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Sample records for acute viral encephalomyelitis

  1. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute encephalomyelitis with multiple herpes viral reactivations during abatacept therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideto; Takayama, Ayami; Ito, Takumi; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2013-05-09

    To describe the case of a patient who had been receiving abatacept, a T-cell costimulatory molecule blocker for rheumatoid arthritis, and developed an acute encephalomyelitis associated with reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A 61-year-old woman receiving abatacept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis developed a disturbance of consciousness. MRI indicated multifocal parenchymal lesions in the brainstem, supratentorial areas and cervical spinal cord. Although steroid therapy significantly improved the neurological symptoms and MRI findings, the patient died of sepsis aggravated by coinfection with a fungal infection. Retrospectively, a PCR assay revealed continued systemic reactivation of VZV, EBV and CMV. Acute encephalomyelitis may be associated with VZV EBV and CMV reactivation during abatacept therapy. Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of acute encephalomyelitis associated with herpes virus reactivation during abatacept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Caldemeyer, K.S. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smith, R.R. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Harris, T.M. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Edwards, M.K. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  4. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Typical Radiologic Findings: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin R, Luis G; Posada A, Marcela; Sanchez M, Luisa C

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old female patient developed neurological symptoms after a classical episode of dengue. The physical examination reveled no fever, no neurological focalization, and an altered mental status (Glasgow 12/15). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patient showed clinical improvement following treatment with steroids. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is classically described as a uniphasic syndrome occurring in association with systemic viral infection (parainfectious encephalomyelitis) or immunization or vaccination (post vaccination encephalomyelitis). Pathologically, there is perivascular inflammation, edema, and demyelination within the CNS. Clinically, patients present with rapidly progressing focal or multifocal neurologic dysfunction. The treatment for ADEM is targeted at suppressing inflammation in the brain through the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as intravenous corticosteroids.

  5. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

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    Vijay Kodadhala; Saravana Devulapalli; Mohankumar Kurukumbi; Annapurni Jayam-Trouth

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, ...

  6. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kodadhala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability.

  7. A rare sequela of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Devulapalli, Saravana; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability.

  8. MRI findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Oh, Sei Jung; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, So Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Acute disseminate encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease of probable autoimmune etiology. The MR images of patients with clinically suspected ADEM were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical symptoms occurred 5 days to 1 month after viral upper respiratory infection (4) and Coxsakie viral infection (1). The symptoms had begun with fever (3), headache (3), sore throat (1), and drowsy mental state (1), which progressed with monophasic course to altered mental change (2), extremity weakness (2), seizure (1) and/or cerebellar symptom (1). MRI findings of ADEM showed patchy (4), non hemorrhagic (5), asymmetric (5) high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images. The number of the lesions was mostly multiple (4). The lesions mainly involved the brain stem (3) and subcortical while matter (3). Follow-up MR images of 13 days to 20 days after high dose steroid therapy showed marked improvement in two of three, which well corrected with clinical manifestations. MR finding of multiple, patchy, nonhemorrhagic and asymmetric lesions in subcortical white matter and brain stem on T2-weighted images seem to be characteristic features of ADEM, but nonspecific. Therefore, clinical correlation is required in evaluating ADEM.

  9. Mice deficient in interferon-gamma or interferon-gamma receptor 1 have distinct inflammatory responses to acute viral encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma is an important component of the immune response to viral infections that can have a role both in controlling virus replication and inducing inflammatory damage. To determine the role of IFN-gamma in fatal alphavirus encephalitis, we have compared the responses of wild type C57BL/6 (WTB6) mice with mice deficient in either IFN-gamma (GKO) or the alpha-chain of the IFN-gamma receptor (GRKO) after intranasal infection with a neuroadapted strain of sindbis virus. Mortalities of GKO and GRKO mice were similar to WTB6 mice. Both GKO and GRKO mice had delayed virus clearance from the brain and spinal cord, more infiltrating perforin(+) cells and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNAs than WTB6 mice. However, inflammation was more intense in GRKO mice than WTB6 or GKO mice with more infiltrating CD3(+) T cells, greater expression of major histocompatibility complex-II and higher levels of interleukin-17A mRNA. Fibroblasts from GRKO embryos did not develop an antiviral response after treatment with IFN-gamma, but showed increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNAs although these increases developed more slowly and were less intense than those of WTB6 fibroblasts. These data indicate that both GKO and GRKO mice fail to develop an IFN-gamma-mediated antiviral response, but differ in regulation of the inflammatory response to infection. Therefore, GKO and GRKO cannot be considered equivalent when assessing the role of IFN-gamma in CNS viral infections.

  10. CT-verified intracranial calcifications and contrast enhancement in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

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    Ipsen, P. [Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease which follows viral infection or vaccination. We report the CT findings in a 13-year-old boy with ADEM after infection with Epstein-Barr virus. After 11 days, the patient developed intracranial calcifications in addition to demyelinating lesions. This is a rare finding in ADEM. (orig.) With 4 figs., 15 refs.

  11. Hyper Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis of Childhood: A Rare Entity.

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    Kushwaha, Suman; Gupta, Ashutosh; Agarwal, Neha; Chaturvedi, Sujata; Jha, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    A young child with catastrophic neurological illness diagnosed as a rare variant of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM). She succumbed to her illness despite of aggressive and appropriate management. Malignant demyelinating encephalomyelitis should be considered in children who are refractory to the treatment of ADEM.

  12. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  13. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Semple antirabies vaccine

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    Murthy, J.M.K. [Department of Neurology, Nizam`s Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad (India)

    1998-07-01

    I reviewed MRI findings in five patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following vaccination with Semple antirabies vaccine. MRI in two patients with encephalitis features showed multiple white matter lesions in the cerebrum, cerebellar peduncles and brain stem. Two patients who had features of cord involvement showed signal alterations in the cord extending over a few segments. Asymptomatic lesions in the cerebrum were seen in two patients. In a patient with encephalomyelitis MRI 50 days later showed resolution of the lesions. The white matter lesions described were indistinguishable from those seen in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following other infections. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  14. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; Akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis

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    Politi, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread autoimmune demyelinating condition, which principally affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The typical presentation is that of multifocal neurologic disturbances accompanied by change in mental status. CSF analysis reveals lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein content, but may also yield normal results. MRI is regarded as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice and typically demonstrates involvement of deep cerebral hemispheric and subcortical white matter as well as lesions in the basal ganglia, gray-white junction, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Unlike multiple sclerosis (MS), ADEM has a monophasic course and a favorable long-term prognosis. (orig.) [German] Die akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis (ADEM) ist eine akut auftretende autoimmune demylinisierende Erkrankung der weissen Substanz, die hauptsaechlich Gehirn und Rueckenmark befaellt. Ueblicherweise tritt sie nach einer Infektion oder Impfung auf. Die Entwicklung einer fokalen oder multifokalen neurologischen Funktionsstoerung ist das Kennzeichen der klinischen Praesentation der ADEM. Lymphozytaere Pleozytose und Eiweisserhoehung sind typische Befunde in der Liquoruntersuchung. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl. Die ADEM-Laesionen sind typischerweise gross, multipel und asymmetrisch. Sie koennen in den Gross- und Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, im Hirnstamm und im Rueckenmark lokalisiert sein. Die subkortikale und die zentrale weisse Substanz sind am haeufigsten befallen. Weniger haeufig ist die graue Substanz der Thalami und der Basalganglien betroffen. Im Gegensatz zur Multiplen Sklerose (MS) ist die Prognose der ADEM im Allgemeinen guenstig. (orig.)

  15. Case Report: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in two Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report two children from the South-western part of Nigeria with blood culture proven typhoid fever who developed encephalopathy and acute cerebellar syndrome due to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of post-Salmonella disseminated ...

  16. [Acute hemorrhagic viral conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haicl, P; Vanista, J; Danes, L

    1992-10-01

    Two cases of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis are described, in which the enterovirus Coxsackie 24 was found by serological examination to be the etiological agent. The virus was important from Nigeria. The patients suffered by the acute hemorrhagic keratoconjuntivitis with transient iritic irritation without the systemic symptoms. Since now this disease with serological verification was not diagnosed in our country. The question of the viral hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and their treatment is discussed. The necessity of virological investigation in inflammations of the anterior segment is stressed.

  17. Neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

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    Moschopulos, Michael; Hungerbuehler, Hansjoerg; Guarner, Jeannette; Genrich, Gillian L.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2008-01-01

    We report the autopsy findings for a 45-year-old man with polyradiculoneuropathy and fatal acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after having Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. M. pneumoniae antigens were demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue, indicating neuroinvasion as an additional pathogenetic mechanism in central neurologic complications of M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:18394283

  18. A residual cystic lesion in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    Go, T. [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Nagara (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics; Imai, T. [Kyoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a residual cystic lesion on MRI. This seemed to be induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. Despite complete clinical improvement with high-dose steroid therapy, the cystic lesion has persisted for 3 years on MRI. There have been no previous reports of residual cystic lesions in ADEM. (orig.)

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. A descriptive study in Tehran, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samile, N; Hassan, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency, etiology (viral infection or vaccination), presenting signs and symptoms, response to therapy, complication and course of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in our hospitals. A 2-year retrospective, descriptive, chart review of children with final diagnosis of ADEM in 2 hospitals (Hazrat Rasool and Mofid in Tehran, Iran during 2000-2002) was carried out. The diagnosis is based upon clinical presentation, physical examination and ruling out of other disease (imaging, laboratories and so forth) of expert pediatric neurologists. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was documented in all cases by characteristics MRI changes included inflammation and demyelination in subcortical or periventricular regions. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were diagnosed in 15 patients. More than half of patients were between 9-14 years old. It was rare in 1-5 years old children. It had an abrupt onset, preceding infection/vaccination with no gender differences. Approximately 46.4% of cases had a recent upper respiratory tract illness. Varicella zoster virus infection, urinary tract infection, and mycoplasma pneumoniae were observed. Presentation signs included ataxia, decreased consciousness, fever plus nausea/vomiting, cranial nerve involvement, dysarthric speech, convulsion, hemiparesis, paresthesia, meningismus, and headache. We identified inflammation and demyelination in subcortical than periventricular lesions by magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis was excellent with low mortality rate (6.6%). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is common in our children, possibly because of the high prevalence of causative infections. Due to advances in control of traditional exanthematous diseases such as measle, rubella and so forth, most cases of ADEM in this study followed non-specific upper respiratory infections. Differentiation of ADEM from a single episode of multiple sclerosis is difficult. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis should be carried out

  20. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

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    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  1. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite.

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    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite.On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetanus toxoid and polyvalent antisnake venom. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. After a high dose of methylprednisolone was used as diagnostic treatment, the patient started recovering fast.ADEM is a rare complication after snake bite, and is triggered by venom or antivenin. Magnetic resonance imaging helps in the early diagnosis of ADEM, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be effective in ADEM after viper bite or antivenin management.

  2. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis

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    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limi...

  3. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Review of Eleven Cases in Childhood in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikkhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it is thought to be immune-mediated. The prognosis is favorable, with most children making a full recovery. Objectives: The present report analyzed different clinical presentations, response to treatment and outcome in a series of 11 patients with ADEM who referred to our tertiary center in north of Iran from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective simple descriptive review, eleven cases with ADEM admitted in the neurology ward from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled. The clinical findings and laboratory and imaging results of patients were reviewed. All of these cases were evaluated with neurological examination, serologic tests for bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis (especially, herpes simplex virus and brain MRI without contrast. After discharge, patients were followed for at least six months (6 to 12 months clinically and radiologically. Results: Of 11 children, 8 were male and 3 female. Their ages ranged between 4 and 10 years. The mean interval between the preceding infection and symptoms of encephalomyelitis was nine days. The most common presenting symptoms were ataxia in 45.4%, fever and headache in 36.4% and altered consciousness in 18.2% of patients. Neurological examination revealed pyramidal motor signs such as brisk deep tendon reflexes (hyperreflexia (81.8%, cranial nerve involvement (18.2%, dysarthria (9.1% and abnormal movements (9.1%. We followed up these patients in long-term for 6 to 12 months. Only in 1 child who received IVIG, mild ataxia had reminded. Conclusions: The prognosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is favorable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ADEM would probably reduce morbidity.

  4. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report of effective early immunotherapy

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    Ritarwan, K.; Ramayani, O. R.; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic acute non-vasculitic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse neurologic signs and symptoms coupled with evidence of multifocal lesions of demyelination on neuroimaging. Despite the long-standing recognition of ADEM as a specific entity, no consensus definition of ADEM had been reached until recently. Historically, different definitions of ADEM have been in published cases of pediatric and adult patients, which varied as to whether events required (1) monofocal or multifocal clinical features, (2) a change in mental status, and (3) a documentation of previous infection or immunization. The treatment has been given to the patient such as supportive therapy and high dose corticosteroids.

  5. Cytomegalovirus-associated encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult: a two-stage attack of direct viral and delayed immune-mediated invasions. case report.

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    Daida, Kensuke; Ishiguro, Yuta; Eguchi, Hiroto; Machida, Yutaka; Hattori, Nobutaka; Miwa, Hideto

    2016-11-17

    It is clinically rare to find cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated encephalomyelitis in immunocompetent adults. Here, we present the case of an adult patient who developed acute transverse myelitis that was followed by immune-mediated disseminated encephalomyelitis. A 38-year-old man developed acute paraplegia with paresthesia below the level of the T7-8 dermatome. Both brain and spinal cord MRIs performed at admission appeared normal. Corticosteroid therapy was initiated, with the later addition of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins. After polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the presence of CMV DNA in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), anti-viral therapy was added. Forty days after symptom onset, despite an initial positive response to this therapy, he developed dysarthria and truncal ataxia. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated progressively expanding lesions involving not only the spinal cord but also the cerebral white matter, suggestive of extensive immune-mediated demyelination involving the central nervous system (CNS), as is observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This case report underscores the importance of careful patient observation following the initial diagnosis of a CMV-associated CNS infection, such as transverse myelitis, on the possibility that post-infectious ADEM may appear.

  6. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  7. Protection from fatal viral encephalomyelitis: AMPA receptor antagonists have a direct effect on the inflammatory response to infection

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    Greene, Ivorlyne P.; Lee, Eun-Young; Prow, Natalie; Ngwang, Brownhilda; Griffin, Diane E.

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal cell death during fatal acute viral encephalomyelitis can result from damage caused by virus replication, glutamate excitotoxicity, and the immune response. A neurovirulent strain of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal encephalomyelitis associated with motor neuron death in adult C57BL/6 mice that can be prevented by treatment with the prototypic noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 [Nargi-Aizenman J, et al. (2004) Ann Neurol 55:541–549]. To determine the mechanism of protection, NSV-infected mice were treated with 7-acetyl-5-(4-aminophenyl)-8(R)-methyl-8,9-dihydro-7H-1,3-dioxolo-(4,5-h)-benzodiazepine (talampanel), a potent, orally available member of the 2,3 benzodiazepine class of noncompetitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonists. Talampanel-treated mice were protected from NSV-induced paralysis and death. Examination of the brain during infection showed significantly less mononuclear cell infiltration and no increase in astrocyte expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in treated mice compared with untreated mice. Lack of CNS inflammation was attributable to failure of treated mice to induce activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissue in response to infection. Antibody responses to NSV were also suppressed by talampanel treatment, and virus clearance was delayed. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized effect of AMPA receptor antagonists on the immune response and suggest that prevention of immune-mediated damage, in addition to inhibition of excitotoxicity, is a mechanism by which these drugs protect from death of motor neurons caused by viral infection. PMID:18296635

  8. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in Tunisia: Report of a pediatric cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Achour, N; Ben Waddey, O; Kraoua, I; Benrhouma, H; Klaa, H; Rouissi, A; Ben Youssef-Turki, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system whose clinical features, management and outcome are incompletely understood in Tunisian population. To describe clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features; treatment and outcome in a cohort of Tunisian children with ADEM. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of all children attending the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology (Tunis) with ADEM between 2005 and 2015. Clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features, therapeutic data and outcome were analyzed. There were 15 children (7 males and 8 females). The mean age at onset was 6.9 years. Thirteen (86.6%) patients had a prodromal event. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred within 17.6 days (4-30). Limb weakness was the most common presenting symptom (53.3%). Extrapyramidal syndrome was noticed in 6 patients (40%). Initial MRI showed a deep gray matter involvement in 7 cases (46.6%). Gadolinium enhancement at acute stage was observed in only 2 patients (13%). Cerebrospinal fluid findings did not show intrathecal oligoclonal bands. The use of high-dose IV methylprednisolone followed by oral steroid taper was associated with rapid recovery. Additional treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin was necessary in 2 patients. Complete recovery was obtained in 11 patients (73.3%). A monophasic course was noticed in 14 cases. Only one patient (5%) developed multiple sclerosis. The high frequency of prodromal events and extrapyramidal syndrome in addition to the low rate of gadolinium enhancement at acute stage seem to be the main features in our patients. Larger ADEM multicenter cohort studies in Tunisia and North Africa could provide more detailed information about this entity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Korah, I.P.; Prabhakar, S.; Warade, S.S.; Alexander, M.

    2000-01-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the MR imaging features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in a country with a high prevalence of ADEM. Magnetic resonance scans from 33 patients diagnosed clinically with MS (14 patients) or ADEM (19 patients) were reviewed concurrently by two radiologists blinded to the clinical diagnosis. The size, site, morphology and pattern of brain and spinal cord involvement were recorded and the MR imaging diagnosis was compared with the clinical diagnosis. The MR imaging findings matched with the clinical diagnosis in 11 of 14 patients with MS (sensitivity = 78.6%), and with the clinical diagnosis in 15 of 18 patients with ADEM (sensitivity = 78.9%). Three patients had non-specific findings and in a further three patients discordant imaging features were present. One patient with imaging features typical of Balo's concentric sclerosis was diagnosed clinically as suffering from ADEM. In a country with a high prevalence of ADEM, the majority of patients with ADEM and MS can be differentiated on MR imaging. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Fluoxetine promotes remission in acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xi-qiu; Qiu, Guang; Liu, Xiao-jia; Liu, Shan; Wu, Yongming; Wang, Xinyu; Lu, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to clarify the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for its potential use in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The rat EAE model was induced by subcutaneous injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate. Rats received fluoxetine via daily intragastric administration, starting 2 weeks prior to immune induction (fluoxetine pretreatment). Clinical scores and pathological changes in EAE rats were analyzed. Changes in serum cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA. Fluoxetine pretreatment significantly promoted remission in EAE. Histologically, fluoxetine-induced neuroprotection was accompanied by reductions in inflammatory foci and in the degree of demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE rats. The increase in serum IFN-γ in the EAE model was also suppressed by fluoxetine administration. These findings suggest that the prophylactic use of fluoxetine can relieve symptoms during remission in the acute EAE model, and these neuroprotective effects are associated with its anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The analysis on 12 cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Zhao-hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical features and treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. Methods All patients admitted with ADEM during May 1990 to Dec 2010 were included in the study. Clinical data of 12 cases with ADEM were reviewed and analysed. The diagnosis of ADEM was made based on the clinical presentation, suggestive MRI and auxiliary examination findings. All patients were treated with intravenous steroids or immunoglobulins (IVIg. Results The sample consisted of 10 men and 2 women. The oldest patient was 69 years old and the youngest was 6 years old. Six patients had definite upper respiratory tract infection preceded the onset of neurological symptoms, 3 patients had non?specific fever, 1 patient had measles vaccination, 1 patient had measles prior to the onset 4 months ago. No preceding illness and vaccination occurred in 1 patient. The common presenting symptoms were fever, nausea, vomiting, headache. Neurological manifestations included cranial nerve involvement (the abducent nerve was the most common cranial nerve involved, paralysis (include hemiplegia, quadriplegia, paraplegia, altered sensorium, bladder involvement (both incontinence and retention, meningeal irrigation sign and conscious disturbance. Conclusion Despite the serious manifestation, ADEM in patient has good immediate outcome. Early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized.

