On the basis of the leukocyte formula defined leukocyte indices of intoxication and illustrates their importance in assessing the severity of the infection process.

  6. WHO Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) Definition often Underdiagnoses Serious Respiratory Viral Infections in Hospitalized Jordanian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Piya, Bhinnata; Shehabi, Asem; Faouri, Samir; Williams, John V; Vermund, Sten; Halasa, Natasha B

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) is anyone with an acute respiratory infection with symptoms within 10 days of presentation, cough, fever, and hospitalization. This is used to standardize global influenza surveillance with the caveat not all cases will be captured. We sought to determine the proportion of hospitalized Jordanian children admitted with acute respiratory illnesses meeting the SARI definition. Methods We conducted 3-year viral surveillance study in children <2 years admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever into a large government hospital in Amman. Demographic and clinical data were collected. We tested nasal/throat swabs for 11 viruses using q-RT-PCR. We compared children who met SARI definition to non-SARI. Results We enrolled 3168 children. Table 1 compares those children who met SARI definition vs. those who did not. Figure 1 compares % of children who were virus-positive and met SARI definition. Table 1. N (%) SARI (n = 1198) Non-SARI (n = 1970) p-values Male 729 (60.9) 1183 (60.1) 0.655 Median Age 6.7 months 2.3 months 0.000 Underlying medical condition 160 (13.4) 215 (10.9) 0.039 Pneumonia 192 (16.0) 202 (10.3) 0.000 Sepsis 150 (12.5) 750 (38.1) 0.000 Bronchiolitis 169 (14.1) 378 (19.2) 0.000 Bronchopneumonia 656 (54.8) 364 (18.5) 0.000 ≤10-day duration 1198 (100) 1848 (93.8) 0.000 Cough 1198 (100) 1172 (59.5) 0.000 Fever 1198 (100) 649 (32.9) 0.000 Fever and Cough 1198 (100) 48 (2.4) 0.000 Virus positive 1076 (89.8) 1505 (76.4) 0.000 Rhinovirus 438 (36.6) 800 (40.6) 0.024 Adenovirus 201 (16.8) 274 (13.9) 0.028 Parainfluenza 1–3 75 (6.3) 100 (5.1) 0.157 Respiratory Syncytial Virus 635 (53.0) 762 (38.7) 0.000 Influenza A-C 61 (5.1) 58 (2.9) 0.002 Human Metapneumovirus 153 (12.8) 120 (6.1) 0.000 Conclusion Children who met the definition of SARI were more likely to be older, have an underlying medical condition, have the diagnoses of pneumonia and

  7. Viral etiologies of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Yingyong, Thitipong; Praphasiri, Prabda; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2018-07-01

    Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, onset respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1-3, and adenoviruses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. We screened 15 369 persons with acute respiratory infections and enrolled 8106 cases of ILI (5069 cases respiratory viruses tested, while for SARI cases respiratory viruses, particularly seasonality, although adjustments to case definitions may be required. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury in patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' encountered on a liaison neurology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova-Mihaylova, Petya; Burke, David; O'Dwyer, John P; Bradley, David; Williams, Jennifer A; Cronin, Simon J; Smyth, Shane; Murphy, Raymond P; Murphy, Sinead M; Wall, Catherine; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2018-01-06

    Patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' are frequently empirically treated with intravenous aciclovir. Increasing urea and creatinine are 'common', but rapidly progressive renal failure is reported to be 'very rare'. To describe the clinical course and outcome of cases of aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) encountered by the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH and to highlight the importance of surveillance and urgent treatment of this iatrogenic complication. Retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH on patients who received IV aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis and developed AKI were analysed. Aciclovir-induced AKI was defined by a consultant nephrologist in all cases as a rise in serum creatinine of > 26 μmol/L in 48 h or by ≥ 1.5 times the baseline value. Renal function, haematocrit, and fluid balance were monitored following AKI onset. Data from 10 patients were analysed. Median time to AKI onset was 3.5 days (range: 1-6 days). Aciclovir was stopped or the dose adjusted. All patients recovered with IV normal saline, aiming for a urine output > 100-150 ml/h. The interval between first rise in creatinine and return to normal levels varied between 5 and 19 days. Liaison neurologists and general physicians need to be aware that aciclovir may cause AKI attributed to distal intra-tubular crystal nephropathy. Daily fluid balance and renal function monitoring are essential because AKI may arise even with intensive pre-hydration. Prognosis is good if identified early and actively treated.

  9. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Nae-Yun; Lim, Young-Suk; An, Jihyun; Ko, Sun-Young; Oh, Heung-Bum

    2012-12-01

    The early diagnosis of acute hepatitis A (AHA) is hindered because serum IgM against hepatitis A virus (HAV) can yield false-negative results during the window period. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit for HAV RNA for the diagnosis of AHA. Samples were collected from 136 patients with acute severe hepatitis at their admission to Asan Medical Center between June 2010 and July 2010. Samples were analyzed for serum IgM anti-HAV using an immunoassay test and for qualitative HAV RNA using the Magicplex HepaTrio PCR test kit. The diagnostic accuracies of these methods were tested on the basis of clinical and laboratory diagnoses of AHA. The concordance rate and kappa value between IgM anti-HAV and HAV RNA PCR were 88.2% and 0.707, respectively. For the diagnosis of AHA, the sensitivity and specificity of IgM anti-HAV were 90.7% and 100%, respectively, when an "equivocal" result was regarded as positive; and 79.1% and 100%, respectively, when an "equivocal" result was regarded as negative. The sensitivity and specificity of HAV RNA PCR were 81.4% and 100%, respectively. All four patients with negative IgM anti-HAV and positive HAV RNA PCR results and all four patients with equivocal IgM anti-HAV RNA and positive HAV RNA PCR results were eventually diagnosed with AHA. The qualitative HAV RNA PCR test has an equivalent diagnostic accuracy for AHA compared to IgM anti-HAV and may be more sensitive during the window period.

  10. Acute viral respiratory infections among children in MERS-endemic Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex R RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tracking of peptide-specific CD4+ T-cell responses after an acute resolving viral infection: a study of parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of peptide-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses to acute viral infections of humans is poorly understood. We analyzed the response to parvovirus B19 (B19), a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen with a compact and conserved genome. The magnitude and breadth of the CD4(+) T......-cell response to the two B19 capsid proteins were investigated using a set of overlapping peptides and gamma interferon-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of acutely infected individuals who presented with acute arthropathy. These were compared...... to those for a cohort of B19-specific immunoglobulin M-negative (IgM(-)), IgG(+) remotely infected individuals. Both cohorts of individuals were found to make broad CD4(+) responses. However, while the responses following acute infection were detectable ex vivo, responses in remotely infected individuals...

  12. Adults hospitalised with acute respiratory illness rarely have detectable bacteria in the absence of COPD or pneumonia; viral infection predominates in a large prospective UK sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G

    2014-11-01

    Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An out break of more than 1300 cases of acute viral hepatitis in a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi in summer of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.A.; Saeed, S.; Mirza, S.A.; Khan, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    To find out the short-term clinical course including common clinical features, laboratory parameters, treatment provided and outcome of cases of acute viral hepatitis hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Descriptive observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital in Rawalpindi from May to July 2009. Patients and Methods: Patients hospitalized with acute viral hepatitis, both male and female, older than 12 years of age were included in the study. A detailed proforma including patients' particulars, clinical features; laboratory parameters, treatment provided, disposal/ outcome was designed and filled for each patient. Results: During the study period a total 1334 patients were hospitalized, 1279 (95.87%) were male while only 55 (4.13%) were female. Majority of patients were young adults. Mean age was 26 years with a range of 12 to 85 years. Maximum serum bilirubin levels of 559 micromoles and serum alanine aminotransferas (ALT) levels of 7750 IU/L were observed. Maximum prothrombin time (PT) ranged from 105 seconds to failed to clot, against a control of 13 seconds. Thrombocytopenia was observed in some patients especially those with coagulopathy and encephalopathy but recovered with improvement in LFTs. Anti HEV serology was sent in a third of all admitted patients and was positive for IgM in patients tested. Five patients were pregnant ladies. Two patients also had laboratory proven malaria along with acute viral hepatitis. Majority of patients had uneventful recovery. A total of 13 patients went in to hepatic encephalopathy while three unfortunate patients died. Conclusion: HEV has been an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Pakistan, particularly in adults from lower socioeconomic groups. The problem is more serious for those living in military camps, residential institutions and in segregated areas who consume untreated water from a common source. Outbreaks like the one described have significant morbidity and not

  14. Microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection and viral detection in maternal urine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas, Vanessa Couras; Silva, Márcio de Castro E; Abud, Lucas Giansante; Labadessa, Luiz Mario Pereira Lopes; Oliveira, Rafael Gouvêa Gomes de; Miyake, Cecília Hissae; Queiroz, Rodolfo Mendes

    2018-01-01

    Currently Latin America is undergoing a major epidemic of Zika virus, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Concern for Zika virus infection has been increasing as it is suspected of causing brain defects in newborns such as microcephaly and, more recently, potential neurological and autoimmune complications including Guillian-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We describe a case of virus infection in a 25-year-old woman during the first trimester of her pregnancy, confirmed by laboratory tests only for the detection of viral particles in maternal urine, with imaging studies demonstrating the progression of cranial and encephalic changes in the fetus and later in the newborn, such as head circumference reduction, cerebral calcifications and ventriculomegaly.

  15. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Amelioration of ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Roopa; Mahapatra, Sidharth; Axtell, Robert C; Steinman, Lawrence

    2017-12-15

    In patients with multiple sclerosis, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, resulted in less acute disease activity. We tested the immune modulating effects of fluoxetine in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that fluoxetine delayed the onset of disease and reduced clinical paralysis in mice with established disease. Fluoxetine had abrogating effects on proliferation of immune cells and inflammatory cytokine production by both antigen-presenting cells and T cells. Specifically, in CD 4 T cells, fluoxetine increased Fas-induced apoptosis. We conclude that fluoxetine possesses immune-modulating effects resulting in the amelioration of symptoms in EAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Hua [Department of Emergency, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Fu, Jia [Department of Infection, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Sun, Da-Qing, E-mail: daqingsuncd@163.com [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, NO. 69 Xijuyuan Lane, Xi' an 710003, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-29

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. - Highlights: • Halofuginone (HF) increases the survival of suckling BALB/c mice infected with acute CVB3. • HF reduces the expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17 and IL-23) and the number of CD4{sup +} IL17{sup +} cells. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels associated with myocarditis were reduced by HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. • HF alleviates VMC via inhibition of TGF-β1-mediated NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway.

  18. [The specific features of the clinical course of acute suppurative otitis media of viral and mixed viral-bacterial etiology in the children of the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bugaichuk, O V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the spectrum of the pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute suppurative otitis media in the children of the preschool age and to reveal the specific clinical features of this disease depending on its etiological factors. The study involved 138 patients (186 ears) of either sex at the age from 1 year to 84 months who presented with acute suppurative otitis media. The following methods were employed for the purpose of the study: analysis of the patients' complaints and the past medical histories, examination of the ENT organs, microbiological (bacteriological and virological) studies of secretion from the tympanic cavity, diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, laboratory investigations. The study allowed to reveal the characteristic clinical manifestations of the pathology of interest depending on its etiology.

  19. The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 chemokine-binding protein M3 inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millward, Jason M; Holst, Peter J; Høgh-Petersen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    M3 (AdM3) directly to the CNS to evaluate the capacity of this protein to inhibit neuroinflammation using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Treatment with the AdM3 vector significantly reduced the clinical severity of EAE, attenuated CNS histopathology, and reduced numbers......Chemokines are critical mediators of immune cell entry into the central nervous system (CNS), as occurs in neuroinflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis. Chemokines are also implicated in the immune response to viral infections. Many viruses encode proteins that mimic or block chemokine...... of immune cells infiltrating the CNS. These results suggest that M3 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to neuroinflammatory disease....

  20. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  1. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen® in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia García-Menor MD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p < 0.001. The duration of diarrhea (median and interquartile range was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377. The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children.

  2. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  3. Outbreaks of Neuroinvasive Astrovirus Associated with Encephalomyelitis, Weakness, and Paralysis among Weaned Pigs, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Ákos; Albert, Mihály; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Pesavento, Patricia A; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2017-12-01

    A large, highly prolific swine farm in Hungary had a 2-year history of neurologic disease among newly weaned (25- to 35-day-old) pigs, with clinical signs of posterior paraplegia and a high mortality rate. Affected pigs that were necropsied had encephalomyelitis and neural necrosis. Porcine astrovirus type 3 was identified by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization in brain and spinal cord samples in 6 animals from this farm. Among tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, the highest viral loads were detected in brain stem and spinal cord. Similar porcine astrovirus type 3 was also detected in archived brain and spinal cord samples from another 2 geographically distant farms. Viral RNA was predominantly restricted to neurons, particularly in the brain stem, cerebellum (Purkinje cells), and cervical spinal cord. Astrovirus was generally undetectable in feces but present in respiratory samples, indicating a possible respiratory infection. Astrovirus could cause common, neuroinvasive epidemic disease.

  4. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Grytdal

    Full Text Available Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE. However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years. Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested. In addition, 22 (2% of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2% were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1% were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children 65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person-years. Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person

  5. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF THE RECOMBINANT INTERFERON alfa-2b OF ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL MONONUCLEOSIS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted clinical and immunological examination of 51 children with acute Epstein-Barr viral mononucleosis (EBV in age from 1 year to 7 years. All children diagnosed with a moderate degree of the disease. In the treatment of 25 people (comparison group used the standard treatment (pathogenetic, symptomatic, treatment 26 people (main group included the use as antiviral and immunotropic means of the preparation of human recombinant interferon Alfa-2b in the form of rectal suppositories — VIFERON®. The immunological survey was conducted in dynamics: at the height of the disease and in the convalescence period. The blood was determined indicators of cellular immunity (leukocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD56+, HLAII+, CD95+, CD1 6+, CD25+, the concentration of IFN-a, IFN-y, IL-4 levels in spontaneous and induced production, in the serum. At milestones children of the main group noted rapid regression of clinical symptoms, normalization of body temperature, reducing intoxication, positive dynamics lymphoproliferative syndrome, a significant reduction in bed-days, no layering respiratory viral infections. Interferon had also expressed a positive impact on the changed parameters of cellular immunity and cytokine links. At the same time, 80% of patients after basic treatment is established the predominance of Th2 type immune response, indicating a high risk of developing chronic course of EBV-mononucleosis.

  6. Subacute encephalomyelitis following measles infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, L.; Manchev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A 36-years-old woman was admitted in a Clinic of Neurology due to emergency presented with acute onset of altered mental status, tonic-clonic convulsions in four extremities, bladder and bowel dysfunction. This attack lasted for 2-3 minutes.The neurological investigation showed lesion of n.facialis and n.hypoglossus on the right side from central origin, right hemiparesis, positive pathologic reflex Babinski on the right side, partial sensor and motor aphasia. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed increased levels of protein - 2.15 g/l. A week before admission to the hospital the patient had been discharged from an Infectious ward, where Measles had been diagnosed.The diagnosis was verified also with the presence of specific IgM in serum. Magnetic resonance tomography: Supratentorial on the T2W and more visibly on the FLAIR images were seen relatively homogenous high signal foci, affecting the left putamen, partially the hind limb of the left internal capsule, the body of the left nucleus caudatis, as well as more diffuse changes, affecting the cortex and subcortex in the stroke area, the upper and partially the left medial temporal gyrus. On the T1W images the changes were low signal ones. Small-degree compression of the cella media of the left lateral ventricle was noted in the changes, affecting nucleus caudatus. Infratentorial: No signal changes, affecting the cerebral stem, the small brain structures, the pontocerebral angles and the internal auditory canals were observed. Conclusion: The finding corresponds to areas of demielinization, edema and gliosis with the localization described with possible infectious genesis (encephalitis)

  7. Coexistence of IgM antihepatitis A virus and IgM antihepatitis E virus in acute viral hepatitis: a prospective, multicentre study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Jung, Y M; Kim, J S; Lee, S H; Kim, J-W; Hwang, S G; Rim, K S; Park, S J; Park, Y M; Kang, S-K; Lee, H S; Yun, H; Kim, J-H; Jeong, S-H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the clinical, serological and molecular characteristics of coexistence of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) antihepatitis A virus (HAV) and IgM antihepatitis E virus (HEV) in acute viral hepatitis using a prospective, multicentre design. Among a total of 771 symptomatic cases with acute viral hepatitis enrolled in a Korean city from September 2006 to August 2008, coexistence of IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV was found in 43 patients (A+E group; 6%), while the existence of IgM anti-HAV alone was found in 595 patients (A group; 77%) and that of IgM anti-HEV alone in 14 patients (E group; 2%). Clinical data analysis and measurement of IgM and IgG anti-HEV were performed using two different commercial kits, and HAV RNA and HEV RNA were detected in available serum or stool samples. The clinical features of the A+E group were similar to those of the A group. HAV RNA detection rates in the A+E and A group were similar, while HEV RNA was detected only in the stool samples of the E group, not in the A+E group. Comparative testing of anti-HEV using two different ELISA kits showed markedly discordant results for IgM anti-HEV positivity and consistently low positivity for IgG anti-HEV in the A+E group. Coexistence of IgM anti-HEV measured by the Genelabs ELISA kit in the setting of hepatitis A appears to yield false-positive results in nonendemic areas of HEV infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis E using IgM anti-HEV should be made with caution. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Curcumin modulates the inflammatory response and inhibits subsequent fibrosis in a mouse model of viral-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, Sreedevi; Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Guangliang; Wang, Ruixue; London, Steven D; London, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has been demonstrated as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in a broad spectrum of diseases. Using our well-established model of reovirus 1/L-induced acute viral pneumonia, which displays many of the characteristics of the human ALI/ARDS, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin. Female CBA/J mice were treated with curcumin (50 mg/kg) 5 days prior to intranasal inoculation with 10(7)pfu reovirus 1/L and daily, thereafter. Mice were evaluated for key features associated with ALI/ARDS. Administration of curcumin significantly modulated inflammation and fibrosis, as revealed by histological and biochemical analysis. The expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, and MCP-1, key chemokines/cytokines implicated in the development of ALI/ARDS, from both the inflammatory infiltrate and whole lung tissue were modulated by curcumin potentially through a reduction in the phosphorylated form of NFκB p65. While the expression of TGFß1 was not modulated by curcumin, TGFß Receptor II, which is required for TGFß signaling, was significantly reduced. In addition, curcumin also significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Tenascin-C, key markers of myofibroblast activation. This data strongly supports a role for curcumin in modulating the pathogenesis of viral-induced ALI/ARDS in a pre-clinical model potentially manifested through the alteration of inflammation and myofibroblast differentiation.

  9. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood...... upregulation of genes associated with cell death, temporally linked with a strong IFN acute-phase response and evidence of gut barrier breakdown. We found no evidence of tissue redistribution in chronic disease and remaining circulating ILCs were activated but not apoptotic. These data provide a potential...... mechanistic link between acute HIV-infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction....

  10. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1b with High Viral Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ando

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis, an uncommon side effect of pegylated interferon α (PEG-IFN α and ribavirin (RBV combination therapy, has rarely been reported in the English language literature. Here, acute pancreatitis associated with PEG-IFN plus RBV treatment is described in three patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1b with high serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels. The patients had been started on weekly subcutaneous injections of PEG-IFN α (60, 80, and 90 μg plus a daily oral dose of RBV (600 mg. The therapy was discontinued, however, because of the onset of acute pancreatitis (after 15 weeks, 48 weeks, and 3 weeks respectively. The drug-induced pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated levels of amylase and lipase and the absence of other identifiable causes. High tumor necrosis factor-α was found in one patient and high interleukin-6 in the other two. The immune system stimulated by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy might have caused the acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of the onset of drug-induced pancreatitis by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy.

  11. Viral etiology, seasonality and severity of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Katherine C; Dueger, Erica L; Kandeel, Amr; Abdallat, Mohamed; El-Kholy, Amani; Al-Awaidy, Salah; Kohlani, Abdul Hakim; Amer, Hanaa; El-Khal, Abel Latif; Said, Mayar; House, Brent; Pimentel, Guillermo; Talaat, Maha

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the role of viral respiratory pathogens in the etiology, seasonality or severity of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Sentinel surveillance for SARI was conducted from December 2007 through February 2014 at 20 hospitals in Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Qatar and Yemen. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from hospitalized patients meeting SARI case definitions and were analyzed for infection with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (hPIV1-3). We analyzed surveillance data to calculate positivity rates for viral respiratory pathogens, describe the seasonality of those pathogens and determine which pathogens were responsible for more severe outcomes requiring ventilation and/or intensive care and/or resulting in death. At least one viral respiratory pathogen was detected in 8,753/28,508 (30.7%) samples tested for at least one pathogen and 3,497/9,315 (37.5%) of samples tested for all pathogens-influenza in 3,345/28,438 (11.8%), RSV in 3,942/24,503 (16.1%), AdV in 923/9,402 (9.8%), hMPV in 617/9,384 (6.6%), hPIV1 in 159/9,402 (1.7%), hPIV2 in 85/9,402 (0.9%) and hPIV3 in 365/9,402 (3.9%). Multiple pathogens were identified in 501/9,316 (5.4%) participants tested for all pathogens. Monthly variation, indicating seasonal differences in levels of infection, was observed for all pathogens. Participants with hMPV infections and participants less than five years of age were significantly less likely than participants not infected with hMPV and those older than five years of age, respectively, to experience a severe outcome, while participants with a pre-existing chronic disease were at increased risk of a severe outcome, compared to those with no reported pre-existing chronic disease. Viral respiratory pathogens are common among SARI patients in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Ongoing surveillance is

  12. Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Other herpes viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus are more common in immunocompromised hosts. Arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus are important pathogens globally, but the prevalence varies significantly by geographic region and often season. Early diagnosis from radiographic evidence and molecular (eg, rapid diagnostics is important for targeted therapy. Antivirals may be used effectively against some pathogens, although several viruses have no effective treatment. This article provides a review of epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of common viral pathogens in CNS disease.

  13. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis. However, antibiotics do fight bacteria, so they are very important ...

  14. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  15. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  16. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  17. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P; DeBess, Emilio; Lee, Lore E; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children age (outpatient incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person

  18. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0–98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person

  19. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  20. β2-Adrenergic receptor promoter haplotype influences the severity of acute viral respiratory tract infection during infancy: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Larkin, Emma K; Reiss, Sara S; Carroll, Kecia N; Summar, Marshall L; Minton, Patricia A; Woodward, Kimberly B; Liu, Zhouwen; Islam, Jessica Y; Hartert, Tina V; Moore, Paul E

    2015-09-14

    Despite the significant interest in β2-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphisms related to asthma, whether ADRB2 genetic variants are similarly associated with acute respiratory tract infections have not been studied. We hypothesized that genetic variants in ADRB2 associated with a response to asthma therapy during an asthma exacerbation were also associated with severity of acute respiratory tract infections. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 5 common polymorphisms in the promoter region and coding block of the ADRB2 gene (loci -2387, -2274, -1343, +46, and +79) from 374 Caucasian and African American term infants who were enrolled at the time of acute respiratory illness over four respiratory viral seasons. Severity of respiratory tract infections was measured using a bronchiolitis severity score (BSS; range = 0-12, clinically significant difference = 0.5) with a higher score indicating more severe disease. We assigned the promoter, coding and combined promoter and coding haplotypes to the unphased genotype data. The associations between each of these five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as the haplotypes and infant BSS were analyzed using nonparametric univariate analysis and multivariable proportional odds model separately in Caucasians and African Americans. There was no significant association between infant BSS and each of the SNPs in both Caucasians and African Americans. However, promoter haplotype CCA was associated with a decreased BSS in African Americans in a dose dependent manner. The median (interquartile range) BSS of infants with no copies of the CCA haplotype, one copy, and two copies of the CCA haplotype were 5.5 (2.0, 8.0), 4.0 (1.0, 7.5), and 3.0 (1.0, 4.0), respectively. This dose dependent relationship persisted after adjusting for infant age, gender, daycare exposure, secondhand smoke exposure, prior history of breastfeeding, siblings at home, and enrollment season (adjusted odds ratio: 0.59, 95% confidence

  1. Viral CTL escape mutants are generated in lymph nodes and subsequently become fixed in plasma and rectal mucosa during acute SIV infection of macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Vanderford

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SIV(mac239 infection of rhesus macaques (RMs results in AIDS despite the generation of a strong antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response, possibly due to the emergence of viral escape mutants that prevent recognition of infected cells by CTLs. To determine the anatomic origin of these SIV mutants, we longitudinally assessed the presence of CTL escape variants in two MamuA*01-restricted immunodominant epitopes (Tat-SL8 and Gag-CM9 in the plasma, PBMCs, lymph nodes (LN, and rectal biopsies (RB of fifteen SIV(mac239-infected RMs. As expected, Gag-CM9 did not exhibit signs of escape before day 84 post infection. In contrast, Tat-SL8 escape mutants were apparent in all tissues by day 14 post infection. Interestingly LNs and plasma exhibited the highest level of escape at day 14 and day 28 post infection, respectively, with the rate of escape in the RB remaining lower throughout the acute infection. The possibility that CTL escape occurs in LNs before RBs is confirmed by the observation that the specific mutants found at high frequency in LNs at day 14 post infection became dominant at day 28 post infection in plasma, PBMC, and RB. Finally, the frequency of escape mutants in plasma at day 28 post infection correlated strongly with the level Tat-SL8-specific CD8 T cells in the LN and PBMC at day 14 post infection. These results indicate that LNs represent the primary source of CTL escape mutants during the acute phase of SIV(mac239 infection, suggesting that LNs are the main anatomic sites of virus replication and/or the tissues in which CTL pressure is most effective in selecting SIV escape variants.