  12. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhamshu KC; Dilip Sharma; Nandu Silwal; Bhupendra Kumar Basnet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Methods: Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between Januar...

  13. MR findings in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wha Young; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    We reviewed the distribution of lesion and the characteristics of the MR findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children. We evaluated the differences in the imaging findings and the clinical outcomes between the patients with deep gray matter involvement and the patients without deep gray matter involvement. We retrospectively reviewed the 62 MR examinations of 21 patients who were discharged with the clinical diagnosis of ADEM. The patients were aged from 13 months to 12 years old (mean age: 4.5 years). Follow-up MR examinations were done one to 5 times (mean: 3 times) for 2 weeks to 4 years (mean: 3 months) after the initial examination. We compared the signal intensity on T2WI, the enhancement and residue on the MR images and the clinical outcomes between the patients with deep gray matter involvement and the patients without deep gray matter involvement. A total of 21 patients had white matter abnormalities on their initial MR. Fifteen patients (71%) had foci of increased signal intensity on T2WI in the deep gray matter: thalamus (n=15), globus pallidus (n=14) and putamen (n=10). On the follow-up images, all patients showed decreased signal intensity and enhancement of their lesion. We could not find the significant differences in signal intensity, enhancement and residue on the MRIs and also the clinical outcomes between the patients with deep gray matter involvement and the patients without deep gray matter involvement (<.05). There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the imaging and the clinical outcomes between the ADEM patients with deep gray matter involvement and those ADEM patients without deep gray matter involvement.

  14. Therapeutic plasma exchange in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras-Novell, Cristina; García Rey, Enric; Perez Baena, Luis Francisco; Jordan Garcia, Iolanda; Catella Cahiz, Dolors; Cambra, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is probably due to an autoimmune mechanism with an acute presentation and a monophasic course. The management of patients with ADEM is based on supportive therapy, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and in selected cases, with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of TPE, as adjuvant therapy in pediatric patients with ADEM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with the diagnosis of ADEM between 2009 and 2011 to which TPE was indicated and were admitted in the ICU of Hospital Sant Joan de Deu (Spain). The diagnosis of ADEM was made by clinical and laboratory criteria and by the presence of compatible lesions on cranio-spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). For signaling TPE, we followed the guidelines established by the American Association of Apheresis (ASFA) in 2010. Five cases were identified. The predominant neurological symptoms in our patients were: altered level of consciousness, seizures, motor deficits, cranial nerve disorders, and aphasia. Most important demyelinating lesions were located in cortical and subcortical white matter of the brain and highlighted brainstream. Patients performed between 4 and 5 sessions, with no reported side effects. Progressive clinical improvement was evident in all patients, with good neurosensory response to stimulation, cessation of seizures, and recovery of limb mobility. Nowadays, one patient's right paresis persists and another suffers epileptic seizures. None of the cases in our series presented new episodes of demyelination. Due to the suggested immune-mediated pathogenesis of ADEM, treatment is based on immunomodulatory agents, being glucocorticoids the most important ones. The treatment can be complemented with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis. Available data suggests that plasma exchange is beneficial

  15. Astrocyte-derived CXCL10 drives accumulation of antibody-secreting cells in the central nervous system during viral encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Timothy W; Stohlman, Stephen A; Hinton, David R; Bergmann, Cornelia C

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with local accumulation of antibody (Ab)-secreting cells (ASC). By providing a source of Ab at the site of infection, CNS-localized ASC play a critical role in acute viral control and in preventing viral recrudescence. Following coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis, the CNS accumulation of ASC is chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) dependent. This study demonstrates that CNS-expressed CXCR3 ligand CXCL10 is the critical chemokine regulating ASC accumulation. Impaired ASC recruitment in CXCL10(-/-) but not CXCL9(-/-) mice was consistent with reduced CNS IgG and κ-light chain mRNA and virus-specific Ab. Moreover, the few ASC recruited to the CNS in CXCL10(-/-) mice were confined to the vasculature, distinct from the parenchymal localization in wild-type and CXCL9(-/-) mice. However, neither CXCL9 nor CXCL10 deficiency diminished neutralizing serum Ab, supporting a direct role for CXCL10 in ASC migration. T cell accumulation, localization, and effector functions were also not affected in either CXCL9(-/-) or CXCL10(-/-) mice, consistent with similar control of infectious virus. There was also no evidence for dysregulation of chemokines or cytokines involved in ASC regulation. The distinct roles of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in ASC accumulation rather coincided with their differential localization. While CXCL10 was predominantly expressed by astrocytes, CXCL9 expression was confined to the vasculature/perivascular spaces. These results suggest that CXCL10 is critical for two phases: recruitment of ASC to the CNS vasculature and ASC entry into the CNS parenchyma.

  16. TREATMENT OF ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN THE LEWIS RAT WITH THE SEX-HORMONE PROGESTERONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TROOSTER, WJ; TEELKEN, AW; LIJNEMA, TH; MEYER, E; MINDERHOUD, JM; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effect of treatment with progesterone on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for the human neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with guinea pig spinal cord. From 4 days

  17. Brain and spinal cord MR imaging in a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, A. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Carlier, R. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Mompoint, D. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Clair, B. [Service de Reanimation Neurologique, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Chillet, P. [Service de Reanimation Neurologique, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Vallee, C. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France)

    1997-04-01

    We describe a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following varicella infection presenting as transverse myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse cord swelling and signal increase without gadolinium enhancement and several silent brain lesions, all of which completely resolved at follow-up. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  18. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Kaymakamzade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, commonly attributed to infections or vaccinations. Toxic or allergenic compounds can also trigger a response in the immune system and may cause demyelination. We present a case with ADEM after using oral herbal medications. Case Report: A 25 year-old male developed bilateral central facial palsy and severe quadriparesis after taking herbal drugs (containing echinacea and many other herbal ingredients for two weeks. He had used the extract to increase his potency and reproductivity. He had no past history of recent immunization or viral infection. The clinical findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were compatible with ADEM. The neurological findings were improved after seven doses of pulse methylprednisolone treatment. To our knowledge, this is the third report in the literature that links herbal therapy and demyelinating disease. Conclusion: Most of the ADEM cases related to herbal therapy in the literature similarly used echinacea. It is our opinion that other ingredients of the herbal extract used by our case, besides echinacea, could have the potential to cause a trigger in the immune system. Further studies are needed to clarify the immunological effects of different kinds of herbal compounds, as well as the effects of different parts of the plants and the results of various dosages. Moreover, ingredients should also be tested for toxicity, adverse effects and drug interactions.

  19. Tonsillar crypt epithelium is an important extra-central nervous system site for viral replication in EV71 encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaoxin; Ong, Kien Chai; Gao, Zifen; Zhao, Xishun; Anderson, Virginia M; McNutt, Michael A; Wong, Kum Thong; Lu, Min

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71; family Picornaviridae, species human Enterovirus A) usually causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, which may rarely be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. We investigated extra-central nervous system (extra-CNS) tissues capable of supporting EV71 infection and replication, and have correlated tissue infection with expression of putative viral entry receptors, scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CNS and extra-CNS tissues from seven autopsy cases were examined by IHC and in situ hybridization to evaluate viral antigens and RNA. Viral receptors were identified with IHC. In all seven cases, the CNS showed stereotypical distribution of inflammation and neuronal localization of viral antigens and RNA, confirming the clinical diagnosis of EV71 encephalomyelitis. In six cases in which tonsillar tissues were available, viral antigens and/or RNA were localized to squamous epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts. Tissues from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, mesenteric nodes, spleen, and skin were all negative for viral antigens/RNA. Our novel findings strongly suggest that tonsillar crypt squamous epithelium supports active viral replication and represents an important source of viral shedding that facilitates person-to-person transmission by both the fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. It may also be a portal for viral entry. A correlation between viral infection and SCARB2 expression appears to be more significant than for PSGL-1 expression. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adeno-Associated Viral-Mediated Catalase Expression Suppresses Optic Neuritis in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, John; Qi, Xiaoping; Hauswirth, William W.

    1998-11-01

    Suppression of oxidative injury by viral-mediated transfer of the human catalase gene was tested in the optic nerves of animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of primary central nervous system demyelination that has been frequently used as an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The optic nerve is a frequent site of involvement common to both EAE and MS. Recombinant adeno-associated virus containing the human gene for catalase was injected over the right optic nerve heads of SJL/J mice that were simultaneously sensitized for EAE. After 1 month, cell-specific catalase activity, evaluated by quantitation of catalase immunogold, was increased approximately 2-fold each in endothelia, oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and axons of the optic nerve. Effects of catalase on the histologic lesions of EAE were measured by computerized analysis of the myelin sheath area (for demyelination), optic disc area (for optic nerve head swelling), extent of the cellular infiltrate, extravasated serum albumin labeled by immunogold (for blood-brain barrier disruption), and in vivo H2O2 reaction product. Relative to control, contralateral optic nerves injected with the recombinant virus without a therapeutic gene, catalase gene inoculation reduced demyelination by 38%, optic nerve head swelling by 29%, cellular infiltration by 34%, disruption of the blood-brain barrier by 64%, and in vivo levels of H2O2 by 61%. Because the efficacy of potential treatments for MS are usually initially tested in the EAE animal model, this study suggests that catalase gene delivery by using viral vectors may be a therapeutic strategy for suppression of MS.

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis on the basis of clinical course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy. ADEM is considered an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by an environmental stimulus in genetically susceptible individuals. The diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical and radiological features. Most children with ADEM initially present with fever, meningeal signs, and acute encephalopathy. The level of consciousness ranges from lethargy to frank coma. Deep and subcortical white-matter lesions and gray-matter lesions such as thalami and basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are associated with ADEM. In a child who presents with signs of encephalitis, bacterial and viral meningitis or encephalitis must be ruled out. Sequential MRI is required to confirm the diagnosis of ADEM, as relapses with the appearance of new lesions on MRI may suggest either multiphasic ADEM or multiple sclerosis (MS. Pediatric MS, defined as onset of MS before the age of 16, is being increasingly recognized. MS is characterized by recurrent episodes of demyelination in the CNS separated in space and time. The McDonald criteria for diagnosis of MS include evidence from MRI and allow the clinician to make a diagnosis of clinically definite MS on the basis of the interval preceding the development of new white matter lesions, even in the absence of new clinical findings. The most important alternative diagnosis to MS is ADEM. At the initial presentation, the 2 disorders cannot be distinguished with certainty. Therefore, prolonged follow-up is needed to establish a diagnosis.

  7. Post-infective transverse myelitis following Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with radiological features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-infectious autoimmune demyelination of the central nervous system is a rare neurological disorder typically associated with exanthematous viral infections. We report an unusual presentation of the condition and a previously undocumented association with Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an acute myelopathy three days after discharge following acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Imaging studies of the spine ruled out an infective focus and no other lesions were seen within the cord. Diffuse, bilateral white matter lesions were seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and our patient was diagnosed as having a post-infective demyelination syndrome that met the diagnostic criteria for an acute transverse myelitis. Our patient clinically and radiologically improved following treatment with steroids. Conclusions The novel association of a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection with post-infectious autoimmune central nervous system demyelination should alert the reader to the potentially causative role of this common organism, and gives insights into the pathogenesis. The unusual dissociation between the clinical presentation and the location of the radiological lesions should also highlight the potential for the condition to mimic the presentation of others, and stimulates debate on the definitions of acute transverse myelitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and their potential overlap.

  8. Gadolinium enhancement in acute and chronic-progressive experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlik, S J; Grant, E A; Lee, D; Noseworthy, J H

    1993-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging detects blood-brain barrier disruption after gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of central nervous system lesions of multiple sclerosis. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis has many clinical and pathological features in common with multiple sclerosis including alterations in the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We have compared T2-weighted cranial MR images with Gd-DTPA dimeglumine-enhanced T1-weighted images of myelin basic protein-induced acute (Days 8-42 postimmunization) and central nervous system-induced chronic-progressive (Days 70-95 postimmunization) forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig. Although animals from both groups had abnormal T2-weighted images, only the myelin basic protein-acute-EAE animals (Days 14-24 postimmunization) showed enhancement on postcontrast MR studies. The different responses of the acute and chronic diseases may result from different immunogens, severity of disease, or different permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced, T1-weighted MR images distinguish acutely active and chronic inflammatory lesions in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

  9. THE ROLE OF CONTARST ENHANCEMENT IN VISUALIZATION OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alikhanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been described the results of MRI and ct neurovisualization with contrast enhancement in 38 children with clinical diagnosis acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE. The distribution of contrast agents in regions of ADE has been studied and the role of contrast enhancement in diagnosis of its has been estimated. Contrast media application allows to detect brain lesions, to identificate the real volume of cerebral tissue included in pathological process and to estimate the efficacy of treatment of ADE. Investigated variants of MRCM (gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobutrol and RCM (iopromide distribution in zones of brain lesions in patients with ade are the basis for specificity increase of ADE diagnosis.Key words: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, contrast enhancement, children.

  10. [Molecular genetic characteristics of the virus isolated from patients with human acute encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinsky, I F; Grebennikova, T V; Alkhovsky, S V; Kochergin-Nikitsky, K S; Sergeyev, O V; Gribencha, S V; Raev, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study of the antigenic and molecular genetic structure of human acute encephalomyelitis virus (HAEV) showed a high similarity of the HAEV N gene with the homologous gene of the fixed rabies virus strain. The results of the nucleotide sequence analysis indicate that HAEV belongs to the lyssavirus genotype 1. The N gene sequence is the closest to those of the ERA-CB20-M and RV-97 strains of the rabies virus. The need for further research into the role of the human acute encephalomyelitis virus in human pathology stems from past surveys that revealed the presence of the VNAs against this virus in 6 per cent of the blood received from donors in the USA and in each third among the patients with multiple sclerosis in the former USSR.

  11. Relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H. (1. Dept. (Neurology) of Internal Medicine, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kojima, K.; Abe, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Koyanagi Hospital, Saga (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.).

  12. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhamshu KC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Methods: Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December2010were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0–5, 5–10 and 5–15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Results: Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%, Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%, Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%. In 7(2% patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Conclusions: Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery. Keywords: Acute viral hepatitis; hepatitis A; hepatitis E; herbal medications.

  13. Viral Dynamics of Acute HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan J.; McLean, Angela R.; Spina, Celsa A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Havlir, Diane V.

    1999-01-01

    Viral dynamics were intensively investigated in eight patients with acute HIV infection to define the earliest rates of change in plasma HIV RNA before and after the start of antiretroviral therapy. We report the first estimates of the basic reproductive number (R 0), the number of cells infected by the progeny of an infected cell during its lifetime when target cells are not depleted. The mean initial viral doubling time was 10 h, and the peak of viremia occurred 21 d after reported HIV exposure. The spontaneous rate of decline (α) was highly variable among individuals. The phase 1 viral decay rate (δI = 0.3/day) in subjects initiating potent antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV infection was similar to estimates from treated subjects with chronic HIV infection. The doubling time in two subjects who discontinued antiretroviral therapy was almost five times slower than during acute infection. The mean basic reproductive number (R 0) of 19.3 during the logarithmic growth phase of primary HIV infection suggested that a vaccine or postexposure prophylaxis of at least 95% efficacy would be needed to extinguish productive viral infection in the absence of drug resistance or viral latency. These measurements provide a basis for comparison of vaccine and other strategies and support the validity of the simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model of acute HIV infection. PMID:10499922

  14. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Sudhamshu; Sharma, Dilip; Poudyal, Nandu; Basnet, Bhupendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December 2010 were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0-5, 5-10 and 5-15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%), Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%), Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%). In 7(2%) patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery.

  15. ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS FOLLOWING IMMUNIZATION WITH HOMOLOGOUS BRAIN EXTRACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lewis; Paterson, Philip Y.; Smithwick, Betty

    1950-01-01

    1. A severe demyelinating condition characterized by ataxia and paralysis, in some instances leading to death, was produced in thirty-five of a total of fifty-five dogs following immunization with homologous brain tissue combined with Freund's adjuvants. In more than 30 per cent of instances paralysis did not occur until immunization was continued for 6 or more months. Only eight dogs became paralyzed after a single injection of antigen. The condition appeared between 6 and 15 days after the last injection in all animals, irrespective of the total number of injections or the duration of immunization. 2. An antibody which reacted in complement fixation tests with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of homologous brain tissue was demonstrable in the majority of immunized dogs, whether or not the animals became paralyzed. It appeared during or after the 3rd week of immunization, and its occurrence or titer could not be correlated with the incidence of the encephalomyelitis. In general, there were fewer dogs with demonstrable antibody in the paralyzed group than in the non-paralyzed group. 3. A flocculation reaction with alcohol extracts of homologous brain was demonstrated in the serum of immunized dogs. The antigen and antibody involved were apparently identical with those responsible for the complement fixation reactions. 4. The brain tissue component which reacted as antigen in the complement fixation test was present in adult brain from several mammalian species, and peripheral nerve. It was not present in the brain of newborn dogs nor in other unrelated organs. It was demonstrable in brain tissue which had been allowed to autolyze, or treated with 10 per cent formalin. It was not impaired by boiling, or by acid hydrolysis, and was contained in the unsaponifiable fraction of brain lipids. It was separable from cholesterol by digitonin precipitation of the latter. 5. Immunization of dogs with the unsaponifiable fraction of homologous brain, in adjuvants, caused the

  16. Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Biomarker to Differentiate Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis From Multiple Sclerosis at First Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wint Yan; Massoumzadeh, Parinaz; Najmi, Safa; Salter, Amber; Heaps, Jodi; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Mar, Soe

    2018-01-01

    There are no clinical features or biomarkers that can reliably differentiate acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from multiple sclerosis at the first demyelination attack. Consequently, a final diagnosis is sometimes delayed by months and years of follow-up. Early treatment for multiple sclerosis is recommended to reduce long-term disability. Therefore, we intend to explore neuroimaging biomarkers that can reliably distinguish between the two diagnoses. We reviewed prospectively collected clinical, standard MRI and diffusion tensor imaging data from 12 pediatric patients who presented with acute demyelination with and without encephalopathy. Patients were followed for an average of 6.5 years to determine the accuracy of final diagnosis. Final diagnosis was determined using 2013 International Pediatric MS Study Group criteria. Control subjects consisted of four age-matched healthy individuals for each patient. The study population consisted of six patients with central nervous system demyelination with encephalopathy with a presumed diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and six without encephalopathy with a presumed diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome at high risk for multiple sclerosis. During follow-up, two patients with initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were later diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Diffusion tensor imaging region of interest analysis of baseline scans showed differences between final diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis patients, whereby low fractional anisotropy and high radial diffusivity occurred in multiple sclerosis patients compared with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis patients and the age-matched controls. Fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity measures may have the potential to serve as biomarkers for distinguishing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from multiple sclerosis at the onset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Franca

    Full Text Available Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of pediatrician's knowledge about viral hepatitis, through questionnaires to 574 pediatricians, with no obligation of identification. The pediatricians were recruited among those who attended a national Congress of Pediatrics in Brasília, Brazil. Among these pediatricians, 50.1% frequently treated cases of hepatitis, and 74.7% indicated that they had knowledge of the existence of five hepatotropic viruses; 14.5% knew about at least four types of hepatitis complications, while only 7.7% and 4.3% were able to correctly diagnose viral hepatitis A and B, respectively. Many (28.4% did not know how to treat the patients adequately. Only 37.5% had already recommended vaccination against hepatitis B. Only 50.2% of the pediatricians had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. We concluded that it is crucial to make pediatricians more knowledgeable about viral hepatitis, through continued education programs, especially emphasizing prevention procedures.