  2. School absenteeism among school-aged children with medically attended acute viral respiratory illness during three influenza seasons, 2012-2013 through 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A

    2017-05-01

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison of initial high resolution computed tomography features in viral pneumonia between metapneumovirus infection and severe acute respiratory syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Cheuk Kei Kathy; Lai, Vincent; Wong, Yiu Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review and compare initial high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with metapneumovirus pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Coronovirus). Materials and methods: 4 cases of metapneumovirus pneumonia (mean age of 52.3 years) in an institutional outbreak (Castle Peak Hospital) in 2008 and 38 cases of SARS-coronovirus (mean age of 39.6 years) admitted to Tuen Mun hospital during an epidemic outbreak in 2003 were included. HRCT findings of the lungs for all patients were retrospectively reviewed by two independent radiologists. Results: In the metapneumovirus group, common HRCT features were ground glass opacities (100%), consolidation (100%), parenchymal band (100%), bronchiectasis (75%). Crazy paving pattern was absent. They were predominantly subpleural and basal in location and bilateral involvement was observed in 50% of patients. In the SARS group, common HRCT features were ground glass opacities (92.1%), interlobular septal thickening (86.8%), crazy paving pattern (73.7%) and consolidation (68%). Bronchiectasis was not seen. Majority of patient demonstrated segmental or lobar in distribution and bilateral involvement was observed in 44.7% of patients. Pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy were of consistent rare features in both groups. Conclusion: Ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening and consolidations were consistent HRCT manifestations in both metapneumovirus infection and SARS. The presence of bronchiectasis (0% in SARS) may point towards metapneumovirus while crazy paving pattern is more suggestive of SARS.

  4. Usefulness of B-mode and doppler sonography for the diagnosis of severe acute viral hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Jinoo; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Hwan Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography (US) features correlating with laboratory findings for the diagnosis of severe acute hepatitis (SAH) in patients with hepatitis A virus infection. Thirty-nine consecutive serologically proven patients were enrolled. Decreased parenchymal echotexture, periportal tracking, gallbladder wall change, and splenomegaly were assessed on B-mode images. Blood flow velocities were measured in the main portal (V(PORTAL)) and in the hepatic veins, and the hepatic venous pulsatility index was calculated. SAH was defined as high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥ 15 with or without coagulopathy. The relationship between US features and laboratory findings was assessed, and SAH diagnosis was evaluated. Serum alanine transaminase and prothrombin time were significantly different depending on the presence of gallbladder wall change and splenomegaly (p hepatic venous waveform and hepatic venous pulsatility index were significantly correlated with MELD score. For the diagnosis of SAH, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of V(PORTAL) was 0.798. It reached 0.869 in the patients with typical GB change. Both B-mode and Doppler US correlated well with several laboratory variables and may be helpful to diagnose SAH in patients with hepatitis A virus infection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  6. Therapy for influenza and acute respiratory viral infection in young and middle-aged schoolchildren: Effect of Ingavirin® on intoxication, fever, and catarrhal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Farber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the clinical results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter phase III study evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of Ingavirin® capsules 30 mg at a daily dose of 60 mg for the treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in 7–12-year-old children.The study included 310 children of both sexes. The study participants took Ingavirin® 60 mg/day or placebo for 5 days. The drug was shown to be effective in normalizing temperature and alleviating intoxication and catarrhal syndromes just at day 3 of therapy. Ingavirin® was demonstrated to considerably reduce the risk of bacterial complications of ARVI/influenza, which require antibiotic therapy, which is important for clinical use in children. This clinical trial has shown the high safety and tolerance of the drug. Ingavirin® contributes to accelerated virus elimination, shorter disease duration, and lower risk of complications.

  7. Clinico-pathogenetic substantiation and experience of the use of interferon alpha 2b in children with acute respiratory viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko Yu.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of interferon preparations in children under three years with acute respiratory viral infections. Patients and methods. A total of 97 observed children with a diagnosis ARVI has been consulted by doctor at 152 days after the onset of the disease. In the main group in the complex treatment additionally was prescribed nasal interferon alpha 2b «Nazoferon» in the age dosages. Children of the control group had received conventional treatment only. Results. Due to the application of Nazoferon was observed a decrease in the duration as of the main symptoms of the disease (catarrhal phenomena and temperature reaction, so the effects of intoxication. On the fifth day of treatment the difference between clinical parameters was more pronounced. It is found that Nazoferon well tolerated, does not cause discomfort on the part of the respiratory system. Conclusions. The good clinical efficacy and lack of adverse reactions allow recommending Nazoferon for use in pediatric patients. Application of Nazoferon is important to start from the early 152 days of the disease. Allow it to use as a prophylactic measure.

  8. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gas...

  9. Differences in viral load among human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Francois Marie Ngako; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Tamaki, Raita; Suzuki, Akira; Lirio, Irene; Dapat, Clyde; Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mariko; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-27

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B. ON1 is a newly emerged genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in the G gene as observed previously with BA genotypes in HRSV-B. Children <5 years of age with an initial diagnosis of severe or very severe pneumonia at a hospital in the Philippines from September 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HRSV genotypes were determined and the viral load measured from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). The viral load of HRSV genotype NA1 were significantly higher than those of ON1 and BA9. Regression analysis showed that both genotype NA1 and younger age were significantly associated with high HRSV viral load. The viral load of NA1 was higher than that of ON1 and BA9 in NPS samples. HRSV genotypes may be associated with HRSV viral load. The reasons and clinical impacts of these differences in viral load among HRSV genotypes require further evaluation.

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mutant with Point Mutations in UL39 Is Impaired for Acute Viral Replication in Mice, Establishment of Latency, and Explant-Induced Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Heba H; Thompson, Thornton W; Konen, Adam J; Haenchen, Steve D; Hilliard, Joshua G; Macdonald, Stuart J; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2018-04-01

    In the process of generating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutations in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39 , which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6. These mutations resulted in lysine-to-proline (residue 393) and arginine-to-histidine (residue 950) substitutions in ICP6. To determine whether alteration of these amino acids was responsible for the KOS-NA phenotypes in vivo , we recombined the wild-type UL39 gene into the KOS-NA genome and rescued its acute replication phenotypes in mice. To further establish the role of UL39 in KOS-NA's decreased pathogenicity, the UL39 mutations were recombined into HSV-1 (generating UL39 mut ), and this mutant virus showed reduced ocular and TG replication in mice comparable to that of KOS-NA. Interestingly, ICP6 protein levels were reduced in KOS-NA-infected cells relative to the wild-type protein. Moreover, we observed that KOS-NA does not counteract caspase 8-induced apoptosis, unlike wild-type strain KOS. Based on alignment studies with other HSV-1 ICP6 homologs, our data suggest that amino acid 950 of ICP6 likely plays an important role in ICP6 accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis, consequently impairing HSV-1 pathogenesis in a mouse model of HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a major human pathogen that infects ∼80% of the human population and can be life threatening to infected neonates or immunocompromised individuals. Effective therapies for treatment of recurrent HSV-1 infections are limited, which emphasizes a critical need to understand in

  11. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  12. Effects of vitamin D in the prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis: systematic review = Efeitos da vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda, Angélica Maria Barba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evidências publicadas sugerem que a suplementação da vitamina D pode ter efeito protetor nas infecções do trato respiratório inferior. O objetivo desta revisão foi avaliar os efeitos da ingestão de vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda em crianças. Métodos: Foram feitas buscas nas bases de dados Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, até dezembro de 2014, usando os descritores "Vitamin D" ou cholecalciferol ou ergocalciferol e "bronchiolitis, viral" ou "viral bronchiolitis" ou "bronchiolitides, viral" ou "viral bronchiolitides". Foram incluídos estudos que avaliaram o efeito da ingesta da vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda em crianças. Estudos com intervenção menor que duas semanas e artigos de revisão foram excluídos. Resultados: A busca identificou 241 artigos, entre os quais 20 artigos foram selecionados para leitura na íntegra e dois artigos foram incluídos na revisão sistemática, incluindo 296 crianças. Nenhum estudo mediu os níveis séricos de vitamina D. Um dos estudos incluídos foi um ensaio clinico, no qual o número de episódios de bronquiolite foi significativamente menor nas crianças suplementadas com vitamina D (Grupo I: média 0, 6±0, 7 Grupo II: média 1, 4 ±0, 9; P =0, 001. No outro, um estudo de casos e controles, não se encontrou relação significativa entre casos de bronquiolite viral aguda e ingesta de vitamina D (odds ratio 1, 7 – intervalo de confiança 95% 0, 7 - 4, 0. Conclusões: As evidências científicas atuais são insuficientes para comprovar os benefícios clínicos da vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda

  13. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  14. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  15. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  16. Mumps virus encephalomyelitis in a 19-year old male patient with an undefined severe combined immunodeficiency post-haematopoietic bone marrow transplantation: a rare fatal complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Toby A; Pelosi, Emanuela; McQuaid, Stephen; Richardson, Deborah; Newman, Joan; Hill, Kate; Veys, Paul; Davies, Graham; Orchard, Kim H

    2013-06-01

    We describe a rare case of fatal mumps encephalomyelitis occurring in 19-year old male following matched unrelated donor peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The indication for HSCT was for an undefined form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Molecular typing of the mumps viral RNA isolated from neural tissue indicated that the infection was acquired at the time of a mumps outbreak in England and Wales that occurred between 2004 and 2006. This case highlights the importance of considering mumps in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system infection in highly immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Shollie M; Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-11-01

    Naïve pregnant cattle exposed to pestiviruses between 40-125 days of gestation can give birth to persistently infected (PI) calves. Clinical presentation and survivability, in PI cattle, is highly variable even with the same pestivirus strain whereas the clinical presentation in acute infections is more uniform with severity of symptoms being primarily a function of virulence of the infecting virus. The aim of this study was to compare thymic depletion, as measured by comparing the area of the thymic cortex to the medulla (corticomedullary ratio), in acute and persistent infections of the same pestivirus isolate. The same general trends were observed with each pestivirus isolate. Thymic depletion was observed in both acutely and persistently infected calves. The average thymic depletion observed in acutely infected calves was greater than that in age matched PI calves. PI calves, regardless of infecting virus, revealed a greater variability in amount of depletion compared to acutely infected calves. A trend was observed between survivability and depletion of the thymus, with PI calves surviving less than 5 weeks having lower corticomedullary ratios and greater depletion. This is the first study to compare PI and acutely infected calves with the same isolates as well as to evaluate PI calves based on survivability. Further, this study identified a quantifiable phenotype associated with potential survivability.

  18. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  19. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  1. Interleukin-10 Modulation of Virus Clearance and Disease in Mice with Alphaviral Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina M; Griffin, Diane E

    2018-03-15

    Alphaviruses are an important cause of mosquito-borne outbreaks of arthritis, rash, and encephalomyelitis. Previous studies in mice with a virulent strain (neuroadapted SINV [NSV]) of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) identified a role for Th17 cells and regulation by interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the pathogenesis of fatal encephalomyelitis (K. A. Kulcsar, V. K. Baxter, I. P. Greene, and D. E. Griffin, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16053-16058, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418966111). To determine the role of virus virulence in generation of immune responses, we analyzed the modulatory effects of IL-10 on disease severity, virus clearance, and the CD4 + T cell response to infection with a recombinant strain of SINV of intermediate virulence (TE12). The absence of IL-10 during TE12 infection led to longer morbidity, more weight loss, higher mortality, and slower viral clearance than in wild-type mice. More severe disease and impaired virus clearance in IL-10 -/- mice were associated with more Th1 cells, fewer Th2 cells, innate lymphoid type 2 cells, regulatory cells, and B cells, and delayed production of antiviral antibody in the central nervous system (CNS) without an effect on Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-10 deficiency led to more severe disease in TE12-infected mice by increasing Th1 cells and by hampering development of the local B cell responses necessary for rapid production of antiviral antibody and virus clearance from the CNS. In addition, the shift from Th17 to Th1 responses with decreased virus virulence indicates that the effects of IL-10 deficiency on immunopathologic responses in the CNS during alphavirus infection are influenced by virus strain. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses cause mosquito-borne outbreaks of encephalomyelitis, but determinants of outcome are incompletely understood. We analyzed the effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 on disease severity and virus clearance after infection with an alphavirus strain of intermediate virulence

  2. The effects of female sex, viral genotype, and IL28B genotype on spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebely, Jason; Page, Kimberly; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Rice, Thomas M.; Bruneau, Julie; Morris, Meghan D.; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Amin, Janaki; Cox, Andrea L.; Kim, Arthur Y.; McGovern, Barbara H.; Schinkel, Janke; George, Jacob; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Hellard, Margaret; Dore, Gregory J.; Prins, Maria; Lauer, Georg; Morris, Meghan; Hahn, Judy; Rilla, Megan; Alavi, Maryam; Bouchard, Rachel; Evans, Jennifer; Grady, Bart; Aneja, Jasneet; Teutsch, Suzy; White, Bethany; Wells, Brittany; Zang, Geng; Applegate, Tanya; Matthews, Gail; Yeung, Barbara; Prince, Leslie Erin; Roy, Elise; Bates, Anna; Enriquez, Jarliene; Chow, Sammy; McCredie, Luke; Aitken, Campbell; Doyle, Joseph; Spelman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Although 20%-40% of persons with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection demonstrate spontaneous clearance, the time course and factors associated with clearance remain poorly understood. We investigated the time to spontaneous clearance and predictors among participants with acute HCV using Cox

  3. The epidemiology of acute viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Cordoba city, Argentina: an insight of disease burden Epidemiologia da gastrenterite viral aguda em crianças hospitalizadas na cidade de Córdoba, Argentina: uma percepção ao impacto da doença

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    Miguel O. GIORDANO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the disease burden of viral gastroenteritis has important implications for the use and monitoring the impact of public health policies. The present study, carried out in Córdoba city, Argentina, documents the epidemiology of severe viral diarrhea as well as the burden of viral gastrointestinal disease in the hospital children admission. A total of 133 stools were collected from hospitalized children (Town Childhood Hospital suffering from acute diarrhea and studied for the presence of Group A rotavirus, astrovirus and adenovirus 40/41 by enzyme-immuno assay, between November 1997 and October 1998. Enteric viruses accounted for 42.1% of the total diarrheal cases analyzed. Group A rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses 40/41 and mixed infections were found in 35.3, 4.5, 1.5, and 0.8% studied specimens respectively. We estimated that 1 in 27 children in the 0-35 month-old cohort/range would be annually hospitalized for a viral gastroenteritis illness. The major impact on viral diarrhea lies on rotaviral infection, accouting for 84.0% of the viral diarrheal cases analyzed and for approximately one third of severe diarrheas requiring hospital admission in Córdoba City, Argentina.Dados a respeito do impacto das gastrenterites virais têm implicações importantes para o monitoraramento do impacto das políticas de saúde pública. O presente estudo, feito na cidade de Córdoba, Argentina, documenta a epidemiologia da diarréia viral severa como também o impacto que a mesma representa na admissão hospitalar de crianças. Pesquisou-se a presença de Rotavírus grupo A, Astrovírus e Adenovírus 40/41 por ensaio imuno-enzimático em 133 amostras de fezes obtidas durante o período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998, de crianças hospitalizadas por diarréia aguda. Os virus entéricos constituíram 42,1% do total de casos de diarréia analisados. Encontraram-se Rotavírus Grupo A, Astrovírus, Adenovírus 40/41 e infec

  4. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evolução e característica de lactantes com bronquiolite viral aguda submetidos à ventilação mecânica em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica brasileira Outcome and characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis submitted to mechanical ventilation in a Brazilian pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Umpierre Bueno

    2009-06-01

    bronquiolite viral aguda.OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and the outcome of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis submitted to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study enrolling all infants (less than 12 months old admitted with the diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis and submitted to mechanical ventilation in an university affiliated Brazilian pediatric intensive care unit between March, 2004 and September, 2006 (3 consecutives winters. The mechanical ventilation parameters' employed on 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th day and before extubation were evaluated as well as the evolution (mortality rate, presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the prevalence of complications. The groups were compared using the Student t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the Chi-square test. RESULTS: Fifty-nine infants were included (3.8 ± 2.7 months old, 59% male, with 9.0 ± 9.4 days on mechanical ventilation. Prior mechanical ventilation, non invasive ventilation was instituted in 71% of children. Anemia was observed in 78% of the sample. In 51 infants (86.5% the lower airway obstructive pattern was maintained up to tracheal extubation with a nil mortality and low prevalence of pneumothorax (7.8%. Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 8 infants (13.5%, with higher mortality and a higher prevalence of pneumothorax (62.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The declining mortality in acute viral bronchiolitis is observed even in non developed regions, involving children with high rates of anemia and premature labor. The low mortality is associated with the maintenance of the lower airway obstructive pattern during the period on mechanical ventilation. The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with increased mortality and higher prevalence of complications, representing the actual challenge in the management of children with severe acute viral bronchiolitis.

  6. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae: an immunocytochemical study

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    Neira Oviedo MV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco V Neira Oviedo1,2, William S Romoser1, Calvin BL James1, Farida Mahmood3, William K Reisen31Tropical Disease Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2Oxitec Inc, Oxford, England; 3Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV, we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion.Methods: Using immuno-stained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains – Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR; and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP, and WEEV resistance (WR.Results and conclusions: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth

  7. IFN-γ protects from lethal IL-17 mediated viral encephalomyelitis independent of neutrophils

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    Savarin Carine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between IFN-γ, IL-17 and neutrophils during CNS inflammatory disease is complex due to cross-regulatory factors affecting both positive and negative feedback loops. These interactions have hindered the ability to distinguish the relative contributions of neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cell-derived effector molecules from secondary mediators to tissue damage and morbidity. Methods Encephalitis induced by a gliatropic murine coronavirus was used as a model to assess the direct contributions of neutrophils, IFN-γ and IL-17 to virus-induced mortality. CNS inflammatory conditions were selectively manipulated by adoptive transfer of virus-primed wild-type (WT or IFN-γ deficient (GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice, coupled with antibody-mediated neutrophil depletion and cytokine blockade. Results Transfer of GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice induced rapid mortality compared to recipients of WT memory CD4+ T cells, despite similar virus control and demyelination. In contrast to recipients of WT CD4+ T cells, extensive neutrophil infiltration and IL-17 expression within the CNS in recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells provided a model to directly assess their contribution(s to disease. Recipients of WT CD4+ T cells depleted of IFN-γ did not express IL-17 and were spared from mortality despite abundant CNS neutrophil infiltration, indicating that mortality was not mediated by excessive CNS neutrophil accumulation. By contrast, IL-17 depletion rescued recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells from rapid mortality without diminishing neutrophils or reducing GM-CSF, associated with pathogenic Th17 cells in CNS autoimmune models. Furthermore, co-transfer of WT and GKO CD4+ T cells prolonged survival in an IFN-γ dependent manner, although IL-17 transcription was not reduced. Conclusions These data demonstrate that IL-17 mediates detrimental clinical consequences in an IFN-γ-deprived environment, independent of extensive neutrophil accumulation or GM-CSF upregulation. The results also suggest that IFN-γ overrides the detrimental IL-17 effector responses via a mechanism downstream of transcriptional regulation.

  8. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography. (author)

  9. Viral Hepatitis and Thrombosis: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multicausal disease. Among minor risk factors, acute infections in general are associated with a transient increased risk of VTE. However, acute hepatitis is usually not reported as a potential risk factor for VTE. Recent studies suggest a possible role of viral

  10. A importância do perfil clínico-laboratorial no diagnóstico diferencial entre malária e hepatite aguda viral Importance of clinical and laboratory profiles for the differential diagnosis of malaria and acute viral hepatitis

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    Cacyane Naiff do Amaral

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Destacar o perfil clínico-laboratorial de malária e hepatite aguda viral em dois grupos de crianças, ressaltando semelhanças e diferenças entre os dois quadros; subsidiar o aumento da sensibilidade clínica de presunção diagnóstica precoce de malária na infância. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de 30 crianças, de dois a dez anos de idade, portadoras de primo infecção malárica ou hepatite viral aguda, confirmados pela pesquisa de plasmódio e pesquisa de marcadores virais de hepatite A e B. As crianças foram submetidas às seguintes avaliações no primeiro dia de atendimento: hemograma, contagem de plaquetas, dosagem de enzimas hepáticas, uréia, creatinina e bilirrubinas. Os achados clínicos e laboratoriais foram descritos e comparados entre os dois grupos. Proporções de indivíduos com exames físicos alterados foram comparadas nos dois grupos, pelo teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A apresentação clínica inicial da doença foi semelhante em todos os pacientes: febre, cefaléia, sintomas digestivos e colúria. Metade dos portadores de malária não apresentou a tríade clássica, apesar de todos terem apresentado febre moderada ou alta, ao contrário dos portadores de hepatite. Na avaliação laboratorial, os portadores de malária apresentaram mais anemia e plaquetopenia quando comparados aos portadores de hepatite. Foram marcantes, nos portadores de hepatite, as elevações de bilirrubinas e enzimas hepáticas. CONCLUSÕES: A propedêutica detalhada e a avaliação criteriosa dos exames laboratoriais inespecíficos constituem peças fundamentais para a diferenciação clínica entre os dois diagnósticos, reforçando a identificação precoce do parasita e, conseqüentemente, o tratamento rápido de malária em crianças.OBJECTIVE: To establish clinical and diagnostic findings of malaria and acute viral hepatitis in children, stressing similarities and differences, so as to enhance the sensitivity of

  11. Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikogosyan, D.N.; Kapituletz, S.P.; Smirnov, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of usual low-intensity continuous (λ = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m 2 ) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 10 ns, I = 10 9 W/m 2 ) or picosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 23 ps, I = 10 12 W/m 2 ) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author)

  12. The influence of macrophage growth factors on Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) infection and activation of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karin M; Watson, Neva B; Minchenberg, Scott B; Massa, Paul T

    2018-02-01

    Macrophages are common targets for infection and innate immune activation by many pathogenic viruses including the neurotropic Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV). As both infection and innate activation of macrophages are key determinants of viral pathogenesis especially in the central nervous system (CNS), an analysis of macrophage growth factors on these events was performed. C3H mouse bone-marrow cells were differentiated in culture using either recombinant macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), inoculated with TMEV (BeAn) and analyzed at various times thereafter. Cytokine RNA and protein analysis, virus titers, and flow cytometry were performed to characterize virological parameters under these culture conditions. GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages showed higher levels of TMEV viral RNA and proinflammatory molecules compared to infected M-CSF-differentiated cells. Thus, GM-CSF increases both TMEV infection and TMEV-induced activation of macrophages compared to that seen with M-CSF. Moreover, while infectious viral particles decreased from a peak at 12h to undetectable levels at 48h post infection, TMEV viral RNA remained higher in GM-CSF- compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages in concert with increased proinflammatory gene expression. Analysis of a possible basis for these differences determined that glycolytic rates contributed to heightened virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in GM-CSF compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. In conclusion, we provide evidence implicating a role for GM-CSF in promoting virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, indicating that GM-CSF may be a key factor for TMEV infection and the induction of chronic TMEV-induced immunopathogenesis in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis predicts disease

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    Steinman Lawrence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a widely used animal model to understand not only multiple sclerosis but also basic principles of immunity. The disease is scored typically by observing signs of paralysis, which do not always correspond with pathological changes. Methods Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in transgenic mice expressing an injury responsive luciferase reporter in astrocytes (GFAP-luc. Bioluminescence in the brain and spinal cord was measured non-invasively in living mice. Mice were sacrificed at different time points to evaluate clinical and pathological changes. The correlation between bioluminescence and clinical and pathological EAE was statistically analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results Bioluminescence from the brain and spinal cord correlates strongly with severity of clinical disease and a number of pathological changes in the brain in EAE. Bioluminescence at early time points also predicts severity of disease. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of bioluminescence imaging to monitor neuroinflammation for rapid drug screening and immunological studies in EAE and suggest that similar approaches could be applied to other animal models of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  14. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  15. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  16. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peferoen, Laura A. N.; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H. W. G. M.; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M.; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical

  17. Individual behavioral characteristics of wild-type rats predict susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, CJ; Tennekes, R; Bruggink, JE; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Neuroendocrine-immune interactions are thought to be important in determining susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Animal studies have revealed that differences in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are related to:reactivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  18. Minocycline Effects on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Meesters, Roland J. W.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J.; van Aken, Hans; Suidgeest, Ernst; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Tuinstra, Tinka; van Gool, Alain; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  19. Minocycline effects on the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, M.P.; Rosenling, T.; Attali, A.; Meesters, R.J.; Stingl, C.; Dekker, L.J.; van Aken, H.; Suidgeest, E.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Tuinstra, T.; Gool, A.J. van; Luider, T.M.; Bischoff, R.

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  20. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

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    Takahiro Kawagishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics.

  1. Costimulatory signal blockade in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Stadlbauer, T H

    1999-01-01

    Blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40L-CD40 T cell costimulatory signals prevents induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effect of simultaneous blockade of these signals in EAE is unknown. We show that administration of either MR1 (to block CD40L) or CTLA4Ig (to block...... B7) after immunization or after the first attack protects from EAE. Treatment with a combination of CTLA4Ig and MR1 provides additive protection, and is associated with complete absence of mononuclear cell infiltrates in the central nervous system, and marked suppression of proliferation of primed T...... cells in the periphery. Selective B7-1 blockade did not protect from EAE. These observations have implications for therapy of autoimmune diseases....

  2. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Marco V Neira; Romoser, William S; James, Calvin Bl; Mahmood, Farida; Reisen, William K

    2011-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. METHODS: Using immunostained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains - Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV) and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR); and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP), and WEEV resistance (WR). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth, whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR

  3. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kostianovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts.

  4. Clinical features, neuroimaging and prognosis of adult patients with clinically diagnosed acute-onset encephalitis treated at a teaching neurology center in the Toyama area of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougu, Nobuhiro; Takashima, Shutaro; Taguchi, Yoshiharu; Sasahara, Etsuko; Tanaka, Kortaro; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Although acute viral encephalitis (AVE) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are etiologically and pathologically distinct, a differential diagnosis between these two disorders is often difficult, especially if the patient exhibits a disturbance in consciousness. To identify useful clinical differences enabling a differential diagnosis to be made at an early stage, we retrospectively analyzed patients who had been admitted to our hospital within the past seven years because of acute-onset encephalitis with a disturbance in consciousness. Eleven adult patients were classified as having AVE, and 8 adult patients were classified as having ADEM within this period. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were then compared. Patients with AVE exhibited a disturbance in consciousness as their first neurological sign, whereas patients with ADEM initially showed focal signs like spastic paralysis, urinary disturbance and ataxia, which were followed by a disturbance in consciousness. ADEM is usually preceded by infection or vaccination, but obtaining a medical history from patients with disturbed consciousness is often difficult. Based on the present analysis, the initial manifestation of focal neurological signs may be very useful for distinguishing ADEM from AVE. (author)

  5. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Kyaw Phyu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia, acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland, lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen, and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles, liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  6. Analysis of hepatitis B virus intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA and serum viral markers in treatment-naive patients with acute and chronic HBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationships of intrahepatic cccDNA with serum HBsAg and with HBV DNA in treatment-naive patients throughout acute and chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 120 patients who had a liver biopsy were enrolled, including 19 with acute hepatitis B (AHB, and 101 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB of whom were 10 in immune-tolerant (IT phase, 59 in immune-clearance (IC phase, 8 in low-replicative (LR phase, and 24 in HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH phase. Intrahepatic cccDNA, serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels were comparatively analyzed. RESULTS: The median intrahepatic cccDNA levels were 0.18 4.80, 3.81, 0.22 and 0.97 copies/cell for patients with AHB, CHB-IT, CHB-IC, CHB-LR, and CHB-ENH, respectively. In AHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg (r = 0.665, P = 0.003, as well as serum HBV DNA (r = 0.536, P = 0.022. In CHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg in the IC phase (r = 0.392, P = 0.005, and with serum HBV DNA in the IC phase (r = 0.301, P = 0.036 and ENH phase (r = 0.588, P = 0.013. HBV replicative efficiency, defined as the ratio of serum HBV DNA to intrahepatic cccDNA, was obviously lower in AHB and CHB-LR patients than in CHB-IT, CHB-IC and CHB-ENH patients (0.70 and 0.53 vs. 1.12, 1.09 and 0.99, P<0.001, values were logarithmic transformed for analysis. In CHB-IC patients, HBV replicative efficiency was positively correlated with histological activity index of liver inflammation (r = 0.308, P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: Serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels may reflect the amount of active intrahepatic cccDNA in treatment-naive AHB and CHB-IC patients. Reduced intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replicative efficiency may imply effective immune control of HBV infection.

  7. Etiology and Incidence of viral and bacterial acute respiratory illness among older children and adults in rural western Kenya, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few comprehensive data exist on disease incidence for specific etiologies of acute respiratory illness (ARI in older children and adults in Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 1, 2007, to February 28, 2010, among a surveillance population of 21,420 persons >5 years old in rural western Kenya, we collected blood for culture and malaria smears, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for quantitative real-time PCR for ten viruses and three atypical bacteria, and urine for pneumococcal antigen testing on outpatients and inpatients meeting a ARI case definition (cough or difficulty breathing or chest pain and temperature >38.0 °C or oxygen saturation 5 years old (adjusted annual incidence 12.0 per 100 person-years, influenza A virus was the most common virus (22% overall; 11% inpatients, 27% outpatients and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacteria (16% overall; 23% inpatients, 14% outpatients, yielding annual incidences of 2.6 and 1.7 episodes per 100 person-years, respectively. Influenza A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in swabs among cases (22%, 6%, 8% and 5%, respectively than controls. Adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parechovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were not more prevalent among cases than controls. Pneumococcus and non-typhi Salmonella were more prevalent among HIV-infected adults, but prevalence of viruses was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-negative individuals. ARI incidence was highest during peak malaria season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus (by potential herd immunity from childhood vaccination or of HIV-infected adults might prevent much of the substantial ARI incidence among persons >5 years old in similar rural African settings.

  8. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a quantitative MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, S; Blezer, E L A; Schreibelt, G; Döpp, E; van der Pol, S M A; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Nicolay, K; Dijkstra, C D; de Vries, H E

    2004-03-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive cellular infiltration in the development of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis. Cerebrovascular leakage and monocytes infiltrates were separately monitored by quantitative in vivo MRI during the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance enhancement of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), reflecting vascular leakage, occurred concomitantly with the onset of neurological signs and was already at a maximal level at this stage of the disease. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the presence of the serum-derived proteins such as fibrinogen around the brain vessels early in the disease, whereas no cellular infiltrates could be detected. MRI further demonstrated that Gd-DTPA leakage clearly preceded monocyte infiltration as imaged by the contrast agent based on ultra small particles of iron oxide (USPIO), which was maximal only during full-blown EAE. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical investigation revealed that USPIOs were present in newly infiltrated macrophages within the inflammatory lesions. To validate the use of USPIOs as a non-invasive tool to evaluate therapeutic strategies, EAE animals were treated with the immunomodulator 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, which ameliorated clinical scores. MRI showed that the USPIO load in the brain was significantly diminished in lovastatin-treated animals. Data indicate that cerebrovascular leakage and monocytic trafficking into the brain are two distinct processes in the development of inflammatory lesions during multiple sclerosis, which can

  9. Apoptosis of infiltrating T cells in the central nervous system of mice infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszak, Emilia L.; Hoffman, Brad E.; Chang, J. Robert; Zaczynska, Ewa; Gaughan, John; Katsetos, Christos D.; Platsoucas, Chris D.; Harvey, Nile

    2003-01-01

    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), DA strain, induces in susceptible strain of mice a biphasic disease consisting of early acute disease followed by late chronic demyelinating disease. Both phases of the disease are associated with inflammatory infiltrates of the central nervous system (CNS). Late chronic demyelinating disease induced by TMEV serves as an excellent model to study human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. During early acute disease, the virus is partially cleared from the CNS by CD3 + T cells. These T cells express Fas, FasL, negligible levels of Bcl-2 proteins and undergo activation-induced cell death as determined by TUNEL assay leading to resolution of the inflammatory response. In contrast, during late chronic demyelinating disease, and despite dense perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrates, only very few cells undergo apoptosis. Mononuclear cells infiltrating the CNS express Bcl-2. It appears that the lack of apoptosis of T cells during late chronic demyelinating disease leads to the accumulation of these cells in the CNS. These cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of the demyelinating disease

  10. Viral myositis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Haley; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-05-01

    Question I recently evaluated a child in my clinic after an emergency department visit where she presented having woken up that morning refusing to walk and was crawling around the house. The parents reported she was getting over a cold, and I recall similar cases of myositis during the H1N1 influenza epidemic a few years ago. What are the key features of myositis that I should recognize? Which investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis and how should affected patients be managed? Answer Benign acute childhood myositis is a mild and self-limited sudden onset of lower extremity pain during or following recovery from a viral illness. Presentation can include tiptoe gait or refusal to walk, secondary to symmetric bilateral lower extremity pain that resolves quickly, usually within 3 days. In general, no investigation is needed except in severe cases for which screening bloodwork and a urine myoglobin test can confirm the diagnosis and rule out complications. Myoglobinuria and highly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels are rare but should be a consideration for admission to hospital. Prognosis is excellent and management might include rest and analgesia. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  11. T cells in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, J M

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which involves autoimmune responses to myelin antigens. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, have provided convincing evidence that T cells specific for self-antigens mediate pathology in these diseases. Until recently, T helper type 1 (Th1) cells were thought to be the main effector T cells responsible for the autoimmune inflammation. However more recent studies have highlighted an important pathogenic role for CD4(+) T cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-17, termed Th17, but also IL-17-secreting gammadelta T cells in EAE as well as other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. This has prompted intensive study of the induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cells in MS and EAE. In this paper, we review the contribution of Th1, Th17, gammadelta, CD8(+) and regulatory T cells as well as the possible development of new therapeutic approaches for MS based on manipulating these T cell subtypes.

  12. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-11-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CTLA4(+) inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  13. THE TRANSMISSION OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY AEDES AEGYPTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M H; Tenbroeck, C

    1935-10-31

    In confirming Kelser's work on the transmission of equine encephalomyelitis of the western type by Aëdes aegypti it has been learned that the mosquitoes must be fed virus of high titer if positive results are to be secured. A period of from 4 to 5 days after feeding either on infected guinea pigs or on brain containing virus must elapse before the disease is transmitted by biting, but after this time transmission regularly results for a period of about 2 months. By inoculation, virus can be demonstrated in the bodies of infected mosquitoes for the duration of life. Although virus multiplies in the mosquitoes and is generally distributed in their bodies, repeated attempts to demonstrate it in the eggs from females known to be infected as well as in larvae, pupae, and adults from such eggs have been uniformly negative. Larvae have not taken up virus added to the water in which they were living. Male mosquitoes have been infected with virus by feeding but they have not transmitted the virus to normal females, nor have males transmitted the virus from infected to normal females. When virus of the eastern instead of the western type is used transmission experiments with Aëdes aegypti are negative. Apparently this virus is incapable of penetrating the intestinal mucosa of the mosquito. If, however, it is inoculated into the body cavity by needle puncture it persists and transmission experiments are positive.

  14. IL-12p35 Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyeong Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which cytokines produced by immune cells that infiltrate the brain and spinal cord play a central role. We show here that the IL-12p35, the alpha subunit of IL-12 or IL-35 cytokine, might be an effective biologic for suppressing neuroinflammatory responses and ameliorating the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the mouse model of human MS. We further show that IL-12p35 conferred protection from neuropathy by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the brain and spinal cord. In addition, in vitro exposure of encephalitogenic cells to IL-12p35 suppressed their capacity to induce EAE by adoptive transfer. Importantly, the IL-12p35-mediated expansion of Treg and Breg cells and its amelioration of EAE correlated with inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of STAT1/STAT3 pathways. Moreover, IL-12p35 inhibited lymphocyte proliferation by suppressing the expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-12p35 can be exploited as a novel biologic for treating central nervous system autoimmune diseases and offers the promise of ex vivo production of large amounts of Tregs and Bregs for immunotherapy.

  15. Reversible paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis as the presenting feature of ovarian teratoma: A clinicopathological correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajappa Senthil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM is a well-characterized neurological syndrome. Its association with ovarian teratoma is rare. A young lady presented with features suggestive of encephalomyelitis with predominant cerebellar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging brain was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Computerized tomography scan of the pelvis revealed a complex left ovarian cyst. With a clinical diagnosis of PEM she underwent a left salpingo-oopherectomy. This was followed by total recovery of the PEM in two weeks. The histopathology revealed immature teratoma. The interesting feature was the clinicopathological correlation between the finding of fetal cerebellar tissue in the tumor and the PEM with predominant cerebellar features.

  16. Longitudinal investigation of natural killer cells and cytokines in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenu Ekua W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is an etiologically unexplained disorder characterised by irregularities in various aspects of the immunological function. Presently, it is unknown whether these immunological changes remain consistent over time. This study investigates Natural Killer (NK cell cytotoxic activity, NK cell subsets (CD56brightCD16- and CD56dimCD16+ and cytokines, over the course of a12 month period in patients with CFS/ME. Methods The participants in the study comprised 65 (47.2 ± 11.5 years CFS/ME participants and 21 (45.2 ±9.3 years non-fatigued controls. Flow cytometry protocols were used to assess NK subsets and NK cytotoxic activity at various time points that included baseline (T1, 6 (T2 and 12 months (T3. Cytokine secretions were measured following mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results NK cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased in the CFS/ME patients at T1, T2 and T3 compared to the non-fatigued group. Additionally, in comparison to the non-fatigued controls, the CFS/ME group had significantly lower numbers of CD56brightCD16- NK cells at both T1 and T2. Interestingly, following mitogenic stimulation, cytokine secretion revealed significant increases in IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α at T1 in the CFS/ME group. A significant decrease was observed at T2 in the CFS/ME group for IL-10 and IL-17A while at T3, IL-2 was increased in the CFS/ME group in comparison to the non-fatigued controls. Overall cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased at T3 compared to T1 and T2. CD56brightCD16- NK cells were much lower at T2 compared to T1 and T3. IL-10 and IL-17A secretion was elevated at T2 in comparison to T1 and T3. Conclusion These results confirm decreases in immune function in CFS/ME patients, suggesting an increased susceptibility to viral and other infections. Furthermore, NK cytotoxic activity may be a suitable biomarker for diagnosing CFS

  17. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J; Navarrete, Carmen; Mecha, Miriam; Feliú, Ana; Collado, Juan A; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Guaza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅) immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the therapeutic potential

  18. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Carrillo-Salinas

    Full Text Available Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅ immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the

  19. Mobil Viral Pazarlama

    OpenAIRE

    Barutçu, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile Viral Marketing, with using mobile phones, is one of the most importantinnovations after Word of Mouth Marketing performed by face to face amongpeople and Viral Marketing performed in the İnternet. The main objective of thisstudy is to call marketing communicators’ and academicians’ attentions whowant to increase the recognition of companies’ products, services and brands tobecome a current issue in the marketplace using Mobile Viral Marketingapplications by reason of techno...

  20. Importance of viral diseases in irradiated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.; Jebavy, L.; Merka, V.; Horacek, J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed aimed at establishing the incidence of some viral diseases in radiation syndrome patients and the significance of the diseases for prognosis. In the study, 77 patients with syndromologically identical acute hematological forms of radiation sickness, mainly leukemic patients suffering from severe blood formation suppression and/or hematoblastosis were examined for concurrent herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections. Active viruses were isolated in almost 30% of the patients; nearly 90% of the patients were serologically positive, shedding antibodies. The findings thus confirmed the view that viral disease, especially in immunocompromised patients, has a critical effect on the survival of radiation sickness sufferers. (L.O.). 12 refs

  1. Viral gastroenteritis in daily pediatric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracmarova, R.; Plisek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is one of the most common causes of an acute examination and hospitalisation of a child. Portion of a viral etiology of intestinal diseases is increasing in connection with an improvement of social and economical conditions. The most common viral agents are rotaviruses, caliciviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses, but also other viruses cause an intestinal disease. The most severe clinical course is expected from the rotaviral and noroviral infection. The dehydratation, which could be less or more severe, often complicated the infection. The treatment is symptomatic. The most important role for the prevention of rotavirus disease is played by the vaccination. (author)

  2. Persistent activation of microglia is associated with neuronal dysfunction of callosal projecting pathways and multiple sclerosis-like lesions in relapsing--remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Wang, Yue; Kivisäkk, Pia

    2007-01-01

    callosal projecting neurons. There was significant impairment of retrograde labeling of NeuN-positive callosal projecting neurons and reduction in the labelling of their transcallosal axons. These data demonstrate a novel paradigm of cortical and callosal neuropathology in a mouse model of MS, perpetuated......Cortical pathology, callosal atrophy and axonal loss are substrates of progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we describe cortical, periventricular subcortical lesions and callosal demyelination in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice that are similar...... to lesions found in MS. Unlike the T-cell infiltrates that peak during acute disease, we found that microglia activation persists through the chronic disease phase. Microglia activation correlated with abnormal phosphorylation of neurofilaments in the cortex and stripping of synaptic proteins in cortical...

  3. Chondroitin 6-O-sulfate ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Moriguchi, Kota; Ueno, Rino; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main component of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system (CNS) and influence neuroplasticity. Although CSPG is considered an inhibitory factor for nerve repair in spinal cord injury, it is unclear whether CSPG influences the pathogenetic mechanisms of neuroimmunological diseases. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in chondroitin 6-O-sulfate transferase 1-deficient (C6st1(-/-)) mice. C6ST1 is the enzyme that transfers sulfate residues to position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the sugar chain of CSPG. The phenotypes of EAE in C6st1(-/-) mice were more severe than those in wild-type (WT) mice were. In adoptive-transfer EAE, in which antigen-reactive T cells from WT mice were transferred to C6st1(-/-) and WT mice, phenotypes were significantly more severe in C6st1(-/-) than in WT mice. The recall response of antigen-reactive T cells was not significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, the number of pathogenic T cells within the CNS was also not considerably different. When EAE was induced in C6ST1 transgenic mice with C6ST1 overexpression, the mice showed considerably milder symptoms compared with those in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of sulfate at position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine of CSPG may influence the effecter phase of EAE to prevent the progression of pathogenesis. Thus, modification of the carbohydrate residue of CSPG may be a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroimmunological diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  4. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    1743-422X-8-478 6. Sabin AB, Schlesinger RW. Production of immunity to dengue with virus modified by propagation in mice. Science. 1945;101:640–2...http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.101.2634.640 7. Sabin AB. The dengue group of viruses and its family relationships. Bacteriol Rev. 1950;14:225...immunization with attenuated (TC-83) VEE virus vaccine . J Infect Dis. 1977;136:354–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/136.3.354 21. Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT

  5. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis...

  6. The role of perivascular and meningeal macrophages in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polfliet, Machteld M. J.; van de Veerdonk, F.; Döpp, Ed A.; van Kesteren-Hendrikx, Esther M. L.; van Rooijen, Nico; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2002-01-01

    The perivascular (PVM) and meningeal (MM) macrophages constitute a major population of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate a possible role of PVM and MM during CNS inflammation, we have analysed PVM and MM during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an

  7. 78 FR 15371 - Drug Development for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0962] Drug Development for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Public Workshop AGENCY... therapies to treat signs and symptoms related to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and myalgic...

  8. A Role for the Intestinal Microbiota and Virome in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navena Navaneetharaja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a heterogeneous disorder of significant societal impact that is proposed to involve both host and environmentally derived aetiologies that may be autoimmune in nature. Immune-related symptoms of at least moderate severity persisting for prolonged periods of time are common in ME/CFS patients and B cell depletion therapy is of significant therapeutic benefit. The origin of these symptoms and whether it is infectious or inflammatory in nature is not clear, with seeking evidence of acute or chronic virus infections contributing to the induction of autoimmune processes in ME/CFS being an area of recent interest. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence supporting an infectious aetiology for ME/CFS leading us to propose the novel concept that the intestinal microbiota and in particular members of the virome are a source of the “infectious” trigger of the disease. Such an approach has the potential to identify disease biomarkers and influence therapeutics, providing much-needed approaches in preventing and managing a disease desperately in need of confronting.

  9. The occupational and quality of life consequences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Renee R; O’Brien, Jane; Kielhofner, Gary; Lee, Sun-Wook; Katz, Ben; Mears, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chronic fatigue syndrome, termed myalgic encephalomyelitis in the United Kingdom (CFS/ME), is a debilitating condition involving severe exhaustion, cognitive difficulties, educational and vocational losses, and disruption of social activities and relationships. CFS/ME may affect volition (that is, value, interest and sense of competence). Purpose To test Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) concepts by comparing young people with and without CFS/ME in terms of occupational participation, volition and health-related quality of life during infection and over time. Method Three hundred and one people (12–18 years old) diagnosed with glandular fever were evaluated at the time of acute infection (baseline). Six months following diagnosis, 39 of them met the criteria for CFS/ME. A further 39 who recovered were randomly selected and matched to CFS/ME participants. Both groups were re-evaluated at 12 months and 24 months. The Occupational Self Assessment and the Child General Health Questionnaire were used to compare occupational participation. Results Those with CFS/ME reported lower levels of perceived competency, more difficulties with physical functioning and poorer general health status than those who recovered. Conclusion Those with CFS/ME report lower perceived competency, and compromises in physical functioning, school performance, social activities, emotional functioning and general health. This supports the MOHO assertion that impairments affect volition and quality of life. PMID:22102767

  10. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  11. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  12. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  13. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  14. The psychological impact of dependency in adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley Mai; Christopher, Gary; Jenkinson, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis can limit functional capacity, producing various degrees of disability and psychological distress. Semi-structured interviews explored the experiences of adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis being physically dependent on other people for help in daily life, and whether physical dependency affects their psychological well-being. Thematic analysis generated six themes: loss of independence and self-identity, an invisible illness, anxieties of today and the future, catch-22, internalised anger, and acceptance of the condition. The findings provide insight into the psychological impact of dependency. Implications for intervention include better education relating to chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis for family members, carers, and friends; ways to communicate their needs to others who may not understand chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis; and awareness that acceptance of the condition could improve psychological well-being.

  15. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  16. Association of T and NK Cell Phenotype With the Diagnosis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rivas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a pathological condition characterized by incapacitating fatigue and a combination of neurologic, immunologic, and endocrine symptoms. At present its diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. Several studies have described altered immunologic profiles; therefore, we proposed to further examine the more significant differences, particularly T and NK cell subpopulations that could be conditioned by viral infections, to discern their utility in improving the diagnosis and characterization of the patients. The study included 76 patients that fulfilled the revised Canadian Consensus Criteria (CCC 2010 for ME/CFS and 73 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Immunophenotyping of different T cell and natural killer cell subpopulations in peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. ME/CFS patients showed significantly lower values of T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25++(highFOXP3+ and higher NKT-like cells (CD3+CD16+/−CD56+ than the healthy individuals. Regarding NK phenotypes, NKG2C was significantly lower and NKCD69 and NKCD56 bright were significantly higher in the patients group. A classification model was generated using the more relevant cell phenotype differences (NKG2C and T regulatory cells that was able to classify the individuals as ME/CFS patients or healthy in a 70% of cases. The observed differences in some of the subpopulations of T and NK cells between patients and healthy controls could define a distinct immunological profile that can help in the diagnostic process of ME/CFS patients, contribute to the recognition of the disease and to the search of more specific treatments. However, more studies are needed to corroborate these findings and to contribute to establish a consensus in diagnosis.

  17. Global issues related to enteric viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination of infants has significantly reduced rotavirus disease and mortality.

  18. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  19. Bee Venom Acupuncture Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Upregulating Regulatory T Cells and Suppressing Th1 and Th17 Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Jang, Minhee; Choi, Jonghee; Lee, Gihyun; Min, Hyun Jung; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-In; Jee, Youngheun; Chae, Younbyoung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sung Joong; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The protective and therapeutic mechanism of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in neurodegenerative disorders is not clear. We investigated whether treatment with BVA (0.25 and 0.8 mg/kg) at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoints, located lateral from the anterior border of the tibia, has a beneficial effect in a myelin basic protein (MBP)(68-82)-induced acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. Pretreatment (every 3 days from 1 h before immunization) with BVA was more effective than posttreatment (daily after immunization) with BVA with respect to clinical signs (neurological impairment and loss of body weight) of acute EAE rats. Treatment with BVA at the ST36 acupoint in normal rats did not induce the clinical signs. Pretreatment with BVA suppressed demyelination, glial activation, expression of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β], chemokines [RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α], and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65 and phospho-IκBα) signaling pathways in the spinal cord of acute EAE rats. Pretreatment with BVA decreased the number of CD4(+), CD4(+)/IFN-γ(+), and CD4(+)/IL-17(+) T cells, but increased the number of CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes of acute EAE rats. Treatment with BVA at six placebo acupoints (SP9, GB39, and four non-acupoints) did not have a positive effect in acute EAE rats. Interestingly, onset and posttreatment with BVA at the ST36 acupoint markedly attenuated neurological impairment in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)(35-55)-induced chronic EAE mice compared to treatment with BVA at six placebo acupoints. Our findings strongly suggest that treatment with BVA with ST36 acupoint could delay or attenuate the development and progression of EAE by upregulating regulatory T cells and

  20. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  1. Wastewater viral community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the information used to generate the figures in the manuscript. The data describes the viral loss measured at all steps of sample processing,...