  18. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY PARAMETERS IN DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Voitenkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research objective was to evaluate the importance of neurophysiological methods in diagnosing the state of visual, somatosensory and motor pathways condition in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM in children.Materials and methods. Twenty-four children with a debut of multiple sclerosis, 15 children with debute of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and 20 neurologically healthy children of the comparison group were examined. All patients were evaluated by neurologist, brain MRI and CSF analysis (isoelectrofocusing to oligoclonal IgG, oligoclonal bands test, visual evoked potentials (VEP, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP.Results. In children with MS asymmetry of the conduction along the motor pathways on the spinal level was higher than in patients with ADEM and controls, functional state of somatosensory cortex neurons was lower and conduction along somatosensory pathways on the spinal level was slower – all differences significant. According to the visual evoked potentials, in more than half of the cases, there was an increase in the latency of the P100 peak. Also in MS group there was a significant disruption of the visual pathway in 54% of the cases. Neurophysiological changes in 58% of cases were demyelinating, and violations of the axonal type occurred in 37% of cases.Conclusions. Neurophysiological diagnostic methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials are highly informative for the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. More pronounced spinal lesions in early stages of MS than in ADEM in children may be the cause of the neurophysiologic differences, and prevalence of the sensory system involvement at this stage may be the reason behind more extended SSEP abnormalities comparing with TMS. VEP changes may reflect primary

  19. Case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-07-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset.

  20. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, M.; Lorenzon, G.; Mesaglio, S.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  1. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    dengue , West Nile, yellow fever , Rift Valley fever , chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic ...patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other ar- thropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious...ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative

  2. Acute encephalomyelitis complicated with severe neurological sequelae after intrathecal administration of methotrexate in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Takuro; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Shinsuke; Tanabe, Takayuki; Kurauchi, Koichiro; Kodama, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2014-11-01

    A four-year-old girl on maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) complained of a headache and low back pain on the day she received her 21st intrathecal methotrexate (it-MTX) administration, and the next day experienced numbness and pain in her foot. This numbness gradually spread to her hand. She thereafter developed a fever and was hospitalized on day 8. After antibiotic therapy, the fever disappeared. However, her lower limbs became paralyzed, and she also developed urinary retention. On day 12, her paralysis progressed upwards, and she also developed paralysis of the upper limbs. Finally, she experienced convulsions with an impairment of consciousness. A magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain and spinal cord showed abnormal signals in the brain cortex and anterior horn. Accordingly, we diagnosed acute encephalomyelitis associated with it-MTX. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, steroid pulse therapy, plasma exchange, and dextromethorphan administration were initiated, while she received mechanical ventilation. Despite this intensive treatment, she suffered severe neurological damage and had to be maintained on mechanical ventilation due to persistent flaccid quadriplegia one year after the onset. When patients have symptoms of ascending paralysis during it-MTX treatment, clinicians should carefully consider the possibility of acute encephalomyelitis due to it-MTX.

  3. Acute pyogenic necrotizing encephalomyelitis: a fulminant and fatal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhugiri, Venkatesh Shankar; Gundamaneni, Sudheer Kumar; Santosh, Vani; Jagadisan, Barath; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan Madhavan; Roopesh-Kumar, Rathakrishnan V; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar; Singh, Manish; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Pariarath, Nisha; Biswal, Niranjan

    2013-05-01

    In this report the authors describe a rare case of a fulminant, pyogenic, necrotizing infection of the spinal cord and brain. Necrotizing lesions of the brain and spinal cord are usually infectious in origin and are associated with high rates of morbidity and death. Although the pathogens responsible have been identified in a few instances, the causal factors remain unknown in many cases. An 11-year-old girl developed acute, rapidly progressive paraplegia with bladder involvement and sensory loss below T-10. She had been treated recently for a Staphylococcus aureus infection of the knee joint precipitated by a penetrating injury with organic matter in the aftermath of a cyclone. Although appropriate antibiotic therapy was instituted, the spinal cord infection progressed to involve the entire spinal cord, brainstem, and brain. This fulminant course was marked by a rapid deterioration in the patient's clinical condition, ultimately leading to her death. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a previously undescribed pattern of longitudinal enhancement along the spinal cord, as well as the white matter tracts in the brainstem and brain. The possible route of spread of infection along the neuraxis is postulated to be the potential space along the white matter tracts. Treatment is not standardized due to the rarity of the condition.

  4. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease masquerading as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung Min; Suh, Sang-Il; Ki, Chang-Seok; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-07-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with X-linked transmission. Common clinical manifestations of CMTX1 disease, as in other forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, are distal muscle wasting and weakness, hyporeflexia, distal sensory disturbance, and foot deformities. Mutations in the connexin-32 gene (gap junction protein β1 [GJB1]) are responsible for CMTX1 disease. In this report, we describe a patient with CMTX1 disease presenting with recurrent attacks of transient and episodic acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms without previous signs of lower extremity weakness or foot deformities; the patient, as well as his asymptomatic mother, exhibited a novel GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile). Differential diagnosis of recurrent and transient ADEM-like illness, if unexplained, should include the possibility of CMTX1 disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Effects of amphetamine and cocaine on the development of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, María J; Balboa, José; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; Brenlla, Julio; González-Peteiro, Mercedes; Rodrigo, Elena; Freire-Garabal, Manuel

    2007-08-01

    The present experiment deals with the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on the development and course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in Lewis rats. Rats were immunized at the age of eight weeks with purified myelin basic protein isolated from guinea pig brain in complete Freund's adjuvant. Drug administration and recording of EAE clinical signs was performed daily since day 1 post-immunization (PI). On day 14 and 28 PI, six rats per group were bled and sacrificed. Spinal cord was examined histologically for EAE lesions. In vivo administration of 0.5 and 1 mg/Kg of amphetamine or cocaine resulted in a dose-related enhancement of neurological and histological signs of acute EAE in comparison with control rats. Both drugs caused a reduction of latent period together with a delayed regression of neurological signs along with an increase in inflammation in the central nervous system in comparison with placebo. Human & Experimental Toxicology (2007) 26, 637-643.

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Picchi, Eliseo; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Altobelli, Simone; Mataluni, Giorgia; Marfia, Girolama; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS. In the acute phase, magnetic resonance (MR) can detect pathologic signal intensity at the CNS with areas of pathologic contrast enhancement at cortical and spinal white matter that normalize over time or can be stable. These findings can be associated with edema in parts of the CNS. The lesions typically appear at different times during the disease course and also can have a different evolution. Our purpose therefore was to describe the clinical course and MR findings of this case and perform a critical review of the literature.

  7. Clinical and biochemical features of acute viral hepatitis | Spearman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral hepatitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acute viral hepatitis, although a generalised systemic infection, presents with clinical manifestations relating directly to inflammation of the liver with hepatocellular dysfunction and jaundice. The most important causes of acute and chronic hepatitis are the ...

  8. {sup 1}H-MRS for the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: insight into the acute-disease stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sira, Liat; Miller, Elka [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Imaging Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Constantini, Shlomi [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv Medical Center, Paediatric Neurology Unit, The Paediatric Neurosurgery Department, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Imaging Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2010-01-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Differentiating ADEM from other inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, is not always conclusive using conventional MRI. To evaluate longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) changes that distinguish ADEM from other inflammatory disorders. MRI/MRS scans were performed in seven patients with ADEM during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Partial recovery was detected between the acute and chronic phases in choline/creatine ratio. Major elevation of lipids and reduction in myo-inositol/creatine ratio was detected in all patients during the acute phase, followed by a reduction in lipids peak and elevation above normal in myo-inositol/creatine ratio during the chronic phase. Consistent and unique MRS changes in metabolite ratios between the acute and chronic presentations of the disease were found. To the best of our knowledge, these patterns have not been described in other inflammatory disorders and might assist in the early diagnosis of ADEM. (orig.)

  9. Clinical features and outcome of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM: An outlook from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramattom Boby

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an uncommon inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis that may follow infections, vaccinations or occur spontaneously. Most of the large series of this disorder were published in the pre-MRI era. Subsequently there has been a paucity of data regarding this entity. Aims: We sought to describe our experience with ADEM across 2 hospitals from Kerala, Sree chitra tirunal institute of medical sciences, thiruvanthapuram and the Indo-american Brain and spine center, Vaikom. We wanted to look at the clinico-radiological parameters of this patient population as well as the functional outcome following ADEM. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients seen in these two centers over a period of 9 years from 1995 to 2003 were analyzed in a retrospective-prospective design. MRI, CT scans, laboratory investigations, nerve conduction parameters and modified rankin outcome scores at last follow up were also noted. Results: The clinico-radiological profile of our patients was comparable to that of patients described in the literature. Relapse was uncommon although transient reappearance of prior symptoms during subsequent illness was common. Possible multiple sclerosis could be diagnosed only in one patient during follow up. Mortality was low ( Conclusions: ADEM deserves to be distinguished from MS in our population as there seems to be a low likelihood of recurrence or relapse. Although mortality rates have improved greatly, survivors are left with a plethora of disabilities and are functionally impaired. Future studies should focus on specific disabilities and treatment options to further improve outcomes in ADEM

  10. Rehabilitation outcomes after combined acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korupolu, Radha; Ngo, Thien; Hack, Nawaz; Escott, Edward; Salles, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year old female presented with acute tetraparesis and areflexia. Initial imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Minimal clinical response with intravenous steroids prompted further work up. Limited nerve conduction studies suggested possible acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy, a rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Repeat imaging was compatible with polyradiculopathy indicating concomitance of ADEM and GBS. The patient suffered severe motor deficits and neuropathic pain. Slow but significant functional recovery was noted after intensive inpatient rehabilitation followed by continued rehabilitation via home health services.

  11. Role of ethanolamine phosphate in the hippocampus of rats with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Llera, D; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Barrios, V; Hernández-Pinto, A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E

    2011-01-01

    Here, we assessed the effects of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) on the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether administration of an ethanolamine phosphate salt could prevent the appearance of the clinical signs and the impairment of the somatostatinergic system in this pathological condition. Female Lewis rats were injected in both hindlimb footpads with myelin basic protein from guinea pig brain and complete Freund's adjuvant and were sacrificed when limp tail (grade 1 EAE) or severe hindlimb paralysis (grade 3 EAE) were observed. One group was injected daily with ethanolamine phosphate, starting two days prior to immunization and for 15 days thereafter. The animals were sacrificed 15 days post-immunization. Acute EAE in grade 3 increased anti-myelin basic protein antibodies in rat serum as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ levels in hippocampal extracts. In addition, it decreased the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA and protein content, and the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity in the hippocampus. The protein levels of the inhibitory G protein subunits αi(1-3), the G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoforms 2, 5 and 6, the phosphorylated cyclic AMP-binding protein and the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity content were unaltered in this brain area. Acute EAE in grade 1 did not modify any of these parameters. Ethanolamine phosphate administration prevented the clinical expression of acute EAE as well as the decrease in the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 expression and the capacity of somatostatin to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity at the time-period studied. Furthermore, it blunted the rise in serum anti-myelin basic protein antibodies and hippocampal interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Altogether, these data suggest that ethanolamine phosphate might provide protection against acute EAE. Copyright

  12. NOVEL APPROACH TO ACUTE VIRAL RHINITIS TREATMENT IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Emel'yanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral rhinitis is one of the most frequent reasons for the administration of drugs in pediatrics. Complex treatment of acute rhinitis with isotonic solution of sterile oceanic water (Marimer and nasal oxymetazoline results in shortening the duration of clinical symptoms of rhinitis.Key words: children, acute respiratory viral infection, rhinitis, oxymetazoline, irrigation therapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 115–118

  13. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  14. Analysis of viral protein-2 encoding gene of avian encephalomyelitis virus from field specimens in Central Java region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Avian encephalomyelitis (AE is a viral disease which can infect various types of poultry, especially chicken. In Indonesia, the incidence of AE infection in chicken has been reported since 2009, the AE incidence tends to increase from year to year. The objective of this study was to analyze viral protein 2 (VP-2 encoding gene of AE virus (AEV from various species of birds in field specimen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification using specific nucleotides primer for confirmation of AE diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 AEV samples are isolated from various species of poultry which are serologically diagnosed infected by AEV from some areas in central Java, Indonesia. Research stage consists of virus samples collection from field specimens, extraction of AEV RNA, amplification of VP-2 protein encoding gene by RT-PCR, separation of RT-PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and data analysis. Results: Amplification products of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV by RT-PCR methods of various types of poultry from field specimens showed a positive results on sample code 499/4/12 which generated DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp. Sensitivity test of RT-PCR amplification showed that the minimum concentration of RNA template is 127.75 ng/μl. The multiple alignments of DNA sequencing product indicated that positive sample with code 499/4/12 has 92% nucleotide homology compared with AEV with accession number AV1775/07 and 85% nucleotide homology with accession number ZCHP2/0912695 from Genbank database. Analysis of VP-2 gene sequence showed that it found 46 nucleotides difference between isolate 499/4/12 compared with accession number AV1775/07 and 93 nucleotides different with accession number ZCHP2/0912695. Conclusions: Analyses of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV with RT-PCR method from 13 samples from field specimen generated the DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp from one sample with

  15. Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, K.S.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Jayakumar, P.N.; Ravishankar, S.; Kamble, R.B. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panicker, J.; Nagaraja, D. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore (India)

    2007-02-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually a monophasic illness characterized by multiple lesions involving gray and white matter. Quantitative MR techniques were used to characterize and stage these lesions. Eight patients (seven males and one female; mean age 19 years, range 5 to 36 years) were studied using conventional MRI (T2- and T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRS ratios were calculated for the lesion and for normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Three patients were imaged in the acute stage (within 7 days of the onset of neurological symptoms) and five in the subacute stage (after 7 days from the onset of symptoms). ADC values in NAWM were in the range 0.7-1.24 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 0.937 {+-} 0.17 mm/s{sup 2}). ADC values of ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.37-0.68 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 0.56 {+-} 0.16 mm/s{sup 2}) and 1.01-1.31 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 1.24 {+-} 0.13 mm/s{sup 2}) in the subacute stage. MRS ratios were obtained for all patients. NAA/Cho ratios were in the range 1.1-3.5 (mean 1.93 {+-} 0.86) in the NAWM. NAA/Cho ratios within ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.63-1.48 (mean 1.18 {+-} 0.48) and 0.29-0.84 (mean 0.49 {+-} 0.22) in the subacute stage. The ADC values, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the acute and subacute stages (P < 0.001, P < 0.027, P < 0.047, respectively). ADC values were significantly different between lesions in the acute (P < 0.009) and subacute stages (P < 0.005) with NAWM. In addition, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the subacute stage and NAWM (P < 0.006, P < 0.007, respectively). ADEM lesions were characterized in the acute stage by restricted diffusion and in the subacute stage by free diffusion and a decrease in NAA/Cho ratios

  16. Childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: the role of brain and spinal cord MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, Pek-Lan; Cheng, Pui-Wai; Chan, Fu-Luk; Ho, Hok-Kung; Wong, Virginia C.N.; Goh, Winnie

    2002-01-01

    Background. It is recognised that the clinical and radiological spectrum of childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is wide. Objective. To determine whether initial MRI features are predictive of clinical outcome and to determine the role of MRI in the management of ADEM. Materials and methods. The MRI scans of ten consecutive children (eight boys, two girls), clinically and radiologically diagnosed to have ADEM, were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up MRI was available for eight patients. Results. Lesions ranged from small and punctate (<1 cm) to moderate sized and confluent (4-5 cm) to diffuse and extensive. Spinal cord lesions, seen in five of seven children, were contiguous or segmental. Seven children (70%) made good clinical recovery while three children (30%) remained severely handicapped. There was no correlation between the site, extent and pattern of involvement and clinical outcome. However, the evolution of MRI findings on follow-up correlated well with the subsequent clinical course and outcome. Conclusions. Although the extent and site of lesions on initial MRI scans are not predictive of clinical outcome, early MRI of the brain and spine is useful in aiding clinical diagnosis, and subsequent follow-up MRI is helpful in monitoring disease progression. (orig.)

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  4. MMP-Independent Role of TIMP-1 at the Blood Brain Barrier during Viral Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Savarin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the CNS (central nervous system with a sublethal neurotropic coronavirus (JHMV induces a vigorous inflammatory response. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are essential to control infectious virus but at the cost of tissue damage. An enigma in understanding the contribution of T cell subsets in pathogenesis resides in their distinct migration pattern across the BBB (blood brain barrier. CD4+ T cells transiently accumulate within the perivascular space, whereas CD8+ T cells migrate directly into the CNS parenchyma. As MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases facilitate migration across the glia limitans, specific expression of the TIMP (tissue inhibitor of MMPs-1 by CD4+ T cells present in the perivascular cuffs suggested that TIMP-1 is responsible for stalling CD4+ T cell migration into the CNS parenchyma. Using TIMP-1 deficient mice, the present data demonstrate an increase rather than a decrease in CD4+ T cell accumulation within the perivascular space during JHMV infection. Whereas virus control was not affected by perivascular retention of CD4+ T cells, disease severity was decreased and associated with reduced IFN γ (interferon γ production. Moreover, decreased CD4+ T cell recruitment into the CNS parenchyma of TIMP-1 deficient mice was not associated with impaired T cell recruiting chemokines or MMP expression, and no compensation by other TIMP molecules was identified. These data suggest an MMP-independent role of TIMP-1 in regulating CD4+ T cell access into the CNS parenchyma during acute JHMV encephalitis.

  5. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, a rare post-malaria neurological complication: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Joana; Casella, Isabel; Ascenção, Bianca Branco; Luis, Nuno Pinto; Gonçalves, Ana Catarina; Brito, Ana Paula; Sá, Joana Estalagem; Parreira, Mário; Lopes, Delfim; Poças, José

    2018-03-21

    There are four neurological complications that can occur after malaria treatment at a time when the patient is aparasitaemic: delayed cerebellar ataxia, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, post-malaria neurological syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). The authors describe a case of a 54-year-old male who presented with encephalopathy and generalized seizures forty-three days after complete recovery from acute malaria by Plasmodium falciparum. Diagnosis of post-malaria ADEM was made based on the acute onset of the neurological symptoms, characteristic findings in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and prompt response to steroid therapy. ADEM is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually arises after an infection or vaccination. Its occurrence after malaria infection is relatively rare, and to the best of our knowledge there are only thirteen cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. MMP-independent role of TIMP-1 at the blood brain barrier during viral encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarin, Carine; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Hinton, David R; Stohlman, Stephen A

    2013-11-26

    Infection of the CNS (central nervous system) with a sublethal neurotropic coronavirus (JHMV) induces a vigorous inflammatory response. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells are essential to control infectious virus but at the cost of tissue damage. An enigma in understanding the contribution of T cell subsets in pathogenesis resides in their distinct migration pattern across the BBB (blood brain barrier). CD4⁺ T cells transiently accumulate within the perivascular space, whereas CD8⁺ T cells migrate directly into the CNS parenchyma. As MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) facilitate migration across the glia limitans, specific expression of the TIMP (tissue inhibitor of MMPs)-1 by CD4⁺ T cells present in the perivascular cuffs suggested that TIMP-1 is responsible for stalling CD4⁺ T cell migration into the CNS parenchyma. Using TIMP-1 deficient mice, the present data demonstrate an increase rather than a decrease in CD4⁺ T cell accumulation within the perivascular space during JHMV infection. Whereas virus control was not affected by perivascular retention of CD4⁺ T cells, disease severity was decreased and associated with reduced IFNγ (interferon γ) production. Moreover, decreased CD4⁺ T cell recruitment into the CNS parenchyma of TIMP-1 deficient mice was not associated with impaired T cell recruiting chemokines or MMP expression, and no compensation by other TIMP molecules was identified. These data suggest an MMP-independent role of TIMP-1 in regulating CD4⁺ T cell access into the CNS parenchyma during acute JHMV encephalitis.

  7. A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-01-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset. (author)

  8. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in 228 patients: A retrospective, multicenter US study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelman, Diederik L H; Chahin, Salim; Mar, Soe S; Venkatesan, Arun; Hoganson, George M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Barreras, Paula; Majmudar, Bittu; Klein, Joshua P; Chitnis, Tanuja; Benkeser, David C; Carone, Marco; Mateen, Farrah J

    2016-05-31

    To analyze the range of demographic, clinical, MRI, and CSF features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), a rare, typically monophasic demyelinating disorder, and analyze long-term outcomes including time and risk factors for subsequent clinical events as well as competing diagnoses. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study in 4 US academic medical centers of all patients clinically diagnosed with ADEM. Initial presentation of pediatric and adult ADEM and monophasic and multiphasic disease were compared. The Aalen-Johansen estimator was used to produce estimates of the probability of transitioning to a multiphasic diagnosis as a function of time since initial diagnosis, treating death and alternative diagnoses as competing risks. Of 228 patients (122 children, age range 1-72 years, 106 male, median follow-up 24 months [25th-75th percentile 6-67], 7 deaths), approximately one quarter (n = 55, 24%) experienced at least one relapse. Relapsing disease in children was more often diagnosed as multiphasic ADEM than in adults (58% vs 21%, p = 0.007), in whom MS was diagnosed more often. Encephalopathy at initial presentation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.383, p = 0.001), male sex (HR 0.394, p = 0.002), and increasing age at onset (HR 0.984, p = 0.035) were independently associated with a longer time to a demyelinating disease relapse in a multivariable model. In 17 patients, diagnoses other than demyelinating disease were concluded in long-term follow-up. Relapsing disease after ADEM is fairly common and associated with a few potentially predictive features at initial presentation. Age-specific guidelines for ADEM diagnosis and treatment may be valuable, and vigilance for other, mostly rare, diseases is imperative. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in China, Singapore and Japan: a comparison with the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelman, D L H; Benkeser, D C; Xu, Y; Neo, S X; Tan, K; Katsuno, M; Sobue, G; Natsume, J; Chahin, S; Mar, S S; Venkatesan, A; Chitnis, T; Hoganson, G M; Yeshokumar, A K; Barreras, P; Majmudar, B; Carone, M; Mateen, F J

    2017-02-01

    Ethnicity-related differences in the incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and other demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been reported. Little is reported on the influence of ethnicity and geographical location in ADEM. Medical records of patients who presented with ADEM (ICD-9 323.61 and 323.81) at large referral hospitals in China, Singapore and Japan (years 1992-2015) were retrospectively reviewed and data were collected in a centralized database. Presenting features and outcomes of ADEM were compared between this multi-country Asian cohort and a uniformly collected US cohort using risk differences and risk ratios. Both cohorts were standardized to a 35% pediatric population to facilitate the comparison. There were 83 Asian patients (48 male, 16 pediatric) followed for a median of 2 (25th-75th percentile 1-10) months. Asian patients exhibited a 26% higher prevalence of spinal cord involvement on magnetic resonance imaging [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-52%; P = 0.05; 63% vs. 37%], a 39% lower prevalence of preceding events (95% CI 12-65%; P < 0.01; 33% vs. 72%) and a 23% lower prevalence of corpus callosum involvement (95% CI 7-39%; P < 0.01; 8% vs. 31%). No difference was observed between the two cohorts in the probability of relapse over the first year after disease onset. It is hypothesized that the high proportion of Asian patients with spinal cord lesions relates to genetic vulnerability or the higher incidence of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in Asia or could be a spurious association. ADEM presentations most probably vary across geographical settings or ethnicities. © 2016 EAN.

  10. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  11. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  12. Analysis of viral testing in nonacetaminophen pediatric acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kathleen B; Dell Olio, Dominic; Lobritto, Steven J; Lopez, M James; Rodriguez-Baez, Norberto; Yazigi, Nada A; Belle, Steven H; Zhang, Song; Squires, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Viral infections are often suspected to cause pediatric acute liver failure (PALF), but large-scale studies have not been performed. We analyzed the results of viral testing among nonacetaminophen PALF study participants. Participants were enrolled in the PALF registry. Diagnostic evaluation and final diagnosis were determined by the site investigator and methods for viral testing by local standard of care. Viruses were classified as either causative viruses (CVs) or associated viruses (AVs). Supplemental testing for CV was performed if not done clinically and serum was available. Final diagnoses included "viral," "indeterminate," and "other." Of 860 participants, 820 had at least 1 test result for a CV or AV. A positive viral test was found in 166/820 (20.2%) participants and distributed among "viral" (66/80 [82.5%]), "indeterminate" (52/420 [12.4%]), and "other" (48/320 [15.0%]) diagnoses. CVs accounted for 81/166 (48.8%) positive tests. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was positive in 39/335 (11.6%) who were tested 26/103 (25.2%) and 13/232 (5.6%) among infants 0 to 6 and >6 months, respectively. HSV was not tested in 61.0% and 53% of the overall cohort and those 0 to 6 months, respectively. Supplemental testing yielded 17 positive, including 5 HSV. Viral testing in PALF occurs frequently but is often incomplete. The evidence for acute viral infection was found in 20.2% of those tested for viruses. HSV is an important viral cause for PALF in all age groups. The etiopathogenic role of CV and AV in PALF requires further investigation.

  13. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...... reflected in pre-existing increased bronchial responsiveness....

  14. Acute liver failure complicating viral hepatitis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rui Diniz-Santos

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A is one of the most frequent infectious liver diseases affecting children worldwide. The disease is usually mild and self-limited, and complications are very rare. Nevertheless, hepatitis A can sometimes cause acute liver failure (ALF, a severe, life-threatening condition. Herein is reported a case of a child who presented ALF during a course of hepatitis A. The need for early identification of possible ALF cases among hepatitis A patients, and for effective ways of evaluating such a possibility, are discussed. We also emphasize the importance of prevention measures, especially vaccination.

  15. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-liang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.

  17. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  18. CXCL13 promotes isotype-switched B cell accumulation to the central nervous system during viral encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Timothy W; DiSano, Krista D; Stohlman, Stephen A; Segal, Benjamin M; Bergmann, Cornelia C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated CXCL13 within the central nervous system (CNS) correlates with humoral responses in several neuroinflammatory diseases, yet its role is controversial. During coronavirus encephalomyelitis CXCL13 deficiency impaired CNS accumulation of memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) but not naïve/early-activated B cells. However, despite diminished germinal center B cells and follicular helper T cells in draining lymph nodes, ASC in bone marrow and antiviral serum antibody were intact in the absence of CXCL13. The data demonstrate that CXCL13 is not essential in mounting effective peripheral humoral responses, but specifically promotes CNS accumulation of differentiated B cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interferon therapy of acute respiratory viral infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of nasal spray Laferobionum® (100,000 IU/ml in children with acute respiratory viral infections. Materials and methods. The study included 84 children aged 12 to 18 years. Children of the main group (42 persons received Laferobionum® spray in addition to the standard treatment for acute respiratory viral infections. The drug was administered to children of 12–14 years for 2 spray doses in each nasal passage 4–5 times a day at regular intervals (with the exception of sleep time, children aged 14–18 years received 3 spray-doses per each nasal passage 5–6 times a day at regular intervals (excluding sleep time. The course of treatment for all subjects was 5 days. Children of the control group received standard treatment for acute respiratory viral infections without Laferobionum®. Objective research included: auscultation of the heart and lungs, examination of the skin and mucous membranes, measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. All patients underwent a general blood test, a general urinalysis, identification of the pathogen using the method of direct immunofluorescence (in smears taken from the nasal passages in the laboratory “Medical Diagnostic Center of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy”. Results. In the non-epidemic period, the respiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses were the leading viral pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections. The main clinical manifestations of acute respiratory viral infection in the observed patients were signs of general inflammatory and catarrhal syndromes. All patients had not severe course of the disease. The data of the physical examination performed before the beginning of treatment indicated the absence of clinically significant deviations from the cardiovascular system in the children of the main and control groups. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the subjects of both groups were

  20. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made

  1. Methodological Challenges in Protein Microarray and Immunohistochemistry for the Discovery of Novel Autoantibodies in Paediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschl, Patrick; Ramberger, Melanie; Höftberger, Romana; Jöhrer, Karin; Baumann, Matthias; Rostásy, Kevin; Reindl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel autoantibody targets in ADEM patients. Sixteen ADEM patients (11 seronegative, 5 seropositive for MOG antibodies) were analysed for potential new biomarkers, using a protein microarray and immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue to identify antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal and glial antigens. Nine candidate antigens were identified in the protein microarray analysis in at least two patients per group. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue did not reveal new target antigens. Although no new autoantibody targets could be found here, future studies should aim to identify new biomarkers for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry methods used here have several limitations, which should be considered in future searches for biomarkers. PMID:28327523

  2. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in acute viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galský, J; Bansky, G; Holubová, T; Kõnig, J

    1999-04-01

    In previously published studies ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) showed beneficial effect on the course of chronic hepatitis. We investigated the effect of UDCA on the course of acute viral hepatitis in a prospective double-blind study. Seventy-eight consecutive patients were randomly assigned either to the UDCA group or to placebo. At 12 months of follow-up 76 patients were available for the final assessment. The analysis of all cases and of the patients with hepatitis B (n = 59) showed a comparable rate of decline of the alanine aminotransferase and other liver function tests in the treatment group and in the placebo group. However, the elevation of alanine aminotransferase persisted more frequently in the placebo group (all cases, p = 0.05; hepatitis B group, p = 0.03). Persistence of the hepatitis B virus infection, measured by the presence of hepatitis B early antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA (polymerase chain reaction and hybridization) at 12 months of follow-up, was observed in I of 33 patients in the UDCA group and in 6 of 25 patients in the placebo group (p = 0.02). Gallstones detected by entry ultrasound dissolved in four of eight cases in the UDCA group and in none of six in the placebo group. We conclude that UDCA has a beneficial effect on the course of the acute viral hepatitis. It may enhance the clearance of the hepatitis B virus and thus prevent the development of chronic hepatitis.

  3. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  4. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at pdysphagia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at pdysphagia. PMID:25479843

  7. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Valenti, Vitor E; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis....

  8. Antineuroinflammatory and neurotrophic effects of CNTF and C16 peptide in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rat model

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    Marong eFang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentalallergic encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model for inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease, i.e., multiple sclerosis (MS. In the present study, we investigated the antineuroinflammatory/neuroprotective effects of C16, an ανβ3 integrin-binding peptide, and recombinant rat ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, a cytokine that was originally identified as a survival factor for neurons, in an acute rodent EAE model. In this model, C16 peptide was injected intravenously every day for 2 weeks, and CNTF was delivered into the cerebral ventricles with Alzet miniosmotic pumps. Disease severity was assessed weekly using a scale ranging from 0 to 5. Multiple histological and molecular biological assays were employed to assess inflammation, axonal loss, neuronal apoptosis, white matter demyelination, and gliosis in the brain and spinal cord of different groups. Our results showed that the EAE induced rats revealed a significant increase in inflammatory cells infiltration, while C16 treatment could inhibit the infiltration of leukocytes and macrophages down to 2/3-1/3 of vehicle treated EAE control (P<0.05. The delayed onset of disease, reduced clinical score (P<0.01 in peak stage and more rapid recovery also were achieved in C16 treated group. Besides impairing inflammation, CNTF treatment also exerted direct neuroprotective effects, decreasing demyelination and axon loss score (P<0.05 Vs vehicle treated EAE control, and reducing the neuronal death from 40%-50% to 10%-20% (P<0.05. Both treatments suppressed the expression of cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-when compared with the vehicle control (P<0.05. Combined treatment with C16 and CNTF produced more obvious functional recovery and neuroprotective effects than individually treatment (P<0.05. These results suggested that combination treatment with C16 and CNTF, which target different neuroprotection pathways, may be an effective therapeutic alternative to

  9. [International cooperation on problems in acute respiratory viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, B

    1996-03-01

    The annual occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) of viral origin incl. influenza, the serious character of influenza epidemics and pandemics were the reason why a network of 110 national influenza centres and four international collaborating centres were created. This worldwide surveillance programme is coordinated by WHO. With advancing integration of Europe scientific groups were created which implement this programme in Europe. EUROSENTINEL analyzes the notified morbidity from influenza and ARI in eight participating countries, EUROGEIG concentrates on the programme of influenza prevention and the preparation of anti-pandemic provisions, EUROGROG associates 27 National influenza centres which in the course of the season exchange information on the incidence of influenza and other respiratory viruses. ESWI (European Scientific Working Group on Influenza) organizes clinical and epidemiological investigations on the influence of influenza infection and the impact of anti-flu vaccination; it tries to harmonize the surveillance programme and raise its standard and strives for joint research projects. The National reference laboratory in Prague participates in all these programmes and takes also active part in some projects.

  10. "Gliomatosis cerebri" simulating an acute diffuse encephalomyelitis: case report "Gliomatosis cerebri" simulando encefalomielite disseminada aguda: relato de caso

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    Carmen Lucia Penteado Lancellotti

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroradiologic, neuropathologic and immunohistochemical features are reported in a young man with a impairment of the central nervous system mimicking an acute diffuse encephalomyelitis. A white male, 17 years old, healthy till 4 months before, when developed a right hemiparesis and after 2 months a bilateral hemiparesis with a progressive impairment of several cranial nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple lesions without a mass effect that suggested myelin loss. He remained unconscious for almost one month before dying of pneumonia. The neuropathologic examination showed a heavy brain (1505 g with herniations and a large right midbrain. There were several soft and pink areas mainly at the right midbrain, left cerebellum and in the white matter of the left cerebral hemisphere. The histopathologic sections showed diffuse blastomatous proliferation without total replacement or destruction of the original tissue. The tumor cells had astrocytic, oligodendrocytic and spongioblastic phenotypes, some of them with a GFAP-positive reactivity. There were focal anaplastic changes. The diagnosis of "gliomatosis cerebri" was only possible by the autopsy.São relatados os aspectos neurorradiológicos, neuropatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos em um paciente jovem com comprometimento do sistema nervoso central simulando encefalomielite aguda disseminada. Paciente masculino branco, com 17 anos de idade, hígido até há 4 meses, quando desenvolveu hemiparesia direita e, após 2 meses, hemiparesia bilateral com comprometimento progressivo de vários nervos cranianos. A imagem de ressonância magnética mostrou lesões múltiplas, sem efeito de massa, sugerindo perda da mielina. Permaneceu inconsciente durante quase 1 mês, com óbito decorrente de pneumonia. Na autópsia o encéfalo pesou 1505 g, com hérnias e tumefação do hemitronco direito. Havia várias áreas moles e róseas principalmente ao nível do hemitronco direito, cerebelo esquerdo e

  11. The Association of Viral Infection and Acute Leukemia in Childhood: Two Case Reports

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    Murat Söker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A and Measles are the most common viral infection in pediatric patients. Viral infections causes to serious problem in immunocompromised patients such as acute leukemias. It is known that some viral infection agent causes hematologic malignancies. We report here two patient with acute leukemias who admitted to our clinic with similar to viral infection. The first case is a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL presented with ascites and pleural effusion. In this patient, the major clinical problem is hepatitis A. The second case is a patient with ALL who admitted with symptoms of measles. We discussed here, some viral infections may cause to leukemia and those may be associated with leukemias.

  12. Prognostic Value of Cytochrome C and Cytokines in Acute Viral Encephalopathy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cytochrome c and cytokines were evaluated as prognostic predictors in 29 children (ages 9 mos to 9 yrs 11 mos with viral acute encephalopathies and multiple organ failure at Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

  13. Characteristics and progression of children with acute viral bronchiolitis subjected to mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlini, Roberta; Pinheiro, Fl?via Ohlweiler; Andreolio, Cinara; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of children with acute viral bronchiolitis subjected to mechanical ventilation for three consecutive years and to correlate their progression with mechanical ventilation parameters and fluid balance. Methods Longitudinal study of a series of infants (< one year old) subjected to mechanical ventilation for acute viral bronchitis from January 2012 to September 2014 in the pediatric intensive care unit. The children's clinical records were reviewed, and t...

  14. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Rodrigo A.; Feitosa, Sérgio; Selestrin, Cláudia Ceasa; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia [UNESP; Sousa, Fernando Henrique [UNESP; siqueira, Arnaldo augusto Franco; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. Method: This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 ne...

  15. Sequential bottlenecks drive viral evolution in early acute hepatitis C virus infection.

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    Rowena A Bull

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral population was conducted in four subjects followed from very early acute infection to resolution of disease outcome. By means of next generation sequencing (NGS and standard cloning/Sanger sequencing, genetic diversity and viral variants were quantified over the course of the infection at frequencies as low as 0.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of reassembled viral variants revealed acute infection was dominated by two sequential bottleneck events, irrespective of subsequent chronicity or clearance. The first bottleneck was associated with transmission, with one to two viral variants successfully establishing infection. The second occurred approximately 100 days post-infection, and was characterized by a decline in viral diversity. In the two subjects who developed chronic infection, this second bottleneck was followed by the emergence of a new viral population, which evolved from the founder variants via a selective sweep with fixation in a small number of mutated sites. The diversity at sites with non-synonymous mutation was higher in predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes, suggesting immune-driven evolution. These results provide the first detailed analysis of early within-host evolution of HCV, indicating strong selective forces limit viral evolution in the acute phase of infection.

  16. Sequential bottlenecks drive viral evolution in early acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; McElroy, Kerensa; Gaudieri, Silvana; Pham, Son T; Chopra, Abha; Cameron, Barbara; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral population was conducted in four subjects followed from very early acute infection to resolution of disease outcome. By means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and standard cloning/Sanger sequencing, genetic diversity and viral variants were quantified over the course of the infection at frequencies as low as 0.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of reassembled viral variants revealed acute infection was dominated by two sequential bottleneck events, irrespective of subsequent chronicity or clearance. The first bottleneck was associated with transmission, with one to two viral variants successfully establishing infection. The second occurred approximately 100 days post-infection, and was characterized by a decline in viral diversity. In the two subjects who developed chronic infection, this second bottleneck was followed by the emergence of a new viral population, which evolved from the founder variants via a selective sweep with fixation in a small number of mutated sites. The diversity at sites with non-synonymous mutation was higher in predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes, suggesting immune-driven evolution. These results provide the first detailed analysis of early within-host evolution of HCV, indicating strong selective forces limit viral evolution in the acute phase of infection.

  17. Viral Infection in the Development and Progression of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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    Steven Nye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza A (H1N1 virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in ‘at risk’ populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral related ARDS have yet to be determined. This review outlines what is known about ARDS secondary to viral infections including the epidemiology, the pathophysiology and diagnosis. In addition, emerging treatment options to prevent infection, and to decrease disease burden will be outlined. We focused on RSV and influenza A (H1N1 viral-induced ARDS, as these are the most common viruses leading to pediatric ARDS, and have specific prophylactic and definitive treatment options.