  2. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  3. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2013-03-08

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions.

  5. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  6. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  7. Factors Influencing Virulence and Plaque Properties of Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Henry J.; Seliokas, Zenonas V.; Andersen, Arthur A.

    1969-01-01

    A minority of stable large-plaque virus increased proportionally in stored unstable attenuated (9t) Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus populations. L-cell-grown progeny (9t2) of stored 9t showed large amounts of large-plaque virus and increased virulence. Small-plaque virus inhibited large-plaque virus but not the reverse. Serial passage of small-plaque virus from 9t2 yielded a strain (20t) that was more attenuated than 9t. PMID:5823235

  8. Housebound versus nonhousebound patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Tricia; Brown, Abigail; Sunnquist, Madison; Jantke, Rachel; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome who are confined to their homes due to severe symptomatology. The existing literature fails to address differences between this group, and less severe, nonhousebound patient populations. Participants completed the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire, a measure of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome symptomology, and the SF-36, a measure of health impact on physical/mental functioning. ANOVAs and, where appropriate, MANCOVAS were used to compare housebound and nonhousebound patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome across areas of functioning, symptomatology, and illness onset characteristics. Findings indicated that the housebound group represented one quarter of the sample, and were significantly more impaired with regards to physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, fatigue, postexertional malaise, sleep, pain, neurocognitive, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune functioning compared to individuals who were not housebound. Findings indicated that housebound patients have more impairment on functional and symptom outcomes compared to those who were not housebound. Understanding the differences between housebound and not housebound groups holds implications for physicians and researchers as they develop interventions intended for patients who are most severely affected by this chronic illness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. In Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Infiltrating Macrophages Are Immune Activated, Whereas Microglia Remain Immune Suppressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainchtein, I. D.; Vinet, J.; Brouwer, N.; Brendecke, S.; Biagini, G.; Biber, K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Eggen, B. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of

  10. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  11. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  12. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  13. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  14. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    has a multi-factorial etiology. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV can infect deer and many other wild artiodactyls. Moose, roe deer and the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica are the main hosts of FMDV in the Russian Federation. In addition, serological evidence of a FMD infection without clinical disease was detected in red deer in France. Epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer (EHD and bluetongue (BT are acute non-contagious viral diseases of wild ruminants characterised by extensive haemorrhage. Culicoides insects are the main vectors. EHD and BT only play a minor role in Europe but both diseases are widespread in North America.

  15. ASTHMA AND VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most common pathogens of acute respiratory diseases — most often causing mild symptoms of common cold: cough, runny nose, temperature increases. At the same time, 1/3 of children have the following symptoms of lower respiratory tract disorders: shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, respiratory failure. Virus-induced wheezing are risk factors for development of asthma in childhood. Recent clinical and scientific data suggest: the more difficult are viral respiratory infections in young children, the higher their risk of asthma later on. Another feature is that children with allergic diseases are much more likely to have viral respiratory infections(and with longer clinical course, compared with children without atopy. The use of ibuprofen is safe for children over 3 months, including suffering from bronchial asthma.

  16. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  17. The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuner, Donalyn; Gromeier, Matthias; Davies, Monique V.; Dorner, Andrew J.; Song Benbo; Patel, Rupali V.; Wimmer, Eckard J.; McLendon, Roger E.; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2003-01-01

    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of viral infections and cell growth. We have studied the role of PKR in viral infection in mice that are defective in the PKR signaling pathway. Transgenic mice were derived that constitutively express a trans-dominant-negative kinase-defective mutant PKR under control of the β-actin promoter. The trans-dominant-negative PKR mutant expressing transgenic mice do not have a detectable phenotype, similar to observations with PKR knock-out mice. The requirement for PKR in viral pathogenesis was studied by intracerebral infection of mice with a mouse-adapted poliovirus. Histopathological analysis revealed diffuse encephalomyelitis with severe inflammatory lesions throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in infected wild-type mice. In contrast, histopathological evaluation of virus-injected trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic mice as well as PKR knock-out mice yielded no signs of tissue damage associated with inflammatory host responses. However, the virus did replicate in both models of PKR-deficient mice at a level equal to that observed in wild-type infected mice. Although the results indicate a clear difference in susceptibility to poliovirus-induced encephalitis, this difference manifests clinically as a slight delay in fatal neuropathy in trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic and PKR knock-out animals. Our observations support the finding that viral-induced PKR activation may play a significant role in pathogenesis by mediating the host response to viral CNS infection. They support PKR to be an effective target to control tissue damage due to deleterious host responses to viral infection

  18. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  19. Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan

    2013-01-01

    Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...

  20. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  1. Evolução e característica de lactantes com bronquiolite viral aguda submetidos à ventilação mecânica em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica brasileira Outcome and characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis submitted to mechanical ventilation in a Brazilian pediatric intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Umpierre Bueno; Jefferson Pedro Piva; Pedro Celiny Ramos Garcia; Patrícia Miranda Lago; Paulo Roberto Einloft

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e a evolução de lactantes com bronquiolite aguda submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido entre março 2004 e setembro 2006 (três invernos consecutivos), recrutando todos os lactantes (menos de 12 meses de idade) com diagnóstico de bronquiolite viral aguda e submetidos à ventilação mecânica em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, brasileira, ligada a uma universidade. Os parâmetros de ventilação mecânica adotados no 1°, 2°...

  2. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  3. Arg deficiency does not influence the course of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Freja Aksel; Hulst, Camilla; Bäckström, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhibition of Abl kinases has an ameliorating effect on the rodent model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and arrests lymphocyte activation. The family of Abl kinases consists of the Abl1/Abl and Abl2/Arg tyrosine kinases. While the Abl kinase has bee...... encephalomyelitis is not dependent on Arg, but Arg plays a role for the number of B cells in immunized mice. This might suggest a novel role for the Arg kinase in B-cell trafficking or regulation. Furthermore, the results suggest that Arg is important for normal embryonic development....

  4. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  5. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  6. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  7. Nucleocapsid-Independent Specific Viral RNA Packaging via Viral Envelope Protein and Viral RNA Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Chen, Chun-Jen; Maeda, Junko; Makino, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    For any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging. In the murine coronavirus a selective interaction between the viral transmembrane envelope protein M and the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, composed of N protein and viral RNA containing a short cis-acting RNA element, the packaging signal, determines the selective RNA packaging into vi...

  8. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  9. Cellular sources and targets of IFN-γ-mediated protection against viral demyelination and neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Paul D.; McGavern, Dorian B.; Pease, Larry R.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2017-01-01

    IFN-γ is an anti-viral and immunomodulatory cytokine critical for resistance to multiple pathogens. Using mice with targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-γ, we previously demonstrated that this cytokine is critical for resistance to viral persistence and demyelination in the Theiler’s virus model of multiple sclerosis. During viral infections, IFN-γ is produced by natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; however, the proportions of lymphocyte subsets responding to virus infection influences the contributions to IFN-γ-mediated protection. To determine the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFN-γ to maintain resistance, we used adoptive transfer strategies to generate mice with lymphocyte-specific deficiencies in IFN-γ-production. We demonstrate that IFN-γ production by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets is critical for resistance to Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelination and neurological disease, and that CD4+ T cells make a greater contribution to IFN-γ-mediated protection. To determine the cellular targets of IFN-γ-mediated responses, we used adoptive transfer studies and bone marrow chimerism to generate mice in which either hematopoietic or somatic cells lacked the ability to express IFN-γ receptor. We demonstrate that IFN-γ receptor must be present on central nervous system glia, but not bone marrow-derived lymphocytes, in order to maintain resistance to TMEV-induced demyelination. PMID:11857334

  10. Differential expression of metallothioneins in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Carrasco, J; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS. Metallothioneins-I+II are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS by immobilisation stress, trauma or degenerative diseases which have been postulated to play a neuroprotective role, while the CNS isoform metallothionein......-III has been related to Alzheimer's disease. We have analysed metallothioneins-I-III expression in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, we have examined the putative role of interferon-gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in the control of metallothioneins expression...

  11. Transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to bone marrow chimeras. Endothelial cells are not a restricting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, D.J.; Wegmann, K.W.; Dietsch, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of clinical and histopathologic signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires MHC compatibility between cell donor and cell recipient. The results of adoptive transfer studies using F1 to parent bone marrow chimeras as recipients of parental-derived BP-sensitive spleen cells indicate that this restriction is not expressed at the level of the endothelial cell but is confined to the cells of bone marrow derivation. Furthermore, these results indicate that the development of EAE is not dependent on the activity of MHC-restricted cytotoxic cells

  12. Key metalloproteinases are expressed by specific cell types in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nuttall, Robert K; Edwards, Dylan R

    2004-01-01

    animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We used real-time RT-PCR to profile the expression of all 22 known mouse MMPs, seven ADAMs, and all four known TIMPs in spinal cord from SJL/J mice and mice with adoptively transferred myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific EAE. A significant...... cellular sources of these strongly affected proteins in the inflamed CNS, we isolated macrophages, granulocytes, microglia, and T cells by cell sorting from the CNS of mice with EAE and analyzed their expression by real-time RT-PCR. This identified macrophages as a major source of MMP-12 and TIMP-1...

  13. Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus in an Intellectually Disabled Patient Mimicking Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 32-year-old male with profound mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder who had presented with seizures, rigidity and elevated creatine kinase and was initially diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS. The patient subsequently had a complicated clinical course, developing refractory status epilepticus, which lead to the eventual diagnosis of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM. We discuss the clinical similarities and differences between NMS and PERM, and highlight the need to consider alternative diagnoses when the clinical picture of NMS is atypical, particularly in this patient group where the history and clinical examination may be challenging.

  14. TLR3 signaling is either protective or pathogenic for the development of Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease depending on the time of viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young-Hee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3-mediated signaling plays an important role in the induction of innate cytokine responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV infection. In addition, cytokine levels produced after TMEV infection are significantly higher in the glial cells of susceptible SJL mice compared to those of resistant C57BL/6 mice. However, it is not known whether TLR3-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of demyelinating disease. Methods SJL/J and B6;129S-Tlr3tm1Flv/J (TLR3KO-B6 mice, and TLR3KO-SJL mice that TLR3KO-B6 mice were backcrossed to SJL/J mice for 6 generations were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (2 × 105 PFU with or without treatment with 50 μg of poly IC. Cytokine production and immune responses in the CNS and periphery of infected mice were analyzed. Results We investigated the role of TLR3-mediated signaling in the protection and pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. TLR3KO-B6 mice did not develop demyelinating disease although they displayed elevated viral loads in the CNS. However, TLR3KO-SJL mice displayed increased viral loads and cellular infiltration in the CNS, accompanied by exacerbated development of demyelinating disease, compared to the normal littermate mice. Late, but not early, anti-viral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the CNS were compromised in TLR3KO-SJL mice. However, activation of TLR3 with poly IC prior to viral infection also exacerbated disease development, whereas such activation after viral infection restrained disease development. Activation of TLR3 signaling prior to viral infection hindered the induction of protective IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. In contrast, activation of these signals after viral infection improved the induction of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, poly IC-pretreated mice displayed elevated PDL-1 and

  15. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  16. Importance of viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Marom, Tal; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2015-02-01

    Acute otitis media occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection. Bacterial otopathogens and respiratory viruses interact and play important roles in acute otitis media development. A better understanding of viral and bacterial interactions may lead to innovative ways to lessen the burden of this common childhood disease. There has been increasing evidence that acute otitis media occurs during upper respiratory infection, even in the absence of nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization. Among the types of viruses associated with acute otitis media, respiratory syncytial virus continues to be the most commonly detected. It is still unclear whether viral load plays an important role in acute otitis media development, but symptomatic upper respiratory tract infection (as opposed to asymptomatic viral infection) is crucial. Widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children, including pneumococcal conjugate and influenza vaccines, has led to the reduction in otitis media-related healthcare use between 2001 and 2011. There has been no new vaccine against respiratory viruses other than influenza. Progress has been made toward the reduction of the burden of acute otitis media in the last decade. Success in reducing acute otitis media incidence will rely mainly on prevention of nasopharyngeal otopathogen colonization, as well as reduction in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection.

  17. Computerized training improves verbal working memory in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroti, Daniel; Westerberg, Annika Fryxell; Saury, Jean-Michel; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre

    2015-08-18

    Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome experience cognitive difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of computerized training on working memory in this syndrome. Non-randomized (quasi-experimental) study with no-treatment control group and non-equivalent dependent variable design in a myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome-cohort. Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome who participated in a 6-month outpatient rehabilitation programme were included in the study. Eleven patients who showed signs of working memory deficit were recruited for additional memory training and 12 patients with no working memory deficit served as controls. Cognitive training with computerized working memory tasks of increasing difficulty was performed 30-45 min/day, 5 days/week over a 5-week period. Short-term and working memory tests (Digit Span - forward, backward, total) were used as primary outcome measures. Nine of the 11 patients were able to complete the training. Cognitive training increased working memory (p = 0.003) and general attention (p = 0.004) to the mean level. Short-term memory was also improved, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.052) vs prior training. The control group did not show any significant improvement in primary outcome measures. Cognitive training may be a new treatment for patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

  18. Phenotype of Antigen Unexperienced TH Cells in the Inflamed Central Nervous System in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Sophia; Paterka, Magdalena; Birkenstock, Jerome; Zipp, Frauke; Siffrin, Volker; Witsch, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes. By applying two-photon laser scanning microscopy we could show in vivo that antigen unexperienced T helper cells migrated into the deep parenchyma of the inflamed central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, independent of their antigen specificity. Using flow cytometric analyses of central nervous system-derived lymphocytes we found that only antigen-specific, formerly naive T helper cells became activated during inflammation of the central nervous system encountering their corresponding antigen.

  19. Mechanisms Explaining Muscle Fatigue and Muscle Pain in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): a Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwyn, Morris; Maes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review potential causes of muscle dysfunction seen in many patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) such as the effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and mitochondrial impairments together with reduced heat shock protein production and a range of metabolic abnormalities. Several studies published in the last few years have highlighted the existence of chronic O&NS, inflammation, impaired mitochondrial function and reduced heat shock protein production in many patients with ME/CFS. These studies have also highlighted the detrimental effects of chronically elevated O&NS on muscle functions such as reducing the time to muscle fatigue during exercise and impairing muscle contractility. Mechanisms have also been revealed by which chronic O&NS and or impaired heat shock production may impair muscle repair following exercise and indeed the adaptive responses in the striated muscle to acute and chronic increases in physical activity. The presence of chronic O&NS, low-grade inflammation and impaired heat shock protein production may well explain the objective findings of increased muscle fatigue, impaired contractility and multiple dimensions of exercise intolerance in many patients with ME/CFS.

  20. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  1. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    target organ of the immune  response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure.

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis.

    Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  2. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  3. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  4. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  5. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  6. Role of viral coinfections in asthma development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Garcia-Garcia

    Full Text Available Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections.Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection.A cross-sectional study was performed in 244 children currently aged 6-8 years, previously admitted due to bronchiolitis between September 2008 and December 2011. A structured clinical interview and the ISAAC questionnaire for asthma symptoms for 6-7-year-old children, were answered by parents by telephone. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate for virological study (polymerase chain reaction and clinical data were prospectively taken during admission for bronchiolitis.Median current age at follow-up was 7.3 years (IQR: 6.7-8.1. The rate of recurrent wheezing was 82.7% in the coinfection group and 69.7% in the single-infection group, p = 0.06. The number of wheezing-related admissions was twice as high in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.004. Regarding the ISAAC questionnaire, 30.8% of coinfections versus 15% of single infections, p = 0.01, presented "wheezing in the last 12 months", data that strongly correlate with current prevalence of asthma. "Dry cough at night" was also reported more frequently in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.02. The strongest independent risk factors for asthma at 6-8 years of age were: age > 9 months at admission for bronchiolitis (OR: 3.484; CI95%: 1.459-8.317, p:0.005, allergic rhinitis (OR: 5.910; 95%CI: 2.622-13.318, p<0.001, and viral coinfection-bronchiolitis (OR: 3.374; CI95%: 1.542-7.386, p:0.01.Asthma at 6-8 years is more frequent and severe in those children previously hospitalized

  7. Receptors for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: characterization by using rabbit antiviral antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, N.; Cuesta, A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunological assay was developed to characterize the binding of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus to BHK-21 cell receptors. After absorption of the virus and formaldehyde fixation, rabbit antibodies and Staphylococcus aureus protein A labeled with 125 I formed a specific complex on the surfaces of the cells. The optimal multiplicity of infection in this system was 10 PFU per cell. The virus was internalized at 33 and 37 0 C, but internalization did not take place at 25 or 4 0 C. The binding was proportional to the number of cells and was significant within 30 s. Cell surface receptors were still active after fixation, and only intact viruses were bound, as demonstrated by the lack of binding of the purified, isolated virion proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3

  8. "United We Stand": Framing Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in a Virtual Symbolic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Olaug S; Nettleton, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we report on a study that seeks to explore how the contested chronic condition myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), one of the current medical diagnoses for medically unexplained long-term exhaustion, is negotiated within the context of Norwegian internet sites. From an analysis of discussions on 14 internet forums sustained by and for people living with ME, we seek to understand how their online activity sustains a virtual symbolic community (VSC). After exploring the content on these sites, we identified four discursive domains, or fields of conversation, that are demarcated by a discursive frame, or norms, values, and goals that define and reinforce the boundaries of the community. Interpreting discursive domains and their discursive frame provides insight not only to the culture of the ME VSC but also to its role in an international social health movement, including its potential for becoming politically influential. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Evidence for a prolonged role of alpha 4 integrin throughout active experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, E; Karlik, S; Hyduk, S; Rice, G P; Gordon, G; Yednock, T; Horner, H

    1996-10-01

    The leukocyte integrin receptor, alpha 4 beta 1, and its endothelial cell ligand, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, appear to be of critical importance in the leukocyte trafficking that accompanies CNS damage in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, the persistence of the role for alpha 4 beta 1/VCAM-1 in EAE was established by observing antibody-mediated disease reversal up to 1 month following disease onset. Limited treatment with a monoclonal antibody against alpha 4 integrin, GG5/3, resulted in a significant decrease in both clinical and histopathologic signs. This was not observed in isotype control experiments. In the latter phase of progressive disease, widespread demyelination occurred in the animals that did not respond to 6 days of anti-alpha 4 treatment. These results demonstrate an essential role for alpha 4 beta 1 interactions throughout active EAE and illustrate the difference between reversible clinical deficits caused by edema and irreversible deficits associated with demyelination.

  10. Cytokine production by cells in cerebrospinal fluid during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Lin, J Y; Piccirillo, C

    1994-01-01

    Cytokine production by T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice during myelin basic protein (MBP)-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was examined. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) was used to measure...... interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA levels from perfused CNS tissue (brain and spinal cord) and from cells isolated from CSF. Animals were grouped according to EAE severity, ranging from asymptomatic (adjuvant only) to severe disease (paralysis or severe paresis). Cytokine signals......, normalized to actin, were almost undetectable in control tissues, and only slightly elevated in whole CNS tissue from animals with mild EAE. Both cytokine messages were strongly upregulated in CNS tissues derived from severely affected animals, consistent with previous observations correlating disease...

  11. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gut Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Current Applications and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yue

    2018-01-01

    The gut environment and gut microbiome dysbiosis have been demonstrated to significantly influence a range of disorders in humans, including obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of MS is not clear, and it should involve both genetic and extrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors responsible for predisposition to MS remain elusive. Recent studies on MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have found that gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE. Thus, gut microbiome adjustment may be a future direction of treatment in MS. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the gut microbiota, the connection between the brain and the gut, and the changes in gut microbiota in MS/EAE, and we explore the possibility of applying microbiota therapies in patients with MS. PMID:29805314

  13. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis from a tissue energy perspective [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni A Desai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a key role for tissue energy failure in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a commonly used model of MS, have been instrumental in illuminating the mechanisms that may be involved in compromising energy production. In this article, we review recent advances in EAE research focussing on factors that conspire to impair tissue energy metabolism, such as tissue hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction, production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and sodium dysregulation, which are directly affected by energy insufficiency, and promote cellular damage. A greater understanding of how inflammation affects tissue energy balance may lead to novel and effective therapeutic strategies that ultimately will benefit not only people affected by MS but also people affected by the wide range of other neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays an important role.

  14. Increased demyelination and axonal damage in metallothionein I+II-deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Martínez-Cáceres, E M

    2003-01-01

    Metallothioneins I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective factors. We previously showed that MT-I+II deficiency during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to increased disease incidence and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the inflammatory response of macrophages and T cells......, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death during EAE were increased by MT-I+II deficiency. We now show for the first time that demyelination and axonal damage are significantly increased in MT-I+II deficient mice during EAE. Furthermore, oligodendroglial regeneration, growth cone formation, and tissue...... repair including expression of trophic factors were significantly reduced in MT-I+II-deficient mice during EAE. Accordingly, MT-I+II have protective and regenerative roles in the brain....

  15. A role for VAV1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagodic, Maja; Colacios, Celine; Nohra, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common cause of progressive neurological disability in young adults, is a chronic inflammatory disease. There is solid evidence for a genetic influence in multiple sclerosis, and deciphering the causative genes could reveal key pathways influencing the disease. A genome...... region on rat chromosome 9 regulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Using interval-specific congenic rat lines and association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with inflammatory phenotypes, we localized the gene of influence to Vav1, which codes for a signal......-transducing protein in leukocytes. Analysis of seven human cohorts (12,735 individuals) demonstrated an association of rs2546133-rs2617822 haplotypes in the first VAV1 intron with multiple sclerosis (CA: odds ratio, 1.18; CG: odds ratio, 0.86; TG: odds ratio, 0.90). The risk CA haplotype also predisposed for higher...

  16. Strain-related effects of fenbendazole treatment on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, A A; Hall, C; Orian, J M

    2010-07-01

    Parasitic infections are a concern in animal facilities, in view of their influence on physiological processes and the immune status of animals. Pinworms are effectively controlled with the anthelminthic fenbendazole (FBZ, [5-(phenylthio)-1H-benzamidazol-2-yl]carbamic acid methyl ester; C(15)H(13)N(3)O(2)S); however, questions remain as to whether prolonged FBZ exposure alters the disease course in specific experimental models, such as those pertaining to the immune system. We report that a three-month regimen of FBZ-medicated feed severely affected the onset and disease severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease that mimics multiple sclerosis. Differences were recorded between mouse strains used. Our data suggest that where the use of FBZ is mandatory, its full effect should be verified on the particular EAE variant adopted by the laboratory.

  17. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Eun, So-Hee [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  18. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, So-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  19. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  20. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  1. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  2. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three......The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...... groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31 %) showing...

  3. Application of serum procalcitonin in differential diagnosis between child acute bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis%血清PCT检测在小儿急性细菌性脑膜炎及病毒性脑炎鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小明; 张春荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the application ,sensitivity and specificity of serum procalcitonin (PCT ) in the dif‐ferential diagnosis of child acute bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis .Methods One hundred and sixty‐four children patients with bacterial meningitis ,98 children patients with viral meningitis and 60 healthy children were selected as the research subjects . The serum PCT ,white blood cell (WBC) count ,erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C‐reactive protein (CRP) levels were detected by using electrochemical luminescence immunity assay .The laboratory detection results ,PCT detection results distribu‐tion ,sensitivity and specificity in the two groups were analyzed .Results The PCT ,CRP and WBC detection results in children pa‐tients with bacterial meningitis were higher than those in children patients with viral meningitis .The positive rates of PCT and WBC in the bacterial meningitis group were higher than those in the viral meningitis group ,while the constituent ratio of PCT detection distribution had statistically significant difference between the two groups(χ2 = 16 .151 ,P< 0 .01) .The sensitivity of PCT detection in differentially diagnosing viral meningitis was 97 .6% (160/164) ,the specificity was 95 .0% (57/60) and the misdiagnosis rate was 3 .1% (7/224) .The sensitivity of PCT detection in differentially diagnosing bacterial meningitis was 98 .0% (96/98) ,the specificity was 96 .7% (58/60) and the misdiagnosis rate was 2 .5% (4/158) .Conclusion The serum PCT as a differential diagnosis index of child acute bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis has good accuracy ,its combination with CRP ,WBC ,ESR in combined differenti‐al diagnosis can rapidly give accurate pathogenic diagnosis in the early stage ,thus increases the pertinence of clinical treatment ,re‐duces the occurrence of antibiotics abuse and is ,worthy of clinical popularization and application .%目的:观察分析血清降钙素原(PCT )在

  4. A Family History of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Induced by Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cognet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis can lead to acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death and later, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with chronic heart failure. We report the cases of two DCM induced by acute and past myocarditis in the same family and expressed by its two main complications within few weeks: an hemodynamic presentation as a fulminant myocarditis rapidly leading to cardiac tranplantation and a rythmologic presentation as an electrical storm leading to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. These cases ask the question of the family predisposition to viral myocarditis leading to DCM.