  18. Clinical features of acute respiratory viral infections in children in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil

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    Олександр Іванович Сміян

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical features of the clinical course of an acute respiratory viral infection in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil in children of preschool age. Methods: generally clinical;Laboratory and instrumental;Statistical.Separation of viral infection was done using the methods of lumicroscopy and polymerase chain reaction from nasopharynx lavage.Statistical processing of received results was carried out with the help of standard statistical computer system «MicrosoftExcel» (2007 adapted for medical and biological studies. Result:In the clinical presentation of respiratory viral infection prevailed rhinorrhea, short cough, subfibrilitet with usual duration near 3 days. On the contrary in children with acute respiratory viral infections with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil prevailed stuffiness in nose, productive cough, snore and decrease of hearing, ear ache, polyadenopathy. Fever had fibril and hectic character with duration more than 3 days. . Dyspeptic syndrome was demonstrated more intensively in children with acute respiratory viral infections with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil and characterized with thickening on tongue, periodic ache in stomach, meteorism, constipation, stool instability. Conclusions: The main syndromes in the clinical presentation of an acute respiratory viral infection were: intoxicational, catarrhal and dyspeptic. In children with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil the clinical course of ARVI was more evident with long course and increase of the frequency of complications of ARVI

  19. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, including evaluation of the contrast-enhancing effect on lesions by Gd-DTPA

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    Tanaka, Yasunori; Matsuo, Michimasa [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan). MR Center

    1996-01-01

    Many papers on the MR features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been published, but only a few described contrast-enhanced MRI for this disease. In this study, we analyzed serial changes in MR features and the contrast-enhancing effect on lesions in five patients (5 men, 4-19 years old) discharged with the final diagnosis of ADEM. Hyperintense lesions in brain/spinal cord were demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images in all cases, but not all lesions were enhanced by Gd-DTPA. In the follow-up study many lesions disappeared, but some lesions were enlarged and some new lesions were found. These findings suggest that, although ADEM is clinically monophasic, some cases may progress with the coexistence of reducing, vanishing, and new lesions. Some clinically acute lesions were not enhanced. This might be explained by the following reasons; lesions on various phases coexist, the damage to the blood-brain barrier in the lesions is of different degrees even if it is on the same phase, and the duration of acute phase activity is short. Additionally, some hyperintense lesions remained for a long time on T2-weighted images in spite of the absence of clinical manifestation. That hyperintense area might reflect edema caused by incomplete repair of the blood-brain barrier. From our evaluation of these five cases, MRI is not useful for the diagnosis and follow-up study of ADEM. (author).

  20. Time-Dependent Increases in Protease Activities for Neuronal Apoptosis in Spinal Cords of Lewis Rats During Development of Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arabinda; Guyton, M. Kelly; Matzelle, Denise D.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by axonal demyelination and neurodegeneration, the latter having been inadequately explored in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The purpose of this study was to examine the time-dependent correlation between increased calpain and caspase activities and neurodegeneration in spinal cord tissues from Lewis rats with acute EAE. An increase in TUNEL-positive neurons and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in EAE spinal cords suggested that neuronal death was a result of apoptosis on days 8–10 following induction of EAE. Increases in calpain expression in EAE correlated with activation of pro-apoptotic proteases, leading to apoptotic cell death beginning on day 8 of EAE, which occurred before the appearance of visible clinical symptoms. Increases in calcineurin expression and decreases in phospho-Bad (p-Bad) suggested Bad activation in apoptosis during acute EAE. Increases in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-9 showed the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis. Further, caspase-8 activation suggested induction of the death receptor–mediated pathway for apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to caspase-3 activation was also observed, indicating that multiple apoptotic pathways were activated following EAE induction. In contrast, cell death was mostly a result of necrosis on the later day (day 11), when EAE entered a severe stage. From these findings, we conclude that increases in calpain and caspase activities play crucial roles in neuronal apoptosis during the development of acute EAE. PMID:18521931

  1. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

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    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  2. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Arden, Amir David

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  3. Differential Diagnosis of Acute Stroke and Viral Encephalitis

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    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, there has been an increase in the frequency of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children. The clinical picture of the disease has similar features to the one of viral encephalitis. Differential diagnosis is necessary to choose correct treatment tactics.

  4. Encefalomielite disseminada aguda e vacinação antimeningocócica A e C: relato de caso Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: association with meningococcal A and C vaccine: case report

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    Marco O. Py

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de paciente do sexo feminino, de 25 anos, que desenvolveu encefalomielite aguda disseminada (EDA iniciando-se cinco dias após vacinação para meningococcus A e C (Pasteur-Meríeux na campanha de vacinação realizada em dezembro de 1995 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Houve excelente resposta clínica e neurorradiológica após tratamento com corticosteróides em altas doses (pulsoterapia. Não foram encontrados relatos sobre a associação entre a vacina antimeningocócica e a EDA. A associação entre EDA e leptospirose ou infecções por Mycoplasma sugerem porém que a síndrome pode ser precipitada não só por viroses ou vacinação antiviral como também pela exposição do organismo a proteínas e polissacarídeos de bactérias.A 25-year-old woman developed acute disseminated post-vaccinal encephalomyelitis (ADEM following vaccination with A plus C meningococcal vaccine (Pasteur-Merieux. Fast disappearance of symptoms and gradual resolution of MR1 demyelinating lesions occurred after steroid treatment with high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone. To our knowledge, ADEM has not been previously described in association with meningococcal vaccine. Although most cases of ADEM occur following viral infections and vaccination, the syndrome has previously been related to leptospirosis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. This suggests that it may also be related to exposure to polysaccharide-protein vaccines such as the Group A plus Group C meningococcal vaccine.

  5. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli V; Vieira, Graciete O; Vieira, Tatiana O; Cruz, Álvaro A; Guimarães, Armênio C; Teles, Carlos; Camargos, Paulo; Cruz, Constança M S

    To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461). The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40), modifier effect p=0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30) and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69) were other identified risk factors for asthma. Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort,

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    Heli V. Brandão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72 h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461. The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40, modifier effect p = 0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30 and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69 were other identified risk factors for asthma. Conclusion: Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma.

  8. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

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    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  9. Immunological and molecular epidemiological characteristics of acute and fulminant viral hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus is an infection of liver; it is hyperendemic in vast areas of the world including India. In most cases it causes an acute self limited illness but rarely fulminant. There is growing concern about change in pattern from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the adult population. Objective In-depth analysis of immunological, viral quantification and genotype of acute and fulminant hepatitis A virus. Methods Serum samples obtained from 1009 cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis was employed for different biochemical and serological examination. RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified using nested PCR for viral quantification, sequencing and genotyping. Immunological cell count from freshly collected whole blood was carried out by fluorescence activated cell sorter. Results Fulminant hepatitis A was mostly detected with other hepatic viruses. CD8+ T cells count increases in fulminant hepatitis to a significantly high level (P = 0.005) compared to normal healthy control. The immunological helper/suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) ratio of fulminant hepatitis was significantly lower compared to acute cases. The serologically positive patients were confirmed by RT-PCR and total of 72 (69.2%) were quantified and sequenced. The average quantitative viral load of fulminant cases was significantly higher (P hepatitis A. Phylogenetic analysis of acute and fulminant hepatitis A confirmed genotypes IIIA as predominant against IA with no preference of disease severity. PMID:21605420

  10. [Update on the management of acute viral bronchiolitis: proposed guidelines of Grand Ouest University Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M; Cros, P; Gouin, M; Oillic, H; Bihouée, T; Denoual, H; Barzic, A; Duigou, A-L; Vrignaud, B; Levieux, K; Vabres, N; Fleurence, E; Darviot, E; Cardona, J; Guitteny, M-A; Marot, Y; Picherot, G; Gras-Le Guen, C

    2014-01-01

    While our European and North American colleagues have recently updated their recommendations, the 2000 Consensus Conference remains the main guideline on management of acute viral bronchiolitis in France. We aimed to establish an updated inter-regional protocol on management of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants. Pediatricians, pediatric pulmonologists, and emergency physicians of the Grand Ouest University Hospitals (France) gathered to analyze the recent data from the literature. Criteria to distinguish childhood asthma from acute viral bronchiolitis were established, then prescriptions of diagnostic tests, antibiotics, and chest physiotherapy were defined and reserved for very limited situations. Similarly, the modalities of oxygen therapy prescription and nutritional support were proposed. Finally, other therapeutics such as nebulized hypertonic saline seem promising, but their place in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants remains unclear. This work has provided new proposals for management of acute viral bronchiolitis and helped standardize practices within the Grand Ouest University Hospitals. This local organization could lay the keystone for working toward guidelines initiated by learned societies at the national level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection

  12. Origin and function of circulating plasmablasts during acute viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFink

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated B cells proliferate and differentiate into antibody-producing cells, long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells after immunization or infection. Repeated encounter of the same antigen triggers the rapid re-activation of pre-existing specific memory B cells, which then possibly enter new germinal center reactions and differentiate into short-lived plasmablasts or remain in the system as memory B cells. Short-lived plasmablasts appear in the circulation transiently and the frequency of these cells can be remarkably high. The specificities and affinities of single plasmablasts have been reported for several viral infections, so far most extensively for influenza and HIV. In general, the immunoglobulin variable regions of plasmablasts are highly mutated and diverse, showing that plasmablasts are derived from memory B cells, yet it is unclear which memory B cell subsets are activated and whether activated memory B cells adapt or mature before differentiation. This review summarizes what is known about the phenotype and the origin of human plasmablasts in the context of viral infections and whether these cells can be predictors of long-lived immunity.

  13. Acute psychosis followed by fever: Malignant neuroleptic syndrome or viral encephalitis?

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    Stojanović Zvezdana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is rare, but potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic medications. It is sometimes difficult to diagnose some clinical cases as neuroleptic malignant syndrome and differentiate it from the acute viral encephalitis. Case report. We reported a patient diagnosed with acute psychotic reaction which appeared for the first time. The treatment started with typical antipsychotic, which led to febrility. The clinical presentation of the patient was characterised by the signs and symptoms that might have indicated the neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as central nervous system viral disease. In order to make a detailed diagnosis additional procedures were performed: electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the head, lumbar puncture and a serological test of the cerebrospinal fluid. Considering that after the tests viral encephalitis was ruled out and the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome made, antipsychotic therapy was immediately stopped. The patient was initially treated with symptomatic therapy and after that with atypical antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete recovery. Conclusion. We present the difficulties of early diagnosis at the first episode of acute psychotic disorder associated with acute febrile condition. Concerning the differential diagnosis it is necessary to consider both neuroleptic malignant syndrome and viral encephalitis, i.e. it is necessary to make the neuroradiological diagnosis and conduct cerebrospinal fluid analysis and blood test. In neuroleptic malignant syndrome treatment a combined use of electroconvulsive therapy and low doses of atypical antipsychotic are confirmed to be successful.

  14. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Valenti, Vitor E; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-08

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis and indicated for physiotherapy care in a hospitalized Urgency and Emergency Unit. It was collected the clinical data of newborn through evaluation form, and we measured heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR). We measured the variables before physiotherapy treatment, 3, 6 and 9 minutes after the physiotherapy treatment. There has been no change in HR, however, we observed a decrease in RR at 6 and 9 min compared to 3 min and increase in SpO2 at 3, 6 and 9 min compared to before physiotherapy. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an effective therapy for the treatment of newborn with Acute Viral Bronchitis.

  15. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  16. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer.

  17. Evaluation of Possible Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

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    Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis.

  18. Evaluation of Possible Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis

  19. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with GJB1 mutation presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like illness: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Han, Seung-A; Kim, Sun Jun

    2017-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is typically an autosomal dominant, inherited neuropathy, although there is a rare male X-linked CMT. Such patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, we encountered a patient who presented with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms, but was later diagnosed as having X-linked CMT (CMTX) due to a mutation. A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted for a sudden transient weakness of his left side extremities. The patient was diagnosed with left side hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ADEM-like demyelinating lesions on both centrum semiovale. A diagnosis of probable ADEM was made, and the patient soon recovered. After 4 months, a second MRI showed complete resolution of the brain lesions. However, the symptoms recurred 2 years later. A third MRI revealed white matter abnormalities, and a physical examination demonstrated pes cavus deformities and peripheral muscle wasting of both lower extremities. On the basis of the brain MRI lesions and physical findings, we suspected CMTX. Genotyping confirmed a mutation in the GJB1 gene. When the symptoms recurred 2 years later, dysarthria and demyelinating MRI lesions were present. We could not identify any triggering factors. Differential diagnosis of recurrent ADEM-like lesions in the cerebral white matter and peripheral neuropathy should include the possibility of CMTX disease.

  20. A new pattern of spinal-cord demyelination in guinea pigs with acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mimicking multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colover, J.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for producing large demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord in the guinea pig. Guinea pigs were pretreated by immunization with ovalbumin and water-soluble adjuvant (N-acetyl-muramyl L-alanyl D-isoglutamine, MDP) in water-in-oil emulsion (Freund's incomplete adjuvant). They were given a large dose (10 mg) of ovalbumin i.p. one month later. After a few weeks the animals were sensitized with guinea-pig basic protein in Freund's complete adjuvant. Five out of 11 animals developed large, distinctive, sharply demarcated, symmetrical demyelinating lesions within 30 days. These lesions occurred in the dorsal and anterior columns, root entry zones and subpial region of the spinal cord. Histology showed a considerable amount of free lipids. There were also infiltrative lesions of classical experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) of normal severity in the same animals. The demyelinating lesions resembled those seen in multiple sclerosis in their location and extent in the spinal cord and in the presence of free lipids. Control experiments indicated that pretreatment with ovalbumin/MDP and the second injection of ovalbumin was necessary for all the demyelination; moreover guinea pigs immunized with basic protein in Freund's complete adjuvant or Freund's incomplete adjuvant plus MDP without pretreatment only developed classical EAE with minimal or no demyelination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7426390

  1. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

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    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  2. CHOLECYSTITIS AS A CAUSE OF ABDOMINAL PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS A AND B

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    Miodrag Radunović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, usually caused by gallstones in the cystic duct, which causes attacks of severe pain. At least 95% of the population with acute inflammation of the gallbladder have gallstones. Acute viral hepatitis is the liver inflammation accompanied by nausea, faintness, vomiting, pain below the right rib arch, jaundice. The presence of acute cholecystitis intensifies the existing symptoms. The aim of the paper was to show the incidence of the gallbladder inflammation in patients with acute hepatitis A or B. This retrospective-prospective study involved 110 patients treated for viral hepatitis A or B and had severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. The selected sample involved more male examinees - 63 (62% compared to female ones - 47 (38%. The most frequent age of examinees was 30-50 years, 82 (83%, and cholecystitis during hepatitis was also most common in the age group 30-50 years, 28 (73% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B - 21 (55% examinees than in patients with acute hepatitis A - 17 (45% examinees. Ultrasound examination, performed in 24 (63% examinees showed gallstones in inflamed gallbladder, while 14 (37% examinees had the inflammation of the gallbladder without gallstones. The most common cause of severe abdominal pain in patients with acute liver infection caused by HAV and HBV infection was the gallbladder, 38 (34.5% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B, 21 (55% examinees, than in those with an acute hepatitis A, 17 (45% examinees.

  3. ACUTE BILATERAL VIRAL NECROTIZING RETINITIS : AN UNCOMMON CASE REPORT

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    Rajendra Ku.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old male with a history of high grade fever 2 days, diarrhea 3 times and vomiting 2 times presented with diminution of vision in right eye of 1 days duration. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was counting finger 1 meter with no pin hole im provement and 20/20 ( S nellen ’ s in the right and left eye respectively. Fundus examination RE revealed white lesion in geographic fashion with clear edge involving macula and in left eye small peanut size white lesion present at paramacular area. Clinicall y a diagnosis of acute necrotizing was made. We started treatment by intra venous antiviral and systemic steroid. ELISA (serum and PCR (aqueous were positive for herpes simplex virus ( I ndex above 1.1 i.e. 1.54 . 1,2 The lesions showed a good response to t he above treatment. At 2 months follow - up, lesion had resolved well with BCVA of 20/40 and 20/20 in right and left eye respectively

  4. Parvovirus B19 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Acute Liver Failure: An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Non-A-E Viral Hepatitis

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    J Kee Ho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.

  5. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections – A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yijie; Franco, Luis M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Quarles, John M.; Arden, Nancy; Bucasas, Kristine L.; Wells, Janet M.; Niño, Diane; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Belmont, John W.; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55%) had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32), other viral infections (N = 4), or no viral agent identified (N = 24). The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment). Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates. PMID:26070066

  6. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections--A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zhai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55% had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32, other viral infections (N = 4, or no viral agent identified (N = 24. The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment. Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates.

  7. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute viral gastroenteritis in children hospitalized in Iksan, Korea during December 2010 - June 2011

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    Cheol Whoan So

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Viral etiology is common in cases of children with acute diarrhea, and antibiotic therapy is usually not required. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution of common viruses among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Methods: We included 186 children who suffered from acute diarrhea and were hospitalized at the Wonkwang University Hospital Pediatric ward from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 in this study. Stool samples were collected and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR was used to simultaneously determine the viral etiology such as rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus.&lt;br&gt; Results: Causative viruses were detected in 72 of the 186 cases (38.7%. The mean age of the viruspositive cases was 1 year and 9 months (range, 1 month to 11 years. Rotavirus was detected in 50/186 (26.9%; norovirus, in 18/186 (9.7%; and astrovirus, in 3/186 cases (1.6%. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the cases. Proportions of norovirus genogroups I and II were 21.1% and 78.9%, respectively. Four of the 51 rotavirus-positive cases (7.8% had received rotavirus vaccination at least once. The mean duration of diarrhea was 2.8 days (range, 1 to 10 days and vomiting occurred in 39 of the 72 cases (54.2%.&lt;br&gt; Conclusion: Viral etiology was confirmed in about one-third of the children with acute diarrhea, and the most common viral agent was rotavirus, followed by norovirus.

  9. INFLUENZA AND ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EMERGENCY CREWS OF MOSCOW

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    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections have a great social significance during epidemic rise of morbidity and demand differential diagnosis of pneumonia with bacterial etiology and consultation with an infectious disease doctor in case of seeing patients in non-core hospitals. This article highlights the problem of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections’ early diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of influenza and other respiratory extremely similar. The differential diagnosis must take into account the presence of mixed infection in the same patient. According to the results of consultative infectious ambulance teams in 2014-2016, quality of diagnostics of this infectious pathology was examined. Observed deaths in persons later seeking medical treatment, not receiving timely antiviral therapy and related to high-risk groups: patients with obesity, chronic alcohol intoxication, diabetes, pregnant women. Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections, more complicated by pneumonia, people in the older age group, indicating the need for timely medical evacuation of patients older than 60 years. In some cases, in the diagnosis of influenza was helped by the results of laboratory studies (especially the trend to leukopenia and a positive rapid test. It should be noted that a negative rapid test for influenza was not a reason for exclusion of the diagnosis “influenza”.