  5. Improved detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine lymphoid cell lines using PrimeFlow RNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...

  6. Viral asthma: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Menendez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Menendez1, Michael D Goldman21Allergy and Asthma Center of El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Pulmonary Division, UCLA Gaffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The natural history of asthma appears to be driven primarily by the timing and duration of viral respiratory infections. From the very high rate of infections in childhood, to the more sporadic pattern seen in adults, the cycle of acute injury followed by an inefficient repair process helps explain the clinical patterns of asthma severity currently recognized by asthma guidelines. Why the asthmatic host responds to viral injury in a particular way is largely a mystery and the subject of intense investigation. The role of viruses in asthma extends not just to intermittent but to persistent disease, and to both the atopic as well as nonatopic phenotypes. Future therapeutic strategies should include primary prevention via the development of antiviral innate immunity-enhancing vaccines, as well as secondary prevention via the use of antiviral agents, or immunomodulators designed to boost the antiviral response or interrupt the proinflammatory cascade.Keywords: asthma, rhinoviruses, exacerbations, epidemiology, phenotypes, clinical trials

  7. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  8. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  9. Longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: effect of a neurotrophic treatment on cortical lesion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gispen, W.H. [Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Utrecht University Utrecht (Netherlands); Nicolay, K. [Department of in vivo NMR, Bijvoet Center, Utrecht University Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaagen, J. [Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Utrecht University Utrecht (Netherlands); Muller, H.J. [Department of in vivo NMR, Bijvoet Center, Utrecht University Utrecht (Netherlands); Duckers, H.J. [Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Utrecht University Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-02-14

    Proton magnetic resonance imaging enables non-invasive monitoring of lesion formation in multiple sclerosis and has an important role in assessing the potential effects of therapy. T2-weighted and short {tau} inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the effect of a neurotrophic adrenocorticotrophic hormone{sub 4-9} analogue [H-Met(O{sub 2})-Glu-His-Phe-d-Lys-Phe-OH] on the volume of lesions in the brains of rats suffering from chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal equivalent of multiple sclerosis. Lesion volume was monitored during a five-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated that treatment with the adrenocorticotrophic hormone{sub 4-9} analogue significantly reduced the lesion volume by 84 and 85% 10 and 20 weeks after lesion induction, respectively. Furthermore, peptide treatment significantly reduced chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis-related neurological symptoms during the chronic phase of the disease (week 3 until week 20 after lesion induction). Both functional and morphological recovery were considerably advanced by peptide treatment. Twenty weeks after lesion induction rats with chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis were killed for histological analysis, to correlate magnetic resonance imaging findings with morphological changes. The regions of abnormally high signal intensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images coincided with areas of demyelination and concomitant widespread inflammatory infiltration, oedema formation and enlarged ventricles.The improved neurological status and the 84% reduction in the lesion volume in the cerebrum of rats chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis point to the potential value of trophic peptides in the development of strategies for limiting the damage caused by central demyelinating lesions in syndromes such as multiple sclerosis. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Specific and strain-independent effects of dexamethasone in the prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, M; Mangano, K; Quattrocchi, C

    2010-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents (EAE) is a generally accepted in vivo model for immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS). There are, however, different forms of rodent EAE, and therapeutic regimens may affect these forms differently. We have therefore te...... predictors of drug efficacy in at least some variants of human MS. Better understanding of the clinical and immunopharmacologic features of these models might prove useful when testing new drug candidates for MS treatment....

  11. Particular experiences: a psychosocial exploration of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and its relationship with self, environment and the material world

    OpenAIRE

    Fellenor, John

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), is a symptomatically defined and debilitating condition that presents as a range of physiological and psychological effects. Post-exertional fatigue and ongoing low energy levels are cardinal features. Whilst ME-like conditions have been recognised for at least two hundred years, they have been characterised over recent decades by a fiercely contested debate as to whether aetiology is primarily psychological o...

  12. Longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: effect of a neurotrophic treatment on cortical lesion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gispen, W.H.; Nicolay, K.; Verhaagen, J.; Muller, H.J.; Duckers, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance imaging enables non-invasive monitoring of lesion formation in multiple sclerosis and has an important role in assessing the potential effects of therapy. T2-weighted and short τ inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the effect of a neurotrophic adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9 analogue [H-Met(O 2 )-Glu-His-Phe-d-Lys-Phe-OH] on the volume of lesions in the brains of rats suffering from chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal equivalent of multiple sclerosis. Lesion volume was monitored during a five-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated that treatment with the adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9 analogue significantly reduced the lesion volume by 84 and 85% 10 and 20 weeks after lesion induction, respectively. Furthermore, peptide treatment significantly reduced chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis-related neurological symptoms during the chronic phase of the disease (week 3 until week 20 after lesion induction). Both functional and morphological recovery were considerably advanced by peptide treatment. Twenty weeks after lesion induction rats with chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis were killed for histological analysis, to correlate magnetic resonance imaging findings with morphological changes. The regions of abnormally high signal intensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images coincided with areas of demyelination and concomitant widespread inflammatory infiltration, oedema formation and enlarged ventricles.The improved neurological status and the 84% reduction in the lesion volume in the cerebrum of rats chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis point to the potential value of trophic peptides in the development of strategies for limiting the damage caused by central demyelinating lesions in syndromes such as multiple sclerosis. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Increased plasma peroxides as a marker of oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background There is evidence that myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by activation of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. The present study was carried out in order to examine whether ME/CFS is accompanied by increased levels of plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, two biomarkers of oxidative stress. Material/Methods Blood was collected from 56 patients with ME/CFS and 37 normal volun...

  14. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  15. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  16. Detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness and determination of different socio demographic factors as important cause of the disease in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalaxmi Biswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper an attempt has been made to analysis the status of acute respiratory tract infection among children in India. In the present study we aimed to present first time the detection of viruses, bacteria and mix infection of viruses and bacteria in hospitalized children with ARI and also to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status of parent in two divergent geographical settings of Odisha. Hospitalized children with ARI aged <5 were recruited from July 2014 to June 2015. Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngial swabs were collected for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bacteria were isolated by routine culture methods. Bivitiate analysis including chi square was used as test of significance. The analysis revealed 150 (56% were detected with ≥1 bacteria, 40 (15% with ≥ 1virus, 22 (8.2% with ≥ 2 bacteria and 20 (7-4% with both bacteria and virus. Most frequently detected pathogens were Klebsiella pneumonae (18.3%, Sptrptococcus pneumonae (12.7%, Parainfluenza A (36.6% and Influenza- A18 (30%. Incidences of pathogens were detected more among children <1 year, Gender discrimination in the form of dietary neglect of the female children has also been noted mostly in case of tribal patients. The present study had identified low socioeconomic status, poor housing conditions, illiterate mothers, birth weight, tobacco smoking families and nutritional status as important determinants for ARI. Interventions to improve these modifiable risk factors can significantly reduce the ARI burden among children especially in tribal population.

  17. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  18. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults: part I. Evaluation | Scheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory practice. Although often caused by viruses, it sometimes is caused by bacteria, a condition that is called acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. The signs and symptoms of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and prolonged viral upper respiratory ...

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic fatigue- syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in Australian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Samantha C Johnston1,2 Donald R Staines1 Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik1,2 1National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, 2School of Medical Sciences, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia Background: No epidemiological investigations have previously been conducted in Australia according to the current clinical definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and illness characteristics of Australian patients with CFS/ME.Methods: A cross-sectional survey on the medical history of patients enrolled in an Australian CFS/ME research database between April 2013 and April 2015. Participants were classified according to Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria.Results: A total of 535 patients diagnosed with CFS/ME by a primary care physician were identified. The mean age of all patients was 46.4 years (standard deviation 12.0; the majority were female (78.61%, Caucasian, and highly educated. Of these, 30.28% met Fukuda criteria. A further 31.96% met both Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. There were 14.58% reporting chronic fatigue but did not meet criteria for CFS/ME and 23.18% were considered noncases due to exclusionary conditions. Within those meeting CFS/ME criteria, the most common events prior to illness included cold or flu, gastrointestinal illness, and periods of undue stress. Of the 60 symptoms surveyed, fatigue, cognitive, and short-term memory symptoms, headaches, muscle and joint pain, unrefreshed sleep, sensory disturbances, muscle weakness, and intolerance to extremes of temperature were the most commonly occurring symptoms (reported by more than two-thirds of patients. Significant differences in symptom occurrence between Fukuda- and International Consensus Criteria-defined cases were also identified.Conclusion: This is the first study to summarize sociodemographic and

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Reveals Brain Cortex Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalo, Stefano; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Rigolio, Roberta; Fiorini, Silvia; Bontempi, Pietro; Mallucci, Giulia; Balzarotti, Beatrice; Marmiroli, Paola; Sbarbati, Andrea; Cavaletti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Cortical reorganization occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is thought to play a key role in limiting the effect of structural tissue damage. Conversely, its exhaustion may contribute to the irreversible disability that accumulates with disease progression. Several aspects of MS-related cortical reorganization, including the overall functional effect and likely modulation by therapies, still remain to be elucidated. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of functional cortical reorganization and its brain structural/pathological correlates in Dark Agouti rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted preclinical model of chronic MS. Morphological and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before disease induction and during the relapsing and chronic phases of EAE. During somatosensory stimulation of the right forepaw, fMRI demonstrated that cortical reorganization occurs in both relapsing and chronic phases of EAE with increased activated volume and decreased laterality index versus baseline values. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated gray matter (GM) atrophy in the cerebral cortex, and both GM and white matter atrophy were assessed by ex vivo pathology of the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum. Neuroinflammation persisted in the relapsing and chronic phases, with dendritic spine density in the layer IV sensory neurons inversely correlating with the number of cluster of differentiation 45-positive inflammatory lesions. Our work provides an innovative experimental platform that may be pivotal for the comprehension of key mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of irreversible brain damage and for the development of innovative therapies to reduce disability in EAE/MS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Since the early 2000s, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated profound modifications in the recruitment of cortical areas during motor, cognitive, and sensory tasks in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Experimental autoimmune

  1. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  2. Contribution of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells to anti-viral T cell response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sandalova

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses infect most humans. Their infections can be associated with pathological conditions and significant changes in T cell repertoire but evidences of symbiotic effects of herpesvirus latency have never been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV and EBV-specific CD8 T cells contribute to the heterologous anti-viral immune response. Volume of activated/proliferating virus-specific and total CD8 T cells was evaluated in 50 patients with acute viral infections: 20 with HBV, 12 with Dengue, 12 with Influenza, 3 with Adenovirus infection and 3 with fevers of unknown etiology. Virus-specific (EBV, HCMV, Influenza pentamer+ and total CD8 T cells were analyzed for activation (CD38/HLA-DR, proliferation (Ki-67/Bcl-2(low and cytokine production. We observed that all acute viral infections trigger an expansion of activated/proliferating CD8 T cells, which differs in size depending on the infection but is invariably inflated by CD8 T cells specific for persistent herpesviruses (HCMV/EBV. CD8 T cells specific for other non-related non persistent viral infection (i.e. Influenza were not activated. IL-15, which is produced during acute viral infections, is the likely contributing mechanism driving the selective activation of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells. In addition we were able to show that herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells displayed an increased ability to produce the anti-viral cytokine interferon-gamma during the acute phase of heterologous viral infection. Taken together, these data demonstrated that activated herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells inflate the activated/proliferating CD8 T cells population present during acute viral infections in human and can contribute to the heterologous anti-viral T cell response.

  3. Hepatitis A viral load in relation to severity of the infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; Kojima, Hiroshige; Yasui, Shin; Okitsu, Koichiro; Yonemitsu, Yutaka; Omata, Masao; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2011-02-01

    A correlation between hepatitis A virus (HAV) genomes and the clinical severity of hepatitis A has not been established. The viral load in sera of hepatitis A patients was examined to determine the possible association between hepatitis A severity and HAV replication. One hundred sixty-four serum samples from 91 Japanese patients with sporadic hepatitis A, comprising 11 patients with fulminant hepatitis, 10 with severe acute hepatitis, and 70 with self-limited acute hepatitis, were tested for HAV RNA. The sera included 83 serial samples from 20 patients. Viral load was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The detection rates of HAV RNA from fulminant, severe acute, and acute hepatitis were 10/11 (91%), 10/10 (100%), and 55/70 (79%), respectively. Mean values of HAV RNA at admission were 3.48 ± 1.30 logcopies/ml in fulminant, 4.19 ± 1.03 in severe acute, and 2.65 ± 1.64 in acute hepatitis. Patients with severe infection such as fulminant hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis had higher initial viral load than patients with less severe infection (P hepatitis after clinical onset (P = 0.19). HAV RNA was detectable quantitatively in the majority of the sera of hepatitis A cases during the early convalescent phase by real-time PCR. Higher initial viral replication was found in severely infected patients. An excessive host immune response might follow, reducing the viral load rapidly as a result of the destruction of large numbers of HAV-infected hepatocytes, and in turn severe disease might be induced. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T

    1994-01-01

    are resistant. Interestingly, rats with the MHC u haplotype develop an immune response to the MBP 63-88, but do not get EAE. In this study we have used intra-MHC recombinant rat strains to compare the influences of the MHC u with the a haplotype. We discovered the following: 1) The class II region of the MHC...... a haplotype permits EAE and a Th1 type of immune response as measured by IFN-gamma production after in vitro challenge of in vivo-primed T cells with MBP 63-88. 2) The class II region of the u haplotype is associated with a disease-protective immune response characterized by production of not only IFN......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  5. High-throughput sequencing of plasma microRNA in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekua W Brenu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The recent discovery of stable and reproducible miRNA in plasma has raised the possibility that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel diagnostic markers. The objective of this study was to determine the role of plasma miRNA in CFS/ME. RESULTS: Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we identified 19 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the plasma of CFS/ME patients in comparison to non-fatigued controls. Following RT-qPCR analysis, we were able to confirm the significant up-regulation of three miRNAs (hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p and hsa-miR-143-3p in the CFS/ME patients. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to identify circulating miRNAs from CFS/ME patients and also to confirm three differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in CFS/ME patients, providing a basis for further study to find useful CFS/ME biomarkers.

  6. High-Throughput Sequencing of Plasma MicroRNA in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenu, Ekua W.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Batovska, Jana; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The recent discovery of stable and reproducible miRNA in plasma has raised the possibility that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel diagnostic markers. The objective of this study was to determine the role of plasma miRNA in CFS/ME. Results Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we identified 19 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the plasma of CFS/ME patients in comparison to non-fatigued controls. Following RT-qPCR analysis, we were able to confirm the significant up-regulation of three miRNAs (hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p and hsa-miR-143-3p) in the CFS/ME patients. Conclusion Our study is the first to identify circulating miRNAs from CFS/ME patients and also to confirm three differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in CFS/ME patients, providing a basis for further study to find useful CFS/ME biomarkers. PMID:25238588

  7. 5-Androstenediol Ameliorates Pleurisy, Septic Shock, and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

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    Ferdinando Nicoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol; 5-AED, a natural adrenal steroid, has been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in female SJL/J mice. We here report that 5-AED limits inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines including TNFα in murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and lippopolysaccaride- (LPS induced septic shock. 5-AED binds to and transactivates sex steroid receptors with the same general rank order of potency (ERβ > ERα ≫ AR. 5-AED provides benefit in EAE in a dose-dependent fashion, even when treatment is delayed until onset of disease. The minimally effective dose may be as low as 4 mg/kg in mice. However, benefit was not observed when 5-AED was given in soluble formulation, leading to a short half-life and rapid clearance. These observations suggest that treatment with 5-AED limits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in these animal models and, ultimately, when formulated and administered properly, may be beneficial for patients with multiple sclerosis and other Th1-driven autoimmune diseases.

  8. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease: Three Distinct Clinical Entities

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    Frank N.M. Twisk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME. However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of ME and not fulfil the case criteria for CFS, while the diagnosis of CFS is largely insufficient to be qualified as a ME patient. ME is a neuromuscular disease with distinctive muscular symptoms, including prolonged muscle weakness after exertion, and neurological signs implicating cerebral dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and sensory symptoms. The only mandatory symptom of CFS is chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue must be accompanied by at least four out of eight nonspecific symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, a sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multijoint pain, a new type of headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and postexertional “malaise” lasting more than 24 h. So, regardless whether the name ME is appropriate or not, ME is not synonymous to CFS. That is not a matter of opinion, but a matter of definition. Due to the definitions of ME and CFS, “ME/CFS” does not exist and cannot be replaced by a new clinical entity (SEID: Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease, as recently suggested.

  9. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease course is modulated by nicotine and other cigarette smoke components.

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    Zhen Gao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS and accelerates its progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unsettled. We have investigated here the effects of the nicotine and the non-nicotine components in cigarette smoke on MS using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, and have explored their underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that nicotine ameliorates the severity of EAE, as shown by reduced demyelination, increased body weight, and attenuated microglial activation. Nicotine administration after the development of EAE symptoms prevented further disease exacerbation, suggesting that it might be useful as an EAE/MS therapeutic. In contrast, the remaining components of cigarette smoke, delivered as cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, accelerated and increased adverse clinical symptoms during the early stages of EAE, and we identify a particular cigarette smoke compound, acrolein, as one of the potential mediators. We also show that the mechanisms underlying the opposing effects of nicotine and CSC on EAE are likely due to distinct effects on microglial viability, activation, and function.

  10. Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment

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    Alberto N. Peón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS. The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES that may suppress EAE development were sought for. Interestingly, it was discovered that TcES was able to suppress EAE development with more potency than dexamethasone; moreover, TcES treatment was still effective even when inoculated at later stages after the onset of EAE. Importantly, the TcES treatment was able to induce a range of Th2-type cytokines, while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Both the polyclonal and the antigen-specific proliferative responses of lymphocytes were also inhibited in EAE-ill mice receiving TcES in association with a potent recruitment of suppressor cell populations. Peritoneal inoculation of TcES was able to direct the normal inflammatory cell traffic to the site of injection, thus modulating CNS infiltration, which may work along with Th2 immune polarization and lymphocyte activation impairment to downregulate EAE development.

  11. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Experimental Autoimune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi Jahromi, Soodeh; Ghaemi, Amir; Alizadeh, Akram; Sabetghadam, Fatemeh; Moradi Tabriz, Hedieh; Togha, Mansoureh

    2016-06-01

    Several religions recommend periods of fasting. One of the most frequently asked questions of MS patients before the holy month of Ramadan is weather fasting might have an unfavorable effect on their disease course. This debate became more challenging after the publication of experimental studies suggesting that calorie restriction prior to disease induction attenuates disease severity. We conducted this study to assess early and late effects of fasting on the animal model of MS, known as autoimmune encephalomyelitis. EAE was induced in the C57BL/6 mice, using Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycopeptide  (MOG) 35-55 and they fasted every other day either after the appearance of the first clinical sign or 30 days after disease induction for ten days. Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed for further histological and immunological evaluations. Intermittent fasting after the establishment of EAE did not have any unfavorable effect on the course of disease. Moreover, fasting at the early phase of disease alleviated EAE severity by ameliorating spinal cord demyelination. Fasting suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α and raised IL-10 production in splenocytes. Fasting was also associated with a lower percent of cytotoxicity. Intermittent fasting not only had no unfavorable effect on EAE but also reduced EAE severity if started at early phase of disease.

  12. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    that CD28-B7 blockade by systemic administration of CTLA4Ig prevents actively induced EAE. Since CTLA4Ig binds to both B7-1 and B7-2, we used a mutant form of CTLA4Ig (CTLA4IgY100F) that binds only B7-1, to study the role of B7-1 blockade in this model. Such a reagent avoids the potential of signaling...... treated with systemic CTLA4gY100F did not. More importantly, systemic administration of CTLA4IgY100F abrogated the protective effect of ex vivo treated APCs. These data suggest an important regulatory role for B7-1, perhaps through binding to CTLA4, in this model of EAE. Understanding the role......Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown...

  13. Infection Elicited Autoimmunity and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Jonas; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Elfaitouri, Amal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Rosén, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. PMID:29497420

  14. Identification of gene expression patterns crucially involved in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

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    Martin M. Herrmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After encounter with a central nervous system (CNS-derived autoantigen, lymphocytes leave the lymph nodes and enter the CNS. This event leads only rarely to subsequent tissue damage. Genes relevant to CNS pathology after cell infiltration are largely undefined. Myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS that results in disability. To assess genes that are involved in encephalitogenicity and subsequent tissue damage mediated by CNS-infiltrating cells, we performed a DNA microarray analysis from cells derived from lymph nodes and eluted from CNS in LEW.1AV1 (RT1av1 rats immunized with MOG 91-108. The data was compared to immunizations with adjuvant alone or naive rats and to immunizations with the immunogenic but not encephalitogenic MOG 73-90 peptide. Here, we show involvement of Cd38, Cxcr4 and Akt and confirm these findings by the use of Cd38-knockout (B6.129P2-Cd38tm1Lnd/J mice, S1P-receptor modulation during EAE and quantitative expression analysis in individuals with MS. The hereby-defined underlying pathways indicate cellular activation and migration pathways mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors as crucial events in CNS tissue damage. These pathways can be further explored for novel therapeutic interventions.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral blood abnormalities in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.M.; Alvord, E.C. Jr.; Richards, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in twelve cynomologous macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by sensitization to autologous myelin basic protein (BP) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute number of lymphocytes and absolute numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell subsets were measured weekly. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the animals were monitored twice weekly for the development of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Conventional spin-warp imaging was performed using a General Electric CSI-II NMR imager/spectrometer (2 Tesla magnet). CNS lesions were detected by MRI in all of the animals sensitized to myelin BP. Longitudinal analysis of their peripheral blood leukocytes revealed a progressive leukocytosis and lymphopenia, which always preceded the onset of clinical signs and almost always also preceded the formation of detectable CNS lesions. These results suggest that frequent analysis of T-cell subsets may provide a more accurate means of predicting episodes of disease activity than clinical or MRI evaluation

  16. Evaluation of Marijuana Compounds on Neuroimmune Endpoints in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2018-02-21

    Cannabinoid compounds refer to a group of more than 60 plant-derived compounds in Cannabis sativa, more commonly known as marijuana. Exposure to marijuana and cannabinoid compounds has been increasing due to increased societal acceptance for both recreational and possible medical use. Cannabinoid compounds suppress immune function, and while this could compromise one's ability to fight infections, immune suppression is the desired effect for therapies for autoimmune diseases. It is critical, therefore, to understand the effects and mechanisms by which cannabinoid compounds alter immune function, especially immune responses induced in autoimmune disease. Therefore, this unit will describe induction and assessment of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and its potential alteration by cannabinoid compounds. The unit includes three approaches to induce EAE, two of which provide correlations to two forms of MS, and the third specifically addresses the role of autoreactive T cells in EAE. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. The mechanism of effective electroacupuncture on T cell response in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Yumei Liu

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA decreased lymphocyte infiltration into the spinal cords of rats presenting with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease model used in the study of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of EA on the EAE. Female Lewis rats were divided into either CFA, EAE, EA, or injection with naloxone after electroacupuncture (NAL groups. Electroacupuncture was administered every day for 21 days. To evaluate proliferation and apoptosis, lymphocytes from rats presenting with EAE were collected and cultured with β-endorphin. Immunohistochemisty, flow cytometry and radio-immunity methods were applied to detect the expression of β-endorphin. Results presented in this report demonstrate that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EA on EAE were related to β-endorphin production that balances the Thl/Th2 and Th17/Treg responses. These results suggest that β-endorphin could be an important component in the development of EA-based therapies used for the treatment of EAE.