  10. Seasonality of Acute Otitis Media and the Role of Respiratory Viral Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Chris; Ampofo, Krow; Hersh, Adam L.; Carleton, Scott T.; Korgenski, Kent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Pavia, Andrew T.; Byington, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute otitis media (AOM) occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infections in young children. AOM and respiratory viruses both display seasonal variation. Our objective was to examine the temporal association between circulating respiratory viruses and the occurrence of pediatric ambulatory care visits for AOM. Methods This retrospective study included 9 seasons of respiratory viral activity (2002-2010) in Utah. We used Intermountain Healthcare's electronic medical records to assess community respiratory viral activity via laboratory-based active surveillance and to identify children <18 years with outpatient visits and ICD-9 codes for AOM. We assessed the strength of the association between AOM and individual respiratory viruses using interrupted time series analyses. Results During the study period, 96,418 respiratory viral tests were performed; 46,460 (48%) were positive. The most commonly identified viruses were: RSV (22%), rhinovirus (8%), influenza (8%), parainfluenza (4%), human metapneumovirus (3%), and adenovirus (3%). AOM was diagnosed during 271,268 ambulatory visits. There were significant associations between peak activity of RSV, human metapneumovirus, influenza A, and office visits for AOM. Adenovirus, parainfluenza, and rhinovirus were not associated with visits for AOM. Conclusions Seasonal RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza activity were temporally associated with increased diagnoses of AOM among children. These findings support the role of individual respiratory viruses in the development AOM. These data also underscore the potential for respiratory viral vaccines to reduce the burden of AOM. PMID:23249910

  11. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, V.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  12. Asociación de encefalomielitis diseminada aguda y síndrome de Guillain-Barré en un adulto Association between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain Barré syndrome in an adult

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    Miguel A. Pagano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La encefalomielitis diseminada aguda (EMDA y el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB son reconocidas como entidades distintas, que afectan diferentes sectores del sistema nervioso, pero que comparten varias características tales como la patogenia autoinmune, el impacto sobre la mielina y el antecedente de infección viral o vacunación una a cuatro semanas previas al cuadro clínico. Se presenta un paciente varón de 41 años de edad que consultó por presentar fiebre, debilidad en miembros inferiores y somnolencia dos semanas posteriores a episodio agudo de gastroenteritis. Al ingreso se constató deterioro del sensorio (obnubilación hiperreflexia patelar, Babinski bilateral y vejiga neurogénica. Veinticuatro horas después desarrolló paraplejía flácida y arreflexia generalizada, requiriendo asistencia respiratoria mecánica por insuficiencia respiratoria. El líquido cefalorraquídeo mostró pleocitosis mononuclear e hiperproteinorraquia. El estudio electrofisiológico evidenció importante disminución de las velocidades de conducción en ambos nervios ciáticos poplíteos externos, compatible con polineuropatía desmielinizante. La resonancia magnética nuclear mostró imágenes compatibles con desmielinización en cerebro, protuberancia y segmentos medulares dorsales. Se realizó diagnóstico de ASEMDA-SGB e inició tratamiento con metilprednisolona e inmunoglobulina intravenosa. Evolucionó favorablemente, recuperando las funciones motoras, vesical y la sensibilidad, siendo capaz de deambular luego de seis meses. La asociación de EMDA y SGB (ASEMDA-SGB es una condición infrecuente, generalmente señalada como de mal pronóstico, en la cual un diagnóstico precoz y un rápido y enérgico tratamiento pueden mejorar substancialmente la evolución.Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are commonly recognized as separated entities involving different parts of the nervous system. However, they share

  13. Epidemiology of Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Suk; Zhdanova, Svetlana N; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Platonov, Fyodor A; Osakovskiy, Vladimir L; Subbotina, Ekaterina L; Broytman, Oleg; Danilova, Al'bina P; Nikitina, Raisa S; Chepurnov, Alexander A; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Gajdusek, D Carleton; Savilov, Yevgeniy D; Garruto, Ralph M; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis is a disorder that starts, in most cases, as an acute meningoencephalitis. Survivors of the acute phase develop a slowly progressing neurologic syndrome characterized by dementia, dysarthria, and spasticity. An epidemic of this disease has been spreading throughout the Yakut Republic of the Russian Federation. Although clinical, neuropathologic, and epidemiologic data suggest infectious etiology, multiple attempts at pathogen isolation have been unsuccessful. Detailed clinical, pathologic, laboratory, and epidemiologic studies have identified 414 patients with definite Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in 15 of 33 administrative regions of the Yakut Republic between 1940 and 1999. All data are documented in a Registry. The average annual Viliuisk encephalomyelitis incidence rate at the height of the epidemic reached 8.8 per 100,000 population and affected predominantly young adults. The initial outbreak occurred in a remote isolated area of the middle reaches of Viliui River; the disease spread to adjacent areas and further in the direction of more densely populated regions. The results suggest that intensified human migration from endemic villages led to the emergence of this disease in new communities. Recent social and demographic changes have presumably contributed to a subsequent decline in disease incidence. Based on the largest known set of diagnostically verified Viliuisk encephalomyelitis cases, we demonstrate how a previously little-known disease that was endemic in a small indigenous population subsequently reached densely populated areas and produced an epidemic involving hundreds of persons.

  14. Acute Respiratory Viral Infection in Children: Modern Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Baranov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children. ARVI take one of the leading places in a childhood morbidity structure. The article provides an overview of the clinical guidelines developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia» for acute respiratory infections in children. These guidelines summarize the experience of the leading world and domestic specialists, contain scientific and practical data that correspond to the most relevant trends in the management of children with this pathology. The authors present modern information on the etiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical findings and differential diagnosis of various nosological forms of acute respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The general (strategic principles of drug-free and drug treatment are discussed in detail.

  15. A Host-Based RT-PCR Gene Expression Signature to Identify Acute Respiratory Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Burke, Thomas; Chen, Minhua; McClain, Micah; Nicholson, Bradly; Veldman, Timothy; Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Fowler, Vance; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Otero, Ronny; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Voora, Deepak; Lucas, Joseph; Hero, Alfred O.; Carin, Lawrence; Woods, Christopher W.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Improved ways to diagnose acute respiratory viral infections could decrease inappropriate antibacterial use and serve as a vital triage mechanism in the event of a potential viral pandemic. Measurement of the host response to infection is an alternative to pathogen-based diagnostic testing and may improve diagnostic accuracy. We have developed a host-based assay with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) platform for classifying respiratory viral infection. We developed the assay using two cohorts experimentally infected with influenza A H3N2/Wisconsin or influenza A H1N1/Brisbane, and validated the assay in a sample of adults presenting to the emergency department with fever (n = 102) and in healthy volunteers (n = 41). Peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained from individuals who underwent experimental viral challenge or who presented to the emergency department and had microbiologically proven viral respiratory infection or systemic bacterial infection. The selected gene set on the RT-PCR TLDA assay classified participants with experimentally induced influenza H3N2 and H1N1 infection with 100 and 87% accuracy, respectively. We validated this host gene expression signature in a cohort of 102 individuals arriving at the emergency department. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR test was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI), 72 to 98%], and the specificity was 94% (95% CI, 86 to 99%). These results show that RT-PCR–based detection of a host gene expression signature can classify individuals with respiratory viral infection and sets the stage for prospective evaluation of this diagnostic approach in a clinical setting. PMID:24048524

  16. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

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    Egan Erin A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL, therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL. Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate

  17. Acute viral bronchiolitis in children- a very common condition with few therapeutic options.

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    Wainwright, Claire

    2010-03-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis remains a cause of substantial morbidity and health care costs in young infants. It is the most common lower respiratory tract condition and most common reason for admission to hospital in infants. Many respiratory viruses have been associated with acute viral bronchiolitis although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most frequently identified virus. Most infants have a mild self limiting illness while others have more severe illness and require hospital admission and some will need ventilatory support. Differences in innate immune function in response to the respiratory viral insult as well as differences in the geometry of the airways may explain some of the variability in clinical pattern. Young age and history of prematurity remain the most important risk factors although male gender, indigenous status, exposure to tobacco smoke, poor socioeconomic factors and associated co-morbidities such as chronic lung disease and congenital heart disease increase the risks of more severe illness. Supportive therapy remains the major treatment option as no specific treatments to date have been shown to provide clinically important benefits except for inhaled hypertonic saline. Prophylaxis of high risk infants with palivizumab should be considered although the cost effectiveness is still unclear. Many questions remain regarding optimal management approaches for infants requiring hospitalisation with bronchiolitis including use of nasogastric feeding, the optimal role of supplemental oxygen, optimal use of hypertonic saline and the role of combinations of therapies, the use of heliox or modern physiotherapy approaches. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SUPPRESSION OF ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY THE SYNTHETIC SEX-HORMONE 17-ALPHA-ETHINYLESTRADIOL - AN IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY IN THE LEWIS RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TROOSTER, WJ; TEELKEN, AW; KAMPINGA, J; LOOF, JG; NIEUWENHUIS, P; MINDERHOUD, JM

    1993-01-01

    Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in female Lewis rats led to the well-known clinical symptoms and histological signs. Treatment with the synthetic estrogen 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) from day -4 before induction until day 21 after induction resulted in partial

  19. Characteristics and progression of children with acute viral bronchiolitis subjected to mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlini, Roberta; Pinheiro, Flávia Ohlweiler; Andreolio, Cinara; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of children with acute viral bronchiolitis subjected to mechanical ventilation for three consecutive years and to correlate their progression with mechanical ventilation parameters and fluid balance. Longitudinal study of a series of infants (mechanical ventilation for acute viral bronchitis from January 2012 to September 2014 in the pediatric intensive care unit. The children's clinical records were reviewed, and their anthropometric data, mechanical ventilation parameters, fluid balance, clinical progression, and major complications were recorded. Sixty-six infants (3.0 ± 2.0 months old and with an average weight of 4.7 ± 1.4kg) were included, of whom 62% were boys; a virus was identified in 86%. The average duration of mechanical ventilation was 6.5 ± 2.9 days, and the average length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit was 9.1 ± 3.5 days; the mortality rate was 1.5% (1/66). The peak inspiratory pressure remained at 30cmH2O during the first four days of mechanical ventilation and then decreased before extubation (25 cmH2O; p mechanical ventilation day four was 402 ± 254mL, which corresponds to an increase of 9.0 ± 5.9% in body weight. Thirty-seven patients (56%) exhibited a weight gain of 10% or more, which was not significantly associated with the ventilation parameters on mechanical ventilation day four, extubation failure, duration of mechanical ventilation or length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. The rate of mechanical ventilation for acute viral bronchiolitis remains constant, being associated with low mortality, few adverse effects, and positive cumulative fluid balance during the first days. Better fluid control might reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation.

  20. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  1. Protection against Acute Lethal Viral Infections with the Native Steroid Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    DTIC IILCY()S E LE GTE ftMorna of Medical Vir-ology 26:301-314 (M6) APR 061 inH it) Protection Against Acute Lethal Viral (0 Infections With the...0 ’Q . Accepted for publication May 17, IM1. Adesreprint requMt to Dr. Roger M. Loris, Department of Microbiolog and Iununology. School ofBuric...In Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Roizman B, Shope RR (eds): "Virology." New York: Rsven Press, p 1424. Holmes K, Pitibba R. Shultz L

  2. Acute onset of encephalomyelitis with atypical lesions associated with dual infection of Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii in a dog.

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    Gerhold, Richard; Newman, Shelley J; Grunenwald, Caroline M; Crews, Amanda; Hodshon, Amy; Su, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    A two-year-old male, neutered, basset hound-beagle mix with progressive neurological impairment was examined postmortem. Grossly, the dog had multiple raised masses on the spinal cord between nerve roots. Microscopically, the dog had protozoal myeloencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona were detected in the CNS by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sarcocysts in formalin-fixed muscle were negative for Sarcocystis by PCR. Banked serum was negative for T. gondii using the modified agglutination test, suggesting an acute case of T. gondii infection or immunosuppression; however, no predisposing immunosuppressive diseases, including canine distemper, were found. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dual T. gondii and S. neurona infection in a dog. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shian, W.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Tao-Yuan Veterans Hospital, No. 100, Sec 3, Cheng-Kung Rd, City of Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chi, C.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Acute viral hepatitis B with bridging necrosis: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Pirovino, M; Altorfer, J; Bansky, G; Bühler, H; Gudat, F; Bianchi, L

    1981-09-01

    Forty patients with bridging necrosis (BN) on biopsies taken during the course of acute viral hepatitis B were included in a prospective study to assess the prognostic significance of this lesion. Of the 22 patients with complete clinical, biochemical and histological follow-up (histological follow-up 5-33 months), only two failed to eliminate HBs- and HBe-antigen in serum, a finding paralleled by transition to chronic active hepatitis and by the persistence of focal HBc- and HBs-antigen expression in liver tissue. Nineteen of 22 patients showed complete histological healing; one developed inactive cirrhosis. It is concluded that, in the setting of acute viral hepatitis B, the histological lesion of BN is of no particular prognostic significance, and that transition to chronic liver disease is much less frequent than has been assumed from previous studies of etiologically heterogeneous patient populations. Markers of poor prognosis are the failure of serological elimination of HBs- and HBe-antigen and the persistence of spotty expression of HBc- and HBs-antigen on immunofluorescence histology.

  5. Comparing the Clinical Features and Outcomes of Acute Hepatitis E Viral Infections with Those of Acute Hepatitis A, B, and C Infections in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hye Won; Cha, Ra Ri; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Min; Kim, Wan Soo; Jo, Yun Won; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19.8%) patients with HEV, 49 (42.2%) patients with hepatitis A virus, 28 (24.1%) patients with hepatitis B virus, and 16 (13.8%) patients with hepatitis C virus. The incidence of acute HEV infection was higher among older patients (median age: 49 years) and male patients (69.6%), and was associated with the consumption of undercooked or uncooked meat (43.5%). Half of the acute HEV infections involved underlying liver disease, such as alcoholic liver disease, chronic hepatitis B, common bile duct stones, and autoimmune hepatitis. Two HEV-infected patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome, although no patients developed fulminant hepatitis. Our findings indicate that HEV infection in Korea is frequently transmitted through the consumption of raw meat and may cause acute or chronic liver disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  7. Clinical Features of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Infants with Thymomegaly

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    T.V. Sorokman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Peculiarities of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children with increased size of the thymus are associated with the presence of more or less significant immunodeficiency and dyshormonosis with manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. Objective — to study the features of acute respiratory viral infections and to investigate adrenal function in infants with thymomegaly. Material and methods. 41 children aged 1 month to 3 years with thymomegaly and complicated forms of ARVI were involved in clinical studies. Etiological decoding of ARVI has been carried out with the use of paired serum samples. The content of cortisol in the blood plasma was determined by immunoenzyme method. 36 children with thymomegaly without ARVI manifestations within at least 3 months were in comparison group. Results. Analysis of the anamnesis in patients with thymomegaly showed that most of them experienced adverse conditions at different stages of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal development. Analysis of the data on the size of the thymus gland showed that 3rd — 4th degree of thymomegaly is often observed in children with signs of constrictive laryngotracheitis (75.0 %. 23.5 % of patients with obstructive bronchitis had 1st degree thymomegaly, the rest — 3rd and 4th degrees. In case of nonobstructive lesions of the bronchi, the opposite trend took place: the least degree of thymomegaly was diagnosed in 62.5 %, and 3rd and 4th — in 37.5 % (p < 0.05 of patients. The lowest supply of cortisol was noted in the acute period of constrictive laryngotracheitis (409.4 ± 10.2 nmol/ml against 537.7 ± 11.5 nmol/ml in the comparison group; p < 0.05. In the acute period of ARVI complicated by bronchitis, cortisol levels were not increased — 432.3 ± 32.3 nmol/ml. In the group of patients with pneumonia, we have recorded reliable, probably compensatory increase of cortisol level (787.3 ± 2.0 nmol/ml, p < 0.05. In the acute period of

  8. Acute Herpes Simplex Viral Esophagitis Occurring in 5 Immunocompetent Individuals With Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Dorothee; Criblez, Dominique H; Dellon, Evan S; Bussmann, Christian; Pfeifer, David; Froh, Matthias; Straumann, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is an acute, severe viral infection of the esophagus, rarely occurring in immunocompetent individuals. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a rare immune-mediated esophageal disorder. We recently observed 5 severe HSE cases in diagnosed EoE patients. Four of the 5 patients had active, untreated EoE at the time of infection, so HSE is not likely a side effect of swallowed topical corticosteroids, the first-line medical treatment of EoE. However, this coincidence of these 2 rare conditions raises the question of a causal relationship between these 2 forms of esophagitis, and whether active EoE might predispose to HSE infection.

  9. The relation of innate and adaptive immunity with viral-induced acute asthma attacks: Focusing on IP-10 and cathelicidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, T; Akyilmaz, E; Yildirim, D D; Batmaz, S B; Ulger, S T; Aslan, G; Kuyucu, S

    Despite growing evidence suggesting potential association between innate and adaptive immunity in viral-induced acute asthma, there is paucity of data in this area. This study aimed to investigate the association of innate and adaptive immunity with acute asthma attacks by analysing the role of IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D and cytokines. This prospective study included 33 patients with viral-induced acute asthma and 30 children with controlled asthma. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected for virus identification and asthma attack scores assessed in acute asthma group. Blood sampling for IP-10, TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D levels, and spirometric indices were employed. Serum IP-10 and cathelicidin levels of acute asthma group were significantly higher and vitamin D levels were lower than controlled asthma group (IP-10; p=0.006, cathelicidin; p=0.002, vitamin D; pasthma attack severity (p=0.03) in acute asthma group. Higher cathelicidin values showed significant positive relation to IP-10 (beta coefficient: 33, p=0.02). Serum IP-10 levels higher than 38.9pg/ml (sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 47%, p=0.002) were predictive of virus-induced asthma. Serum IP-10 and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly related to viral-asthma attacks (IP-10; aOR: 8.93, p=0.03 and vitamin D; aOR: 0.82, p=0.001). Innate immunity biomarkers such as serum IP-10 and cathelicidin can be used to predict viral-induced acute asthma. These biomarkers may provide potential new treatment targets for acute asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis

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    Silvana Paula Cardin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical and laboratory profile, follow-up, and outcome of a series of cases of acute viral myositis. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of suspected cases under observation in the emergency department was performed, including outpatient follow-up with the recording of respiratory infection and musculoskeletal symptoms, measurement of muscle enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, transaminases (AST and ALT, blood count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the acute phase and during follow-up until normalization. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009, 42 suspected cases were identified and 35 (27 boys were included. The median age was 7 years and the diagnosis was reported in 89% in the first emergency visit. The observed respiratory symptoms were cough (31%, rhinorrhea (23%, and fever (63%, with a mean duration of 4.3 days. Musculoskeletal symptoms were localized pain in the calves (80%, limited ambulation (57%, gait abnormality (40%, and muscle weakness in the lower limbs (71%, with a mean duration of 3.6 days. There was significant increase in CPK enzymes (5507 ± 9180 U/L, LDH (827 ± 598 U/L, and AST (199 ± 245 U/L, with a tendency to leukopenia (4590 ± 1420 leukocytes/mm3. The complete recovery of laboratory parameters was observed in 30 days (median, and laboratory and clinical recurrence was documented in one case after 10 months. CONCLUSION: Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self-limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses.

  11. Viral etiologies of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infection patients in China, 2009-2013.

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    Luzhao Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients in 108 sentinel hospitals in 24 provinces of China was conducted from January 2009-September 2013. We enrolled hospitalized all-age patients with ALRI, and collected respiratory specimens, blood or serum collected for diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human influenza virus, adenoviruses (ADV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, human coronavirus (hCoV and human bocavirus (hBoV. We included 28,369 ALRI patients from 81 (of the 108 sentinel hospitals in 22 (of the 24 provinces, and 10,387 (36.6% were positive for at least one etiology. The most frequently detected virus was RSV (9.9%, followed by influenza (6.6%, PIV (4.8%, ADV (3.4%, hBoV (1.9, hMPV (1.5% and hCoV (1.4%. Co-detections were found in 7.2% of patients. RSV was the most common etiology (17.0% in young children aged <2 years. Influenza viruses were the main cause of the ALRIs in adults and elderly. PIV, hBoV, hMPV and ADV infections were more frequent in children, while hCoV infection was distributed evenly in all-age. There were clear seasonal peaks for RSV, influenza, PIV, hBoV and hMPV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ALRIs associated with viral pathogens. RSV is common in young children and prevention measures could have large public health impact. Influenza was most common in adults and influenza vaccination should be implemented on a wider scale in China.

  12. Higher HIV RNA Viral Load in Recent Patients with Symptomatic Acute HIV Infection in Lyon University Hospitals.

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    Isabelle Girerd-Genessay

    Full Text Available Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial.Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models.Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006-2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01.Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years.

  13. Assessment of timeliness, representativeness and quality of data reported to Italy's national integrated surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, M E; Longhi, S; de Waure, C; Mele, A; Franco, E; Ricciardi, W; Filia, A

    2015-05-01

    Periodic assessment of surveillance systems is recommended to verify whether they are appropriately monitoring the public health problem under surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate timeliness, data quality and representativeness of data reported to the Italian Integrated Epidemiological System for Acute Viral Hepatitis (SEIEVA). Cross-sectional analysis of surveillance data. Quantitative indicators were used to evaluate representativeness of reported cases, data quality, and timeliness between surveillance steps, for reports of acute viral hepatitis cases with date of onset of symptoms from 2009 to 2012 (N = 4516). Representativeness was 75%. Over 95% of records reported information on age, sex, city of residence, risk factors for hepatitis A and vaccination status. Information on risk factors for hepatitis B and C were reported less consistently (83%), as was information on early outcome (60%). Wide delays were found between surveillance steps. The system collects high quality data on acute viral hepatitis cases in Italy. Timeliness was found to be the main limit and needs to be improved by optimizing web-based reporting procedures, increasing communication with participating centres, improving feedback and increasing dissemination of surveillance results. The study highlights the importance of reporting timeliness to detect outbreaks of acute viral hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of plasma viral RNA levels during acute dengue virus infection using quantitative competitor reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiro, T M; Zivny, J; Ishiko, H; Green, S; Vaughn, D W; Kalayanarooj, S; Nisalak, A; Norman, J E; Ennis, F A; Rothman, A L

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the potential importance of viral burden in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There is little data available, however, describing the kinetics of viral replication in humans with natural dengue virus (DV) infection. Standard procedures for measuring titers of infectious virus in clinical specimens are either laborious or insensitive. We developed a method for measurement of DV RNA in plasma samples based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a mutant RNA target as a competitor. This technique was reproducible and accurate for samples containing any of the four DV serotypes, and could be applied to samples containing as few as 250 copies of RNA per reaction. We examined plasma viral RNA levels in 80 children with acute DV infection; sequential plasma samples were tested in 34 of these children. Plasma viral RNA levels ranged as high as 10(9) RNA copies/ml, and correlated with titers of infectious virus measured in mosquitoes (r= 0.69). Plasma viral RNA levels fell rapidly during the last several days of the febrile period. We did not find a significant difference in maximal plasma viral RNA levels between children with DHF and children with dengue fever, but peak viral RNA levels were identified in only 16 subjects. We conclude that this quantitative RT-PCR method will be valuable for further studies of natural DV infections.

  15. ADVANCEMENT IN MEDICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS

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    Kopcha V.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute respiratory viral infections are the special group of diseases, which in the structure of infectious pathology firmly occupies one of leading places. The problem of morbidity belongs to the number of leading medical problems not only in Ukraine but also in the whole world. In addition, there is a greater risk of epidemic flashes of acute respiratory infections in the conditions of megapolis with the expressed processes of migration and accumulation of people. Purpose of test – to promote efficiency of patients treatment with acute respiratory viral infections by complex application of preparation «Extralact» on a background traditional (base therapy without the use of other antiviral preparations, thoroughly to probe influence on clinical motion of the indicated illnesses, endogenous intoxication and immune status of organism. Patients & methods. Under a supervision was 60 patients (22 men and 38 women of young and middle age (hesitated from 18 to 58, which treated oneself concerning ARVI. Determined the indexes of Extralact efficiency: general duration of disease; frequency of development of complications; dynamics of clinical displays; dynamics of laboratory indexes, indexes of endogenous intoxication, and immunological indexes. Patients were randomised on 2 groups: a I group (30 persons – 50,0 % got treatment of base therapy preparations; the II group (30 patients – 50,0 % on a background base therapy got preparation «Extralact» for 2 capsules 3 times per days during 5 days. Results & discussion. Based on the examination of 60 patients with ARVI established following. Addition of base therapy of such patients of extralact in a dose 2 caps. 3 times daily during 5 days was accompanied by a significant advantage compared with only basic therapy on several grounds: the greater the number of patients advancing recovery up to 7 days, most regressed cough, relatively less there were complications. After 5 days of

  16. Efficacy of Chistonos for Children in the Treatment and Prevention of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Preschool Children

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    I.V. Dahaieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex of treatment of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI, acute rhinitis in 43 preschool children was supplemented by endonasal irrigations of Chistonos for children, which is a dosing gel spray containing sea salt, β-carotene, aloe and calendula extracts. A marked local symptomatic relief was registered, as well as an acceleration of the regression of inflammatory changes in the nasal cavity and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease. Prophylactic use of the product in the preseason allowed to decrease the ARVI (including influenza morbidity rate and to reduce the incidence of the severe form of the disease.

  17. Differential diagnosis of Chikungunya, dengue viral infection and other acute febrile illnesses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Kaewjungwad, Lamy; Jarumanokul, Roongrueng; Geater, Alan

    2012-05-01

    Clinical manifestations of chikungunya (CHIK) are similar to those of dengue. It would be useful to be able to identify clinical manifestations that could reliably help to differentiate CHIK from dengue and other acute febrile illnesses during a CHIK outbreak in a dengue-endemic area. A prospective cohort study was conducted between April and July 2009 in children aged 1 month to 15 years who lived in a CHIK outbreak area in southern Thailand and who had fever <7 days with arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia or rash. CHIK was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction or the indirect immunofluorescence test. Fifty patients were suspected of having CHIK, of whom 32 were confirmed, 1 had coinfection with dengue viral infection (DVI), 10 had dengue alone and 7 had an acute febrile illness. The specificity and positive predictive value of fever and arthralgia together to diagnose CHIK were 47.1% and 74.2%, and the corresponding values of the standard clinical triad (fever, arthralgia, rash) were 70.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Fever ≤ 2 days, skin rash during fever and white blood cell count ≥ 5000 cells/mm(3) were independently and significantly associated with CHIK in comparison with DVI and acute febrile illnesses, with relative risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 10.4 (0.9-116) and 13.7 (1.3-145), 13.8 (1.2-164) and 14.8 (1.6-168), and 18.3 (1.7-194) and 1.8 (0.1-20.6), respectively. During a CHIK outbreak in a DVI-endemic area, overdiagnosis of CHIK was common. Skin rash during fever and white blood cell count ≥ 5000 cells/mm(3) or specific antigen testing (if available) can be helpful in differentiating CHIK from DVI.

  18. MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebellitis and myelitis in infancy: likely topographic variant of a single process; Imagen en RM de encefalomielitis aguda diseminada, cerebelitis y mielitis en la infancia: probables variantes topograficas de un mismo proceso

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    Fortuno, J. R.; Menor, F.; Esteban, M. J.; Pamies, J. [Hospital Universitario Infantil La Fe (Spain); Gomez-Gosalvez, F. A. [Hospital Verge dels Liris de Alcoi (Spain); Jover, J. [Hospital General de Elda (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To describe MR images of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE) in a paediatric group, particularly focused on its likely topographic variants, cerebellitis and myelitis, its evolution, and the differential diagnosis between it an an initial outbreak of multiple sclerosis. Initial and follow-up cranial MR images were retrospectively reviewed for 14 paediatric patients diagnosed with either ADE, cerebellitis or myelitis. In 9 patients, a spinal cord monitoring was included. Three topographic variants have been considered: ADE (7 patients). In the case of ADE, the supratentorial white matter was always affected, the brain stem in five (71%) and the cerebellum in two (28,5%). Basal ganglionic lesions were detected in 5 patients (71%) and cortical lesions in one (14%). Associated spinal cord abnormality was found in five of the six cases in which this study was included (83%). ADE lesions tended to be nodular and poorly differentiated whereas in cerebellitis and myelitis the predominant pattern was one of diffuse damage. Evolution of the lesions was toward reduction/resolution. Follow-up using MR in the medium-term in 6 patients (four ADE and two cerebellitis) did not detect any new lesions. Clinical follow-up of the patients did not show any neurological recurrences in any of them. ADE, cerebillits and myelitis could be topographic variants of a single process with a common pathogeny. As the spinal cord often seems to play a role in ADE, spinal cord monitoring would be recommended, even in the absence of the above-mentioned symptoms. This spinal cord abnormality, which is usually diffuse, plus deep gray matter damage, as well as the disease of monophase course, corroborated by a sequential MR follow-up, is all helpful in the differential diagnosis with multiple sclerosis. Nonetheless, the differential diagnosis between a recurring form of ADE and an encephalomyelitis is practically impossible to make. (Author) 33 refs.

  19. Effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline in the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in children.

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    Gisoo Hatami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common viral respiratory infections in children under 2 years. No effective Short-term or long-term treatment for bronchiolitis has been approved yet. Treatment is still supportive with oxygen, fluid and mechanical ventilation as necessary. Several studies have shown that 3% hypertonic saline improve immediate and longterm cleaning of small airways in these patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline with 0.9% saline in 2-24 month children with bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: In a non-randomized clinical trial, 60 children aged 2 to 24 months with diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis were enrolled. Thirty children recieved 3% hypertonic saline with nebulizer as the treatment group and 30 children treated with nebulized normal saline 0.9% as the control group. In entrance, oxygen saturation (by pulse oximetry, respiratory rate, pulse rate and severity of disease were measured using a combination score (sum of Clinical Score (YALE Observation Scale and RDAI (Respiratory Distress Assessment Index . The primary outcomes change in clinical score and hospitalization rate, and secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, need to oxygen therapy and recovery time from wheezing and cough. Results: Two groups were not different in terms of baseline variables, except age (8.9±4.9 months in the hypertonic saline group and 6.4 ± 4.6 months in normal saline group P=0.046. After the intervention, the difference in clinical severity between the hypertonic saline group (10.9±5.6 and normal saline (10.4±5.7 was not significant (adjusted for age P=0.77. The hospitalization rate was not significantly different in the two groups (60% vs 63.3%. Length of hospital stay, the need for oxygen therapy, number of days requiring intravenous fluid therapy and recovery time from cough and wheezing were not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: It seems, 3% hypertonic

  20. Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Feng, Zongdi; Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Brasky, Kathleen M; Zhou, Yan; Yamane, Daisuke; Perelson, Alan S; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2011-07-05

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an hepatotropic human picornavirus that is associated only with acute infection. Its pathogenesis is not well understood because there are few studies in animal models using modern methodologies. We characterized HAV infections in three chimpanzees, quantifying viral RNA by quantitative RT-PCR and examining critical aspects of the innate immune response including intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression. We compared these infection profiles with similar studies of chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), an hepatotropic flavivirus that frequently causes persistent infection. Surprisingly, HAV-infected animals exhibited very limited induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes in the liver compared with chimpanzees with acute resolving HCV infection, despite similar levels of viremia and 100-fold greater quantities of viral RNA in the liver. Minimal IFN-stimulated gene 15 and IFIT1 responses peaked 1-2 wk after HAV challenge and then subsided despite continuing high hepatic viral RNA. An acute inflammatory response at 3-4 wk correlated with the appearance of virus-specific antibodies and apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes. Despite this, HAV RNA persisted in the liver for months, remaining present long after clearance from serum and feces and revealing dramatic differences in the kinetics of clearance in the three compartments. Viral RNA was detected in the liver for significantly longer (35 to >48 wk) than HCV RNA in animals with acute resolving HCV infection (10-20 wk). Collectively, these findings indicate that HAV is far stealthier than HCV early in the course of acute resolving infection. HAV infections represent a distinctly different paradigm in virus-host interactions within the liver.

  1. The relationship between visfatin, liver inflammation, and acute phase reactants in chronic viral hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Enver; Akbal, Erdem; Koçak, Erdem; Akyürek, Ömer; Köklü, Seyfettin; Ekiz, Fuat; Yılmaz, Barış

    2016-09-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Adipokine stimulation might play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum visfatin concentrations and the relationship between visfatin, fibrosis, liver inflammation, and acute phase reactants in CHB patients.The sampling universe of the study consisted of 41 CHB patients and 25 healthy controls. All patients had positive hepatitis B surface antigen (Hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) positive n: 7, n: 34 HBeAg negative) for at least 6 months and detectable serum HBV DNA. Serum visfatin concentrations were significantly higher in the CHB patients [18.0 ± 10.9 ng dL(-1)] than in the healthy controls [9.4 ± 1.6 ng dL(-1)] [P < 0.001]. On the other hand, fibrinogen and haptoglobin concentrations were significantly lower in CHB patients. A strong negative correlation was observed between serum visfatin concentration, haptoglobin, and fibrinogen levels; however, there was no significant correlation between visfatin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, BMI, Knodell score, fibrosis score, hepatitis B virus DNA, sedimentation, and C-reactive protein. Visfatin concentrations were elevated and visfatin was negatively correlated with haptoglobin and fibrinogen levels in CHB patients.

  2. ESSENTIAL OILS INHALATIONS IN COMPLEX TREATMENT AND PROPHYLAXIS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Petrushina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children of the Russian Federation is high. That is why the questions of prophylaxis and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI are always of a great interest of paediatricians. During epidemic outbreaks essential oils inhalations become a new perspective in treatment of such conditions. In the period of time since September 2011 till February 2012 the research workers of Paediatrics department of Tyumen State Medical Academy have estimated the oil «Dyshi» («Breathe» efficacy in complex treatment of ARVI in children. The usage of this medicine for the prophylaxis of respiratory infectionsdecreased the morbidity rate to 35% during the observation period, while each child in the comparison group had at least one episode of ARVI. The usage of this drug in the group of frequently ill children at the first symptoms of ARVI allowed to relieve the severity of disease and to prevent complications. Furthermore, the oil «Dyshi» has a number of other advantages: it is not irritating and habit-forming, it does not dry the nasal mucous membrane, it is safe for children and can be used for a long period of time.

  3. O papel da fisioterapia respiratória na bronquiolite viral aguda = Role of chest physiotherapy in acute viral bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisi, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Conclusões: mesmo que não existem evidências diretas, a fisioterapia respiratória tem sido utilizada na bronquiolite aguda com objetivo de desobstrução, higiene brônquica, prevenção de atelectasias e recrutamento alveolar, podendo contribuir para diminuição da resistência das vias aéreas, promover melhor ventilação-perfusão e diminuir o trabalho ventilatório pela remoção do excesso de muco. São necessários estudos clínicos randomizados, controlados e cegados, que avaliem as técnicas mais modernas, para que se possa definir o papel da fisioterapia respiratória no tratamento da bronquiolite viral aguda

  4. The transcription factor TCF-1 initiates the differentiation of T(FH) cells during acute viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lifan; Cao, Yi; Xie, Zhunyi; Huang, Qizhao; Bai, Qiang; Yang, Xia; He, Ran; Hao, Yaxing; Wang, Haoqiang; Zhao, Tingting; Fan, Zhonglei; Qin, Aijian; Ye, Jianqiang; Zhou, Xinyuan; Ye, Lilin; Wu, Yuzhang

    2015-09-01

    Induction of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 in CD4(+) T cells is critical for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells), which are essential for B cell-mediated immunity. In contrast, the transcription factor Blimp1 (encoded by Prdm1) inhibits T(FH) differentiation by antagonizing Bcl-6. Here we found that the transcription factor TCF-1 was essential for both the initiation of T(FH) differentiation and the effector function of differentiated T(FH) cells during acute viral infection. Mechanistically, TCF-1 bound directly to the Bcl6 promoter and Prdm1 5' regulatory regions, which promoted Bcl-6 expression but repressed Blimp1 expression. TCF-1-null T(FH) cells upregulated genes associated with non-T(FH) cell lineages. Thus, TCF-1 functions as an important hub upstream of the Bcl-6-Blimp1 axis to initiate and secure the differentiation of T(FH) cells during acute viral infection.

  5. Induction of Gag-Specific CD4 T Cell Responses during Acute HIV Infection Is Associated with Improved Viral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffer, Miriam; Jessen, Heiko K.; Oster, Alexander F.; Pissani, Franco; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Jessen, Arne B.; Zedlack, Carmen; Schultz, Bruce T.; Davis, Isaiah; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Alter, Galit; Schumann, Ralf R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Effector CD4 T cell responses have been shown to be critically involved in the containment and clearance of viral pathogens. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of HIV infection is less clear, given their additional role as preferred viral targets. We previously demonstrated that the presence of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses is somewhat associated with HIV control and that specific CD4 T cell functions, such as direct cytolytic activity, can contribute to control of HIV viremia. However, little is known about how the induction of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection influences disease progression and whether responses induced during the early phase of infection are preferentially depleted. We therefore longitudinally assessed, in a cohort of 55 acutely HIV-infected individuals, HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses from acute to chronic infection. Interestingly, we found that the breadth, magnitude, and protein dominance of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses remained remarkably stable over time. Moreover, we found that the epitopes targeted at a high frequency in acute HIV infection were recognized at the same frequency by HIV-specific CD4 T cells in chronic HIV infection. Interestingly the induction of Gag-specific CD4 T cell responses in acute HIV infection was significantly inversely correlated with viral set point in chronic HIV infection (R = −0.5; P = 0.03), while the cumulative contribution of Env-specific CD4 T cell responses showed the reverse effect. Moreover, individuals with HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses dominantly targeting Gag over Env in acute HIV infection remained off antiretroviral therapy significantly longer (P = 0.03; log rank). Thus, our data suggest that the induction of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection is beneficial overall and does not fuel disease progression. IMPORTANCE CD4 T cells are critical for the clearance and control of viral infections. However, HIV

  6. Pathologic Studies of Fatal Encephalomyelitis in Children Caused by Enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jingjun; Liu, Dan; Shen, Shu; Su, Zhengyuan; Zhang, Lin; Duan, Yijie; Tong, Fang; Liang, Yue; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong; Zhou, Yiwu

    2016-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and can cause death; however, its pathogenesis remains elusive. We performed a detailed systematic histopathologic examination and molecular studies on six autopsy cases of EV71 infection using H&E, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence staining, and nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed. Viral antigens were mainly detected in neuronal cytoplasm and processes in the different brainstem nuclei and spinal cord, including the anterior and posterior horn cells. Viral antigens were also positive in the nerve roots of spinal cord and autonomic ganglia of intestines. Our study revealed direct pathologic evidence supporting viral entry into the central nervous system (CNS) through peripheral nerves. In addition to the major motor pathway, EV71 can also enter the CNS via peripheral sensory and autonomic pathways in retrograde axonal transport. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Acute HBV infection in humanized chimeric mice has multiphasic viral kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuji; Chung, Tje Lin; Imamura, Michio; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Sen, Suranjana; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tateno, Chise; Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S; Uprichard, Susan L; Dahari, Harel; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2018-03-23

    Chimeric uPA/SCID mice reconstituted with humanized livers are useful for studying HBV infection in the absence of an adaptive immune response. However, the detailed characterization of HBV infection kinetics necessary to enable in-depth mechanistic studies in this novel in vivo HBV infection model is lacking. To characterize HBV kinetics post-inoculation (p.i.) to steady state, 42 mice were inoculated with HBV. Serum HBV DNA was frequently measured from 1 minute to 63 days p.i. Total intrahepatic HBV DNA, HBV cccDNA, and HBV RNA was measured in a subset of mice at 2, 4, 6, 10, and 13 weeks p.i. HBV half-life (t 1/2 ) was estimated using a linear mixed-effects model. During the first 6 h p.i. serum HBV declined in repopulated uPA/SCID mice with a t 1/2 =62 min [95%CI=59-67min]. Thereafter, viral decline slowed followed by a 2 day lower plateau. Subsequent viral amplification was multiphasic with an initial mean doubling time of t 2 =8±3 h followed by an interim plateau before prolonged amplification (t 2 =2±0.5 days) to a final HBV steady state of 9.3±0.3 log copies/ml. Serum HBV and intrahepatic HBV DNA were positively correlated (R 2 =0.98). HBV infection in uPA/SCID chimeric mice is highly dynamic despite the absence of an adaptive immune response. The serum HBV t 1/2 in humanized uPA/SCID mice was estimated to be ∼1 h regardless of inoculum size. The HBV acute infection kinetics presented here is an important step in characterizing this experimental model system so that it can be effectively used to elucidate the dynamics of the HBV lifecycle and thus possibly reveal effective antiviral drug targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Molecular identification of viral agents associated with acute conjunctivitis: a prospective controlled study

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    Emine Akçay

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: It is very difficult in viral conjunctivitis to make clinical differentiation caused by different agents because of common clinical signs and symptoms. In routine clinical work, the viral conjunctivitis usually related with Adenovirus. But almost one fourth of the patients’ conjunctivitis were not related to Adenovirus, which shows the importance of the laboratory diagnostics. True diagnosis plays an important role on prevention of contamination and unnecessary use of antibiotics in viral conjunctivitis.