  18. Immune mechanisms in the transfer of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis without adjuvant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberg, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be induced in Lewis rats without the use of adjuvant. Spleen cells of naive rats were sensitized to myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. Transfer of these cells did not result in the development of EAE. However, spleen cells from primary recipients, taken 10 days post transfer, and cultured with MBP (secondary culture, transferred EAE to secondary recipients. EAE can be induced in primary recipients by the transfer of secondary cultured cells or cultured cells or challenge with MBP in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) 10 days after injection of naive cultured cells. The finding that MBP-CFA challenged 1' recipients developed EAE, suggests that the rats have been primed to MBP through the naive cultured cell transfer. The cells from naive culture that sensitize the primary recipient were radioresistant (1500 R), probably macrophages. This is in contrast to the cells transferring EAE to the secondary recipient, which were radiosensitive. Unlike the spleen cells which transfer EAE from MBP-CFA sensitized rats, the cells in the secondary transfer could not be activated to transfer EAE when cultured with concanavalin A. Clinical EAE in the secondary recipient was more severe when these rats were irradiated (200 R) prior to transfer. There is evidence that low dose irradiation eliminates naturally occurring suppressor cells. EAE also developed in lethally irradiated (850 R) recipients of secondary cultured cells, suggesting that the transferred cells can induce EAE alone or by recruiting radioresistant cells in the secondary host

  19. Central Nervous System Demyelination and Remyelination is Independent from Systemic Cholesterol Level in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Sun, Wenhui; Brogden, Graham; Sun, Yanyong; Kammeyer, Patricia; Kalkuhl, Arno; Colbatzky, Florian; Deschl, Ulrich; Naim, Hassan Y; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    High dietary fat and/or cholesterol intake is a risk factor for multiple diseases and has been debated for multiple sclerosis. However, cholesterol biosynthesis is a key pathway during myelination and disturbances are described in demyelinating diseases. To address the possible interaction of dyslipidemia and demyelination, cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression, composition of the body's major lipid repositories and Paigen diet-induced, systemic hypercholesterolemia were examined in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) using histology, immunohistochemistry, serum clinical chemistry, microarrays and high-performance thin layer chromatography. TME-virus (TMEV)-infected mice showed progressive loss of motor performance and demyelinating leukomyelitis. Gene expression associated with cholesterol biosynthesis was overall down-regulated in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. Spinal cord levels of galactocerebroside and sphingomyelin were reduced on day 196 post TMEV infection. Paigen diet induced serum hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipidosis. However, high dietary fat and cholesterol intake led to no significant differences in clinical course, inflammatory response, astrocytosis, and the amount of demyelination and remyelination in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. The results suggest that down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is a transcriptional marker for demyelination, quantitative loss of myelin-specific lipids, but not cholesterol occurs late in chronic demyelination, and serum hypercholesterolemia exhibited no significant effect on TMEV infection. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elfaitouri

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60 occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD (the Training set with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24% of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001. IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity.

  1. Gut Microbiota Confers Resistance of Albino Oxford Rats to the Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Dinić, Miroslav; Jevtić, Bojan; Đedović, Neda; Momčilović, Miljana; Đokić, Jelena; Golić, Nataša; Mostarica Stojković, Marija; Miljković, Đorđe

    2018-01-01

    Albino Oxford (AO) rats are extremely resistant to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with established autoimmune pathogenesis. The autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is initiated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues after immunization of AO rats with CNS antigens. Subsequently, limited infiltration of the CNS occurs, yet without clinical sequels. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and gut microbiota play an important role in regulation and propagation of encephalitogenic immune response. Therefore, modulation of AO gut microbiota by antibiotics was performed in this study. The treatment altered composition of gut microbiota in AO rats and led to a reduction in the proportion of regulatory T cells in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and in lymph nodes draining the site of immunization. Upregulation of interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 production was observed in the draining lymph nodes. The treatment led to clinically manifested EAE in AO rats with more numerous infiltrates and higher production of IL-17 observed in the CNS. Importantly, transfer of AO gut microbiota into EAE-prone Dark Agouti rats ameliorated the disease. These results clearly imply that gut microbiota is an important factor in AO rat resistance to EAE and that gut microbiota transfer is an efficacious way to treat CNS autoimmunity. These findings also support the idea that gut microbiota modulation has a potential as a future treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  2. Autophagy regulates the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shipeng; Xu, Huanbai; Xu, Congfeng; Cai, Wei; Li, Qian; Cheng, Yiji; Jin, Min; Wang, Ru-Xing; Peng, Yongde; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Changping; He, Xiaozhou; Wan, Bing; Zhang, Yanyun

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising approach to treat various inflammatory disorders including multiple sclerosis. However, the fate of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment is largely unknown. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-studied animal model of multiple sclerosis. We demonstrated that autophagy occurred in MSCs during their application for EAE treatment. Inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor, induced autophagy in MSCs synergistically by inducing expression of BECN1/Beclin 1. Inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of Becn1 significantly improved the therapeutic effects of MSCs on EAE, which was mainly attributable to enhanced suppression upon activation and expansion of CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of autophagy increased reactive oxygen species generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 activation in MSCs, which were essential for PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase]) and downstream prostaglandin E2 expression to exert immunoregulatory function. Furthermore, pharmacological treatment of MSCs to inhibit autophagy increased their immunosuppressive effects on T cell-mediated EAE. Our findings indicate that inflammatory microenvironment-induced autophagy downregulates the immunosuppressive function of MSCs. Therefore, modulation of autophagy in MSCs would provide a novel strategy to improve MSC-based immunotherapy.

  3. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, gut microbes and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, S; Lukić, J; Momčilović, M; Miljković, M; Jevtić, B; Kojić, M; Golić, N; Mostarica Stojković, M; Miljković, D

    2016-06-01

    Gut microbiota and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have been increasingly appreciated as important players in pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis that can be induced with an injection of spinal cord homogenate emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, but not in Albino Oxford (AO) rats. In this study, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), Peyer's patches (PP) and gut microbiota were analysed in these two rat strains. There was higher proportion of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in non-immunised DA rats in comparison to AO rats. Also, DA rat MLN and PP cells were higher producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17. Finally, microbial analyses showed that uncultivated species of Turicibacter and Atopostipes genus were exclusively present in AO rats, in faeces and intestinal tissue, respectively. Thus, it is clear that in comparison of an EAE-susceptible with an EAE-resistant strain of rats, various discrepancies at the level of gut associated lymphoid tissue, as well as at the level of gut microbiota can be observed. Future studies should determine if the differences have functional significance for EAE pathogenesis.

  4. T Follicular Helper-Like Cells Are Involved in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE have been proved to be T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Recent researches indicate that humoral immunity is also involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. T follicular helper (Tfh cells are critical for B cell differentiation and antibody production. However, the role of Tfh cells in MS and EAE remains unclear. Here, we found elevated frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ Tfh-like cells in both MS patients and EAE. In EAE mice, Tfh-like cells, together with B cells, were found in the ectopic lymphoid structures in spinal cords. Moreover, Tfh-like cells promoted the antibody production via IL-21/IL-21R and CD40 ligand/CD40 interaction and the synergy effect of STAT3 and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway inside B cells. Moreover, adoptive transfer of Tfh-like cells could increase the severity and delay the remission of EAE. In conclusion, our data indicate that Tfh-like cells contribute to the pathogenesis of EAE.

  5. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses dendritic cell function and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenzhen; Da, Yurong; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Kai; Zhuang, Hao; Peng, Meiyu; Li, Yan; Li, Wen; Simard, Alain; Hao, Junwei; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2013-03-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been used clinically as an anticancer drug and also has immunosuppressive properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of effects of vorinostat on central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases remain incomplete. Here, this study investigates the effects of vorinostat on human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse immature DC in vitro. Furthermore, we explore the therapeutic effects and cellular mechanisms of vorinostat on animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that vorinostat inhibited human CD14(+) monocyte-derived DCs differentiation, maturation, endocytosis, and further inhibited mDCs' stimulation of allogeneic T-cell proliferation. In addition, vorinostat inhibited DC-directed Th1- (Type 1T helper) and Th17-polarizing cytokine production. Furthermore, vorinostat ameliorated Th1- and Th17-mediated EAE by reducing CNS inflammation and demyelination. What's more, Th1 and Th17 cell functions were suppressed in vorinostat-treated EAE mice. Finally, vorinostat suppressed expression of costimulatory molecules of DC in EAE mice. These suggest therapeutic effects of vorinostat on EAE which may by suppress DCs and DCs-mediated Th1 and Th17 cell functions. Our findings warrant further investigation in the potential of vorinostat for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Combined treatment with ribavirin and tiazofurin attenuates response of glial cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nadežda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS, a human inflammatory and demyelinating disease. Microglia and astrocytes are glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS that play a dual role in MS and EAE pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of combined treatment with two nucleoside analogues, ribavirin and tiazofurin, on microglia and astrocytes in actively induced EAE. Therapeutic treatment with a combination of these two nucleoside analogues reduced disease severity, mononuclear cell infiltration and demyelination. The obtained histological results indicate that ribavirin and tiazofurin changed activated microglia into an inactive type and attenuated astrocyte reactivity at the end of the treatment period. Since reduction of reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis correlated with EAE suppression, the present study also suggests that the obtained beneficial effect of ribavirin and tiazofurin could be a consequence of their action inside as well as outside the CNS. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science, Project No: III41014.

  7. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) as Animal Models of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatigny, Simon; Bettelli, Estelle

    2018-01-08

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the progressive destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding axons. It can present with variable clinical and pathological manifestations, which might reflect the involvement of distinct pathogenic processes. Although the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease are not fully understood, numerous evidences indicate that MS is an autoimmune disease, the initiation and progression of which are dependent on an autoimmune response against myelin antigens. In addition, genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers likely contribute to the initiation of the disease. At this time, there is no cure for MS, but several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are available to control and slow down disease progression. A good number of these DMTs were identified and tested using animal models of MS referred to as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this review, we will recapitulate the characteristics of EAE models and discuss how they help shed light on MS pathogenesis and help test new treatments for MS patients. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. The expressed needs of people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campion Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to review systematically the needs for support in managing illness and maintaining social inclusion expressed by people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME Methods We carried out a systematic review of primary research and personal ('own' stories expressing the needs of people with CFS/ME. Structured searches were carried out on Medline, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, ASSIA, CENTRAL, and other health, social and legal databases from inception to November 2007. Study inclusion, data extraction and risk of bias were assessed independently in duplicate. Expressed needs were tabulated and a conceptual framework developed through an iterative process. Results Thirty two quantitative and qualitative studies, including the views of over 2500 people with CFS/ME with mainly moderate or severe illness severity, met the inclusion criteria. The following major support needs emerged: 1 The need to make sense of symptoms and gain diagnosis, 2 for respect and empathy from service providers, 3 for positive attitudes and support from family and friends, 4 for information on CFS/ME, 5 to adjust views and priorities, 6 to develop strategies to manage impairments and activity limitations, and 7 to develop strategies to maintain/regain social participation. Conclusions Although the studies were heterogeneous, there was consistent evidence that substantial support is needed to rebuild lives. Gaining support depends - most importantly - on the ability of providers of health and social care, colleagues, friends and relatives, and those providing educational and leisure services, to understand and respond to those needs.

  9. Nanoparticle-mediated codelivery of myelin antigen and a tolerogenic small molecule suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Ada; Nadeau, Meghan; Burns, Evan J.; Weiner, Howard L.; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    The immune response is normally controlled by regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, Treg deficits are found in autoimmune diseases, and therefore the induction of functional Tregs is considered a potential therapeutic approach for autoimmune disorders. The activation of the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor by 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) or other ligands induces dendritic cells (DCs) that promote FoxP3+ Treg differentiation. Here we report the use of nanoparticles (NPs) to coadminister ITE and a T-cell epitope from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55 to promote the generation of Tregs by DCs. NP-treated DCs displayed a tolerogenic phenotype and promoted the differentiation of Tregs in vitro. Moreover, NPs carrying ITE and MOG35–55 expanded the FoxP3+ Treg compartment and suppressed the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, NPs are potential new tools to induce functional Tregs in autoimmune disorders. PMID:22745170

  10. MORBILI PADA ANAK DALAM PENGOBATAN ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Dipta Nugraha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MEASLES IN CHILDREN WITH ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV ON TREATMENT ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbili is an acute viral infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted morbili. Morbili is a contagious acute viral infectious disease that is characterized by three stages: catarrhal stage, eruption stage and convalence stage. Another name morbili is measles, measles, or rubeola. Morbili caused by a virus that is classified as Family paramyxovirus, the virus genus morbili contained in nasopharyngeal secretions and blood during the prodromal period until 24 hours after the onset of spots. Case: Patient male, 6 years old, Hindu, Balinese tribe, came with complaints of febris since 5 days ago. Febris is not measured with a thermometer. The heat is felt up and down, getting better with medicine. Complaints red spots felt since 1 day ago. Originally discovered red spots appear in the neck area and then to the face and chest. The incidence of rash accompanied by itching and heat. This complaint is accompanied with nosebleeds 1 day ago, cough with sputum since 5 days ago and the red eye from one day ago. Patients feel the first time such complaints. Having a history of antiretroviral use regularly since 1.5 years old. Keywords: rash, morbili, HIV, antiretroviral drugs.

  11. Aptamers in Diagnostics and Treatment of Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wandtke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are in vitro selected DNA or RNA molecules that are capable of binding a wide range of nucleic and non-nucleic acid molecules with high affinity and specificity. They have been conducted through the process known as SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment. It serves to reach specificity and considerable affinity to target molecules, including those of viral origin, both proteins and nucleic acids. Properties of aptamers allow detecting virus infected cells or viruses themselves and make them competitive to monoclonal antibodies. Specific aptamers can be used to interfere in each stage of the viral replication cycle and also inhibit its penetration into cells. Many current studies have reported possible application of aptamers as a treatment or diagnostic tool in viral infections, e.g., HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HBV (Hepatitis B Virus, HCV (Hepatitis C Virus, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, H5N1 avian influenza and recently spread Ebola. This review presents current developments of using aptamers in the diagnostics and treatment of viral diseases.

  12. Reading the viral signature by Toll-like receptors and other pattern recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Trine H; Paludan, Søren R

    2005-03-01

    Successful host defense against viral infections relies on early production of type I interferon (IFN) and subsequent activation of a cellular cytotoxic response. The acute IFN and inflammatory response against virus infections is mediated by cellular pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize specific molecular structures on viral particles or products of viral replication. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a class of membrane-bound PRRs capable of detecting microbial infections. While TLR2 and TLR4, which were first identified to recognize Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, sense specific viral proteins on the cell surface, TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 serve as receptors for viral nucleic acids in endosomic compartments. In addition to TLRs, cells express cytoplasmic PRRs such as the RNA helicase retinoic acid inducible gene I and the kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R, both of which sense dsRNA, a characteristic signature of viral replication, and initiate a protective cellular response. Here we review the recent progress in our understanding of PRRs and viral infections and discuss the molecular and cellular responses evoked by virus-activated PRRs. Finally, we look into what is currently known about the role of PRRs in viral infections in vivo.

  13. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkady, A.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  14. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  15. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  16. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  17. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juei-Low, Sung [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Department of Internal Medicine; Ding-Shinn, Chen [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Hepatitis Research Center National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of {sup 131}I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  18. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Juei-Low; Chen Ding-Shinn

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131 I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. ACUTE HIV: WHAT IS NEW AND DO WE TREAT? clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute HIV infection (AHI) is usually defined as the time from entry of the virus into the body to completion of seroconversion, while early-stage HIV infection gener- ally refers to the interval between seroconversion and the establishment of the viral load set point. The mag- nitude of the viral set point is prognostic for disease.

  20. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Horta Veloso

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  1. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  2. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with HCC and none of them presented diabetes mellitus. Our study revealed that there is a

  4. Benign acute childhood myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajajee, Sarala; Ezhilarasi, S; Rajarajan, K

    2005-05-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory features of benign acute childhood myositis. 40 children of BACM were seen during October 2001 to February 2002, 22 (52%) were male with mean age of 5.3 years. Duration of illness was 3.97 days. Preceding symptoms included fever, leg pain, vomiting and inability to walk. A provisional diagnosis of viral myositis was made in 26 (66%). Guillian Barre Syndrome was the most common referral diagnosis. 11 (27.5%) children had leucopenia with lymphocytic response and 16 (40%) had thrombocytopenia. CRP was negative in 32 (80%). CPK was markedly elevated (more than 1000 IU/l) in 18 (45%) and more than 500 IU/l in 11 (27.5%) remaining between 200 to 500 IU/l. Associated features were hepatitis (elevated SGOT & SGPT) in 28 (70%) and shock in 5 (12.5%). Serological test were indicative of dengue virus (Elisa PAN BIO) in 20 (50%) of which 8 (25%) were primary dengue and 12 (30%) were secondary dengue. The outcome of therapy mainly supportive were excellent. Benign acute myositis occurs often in association with viral infection. In the present study, Dengue virus was positive in 20 (50%) children. Benign acute myositis can be differentiated from more serious causes of walking difficulty by presence of calf and thigh muscle tenderness on stretching, normal power and deep tendon reflex and elevated CPK.

  5. Altered expression of IGF-I system in neurons of the inflamed spinal cord during acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaneh Tafreshi, Azita; Talebi, Farideh; Ghorbani, Samira; Bernard, Claude; Noorbakhsh, Farshid

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence that the impaired IGF-I system contributes to neurodegeneration. In this study, we examined the spinal cords of the EAE, the animal model of multiple sclerosis, to see if the expression of the IGF-I system is altered. To induce EAE, C57/BL6 mice were immunized with the Hooke lab MOG kit, sacrificed at the peak of the disease and their spinal cords were examined for the immunoreactivities (ir) of the IGF-I, IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), as one major downstream molecule in the IGF-I signaling. Although neurons in the non EAE spinal cords did not show the IGF-I immunoreactivity, they were numerously positive for the IGFBP-1. In the inflamed EAE spinal cord however, the patterns of expressions were reversed, that is, a significant increased number of IGF-I expressing neurons versus a reduced number of IGFBP-1 positive neurons. Moreover, while nearly all IGF-I-ir neurons expressed GSK3β, some expressed it more intensely. Considering our previous finding where we showed a significant reduced number of the inactive (phosphorylated) but not that of the total GSK3β expressing neurons in the EAE spinal cord, it is conceivable that the intense total GSK3β expression in the IGF-I-ir neurons belongs to the active form of GSK3β known to exert neuroinflammatory effects. We therefore suggest that the altered expression of the IGF-I system including GSK3β in spinal cord neurons might involve in pathophysiological events during the EAE. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Treatment with metallothionein prevents demyelination and axonal damage and increases oligodendrocyte precursors and tissue repair during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by significant inflammation, demyelination, neuroglial damage, and cell death. Metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I + II) are antiinflammatory an......)beta, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), NT-4/5, and nerve growth factor (NGF). These beneficial effects of Zn-MT-II treatment could not be attributable to its zinc content per se. The present results support further the use of Zn-MT-II as a safe and successful therapy for multiple sclerosis....

  7. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Culiseta melanura activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 1985-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagac, B B; Turell, M J; Olsen, G H

    1992-09-01

    Mosquito population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, from 1985 through 1990. A dramatic increase in the number of Culiseta melanura collected in 1989, as compared with the 3 previous years, was associated with virus isolations from this species (5/75 pools; n = 542 mosquitoes) and with seroconversion in sentinel quail (4/22 birds positive). This was the first detection of EEE virus activity in this area since a 1984 EEE outbreak killed 7 whooping cranes.

  8. The picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry site element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshesh, M.; Groppelli, E.; Willcocks, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    and it is also resistant to an inhibitor of eIF4A. These properties are reminiscent of the recently discovered class of IRES elements within certain other picornaviruses, such as porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1). Like the PTV-1 IRES, the AEV IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES......Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) is a picornavirus that causes disease in poultry worldwide, and flocks must be vaccinated for protection. AEV is currently classified within the hepatovirus genus, since its proteins are most closely related to those of hepatitis A virus (HAV). We now provide...

  9. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  10. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  12. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, P.T.; ter Meulen, V.; Fontana, A.

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the γ-interferon (IFN-γ) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain

  13. Immunological abnormalities as potential biomarkers in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is characterised by severe prolonged fatigue, and decreases in cognition and other physiological functions, resulting in severe loss of quality of life, difficult clinical management and high costs to the health care system. To date there is no proven pathomechanism to satisfactorily explain this disorder. Studies have identified abnormalities in immune function but these data are inconsistent. We investigated the profile of markers of immune function (including novel markers in CFS/ME patients. Methods We included 95 CFS/ME patients and 50 healthy controls. All participants were assessed on natural killer (NK and CD8+T cell cytotoxic activities, Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile of CD4+T cells, expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VPACR2, levels of NK phenotypes (CD56bright and CD56dim and regulatory T cells expressing FoxP3 transcription factor. Results Compared to healthy individuals, CFS/ME patients displayed significant increases in IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CD4+CD25+ T cells, FoxP3 and VPACR2 expression. Cytotoxic activity of NK and CD8+T cells and NK phenotypes, in particular the CD56bright NK cells were significantly decreased in CFS/ME patients. Additionally granzyme A and granzyme K expression were reduced while expression levels of perforin were significantly increased in the CFS/ME population relative to the control population. These data suggest significant dysregulation of the immune system in CFS/ME patients. Conclusions Our study found immunological abnormalities which may serve as biomarkers in CFS/ME patients with potential for an application as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Partial deficiency of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase confers protection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Billich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P regulates the egress of T cells from lymphoid organs; levels of S1P in the tissues are controlled by S1P lyase (Sgpl1. Hence, Sgpl1 offers a target to block T cell-dependent inflammatory processes. However, the involvement of Sgpl1 in models of disease has not been fully elucidated yet, since Sgpl1 KO mice have a short life-span. METHODOLOGY: We generated inducible Sgpl1 KO mice featuring partial reduction of Sgpl1 activity and analyzed them with respect to sphingolipid levels, T-cell distribution, and response in models of inflammation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The partially Sgpl1 deficient mice are viable but feature profound reduction of peripheral T cells, similar to the constitutive KO mice. While thymic T cell development in these mice appears normal, mature T cells are retained in thymus and lymph nodes, leading to reduced T cell numbers in spleen and blood, with a skewing towards increased proportions of memory T cells and T regulatory cells. The therapeutic relevance of Sgpl1 is demonstrated by the fact that the inducible KO mice are protected in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. T cell immigration into the CNS was found to be profoundly reduced. Since S1P levels in the brain of the animals are unchanged, we conclude that protection in EAE is due to the peripheral effect on T cells, leading to reduced CNS immigration, rather than on local effects in the CNS. SIGNIFICANCE: The data suggest Sgpl1 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  15. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

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    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Diagnosis and Management in Young People: A Primer

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    Peter C. Rowe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a complex disease that affects children and adolescents as well as adults. The etiology has not been established. While many pediatricians and other health-care providers are aware of ME/CFS, they often lack essential knowledge that is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Many young patients experience symptoms for years before receiving a diagnosis. This primer, written by the International Writing Group for Pediatric ME/CFS, provides information necessary to understand, diagnose, and manage the symptoms of ME/CFS in children and adolescents. ME/CFS is characterized by overwhelming fatigue with a substantial loss of physical and mental stamina. Cardinal features are malaise and a worsening of symptoms following minimal physical or mental exertion. These post-exertional symptoms can persist for hours, days, or weeks and are not relieved by rest or sleep. Other symptoms include cognitive problems, unrefreshing or disturbed sleep, generalized or localized pain, lightheadedness, and additional symptoms in multiple organ systems. While some young patients can attend school, on a full or part-time basis, many others are wheelchair dependent, housebound, or bedbound. Prevalence estimates for pediatric ME/CFS vary from 0.1 to 0.5%. Because there is no diagnostic test for ME/CFS, diagnosis is purely clinical, based on the history and the exclusion of other fatiguing illnesses by physical examination and medical testing. Co-existing medical conditions including orthostatic intolerance (OI are common. Successful management is based on determining the optimum balance of rest and activity to help prevent post-exertional symptom worsening. Medications are helpful to treat pain, insomnia, OI and other symptoms. The published literature on ME/CFS and specifically that describing the diagnosis and management of pediatric ME/CFS is very limited. Where published studies are lacking, recommendations

  17. Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Gareth; Riddall, Dieter R; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major immune-mediated, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Compounds within cannabis, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) can limit the inappropriate neurotransmissions that cause MS-related problems and medicinal cannabis is now licenced for the treatment of MS symptoms. However, the biology indicates that the endocannabinoid system may offer the potential to control other aspects of disease. Although there is limited evidence that the cannabinoids from cannabis are having significant immunosuppressive activities that will influence relapsing autoimmunity, we and others can experimentally demonstrate that they may limit neurodegeneration that drives progressive disability. Here we show that synthetic cannabidiol can slow down the accumulation of disability from the inflammatory penumbra during relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH mice, possibly via blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In addition, whilst non-sedating doses of Δ9-THC do not inhibit relapsing autoimmunity, they dose-dependently inhibit the accumulation of disability during EAE. They also appear to slow down clinical progression during MS in humans. Although a 3 year, phase III clinical trial did not detect a beneficial effect of oral Δ9-THC in progressive MS, a planned subgroup analysis of people with less disability who progressed more rapidly, demonstrated a significant slowing of progression by oral Δ9-THC compared to placebo. Whilst this may support the experimental and biological evidence for a neuroprotective effect by the endocannabinoid system in MS, it remains to be established whether this will be formally demonstrated in further trials of Δ9-THC/cannabis in progressive MS.

  18. Treatment and management of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: all roads lead to Rome

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    Sáez‐Francàs, Naia; Santillo, Dafna; Alegre, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the current evidence on benefits and harms of therapeutic interventions in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and makes recommendations. CFS/ME is a complex, multi‐system, chronic medical condition whose pathophysiology remains unknown. No established diagnostic tests exist nor are any FDA‐approved drugs available for treatment. Because of the range of symptoms of CFS/ME, treatment approaches vary widely. Studies undertaken have heterogeneous designs and are limited by sample size, length of follow‐up, applicability and methodological quality. The use of rintatolimod and rituximab as well as counselling, behavioural and rehabilitation therapy programs may be of benefit for CFS/ME, but the evidence of their effectiveness is still limited. Similarly, adaptive pacing appears to offer some benefits, but the results are debatable: so is the use of nutritional supplements, which may be of value to CFS/ME patients with biochemically proven deficiencies. To summarize, the recommended treatment strategies should include proper administration of nutritional supplements in CFS/ME patients with demonstrated deficiencies and personalized pacing programs to relieve symptoms and improve performance of daily activities, but a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation is required to confirm these preliminary observations. At present, no firm conclusions can be drawn because the few RCTs undertaken to date have been small‐scale, with a high risk of bias, and have used different case definitions. Further, RCTs are now urgently needed with rigorous experimental designs and appropriate data analysis, focusing particularly on the comparison of outcomes measures according to clinical presentation, patient characteristics, case criteria and degree of disability (i.e. severely ill ME cases or bedridden). PMID:28052319

  19. A qualitative investigation of eating difficulties in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12-17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible.

  20. A neuro-immune model of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome.

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    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a neuro-immune model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A wide range of immunological and neurological abnormalities have been reported in people suffering from ME/CFS. They include abnormalities in proinflammatory cytokines, raised production of nuclear factor-κB, mitochondrial dysfunctions, autoimmune responses, autonomic disturbances and brain pathology. Raised levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), together with reduced levels of antioxidants are indicative of an immuno-inflammatory pathology. A number of different pathogens have been reported either as triggering or maintaining factors. Our model proposes that initial infection and immune activation caused by a number of possible pathogens leads to a state of chronic peripheral immune activation driven by activated O&NS pathways that lead to progressive damage of self epitopes even when the initial infection has been cleared. Subsequent activation of autoreactive T cells conspiring with O&NS pathways cause further damage and provoke chronic activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. The subsequent upregulation of proinflammatory compounds may activate microglia via the vagus nerve. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines together with raised O&NS conspire to produce mitochondrial damage. The subsequent ATP deficit together with inflammation and O&NS are responsible for the landmark symptoms of ME/CFS, including post-exertional malaise. Raised levels of O&NS subsequently cause progressive elevation of autoimmune activity facilitated by molecular mimicry, bystander activation or epitope spreading. These processes provoke central nervous system (CNS) activation in an attempt to restore immune homeostatsis. This model proposes that the antagonistic activities of the CNS response to peripheral inflammation, O&NS and chronic immune activation are responsible for the remitting-relapsing nature of ME/CFS. Leads for future research are suggested based on this

  1. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on heme oxygenase-1 expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats

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    Kaja Kasarełło

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system, and activating intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. It is well established that activation of the nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2-dependent pathway, leading to expression of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, is influenced by DMF. In our experiments we used female Lewis rats in an animal model of MS – experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE. The rats were fed with dimethyl fumarate to test the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, one of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, at specific time points of the symptomatic phases of the disease: on the first day of the occurrence of clinical symptoms (10th day post immunization, DPI; at the peak of clinical symptoms (14th DPI; and at the end of the relapse (21st DPI. The results showed that HO-1 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, is influenced by DMF administration only at the very beginning of the symptomatic phase of EAE, and not at the peak of clinical symptoms, nor at the end of the relapse. This indicates that the regulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway by DMF occurs at a certain time interval (early EAE/MS and strongly underlines the importance of the earliest introduction of the therapy to the patient.

  2. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis: a meta-analysis

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    Johnston S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Johnston,1 Ekua W Brenu,1 Donald Staines,1,2 Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik1 1Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Sciences, National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia; 2Gold Coast Public Health Unit, Queensland Health, Robina, QLD, Australia Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to examine variability among prevalence estimates for CFS/ME, according to the method of assessment used. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for studies on CFS/ME prevalence in adults that applied the 1994 Centers for Disease Control (CDC case definition.1 Estimates were categorized into two methods of assessment: self-reporting of symptoms versus clinical assessment of symptoms. Meta-analysis was performed to pool prevalences by assessment using random effects modeling. This was stratified by sample setting (community or primary care and heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic. Results: Of 216 records found, 14 studies were considered suitable for inclusion. The pooled prevalence for self-reporting assessment was 3.28% (95% CI: 2.24–4.33 and 0.76% (95% CI: 0.23–1.29 for clinical assessment. High variability was observed among self-reported estimates, while clinically assessed estimates showed greater consistency. Conclusion: The observed heterogeneity in CFS/ME prevalence may be due to differences in method of assessment. Stakeholders should be cautious of prevalence determined by the self-reporting of symptoms alone. The 1994 CDC case definition appeared to be the most reliable clinical assessment tool available at the time of these studies. Improving clinical case definitions and their adoption internationally will enable better comparisons of findings and inform health systems about the true burden of CFS/ME. Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, prevalence, meta-analysis

  3. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

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    Norbert W Lutz

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H, whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group. Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE or extra-cerebral (AA inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and

  4. Exercise training attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by peripheral immunomodulation rather than direct neuroprotection.

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    Einstein, Ofira; Fainstein, Nina; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Roza; Hanya, Ester; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Katz, Abram; Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2018-01-01

    Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized. To assess effects of ET on systemic autoimmunity, lymph-node (LN)-T cells from trained- vs. sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients. To assess direct neuroprotective effects of ET, PLP-reactive LN-T cells were transferred into recipient mice that were trained prior to EAE transfer or to sedentary mice. EAE severity was assessed in vivo and the characteristics of encephalitogenic LN-T cells derived from PLP-immunized mice were evaluated in vitro. LN-T cells obtained from trained mice induced an attenuated clinical and pathological EAE in recipient mice vs. cells derived from sedentary animals. Training inhibited the activation, proliferation and cytokine gene expression of PLP-reactive T cells in response to CNS-derived autoantigen, but strongly enhanced their proliferation in response to Concanavalin A, a non-specific stimulus. However, there was no difference in EAE severity when autoreactive encephalitogenic T cells were transferred to trained vs. sedentary recipient mice. ET inhibits immune system responses to an auto-antigen to attenuate EAE, rather than generally suppressing the immune system, but does not induce a direct neuro-protective effect against EAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RAE-1 expression is induced during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is correlated with microglia cell proliferation.

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    Djelloul, Mehdi; Popa, Natalia; Pelletier, Florence; Raguénez, Gilda; Boucraut, José

    2016-11-01

    Retinoic acid early induced transcript-1 (RAE-1) glycoproteins are ligands of the activating immune receptor NKG2D. They are known as stress molecules induced in pathological conditions. We previously reported that progenitor cells express RAE-1 in physiological conditions and we described a correlation between RAE-1 expression and cell proliferation. In addition, we showed that Raet1 transcripts are induced in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. EAE is a model for multiple sclerosis which is accompanied by microglia proliferation and activation, recruitment of immune cells and neurogenesis. We herein studied the time course expression of the two members of the Raet1 gene family present in C57BL/6 mice, namely Raet1d and Raet1e, in the spinal cord during EAE. We report that Raet1d and Raet1e genes are induced early upon EAE onset and reach a maximal expression at the peak of the pathology. We show that myeloid cells, i.e. macrophages as well as microglia, are cellular sources of Raet1 transcripts. We also demonstrate that only Raet1d expression is induced in microglia, whereas macrophages expressed both Raet1d and Raet1e. Furthermore, we investigated the dynamics of RAE-1 expression in microglia cultures. RAE-1 induction correlated with cell proliferation but not with M1/M2 phenotypic orientation. We finally demonstrate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a major factor controlling RAE-1 expression in microglia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transplantation of autologous adipose stem cells lacks therapeutic efficacy in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.

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    Xiujuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS, characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage, is a complicated neurological disease of the human central nervous system. Recent interest in adipose stromal/stem cell (ASCs for the treatment of CNS diseases has promoted further investigation in order to identify the most suitable ASCs. To investigate whether MS affects the biologic properties of ASCs and whether autologous ASCs from MS-affected sources could serve as an effective source for stem cell therapy, cells were isolated from subcutaneous inguinal fat pads of mice with established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of MS. ASCs from EAE mice and their syngeneic wild-type mice were cultured, expanded, and characterized for their cell morphology, surface antigen expression, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, colony forming units, and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in vitro. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of the cells was assessed in vivo by transplantation into EAE mice. The results indicated that the ASCs from EAE mice displayed a normal phenotype, typical MSC surface antigen expression, and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity, while their osteogenic differentiation capacity was reduced in comparison with their unafflicted control mice. The ASCs from EAE mice also demonstrated increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, specifically an elevation in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and keratin chemoattractant. In vivo, infusion of wild type ASCs significantly ameliorate the disease course, autoimmune mediated demyelination and cell infiltration through the regulation of the inflammatory responses, however, mice treated with autologous ASCs showed no therapeutic improvement on the disease progression.

  7. Delayed onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Olig1 deficient mice.

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    Xiaoli Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olig1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor that is essential for oligodendrogenesis and efficient remyelination. However, its role in neurodegenerative disorders has not been well-elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of Olig1 deficiency on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. We show that the mean disease onset of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-induced EAE in Olig1(-/- mice is significantly slower than wide-type (WT mice (19.8 ± 2.2 in Olig1(-/- mice and 9.5 ± 0.3 days in WT mice. In addition, 10% of Olig1(-/- mice did not develop EAE by the end of the observation periods (60 days. The severity of EAE, the extent of demyelination, and the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes in spinal cords, were significantly milder in Olig1(-/- mice compared with WT mice in the early stage. Moreover, the visual function, as assessed by the second-kernel of multifocal electroretinograms, was better preserved, and the number of degenerating axons in the optic nerve was significantly reduced in Olig1(-/- mice. Interestingly, Olig1 deficiency had no effect on T cell response capability, however, it reduced the expression of myelin proteins such as MOG, myelin basic protein (MBP and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG. The expression of Olig2 remained unchanged in the optic nerve and brain, and it was reduced in the spinal cord of Olig1(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the Olig1 signaling pathways may be involved in the incidence rate and the severity of neurological symptoms in MS.

  8. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

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    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  9. Mechanisms of action of cannabidiol in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Coral; Torres, Irene Moreno; García-Hernández, Ruth; Campos-Ruíz, Lucía; Esparragoza, Luis Rodríguez; Coronado, María José; Grande, Aranzazu García; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez López, Antonio J

    2017-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most important compounds in Cannabis sativa, lacks psychotropic effects, and possesses a high number of therapeutic properties including the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of this study was to analyse the relative efficacy of CBD in adoptively transferred EAE (at-EAE), a model that allows better delineation of the effector phase of EAE. Splenocytes and lymph nodes from mice with actively induced EAE were cultured in the presence of MOG 35-55 and IL-12 and inoculated intraperitoneally in recipient female C57BL/6J mice. The effects of CBD were evaluated using clinical scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the central nervous system, the extent of cell infiltration, axonal damage, demyelination, microglial activation and cannabinoid receptors expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lymph cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress and IL-6 production were measured in vitro. Preventive intraperitoneal treatment with CBD ameliorated the clinical signs of at-EAE, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subiculum area of the brain. Inflammatory infiltration, axonal damage, and demyelination were reduced, and cannabinoid receptor expression was modulated. Incubation with CBD decreased encephalitogenic cell viability, increasing early apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing IL-6 production. The reduction in viability was not mediated by CB 1 , CB 2 or GPR55 receptors. CBD markedly improved the clinical signs of at-EAE and reduced infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage. The CBD-mediated decrease in the viability of encephalitogenic cells involves ROS generation, apoptosis and a decrease in IL-6 production and may contribute to the therapeutic effect of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

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    Lutz, Norbert W; Fernandez, Carla; Pellissier, Jean-François; Cozzone, Patrick J; Béraud, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H), whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group). Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE) or extra-cerebral (AA) inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and/or due to the

  11. Excess circulating alternatively activated myeloid (M2 cells accelerate ALS progression while inhibiting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Ilan Vaknin

    Full Text Available Circulating immune cells including autoreactive T cells and monocytes have been documented as key players in maintaining, protecting and repairing the central nervous system (CNS in health and disease. Here, we hypothesized that neurodegenerative diseases might be associated, similarly to tumors, with increased levels of circulating peripheral myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, representing a subset of suppressor cells that often expand under pathological conditions and inhibit possible recruitment of helper T cells needed for fighting off the disease.We tested this working hypothesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and its mouse model, which are characterized by a rapid progression once clinical symptoms are evident. Adaptive transfer of alternatively activated myeloid (M2 cells, which homed to the spleen and exhibited immune suppressive activity in G93A mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (mSOD1 mice at a stage before emergence of disease symptoms, resulted in earlier appearance of disease symptoms and shorter life expectancy. The same protocol mitigated the inflammation-induced disease model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, which requires circulating T cells for disease induction. Analysis of whole peripheral blood samples obtained from 28 patients suffering from sporadic ALS (sALS, revealed a two-fold increase in the percentage of circulating MDSCs (LIN(-/LowHLA-DR(-CD33(+ compared to controls.Taken together, these results emphasize the distinct requirements for fighting the inflammatory neurodegenerative disease, multiple sclerosis, and the neurodegenerative disease, ALS, though both share a local inflammatory component. Moreover, the increased levels of circulating MDSCs in ALS patients indicates the operation of systemic mechanisms that might lead to an impairment of T cell reactivity needed to overcome the disease conditions within the CNS. This high level of suppressive immune cells might

  12. Regulation of Th1 cells and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by glycogen synthase kinase-3

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    Beurel, Eléonore; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Yeh, Wen-I; Song, Ling; Palomo, Valle; Michalek, Suzanne M.; Woodgett, James R.; Harrington, Laurie E.; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Martinez, Ana; Jope, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a debilitating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, for which only limited therapeutic interventions are available. Since MS is mediated in part by autoreactive T cells, particularly Th17 and Th1 cells, in the present study, we tested if inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), previously reported to reduce Th17 cell generation, also alter Th1 cell production or ameliorate EAE. GSK3 inhibitors were found to impede the production of Th1 cells by reducing STAT1 activation. Molecularly reducing the expression of either of the two GSK3 isoforms demonstrated that Th17 cell production was sensitive to reduced levels of GSK3β, and Th1 cell production was inhibited in GSK3α-deficient cells. Administration of the selective GSK3 inhibitors TDZD-8, VP2.51, VP0.7, or L803-mts, significantly reduced the clinical symptoms of MOG35-55-induced EAE in mice, nearly eliminating the chronic progressive phase, and reduced the number of Th17 and Th1 cells in the spinal cord. Administration of TDZD-8 or L803-mts after the initial disease episode ameliorated clinical symptoms in a relapsing/remitting model of PLP139-151-induced EAE. Furthermore, deletion of GSK3β specifically in T cells was sufficient to ameliorate MOG35-55-induced EAE. These results demonstrate isoform-selective effects of GSK3 on T cell generation, therapeutic effects of GSK3 inhibitors in EAE, and that GSK3 inhibition in T cells is sufficient to reduce the severity of EAE, suggesting that GSK3 may be a feasible target for developing new therapeutic interventions for MS. PMID:23606540

  13. Cell Fusion along the Anterior-Posterior Neuroaxis in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa R Sankavaram

    Full Text Available It is well documented that bone marrow-derived cells can fuse with a diverse range of cells, including brain cells, under normal or pathological conditions. Inflammation leads to robust fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with Purkinje cells and the formation of binucleate heterokaryons in the cerebellum. Heterokaryons form through the fusion of two developmentally differential cells and as a result contain two distinct nuclei without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss.In the brain, fusion of bone marrow-derived cells appears to be restricted to the complex and large Purkinje cells, raising the question whether the size of the recipient cell is important for cell fusion in the central nervous system. Purkinje cells are among the largest neurons in the central nervous system and accordingly can harbor two nuclei.Using a well-characterized model for heterokaryon formation in the cerebellum (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we report for the first time that green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow-derived cells can fuse and form heterokaryons with spinal cord motor neurons. These spinal cord heterokaryons are predominantly located in or adjacent to an active or previously active inflammation site, demonstrating that inflammation and infiltration of immune cells are key for cell fusion in the central nervous system. While some motor neurons were found to contain two nuclei, co-expressing green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein, a number of small interneurons also co-expressed green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein. These small heterokaryons were scattered in the gray matter of the spinal cord.This novel finding expands the repertoire of neurons that can form heterokaryons with bone marrow-derived cells in the central nervous system, albeit in low numbers, possibly leading to a novel therapy for spinal cord

  14. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin He

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI, a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  15. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yixin; Du, Min; Gao, Yan; Liu, Hongshuai; Wang, Hongwei; Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI), a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS) as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  16. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Diagnosis and Management in Young People: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter C.; Underhill, Rosemary A.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Gurwitt, Alan; Medow, Marvin S.; Schwartz, Malcolm S.; Speight, Nigel; Stewart, Julian M.; Vallings, Rosamund; Rowe, Katherine S.

    2017-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease that affects children and adolescents as well as adults. The etiology has not been established. While many pediatricians and other health-care providers are aware of ME/CFS, they often lack essential knowledge that is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Many young patients experience symptoms for years before receiving a diagnosis. This primer, written by the International Writing Group for Pediatric ME/CFS, provides information necessary to understand, diagnose, and manage the symptoms of ME/CFS in children and adolescents. ME/CFS is characterized by overwhelming fatigue with a substantial loss of physical and mental stamina. Cardinal features are malaise and a worsening of symptoms following minimal physical or mental exertion. These post-exertional symptoms can persist for hours, days, or weeks and are not relieved by rest or sleep. Other symptoms include cognitive problems, unrefreshing or disturbed sleep, generalized or localized pain, lightheadedness, and additional symptoms in multiple organ systems. While some young patients can attend school, on a full or part-time basis, many others are wheelchair dependent, housebound, or bedbound. Prevalence estimates for pediatric ME/CFS vary from 0.1 to 0.5%. Because there is no diagnostic test for ME/CFS, diagnosis is purely clinical, based on the history and the exclusion of other fatiguing illnesses by physical examination and medical testing. Co-existing medical conditions including orthostatic intolerance (OI) are common. Successful management is based on determining the optimum balance of rest and activity to help prevent post-exertional symptom worsening. Medications are helpful to treat pain, insomnia, OI and other symptoms. The published literature on ME/CFS and specifically that describing the diagnosis and management of pediatric ME/CFS is very limited. Where published studies are lacking, recommendations are based on the

  17. Huperzine A inhibits CCL2 production in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice and in cultured astrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G X; Zhu, X Q; Chen, Y; Wu, G C; Wang, J

    2013-01-01

    The active role of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) during the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been clearly established. Recent studies from our laboratory reported that Huperzine A (HupA) can attenuate the disease process in EAE by the inhibition of inflammation, demyelination, and axonal injury in the spinal cord as well as encephalomyelitic T-cell proliferation. In this study, the effects of low dose HupA on CCL2, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta expression were evaluated in EAE. The effect of HupA on lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory molecule secretion was investigated in cultured-astrocytes in vitro. In MOG35-55-induced EAE mice, intraperitoneal injections of HupA (0.1 mg/kg•d−1) significantly suppressed the expression of CCL2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the spinal cord. HupA also repressed LPS-induced CCL2 production, but with little influence on pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary cultured astrocytes. The inhibition effect of HupA on CCL2 is PPARgamma-dependent and nicotine receptor-independent. Conditioned culture media from HupA-treated astrocyte decreased PBMC migration in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that HupA can ameliorate EAE by inhibiting CCL2 production in astrocyte, which may consequently decrease inflammatory cell infiltration in the spinal cord. HupA may have a potential therapeutic value for the treatment of MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases.

  18. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractViral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow

  19. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted o...

  20. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  1. Changing haematological parameters in dengue viral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, T.; Mehmood, K.; Mujtaba, G.; Choudhry, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue Fever is the most common arboviral disease in the world, and presents cyclically in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The four serotypes of dengue virus, 1, 2, 3, and 4, form an antigenic subgroup of the flaviviruses (Group B arboviruses). Transmission to humans of any of these serotypes initiates a spectrum of host responses, from in apparent to severe and sometimes lethal infections. Complete Blood count (CBC) is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Comparison of various finding in CBC including peripheral smear can help the physician in better management of the patient. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a series of suspected patients of Dengue viral infection reporting in Ittefaq Hospital (Trust). All were investigated for serological markers of acute infection. Results Out of 341 acute cases 166 (48.7%) were confirmed by IgM against Dengue virus. IgG anti-dengue was used on 200 suspected re-infected patients. Seventy-one (39.5%) were positive and 118 (59%) were negative. Among 245 confirmed dengue fever patients 43 (17.6%) were considered having dengue hemorrhagic fever on the basis of lab and clinical findings. Raised haematocrit, Leukopenia with relative Lymphocytosis and presence atypical lymphocytes along with plasmacytoid cells was consistent finding at presentation in both the patterns of disease, i.e., Dengue Haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue fever (DF). Conclusion: Changes in relative percentage of cells appear with improvement in the symptoms and recovery from the disease. These findings indicate that in the course of the disease, there are major shifts within cellular component of blood. (author)

  2. Viral-Associated GN: Hepatitis C and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupin, Warren L

    2017-08-07

    Viruses are capable of inducing a wide spectrum of glomerular disorders that can be categorized on the basis of the duration of active viremia: acute, subacute, or chronic. The variable responses of the adaptive immune system to each time period of viral infection results mechanistically in different histologic forms of glomerular injury. The unique presence of a chronic viremic carrier state with either hepatitis C (HCV) or HIV has led to the opportunity to study in detail various pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced glomerular injury, including direct viral infection of renal tissue and the development of circulating immune complexes composed of viral antigens that deposit along the glomerular basement membrane. Epidemiologic data show that approximately 25%-30% of all HIV patients are coinfected with HCV and 5%-10% of all HCV patients are coinfected with HIV. This situation can often lead to a challenging differential diagnosis when glomerular disease occurs in this dual-infected population and requires the clinician to be familiar with the clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and pathophysiology behind the development of renal disease for both HCV and HIV. Both of these viruses can be categorized under the new classification of infection-associated GN as opposed to being listed as causes of postinfectious GN as has previously been applied to them. Neither of these viruses lead to renal injury after a latent period of controlled and inactive viremia. The geneses of HCV- and HIV-associated glomerular diseases share a total dependence on the presence of active viral replication to sustain renal injury so the renal disease cannot be listed under "postinfectious" GN. With the new availability of direct-acting antivirals for HCV and more effective combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV, successful remission and even regression of glomerular lesions can be achieved if initiated at an early stage. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suan-Sin Foo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Ross River virus (RRV, and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3 was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/- mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis.

  4. Current status and strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eileen L; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating. Adults without immunity are exposed to risks of symptomatic disease and large outbreaks in society. In Korea, where hygiene has improved rapidly, acute hepatitis A is a significant health burden that needs to be managed with nationwide health policy. The incidence of symptomatic VH-A has increased since 2000 and peaked in 2009. Korea has designated hepatitis A as a group 1 nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2001. Since 2001, mandatory surveillance system has been established to detect every single case of acute hepatitis A. Universal, nationwide vaccination program for newborns was introduced in 2015. In this review, we will present the current epidemiologic status of viral hepatitis A, and evaluate the effectiveness of the current nationwide strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea. Furthermore, we presented some action proposals that can help eliminate viral hepatitis A, which is a significant health burden in Korea.

  5. Zuo-Gui and You-Gui pills, two traditional Chinese herbal formulas, downregulated the expression of NogoA, NgR, and RhoA in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shuang; Zheng, Qi; Wang, Yizhou; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Qiuxia; Li, Ming; Qi, Fang; Fang, Ling; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Junyao; Zhao, Haiyu; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-02

    Zuo-Gui pills (ZGPs) and You-Gui pills (YGPs) are 2 traditional Chinese herbal formulas used for treating multiple sclerosis (MS) in the clinical setting and have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective functions of ZGPs and YGPs. Female Lewis rats were randomly divided into normal control, EAE model, 2g/kg ZGP-treated EAE, 3g/kg YGP-treated EAE, and prednisone acetate-treated groups. EAE model was induced by subcutaneous injection of MBP68-86 antigen. The neurological function scores were estimated. Histological structures of the brains and spinal cords were observed, and myelinated and axons imaged. NogoA, Nogo receptor (NgR), and RhoA transcript and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting on postimmunization (PI) days 14 (acute stage) and 28 (remission stage). ZGPs and YGPs significantly reduced neurological functions scores and abrogated inflammatory infiltrates, demyelination, and axonal damage. Furthermore, treatment with ZGPs and YGPs inhibited NogoA, NgR, and RhoA mRNA and protein expression in rats at both the acute and remission stages. ZGPs exhibited stronger effects on NogoA and RhoA expressions, as well as neurological function, during the acute stage of EAE, while YGPs caused greater reductions in NogoA expression during the remission stage. Our findings suggested that ZGPs and YGPs exerted neuroprotective effects by downregulation of NogoA, NgR, and RhoA pathways, with differences in response times and targets observed between ZGPs and YGPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  7. [Immunotherapy for refractory viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Yuriko; Takahashi, Satoshi

    Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC can be transduced with virus-antigen coding plasmid or pulsed with overlapping peptides. VST therapy has been studied in drug non-responsive viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of VST therapy without significant severe GVHD. In addition, VSTs from a third-party donor have been prepared and administered for post-HCT viral infection. Although target viruses of VSTs include herpes virus species and polyomavirus species, a wide variety of pathogens, such as papillomavirus, intracellular bacteria, and fungi, can be treated by pathogen-specific T-cells. Perhaps, these specific T-cells could be used for opportunistic infections in other immunocompromised hosts in the near future.

  8. Hemostatic System in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemostasis is balanced by pro- and anticoagulant and pro- and antifibrinolytic factors, most of these being synthesized by the liver. Advanced liver disease is associated with perturbations in the level of these factors due to secretory deficiencies. Thrombocytopenia, reduced levels of factor II-VII-X, and anti-fibrinolytic factors are all features of CHC infection, suggesting hypocoagulability. However, higher concentrations of VWF and factor VIII, as well as lower concentrations of anticoagulant factors including protein C and S, have also been reported in CHC infections, suggesting hypercoagulability. Thus, the hemostatic balance in the patient with liver disease is relatively unstable as evidenced by the occurrence of both bleeding and thrombotic complications in a significant proportion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, in whom extremely complex alterations of hemostasis occur, one cannot rely on levels of individual coagulation factors, or on simplified tests of hemostasis such as the PT or APTT to predict the hemostatic status. To determine the hemostatic status in these patients, more complex tests and a more comprehensive overview of the hemostatic changes are required. In connection with the latest studies, a revision of the methods for correction of hemostatic system disorders in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases becomes urgent.

  9. Severe T-cell depletion from the PALS leads to altered spleen composition in common marmosets with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Alex F; van Riel, Debby A J; van Meurs, Marjan; Brok, Herbert P M; Boon, Louis; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Claassen, Eric H J H M; 't Hart, Bert A; Laman, Jon D

    Recent data suggest that the spleen is a crucial component of the immune system in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated changes in the distribution of leukocytes in the spleen associated with clinical

  10. Deficient p75 low-affinity neurotrophin receptor expression does alter the composition of cellular infiltrate in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kust, B; Mantingh-Otter, [No Value; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    We have shown earlier that induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis-in C5713L/6 wild-type mice resulted in the expression of the p75 low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in endothelial cells in the CNS. In comparison to

  11. Poor self-reported sleep quality and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Zaragozá, Maria C; González-Garcia, Sergio; Aliste, Luisa; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Romero, Odile; Ferré, Alex; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2018-05-16

    Non-restorative sleep is a hallmark symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. However, little is known about self-reported sleep disturbances in these subjects. This study aimed to assess the self-reported sleep quality and its impact on quality of life in a Spanish community-based chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis cohort. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in 1,455 Spanish chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients. Sleep quality, fatigue, pain, functional capacity impairment, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life were assessed using validated subjective measures. The frequencies of muscular, cognitive, neurological, autonomic and immunological symptom clusters were above 80%. High scores were recorded for pain, fatigue, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression, and low scores for functional capacity and quality of life, all of which correlated significantly (all p quality of sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, the pain intensity (odds ratio, 1.11; p quality of life (odds ratio, 0.96; both p quality. These findings suggest that this large chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis sample presents poor sleep quality, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and that this poor sleep quality is associated with many aspects of quality of life. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mancera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated, at least in part, to an inflammatory process in which microglia plays a major role. The effect of the triglyceride form of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA was assayed in vitro and in vivo to assess the protective and anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. In the in vitro study, BV-2 microglia cells were previously treated with TG-DHA and then activated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. TG-DHA treatment protected BV-2 microglia cells from oxidative stress toxicity attenuating NO production and suppressing the induction of inflammatory cytokines. When compared with DHA in the ethyl-ester form, a significant difference in the ability to inhibit NO production in favor of TG-DHA was observed. TG-DHA inhibited significantly splenocyte proliferation but isolated CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation was unaffected. In a mice model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, 250 mg/kg/day oral TG-DHA treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the course and severity of the disease as compared to untreated animals. TG-DHA-treated EAE mice showed a better weight profile, which is a symptom related to a better course of encephalomyelitis. TG-DHA may be a promising therapeutic agent in neuroinflammatory processes and merit to be more extensively studied in human neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Transmission of single and multiple viral variants in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Novitsky

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral evolution in acute HIV-1 infection [1,2] were applied. Specifically, phylogenetic reconstruction, inter- and intra-patient distribution of maximum and mean genetic distances, analysis of Poisson fitness, shape of highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA were utilized for resolving multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission in a set of viral quasispecies collected within 50 days post-seroconversion (p/s in 25 HIV-infected individuals with estimated time of seroconversion. The decision on multiplicity of HIV infection was made based on the model's fit with, or failure to explain, the observed extent of viral sequence heterogeneity. The initial analysis was based on phylogeny, inter-patient distribution of maximum and mean distances, and Poisson fitness, and was able to resolve multiplicity of HIV transmission in 20 of 25 (80% cases. Additional analysis involved distribution of individual viral distances, highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of tMRCA, and resolved 4 of the 5 remaining cases. Overall, transmission of a single viral variant was identified in 16 of 25 (64% cases, and transmission of multiple variants was evident in 8 of 25 (32% cases. In one case multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission could not be determined. In primary HIV-1 subtype C infection, samples collected within 50 days p/s and analyzed by a single-genome amplification/sequencing technique can provide reliable identification of transmission multiplicity in 24 of 25 (96% cases. Observed transmission frequency of a single viral variant and multiple viral variants were within the ranges of 64% to 68%, and 32% to 36%, respectively.

  14. Laboratory procedures to generate viral metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca V; Haynes, Matthew; Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-01-01

    This collection of laboratory protocols describes the steps to collect viruses from various samples with the specific aim of generating viral metagenome sequence libraries (viromes). Viral metagenomics, the study of uncultured viral nucleic acid sequences from different biomes, relies on several concentration, purification, extraction, sequencing and heuristic bioinformatic methods. No single technique can provide an all-inclusive approach, and therefore the protocols presented here will be discussed in terms of hypothetical projects. However, care must be taken to individualize each step depending on the source and type of viral-particles. This protocol is a description of the processes we have successfully used to: (i) concentrate viral particles from various types of samples, (ii) eliminate contaminating cells and free nucleic acids and (iii) extract, amplify and purify viral nucleic acids. Overall, a sample can be processed to isolate viral nucleic acids suitable for high-throughput sequencing in approximately 1 week.

  15. ATYPICAL CSF PICTURE IN VIRAL MENINGITIS HSV- TYPE-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Acute infections of nervous system are among the most important problems in medicine because early recognition, efficient decision making and rapid institution of therapy can be lifesaving. Making a clinical diagnosis of acute meningitis depends on the cornerstone of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination. We present a case with the above-mentioned difficulty and the approach involved in establishing the exact diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION About findings in viral meningitis one should be careful while evaluating a CSF report so as to not make a mistaken diagnosis and delay treatment. The most important analysis in patients whose symptoms are consistent with herpes simplex meningitis is the detection of Herpes simplex Virus deoxy-ribo-nucleic acid (HSV-DNA in CSF with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.

  16. Epidemiology of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although the etiology of acute leukemia is largely unknown, some facets of the puzzle are becoming clarified. Recognition of important patterns in age-specific mortality rates has suggested that events early in life, perhaps even prenatally, may have an influence on developing leukemia in childhood. The racial differences evident in mortality, incidence, and immunologic subtype of ALL suggest either differences in exposures to certain factors or differences in responses to those factors by white children. Hereditary factors appear to play a role. Familial and hereditary conditions exist that have high incidences of acute leukemia. Chromosomal anomalies are common in these conditions. Viral infections may play a role by contributing to alteration in genetic material through incorporation of the viral genome. How that virus is dealt with after primary infection seems important. The presence of immunodeficiency may allow wider dissemination or enhanced replication of such viruses, thereby increasing the likelihood of cellular transformation to an abnormal cell. Proliferation of that malignant cell to a clone may depend on other cofactors. Perhaps prolonged exposure to substances like benzene or alkylating agents may enhance these interactions between virus and genetic material. Does this change DNA repair mechanisms. Are viral infections handled differently. Is viral genomic information more easily integrated into host cells. Ionizing radiation has multiple effects. Alteration in genetic material occurs both at the molecular and chromosomal levels. DNA may be altered, lost, or added in the cell's attempt to recover from the injury

  17. Biochemical Comparative study on viral hepatitis (B) and schistosomiasis in Egyptian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.M.; Fahim, F.A.; Abo-Arab, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study included 50 patients, out of which 25 patients suffering from viral hepatitis B (10 acute and 15 chronic patients), 25 schistosomiasis patients and 20 individuals as control healthy group, (5 hepatitis carriers and 15 normal healthy). Elevation in serum ALT and AST activities were noticed in all patient groups and the highest levels were recorded in acute HBV, (368.6 and 364 U/L respectively, P< 0.001). Also, serum total protein and albumin showed significant in acute, chronic and schistosomiasis by changes reached 200, 93.3 and 134.0%, respectively,

  18. Association of biomarkers with health-related quality of life and history of stressors in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Vigouroux, Aude; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Chagvardieff, Alexandre; Retornaz, Frédérique; Guieu, Regis; Jammes, Yves

    2016-08-31

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common debilitating disorder associated with an intense fatigue, a reduced physical activity, and an impaired quality of life. There are no established biological markerof the syndrome. The etiology is unknown and its pathogenesis appears to be multifactorial. Various stressors, including intense physical activity, severe infection, and emotional stress are reported in the medical history of ME/CFS patients which raises the question whether any physiological and biological abnormalities usually found in these patients could be indicative of the etiology and/or the quality-of-life impairment. Thirty-six patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The following variables that appear to address common symptoms of ME/CFS were studied here: (1) muscle fatigue during exercise has been investigated by monitoring the compound muscle action potential (M-wave); (2) the excessive oxidative stress response to exercise was measured via two plasma markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances: TBARS; reduced ascorbic-acid: RAA); (3) a potential inflammatory component was addressed via expression of CD26 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells; (4) quality-of-life impairment was assessed using the London Handicap Scale (LHS) and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The medical history of each patient, including the presence of stressors such as intense sports practice, severe acute infection and/or severe emotional stress was documented. We observed that: (1) there were striking differences between cases and controls with regard to three biological variables: post-exercise M-wave, TBARS variations and CD26-expression at rest; (2) each of these three variables correlated with the other two; (3) abnormalities in the biomarkers associated with health-related quality of life: the LHS score was negatively correlated with the exercise-induced TBARS increase and positively correlated with CD26

  19. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

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    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  20. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

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    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  1. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  2. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  3. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  4. Chloroquine treatment enhances regulatory T cells and reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Rodolfo Thomé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The modulation of inflammatory processes is a necessary step, mostly orchestrated by regulatory T (Treg cells and suppressive Dendritic Cells (DCs, to prevent the development of deleterious responses and autoimmune diseases. Therapies that focused on adoptive transfer of Treg cells or their expansion in vivo achieved great success in controlling inflammation in several experimental models. Chloroquine (CQ, an anti-malarial drug, was shown to reduce inflammation, although the mechanisms are still obscure. In this context, we aimed to access whether chloroquine treatment alters the frequency of Treg cells and DCs in normal mice. In addition, the effects of the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with CQ on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, an experimental model for human Multiple Sclerosis, was investigated as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with chloroquine. Results show that the CQ treatment provoked an increase in Treg cells frequency as well as a decrease in DCs. We next evaluated whether prophylactic CQ administration is capable of reducing the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE. Our results demonstrated that CQ-treated mice developed mild EAE compared to controls that was associated with lower infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system CNS and increased frequency of Treg cells. Also, proliferation of MOG35-55-reactive T cells was significantly inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Similar results were observed when chloroquine was administrated after disease onset. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that CQ treatment promotes the expansion of Treg cells, corroborating previous reports indicating that chloroquine has immunomodulatory properties. Our results also show that CQ treatment suppress the inflammation in the CNS of

  5. Gray Matter Hypoxia in the Brain of the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas W.; Wu, Ying; Nathoo, Nabeela; Rogers, James A.; Wee Yong, V.; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a significant inflammatory component and may have significant gray matter (GM) pathophysiology. Brain oxygenation is a sensitive measurement of the balance between metabolic need and oxygen delivery. There is evidence that inflammation and hypoxia are interdependent. In this paper, we applied novel, implanted PO2 sensors to measure hypoxia in cortical and cerebellar GM, in an inflammation-induced mouse model of MS. Objective Quantify oxygenation in cortical and cerebellar GM in the awake, unrestrained experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and to relate the results to symptom level and disease time-course. Methods C57BL/6 mice were implanted with a fiber-optic sensor in the cerebellum (n = 13) and cortex (n = 24). Animals were induced with stimulation of the immune response and sensitization to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Controls did not have MOG. We measured PO2 in awake, unrestrained animals from pre-induction (baseline) up to 36 days post-induction for EAE and controls. Results There were more days with hypoxia than hyperoxia (cerebellum: 34/67 vs. 18/67 days; cortex: 85/112 vs. 22/112) compared to time-matched controls. The average decline in PO2 on days that were significantly lower than time-matched controls was -8.8±6.0 mmHg (mean ± SD) for the cerebellum and -8.0±4.6 for the cortex. Conversely, the average increase in PO2 on days that were significantly hyperoxic was +3.2±2.8 mmHg (mean ± SD) for the cerebellum and +0.8±2.1 for the cortex. Cortical hypoxia related to increased behavioral deficits. Evidence for hypoxia occurred before measurable behavioral deficits. Conclusions A highly inflammatory condition primed to a white matter (WM) autoimmune response correlates with significant hypoxia and increased variation in oxygenation in GM of both cerebellum and cortex in the mouse EAE model of MS. PMID:27907119

  6. Epigenetic modifications and glucocorticoid sensitivity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Wilfred C; Herrera, Santiago; Vernon, Suzanne D; McGowan, Patrick O

    2017-02-23

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating idiopathic disease characterized by unexplained fatigue that fails to resolve with sufficient rest. Diagnosis is based on a list of symptoms and exclusion of other fatigue-related health conditions. Despite a heterogeneous patient population, immune and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function differences, such as enhanced negative feedback to glucocorticoids, are recurring findings in ME/CFS studies. Epigenetic modifications, such as CpG methylation, are known to regulate long-term phenotypic differences and previous work by our group found DNA methylome differences in ME/CFS, however the relationship between DNA methylome modifications, clinical and functional characteristics associated with ME/CFS has not been examined. We examined the DNA methylome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a larger cohort of female ME/CFS patients using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Array. In parallel to the DNA methylome analysis, we investigated in vitro glucocorticoid sensitivity differences by stimulating PBMCs with phytohaemagglutinin and suppressed growth with dexamethasone. We explored DNA methylation differences using bisulfite pyrosequencing and statistical permutation. Linear regression was implemented to discover epigenomic regions associated with self-reported quality of life and network analysis of gene ontology terms to biologically contextualize results. We detected 12,608 differentially methylated sites between ME/CFS patients and healthy controls predominantly localized to cellular metabolism genes, some of which were also related to self-reported quality of life health scores. Among ME/CFS patients, glucocorticoid sensitivity was associated with differential methylation at 13 loci. Our results indicate DNA methylation modifications in cellular metabolism in ME/CFS despite a heterogeneous patient population, implicating these processes in immune and HPA

  7. Natural course of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Collin, Simon M; Tilling, Kate; Nuevo, Roberto; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Heron, Jon; Crawley, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about persistence of or recovery from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in adolescents. Previous studies have small sample sizes, short follow-up or have focused on fatigue rather than CFS/ME or, equivalently, chronic fatigue, which is disabling. This work aimed to describe the epidemiology and natural course of CFS/ME in adolescents aged 13-18 years. Longitudinal follow-up of adolescents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Avon, UK. We identified adolescents who had disabling fatigue of >6 months duration without a known cause at ages 13, 16 and 18 years. We use the term 'chronic disabling fatigue' (CDF) because CFS/ME was not verified by clinical diagnosis. We used multiple imputation to obtain unbiased estimates of prevalence and persistence. The estimated prevalence of CDF was 1.47% (95% CI 1.05% to 1.89%) at age 13, 2.22% (1.67% to 2.78%) at age 16 and 2.99% (2.24% to 3.75%) at age 18. Among adolescents with CDF of 6 months duration at 13 years 75.3% (64.0% to 86.6%) were not classified as such at age 16. Similar change was observed between 16 and 18 years (75.0% (62.8% to 87.2%)). Of those with CDF at age 13, 8.02% (0.61% to 15.4%) presented with CDF throughout the duration of adolescence. The prevalence of CDF lasting 6 months or longer (a proxy for clinically diagnosed CFS/ME) increases from 13 to 18 years. However, persistent CDF is rare in adolescents, with approximately 75% recovering after 2-3 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Williams, Brent L; Mishra, Nischay; Che, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bohyun; Bateman, Lucinda; Klimas, Nancy G; Komaroff, Anthony L; Levine, Susan; Montoya, Jose G; Peterson, Daniel L; Ramanan, Devi; Jain, Komal; Eddy, Meredith L; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

    2017-04-26

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by unexplained persistent fatigue, commonly accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, lymphadenopathy, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which the gastrointestinal microbiome and peripheral inflammation are associated with ME/CFS remains unclear. We pursued rigorous clinical characterization, fecal bacterial metagenomics, and plasma immune molecule analyses in 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls frequency-matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic site, and season of sampling. Topological analysis revealed associations between IBS co-morbidity, body mass index, fecal bacterial composition, and bacterial metabolic pathways but not plasma immune molecules. IBS co-morbidity was the strongest driving factor in the separation of topological networks based on bacterial profiles and metabolic pathways. Predictive selection models based on bacterial profiles supported findings from topological analyses indicating that ME/CFS subgroups, defined by IBS status, could be distinguished from control subjects with high predictive accuracy. Bacterial taxa predictive of ME/CFS patients with IBS were distinct from taxa associated with ME/CFS patients without IBS. Increased abundance of unclassified Alistipes and decreased Faecalibacterium emerged as the top biomarkers of ME/CFS with IBS; while increased unclassified Bacteroides abundance and decreased Bacteroides vulgatus were the top biomarkers of ME/CFS without IBS. Despite findings of differences in bacterial taxa and metabolic pathways defining ME/CFS subgroups, decreased metabolic pathways associated with unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and increased atrazine degradation pathways were independent of IBS co-morbidity. Increased vitamin B6 biosynthesis/salvage and pyrimidine ribonucleoside degradation were the top metabolic pathways in ME/CFS without IBS as well as in the

  9. Correlation of gut microbiota composition with resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Stanisavljevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is widely accepted that autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is the essential pathogenic force in the disease. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that activated encephalitogenic cells tend to migrate towards gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT and that interrupted balance between regulatory and inflammatory immunity within the GALT might have decisive role in the initiation and propagation of the CNS autoimmunity. Gut microbiota composition and function has the major impact on the balance in the GALT. Thus, our aim was to perform analyses of gut microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Albino Oxford (AO rats that are highly resistant to EAE induction and Dark Agouti (DA rats that develop EAE after mild immunization were compared for gut microbiota composition in different phases after EAE induction. Microbial analyses of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria showed higher diversity of Lactobacillus spp. in EAE-resistant AO rats, while some members of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum were detected only in faeces of DA rats at the peak of the disease (between 13 and 16 days after induction. Interestingly, Turicibacter sp. that was found exclusively in non-immunized AO, but not in DA rats in our previous study was detected in DA rats that remained healthy 16 days after induction. Similar observation was obtained for the members of Lachnospiraceae. As dominant presence of the members of Lachnospiraceae family in gut microbial community has been linked with mild symptoms of various diseases, it is tempting to assume that Turicibacter sp. and Lachnospiraceae contribute to the prevention of EAE development and the alleviation of the disease symptoms. Further, production of a typical regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 was

  10. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  11. Acute respiratory infections in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Dallas, Ronald; Zhou, Yinmei; Pei, Dequing; Cheng, Cheng; Flynn, Patricia M; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge regarding the incidence, clinical course, and impact of respiratory viral infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is limited. A retrospective cohort of patients with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated on the Total Therapy XVI protocol at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 2007 and 2011 was evaluated. Of 223 children, 95 (43%) developed 133 episodes of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) (incidence, 1.1 per 1000 patient-days). ARI without viral etiology was identified in 65 patients (29%) and no ARI was detected in 63 patients (28%). There were no significant associations noted between race, sex, age, or ALL risk group and the development of ARI. Children receiving induction chemotherapy were found to be at the highest risk of viral ARI (incidence, 2.3 per 1000 patient-days). Influenza virus was the most common virus (38%) followed by respiratory syncytial virus (33%). Of 133 episodes of viral ARI, 61% of patients were hospitalized, 26% experienced a complicated course, 80% had their chemotherapy delayed, and 0.7% of patients died. Twenty-four patients (18%) developed viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), 5 of whom (21%) had complications. Patients with viral LRTI had a significantly lower nadir absolute lymphocyte count; were sicker at the time of presentation; and were more likely to have respiratory syncytial virus, to be hospitalized, and to have their chemotherapy delayed for longer compared with those with viral upper respiratory tract infections. Despite the low incidence of viral ARI in children with ALL, the associated morbidity, mortality, and delay in chemotherapy remain clinically significant. Viral LRTI was especially associated with high morbidity requiring intensive care-level support. Cancer 2016;122:798-805. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eriksson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+ T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical trials, well-validated high-throughput assays that quantify this reservoir are urgently needed. Here we compare eleven different approaches for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4(+ T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison. PCR-based assays for cells containing HIV-1 DNA gave infected cell frequencies at least 2 logs higher than the viral outgrowth assay, even in subjects who started HAART during acute/early infection. This difference may reflect defective viral genomes. The ratio of infected cell frequencies determined by viral outgrowth and PCR-based assays varied dramatically between patients. Although strong correlations with the viral outgrowth assay could not be formally excluded for most assays, correlations achieved statistical significance only for integrated HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio in rectal CD4(+ T cells. Residual viremia was below the limit of detection in many subjects and did not correlate with the viral outgrowth assays. The dramatic differences in infected cell frequencies and the lack of a precise correlation between culture and PCR-based assays raise the possibility that the successful clearance of latently infected cells may be masked by a larger and variable pool of cells with defective proviruses. These defective proviruses are detected by PCR but may not be affected by reactivation strategies and may not require eradication to accomplish an effective cure. A molecular understanding of the discrepancy

  13. Natural Killer Cells in Viral HepatitisSummary

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    Barbara Rehermann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are traditionally regarded as first-line effectors of the innate immune response, but they also have a distinct role in chronic infection. Here, we review the role of NK cells against hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, two agents that cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. Interest in NK cells was initially sparked by genetic studies that demonstrated an association between NK cell–related genes and the outcome of HCV infection. Viral hepatitis also provides a model to study the NK cell response to both endogenous and exogenous type I interferon (IFN. Levels of IFN-stimulated genes increase in both acute and chronic HCV infection and pegylated IFNα has been the mainstay of HCV and HBV treatment for decades. In chronic viral hepatitis, NK cells display decreased production of antiviral cytokines. This phenotype is found in both HCV and HBV infection but is induced by different mechanisms. Potent antivirals now provide the opportunity to study the reversibility of the suppressed cytokine production of NK cells in comparison with the antigen-induced defect in IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor-α production of virus-specific T cells. This has implications for immune reconstitution in other conditions of chronic inflammation and immune exhaustion, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and cancer. Keywords: HBV, HCV, Infection, Interferon, T Cell

  14. Interleukin-27 Gene Therapy Prevents the Development of Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis but Fails to Attenuate Established Inflammation due to the Expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-27 (IL-27 and its subunit P28 (also known as IL-30 have been shown to inhibit autoimmunity and have been suggested as potential immunotherapeutic for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS. However, the potential of IL-27 and IL-30 as immunotherapeutic, and their mechanisms of action have not been fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV-delivered IL-27 (AAV-IL-27 and IL-30 (AAV-IL-30 in a murine model of MS. We found that one single administration of AAV-IL-27, but not AAV-IL-30 completely blocked the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. AAV-IL-27 administration reduced the frequencies of Th17, Treg, and GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells and induced T cell expression of IFN-γ, IL-10, and PD-L1. However, experiments involving IL-10-deficient mice and PD-1 blockade revealed that AAV-IL-27-induced IL-10 and PD-L1 expression were not required for the prevention of EAE development. Surprisingly, neither AAV-IL-27 nor AAV-IL-30 treatment inhibited EAE development and Th17 responses when given at disease onset. We found that mice with established EAE had significant expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells, and AAV-IL-27 treatment further expanded these cells and induced their expression of Th17-promoting cytokines such as IL-6. Adoptive transfer of AAV-IL-27-expanded CD11b+Gr-1+ cells enhanced EAE development. Thus, expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells provides an explanation for the resistance to IL-27 therapy in mice with established disease.

  15. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  16. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and manag