  9. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Raul; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  10. Comparison of acute infection of calves exposed to a high-virulence or low-virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus or a HoBi-like virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to compare clinical presentation following acute infection of cattle with either a high virulence (HV) BVDV or a low virulence (LV) BVDV to clinical presentation following infection with a viral strain that belongs to an emerging species of pestivirus. The viral st...

  11. Principles of etiopathogenetic therapy for acute respiratory viral infections in frequently ill children

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    L. A. Kharitonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis

  12. Non-invasive ventilation improves respiratory distress in children with acute viral bronchiolitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combret, Yann; Prieur, Guillaume; LE Roux, Pascal; Médrinal, Clément

    2017-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, UpToDate, and SuDoc from 1990 to April 2015. Randomized controlled trials, controlled non-randomized trials and prospective studies of NIV (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP], bi-level CPAP, or neurally-adjusted ventilator assist) for bronchiolitis in infants younger than 2 years were included. Fourteen studies were included, for a total of 379 children. Of these, 357 were treated with NIV as first intention. Respiratory distress, heart rate, respiratory rate and respiratory effort improved (P<0.05). Results were inconclusive regarding prevention of endotracheal intubation. Few adverse events were reported. NIV reduced carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in 10 studies. Two randomized controlled studies reported a decrease of 7 mmHg in pCO2 (P<0.05). Predictive factors of NIV failure were apneas, high pCO2, young age, low weight, elevated heart rate and high pediatric risk of mortality score. NIV is mostly administered through a nasal mask, nasal cannula or helmet, with an initial expiratory positive airway pressure of 7 cmH2O. NIV shows promising results for the reduction of respiratory distress in acute viral bronchiolitis, as shown in several recent studies. However, there is a lack of robust studies to confirm this.

  13. [Prevention of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A appearing in connection with a natural disaster in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Kulaev, A M; Ambalova, B D

    2003-01-01

    Materials on the work of the sanitary and epidemiological service in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, aimed at the prophylaxis of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A under the conditions of the emergency situation caused natural calamities (inundation, high flood), are presented. The competent planning and operative realization of organizational, prophylactic and anti-epidemic measures have made it possible to keep morbidity in acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A on a sporadic level.

  14. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  15. Linomide suppresses acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by counter-acting the imbalance of pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, A; Michael, L; Wahren, B; Deng, G M; Björk, J; Hedlund, G; Zhu, J

    1998-05-15

    Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is a synthetic immunomodulator that suppresses several experimental autoimmune diseases. Here we report the effects of Linomide on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a CD4+ T cell-mediated animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE induced in Lewis rats by inoculation with homogenized guinea pig spinal cord and Freund's complete adjuvant was strongly suppressed by Linomide administered daily subcutaneously from the day of inoculation. Linomide dose-dependently delayed the interval between immunization and onset of clinical EAE, and reduced severity of EAE symptoms. These clinical effects were associated with dose-dependent down-modulation of myelin antigens-induced T cell responses and by suppression of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and upregulation IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta as evaluated by in situ hybridization for mRNA expression in spleen mononuclear cells and spinal cord sections. These findings suggest that Linomide could be useful in certain T cell dependent autoimmune diseases.

  16. Acute viral hepatitis in adults. Comparison of the radioimmunoassay and counterimmunoelectrophoresis methods of detecting HB/sub s/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, R.P.; Teates, C.D.; Galapon, Q.; Barczak, R.; Ling, C.M.; Overby, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) and counterimmunoelectrophoretic (CIE) methods were compared in detecting hepatitis B antigen (HB/sub s/Ag) in 407 acute and 336 convalescent sera of adults with viral hepatitis. The CIE method demonstrated that 41 percent of acute and 28 percent of 14- to 17-day serum specimens were HB/sub s/Ag-positive. The RIA method demonstrated seropositivity in 60 percent of acute and 56 percent of convalescent specimens (P less than .001). Eighty-four percent of coded specimens initially positive for HB/sub s/Ag by RIA were found to have subtype antigenic determinants d or y; 92 percent of the HB/sub s/Ag-negative controls were negative for subtype antigens, confirming the specificity of the RIA test. RIA subtyping data corroborated earlier work with immunodiffusion techniques. (U.S.)

  17. A temporal gate for viral enhancers to co-opt Toll-like-receptor transcriptional activation pathways upon acute infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai A Kropp

    2015-04-01

    macrophages. In a series of pharmacologic, siRNA and genetic loss-of-function experiments we determined that signalling mediated by the TLR-adaptor protein MyD88 plays a vital role for governing the inflammatory activation of the CMV enhancer in macrophages. Downstream TLR-regulated transcription factor binding motif disruption for NFκB, AP1 and CREB/ATF in the CMV enhancer demonstrated the requirement of these inflammatory signal-regulated elements in driving viral gene expression and growth in cells as well as in primary infection of neonatal mice. Thus, this study shows that the prototypical CMV enhancer, in a restricted time-gated manner, co-opts through DNA regulatory mimicry elements, innate-immune transcription factors to drive viral expression and replication in the face of on-going pro-inflammatory antiviral responses in vitro and in vivo and; suggests an unexpected role for inflammation in promoting acute infection and has important future implications for regulating latency.

  18. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Cyclic Altered Peptide Analogue Based on Myelin Basic Protein 87–99 Provides Lasting Prophylactic and Therapeutic Protection Against Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Emmanouil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, amide-linked cyclic peptide analogues of the 87–99 myelin basic protein (MBP epitope, a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS, are tested for therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Cyclic altered peptide analogues of MBP87–99 with substitutions at positions 91 and/or 96 were tested for protective effects when administered using prophylactic or early therapeutic protocols in MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats. The Lys91 and Pro96 of MBP87–99 are crucial T-cell receptor (TCR anchors and participate in the formation of trimolecular complex between the TCR-antigen (peptide-MHC (major histocompability complex for the stimulation of encephalitogenic T cells that are necessary for EAE induction and are implicated in MS. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS applied on the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarboxyl/tert-butyl Fmoc/tBu methodology and combined with the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl. Cyclo(91–99[Ala96]MBP87–99, cyclo(87–99[Ala91,96]MBP87–99 and cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99, but not wild-type linear MBP87–99, strongly inhibited MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats when administered using prophylactic and early therapeutic vaccination protocols. In particular, cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99 was highly effective in preventing the onset and development of clinical symptoms and spinal cord pathology and providing lasting protection against EAE induction.

  20. Phyto-inhalation for treatment of complications of acute respiratory viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalations (inhalation of medicinal substances are one of the effective ways to treat upper respiratory tract diseases and colds. Inhalation therapy is used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can be complications of acute respiratory viral infections. The main rules of inhalation are as follows to conduct the procedure better after 1.5 hours after eating; clothes should not impede breathing; the procedure can be carried out only while sitting or standing; solution for the inhaler for treatment of bronchitis should be fresh; it is necessary to strictly keep the prescribed dosage; the time of the procedure should also be respected — usually it is from 1 to 4 minutes, sometimes for adults up to 10 minutes, for children the inhalation period is shorter — 1–2 minutes. Contraindications to inhalation are body temperature above 37.5 degrees; propensity to nasal blee­ding in a patient; propensity to increased arterial pressure, with cardiovascular failure; purulent inflammation of the tonsils; respiratory failure. The procedure should be stopped immediately in case of appearance of adverse symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty in breathing. Therefore, inhalations must be prescribed by a doctor after examination of a patient. During inhalations in rhinitis, you should try to inhale the vapor through the nose. For effective treatment of rhinitis, inhalations from conife­rous plants are very suitable: fir, pine, juniper, larch, from steamed dried chamomile flowers, mint, and blackberry leaves. Honey inhalations can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. Medical herbal inhalation for children should be carried out from the age of two years. This must be done under the constant supervision of an adult. Leaves of coniferous trees: pine, fir, if or juniper, cedar

  1. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Note: Javascript is disabled or ... is no cure or approved treatment for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). However, some symptoms ...

  2. Viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections among hospitalized Vietnamese children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008.

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    Anh Ha Lien Do

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention.We conducted a three-year prospective descriptive study of severe respiratory illness among children from 2 months to 13 years of age within the largest referral hospital for infectious diseases in southern Vietnam.Molecular detection for 15 viral species and subtypes was performed on three types of respiratory specimens (nose, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates using a multiplex RT-PCR kit (Seeplex™ RV detection, Seegene and additional monoplex real-time RT-PCRs.A total of 309 children were enrolled from November 2004 to January 2008. Viruses were identified in 72% (222/309 of cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (24%, influenza virus A and B (17%, human bocavirus (16%, enterovirus (9%, human coronavirus (8%, human metapneumovirus (7%, parainfluenza virus 1-3 (6%, adenovirus (5%, and human rhinovirus A (4%. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 20% (62/309 of patients. When combined, diagnostic yields in nose and throat swabs were similar to nasopharyngeal aspirates.Similar to other parts in the world, RSV and influenza were the predominant viral pathogens detected in Vietnamese hospitalized children. Combined nasal and throat swabs are the specimens of choice for sensitive molecular detection of a broad panel of viral agents. Further research is required to better understand the clinical significance of single versus multiple viral coinfections and to address the role of bacterial (co-infections involved in severe respiratory illness.

  3. Uso de surfactante exógeno no tratamento da bronquiolite viral grave: relato de caso Exogenous surfactant treatment for severe acute viral bronchiolitis: case report

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    Luciano S. Vitola

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever os possíveis efeitos clínicos e laboratoriais da instilação traqueal de surfactante exógeno a um lactente com bronquiolite viral aguda grave e submetido a ventilação mecânica. RELATO: menina de 2 meses de idade com diagnóstico clínico de bronquiolite viral aguda e submetida a ventilação mecânica, necessitando de altos picos de pressão inspiratória positiva (35 a 45 cmH2O e elevada fração de oxigênio inspirado (FiO2= 0,9, sem resposta clínica favorável ou melhora na gasometria arterial. Optou-se por instilar surfactante exógeno endotraqueal (Exosurf®, Glaxo - 50 mg/kg para permitir utilizar um regime ventilatório menos agressivo. RESULTADOS: quatro horas após a administração do surfactante, foi possível reduzir o pico inspiratório de pressão (PIP de 35 para 30 cmH2O; a FiO2 de 0,9 para 0,6 e aumentar a pressão positiva ao final da expiração (PEEP de 6 para 9 cmH2O. Neste período observou-se uma elevação na relação paO2/FiO2 de 120 para 266. Ao completar 24 horas, a FiO2 pôde ser reduzida até 0,4. DISCUSSÃO: neste relato pretendemos demonstrar que a inativação do surfactante pode ser um fator decisivo na evolução desfavorável de alguns casos graves de bronquiolite. A instilação traqueal de surfactante, nestes casos, além de promover uma rápida resposta clínica, permite que se adotem técnicas ventilatórias menos agressivas.OBJECTIVE: to describe the possible clinical and laboratory effects of exogenous surfactant instillation into the tracheal tube of a child with severe acute bronchiolitis undergoing mechanical ventilation. CASE REPORT: a 2-month-old girl with clinical diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis underwent mechanical ventilation. She required high positive inspiratory peak pressure (35 to 45 cmH2O and high inspiratory fraction of oxygen (FiO2 = 0.9, but showed no clinical response or improvement in the arterial blood gas analysis. An exogenous surfactant (Exosurf

  4. Cerebellar white matter inflammation and demyelination in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, B.; Sørensen, P. S.; Juhler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology......Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology...

  5. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses from recognized pestivirus species bovine viral diarrhea 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 and the proposed pestivirus species HoBi-like virus infect primarily cattle. Exposure of cattle to these viruses can lead to either acute or persistent infections depending on the timing and status of the animal ...

  6. Immunoglobulin A-specific serodiagnosis of acute human cytomegalovirus infection by using recombinant viral antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vornhagen, R; Hinderer, W; Sonneborn, HH; Bein, G; Matter, L; The, TH; Jahn, G; Plachter, B

    The immunoglobulin A-specific reactivities of recombinant viral proteins from nine different reading frames of human cytomegalovirus were evaluated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments. Antigen fragments of reading frames pUL32, pUL44, and pUL57 were identified as preferable antigens for

  7. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis

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    Silvana Paula Cardin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self‐limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses.

  8. Acute lung injury in children : from viral infection and mechanical ventilation to inflammation and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bern, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), ook bekend als acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is een uitgebreide ontstekingsreactie in beide longen door een longziekte of een aandoening elders in het lichaam. Kinderen lijken minder gevoelig voor de ziekte dan volwassenen, wellicht door de manier waarop de

  9. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters acute gammaherpesvirus burden and limits Interleukin 27 responses in a mouse model of viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel A.; Singh, Sam J.; Young, Amy B.; Tolbert, Melanie D.; Bost, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To test whether 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) abuse might increase the susceptibility, or alter the immune response, to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (HV-68) and/or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Methods Groups of experimental and control mice were subjected to three day binges of MDMA, and the effect of this drug abuse on acute and latent HV-68 viral burden were assessed. In vitro and in vivo studies were also performed to assess the MDMA effect on IL-27 expression in virally infected or LPS-exposed macrophages and dendritic cells, and latently infected animals, exposed to this drug of abuse. Results Acute viral burden was significantly increased in MDMA-treated mice when compared to controls. However the latent viral burden, and physiological and behavioral responses were not altered in infected mice despite repeated bingeing with MDMA. MDMA could limit the IL-27 response of HV-68 infected or LPS-exposed macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the ability of this drug to alter normal cytokine responses in the context of a viral infection and/or a TLR4 agonist. Conclusion MDMA bingeing could alter the host’s immune response resulting in greater acute viral replication and reductions in the production of the cytokine, IL-27 during immune responses. PMID:21269783

  10. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repass, Gregory L; Palmer, William C; Stancampiano, Fernando F

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common, typically self-limited viral syndrome in children and adults. It is marked by fever, oral ulcers, and skin manifestations affecting the palms, soles, and buttocks, with symptoms usually lasting less than 1 week. Because it has the potential to reach epidemic levels in the United States, general practitioners need to be aware of it. Copyright© 2014 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

  11. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  12. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

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    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  13. Active Maintenance of T Cell Memory in Acute and Chronic Viral Infection Depends on Continuous Expression of FOXO1

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    Daniel T. Utzschneider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Immunity following an acutely resolved infection or the long-term equipoise of chronic viral infections often depends on the maintenance of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, yet the ongoing transcriptional requirements of these cells remain unclear. We show that active and continuous programming by FOXO1 is required for the functional maintenance of a memory population. Upon Foxo1 deletion following resolution of an infection, memory cells rapidly lost their characteristic gene expression, gradually declined in number, and were impaired in self-renewal. This was extended to chronic infections, as a loss of FOXO1 during a persistent viral infection led to a rapid decline of the TCF7 (a.k.a. TCF1-expressing memory-like subset of CD8+ T cells. We further establish FOXO1 regulation as a characteristic of human memory CD8+ T cells. Overall, we show that the molecular and functional longevity of a memory T cell population is actively maintained by the transcription factor FOXO1. : Utzschneider et al. find that hallmarks of CD8+ T cell memory such as longevity, self-renewal, and the ability to cycle between quiescence and cell division depend on continued expression of FOXO1. Loss of FOXO1 during any of these stages leads to the interruption of T cell memory. Keywords: immune memory, homeostatic proliferation, self-renewal, quiescence, cell survival, T cells, FOXO, TCF1/TCF7, chronic infection, LCMV

  14. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  15. In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Helluy

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. However, new non-invasive MRI techniques hold great potential in visualizing cardiac non-ischemic inflammatory lesions at high spatial resolution, which could improve the investigation of the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis.Here we present the discovery of a novel endogenous T2* MRI contrast of myocardial lesions in murine models of acute and chronic CVB3 myocarditis. The evaluation of infected hearts ex vivo and in vivo by 3D T2w and T2*w MRI allowed direct localization of virus-induced myocardial lesions without any MRI tracer or contrast agent. T2*w weighted MRI is able to detect both small cardiac lesions of acute myocarditis and larger necrotic areas at later stages of chronic myocarditis, which was confirmed by spatial correlation of MRI hypointensity in myocardium with myocardial lesions histologically. Additional in vivo and ex vivo MRI analysis proved that the contrast mechanism was due to a strong paramagnetic tissue alteration in the vicinity of myocardial lesions, effectively pointing towards iron deposits as the primary contributor of contrast. The evaluation of the biological origin of the MR contrast by specific histological staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that impaired iron metabolism primarily in mitochondria caused iron deposits within necrotic myocytes, which induces strong magnetic susceptibility in myocardial lesions and results in strong T2* contrast.This T2*w MRI technique provides a fast and sensitive diagnostic tool to determine the patterns and the severity of acute and chronic enteroviral myocarditis and the precise localization of

  16. Effect of BSA Antigen Sensitization during the Acute Phase of Influenza A Viral Infection on CD11c+ Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells

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    Fumitaka Sato

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BSA antigen sensitization during the acute phase of influenza A viral infection enhanced IL-10 production from naive CD4+ T cell interaction with CD11c+ pulmonary APCs. The IL-10 secretion evoked Th2 responses in the lungs with downregulation of Th1 responses and was important for the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs after BSA antigen challenge.

  17. Tracking of peptide-specific CD4+ T-cell responses after an acute resolving viral infection: a study of parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of peptide-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses to acute viral infections of humans is poorly understood. We analyzed the response to parvovirus B19 (B19), a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen with a compact and conserved genome. The magnitude and breadth of the CD4(+) T...

  18. Laquinimod interferes with migratory capacity of T cells and reduces IL-17 levels, inflammatory demyelination and acute axonal damage in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Christiane; Stadelmann, Christine; Pförtner, Ramona; Raymond, Emanuel; Feigelson, Sara; Alon, Ronen; Timan, Bracha; Hayardeny, Liat; Brück, Wolfgang

    2010-10-08

    We investigated the effect of laquinimod on inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage, cytokine profiles and migratory capacities of lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice with active EAE induced with MOG(35-55) peptide. The mice were treated at disease induction and after disease onset. Spinal cords were assessed histologically. Cytokines and adhesive properties were analyzed in splenocytes. Preventive and therapeutic laquinimod treatment reduced clinical signs, inflammation, and demyelination. VLA-4-mediated adhesiveness and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 were down-regulated in treated animals. Within lesions, treated mice showed similar axonal densities, but less acute axonal damage than controls. Laquinimod might thus protect myelin and axons by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and impairing the migratory capacity of lymphocytes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unsupervised learning techniques reveal heterogeneity in memory CD8+T cell differentiation following acute, chronic and latent viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyong; Barton, Erik S; Jennings, Ryan N; Oldenburg, Darby G; Whirry, Juliann M; White, Douglas W; Grayson, Jason M

    2017-09-01

    CD8 + T lymphocytes are critical for the control of gammaherpesvirus latency. To determine how memory CD8 + T cells generated during latency differ from those primed during acute or chronic viral infection, we adoptively transferred naive P14 CD8 + T cells into uninfected recipients, and examined surface proteins, cytokines and transcription factors following infection with the Armstrong (acute) or Clone 13 (chronic) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) expressing the LCMV epitope D b GP33-41. By performing k-means clustering and generating self organizing maps (SOM), we observed increased short-lived effector-like, CD27 l o CD62L l o and Bcl-6 l o CD8 + T cells following latent infection. In addition, we found that memory CD8 + T cells from latent primed mice underwent less expansion following adoptive transfer and antigen rechallenge. Data from cluster models were combined and visualized by principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrating memory CD8 + T cells from latent infection occupy an intermediate differentiation space. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Importance of Hematological Parameters in Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Children

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    L. A. Alekseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological studies are basic and mandatory in diagnostics and laboratory monitoring of infectious diseases, which led to their inclusion in the modern standards of laboratory examinations of children. Assessment of hematological parameters used for the provisional differential diagnosis of viral or bacterial nature of the disease. For research currently being used increasingly Hematology analyzers, which allows to facilitate and standardize the results. In this paper a comparison and differences hematological parameters practically healthy children and children with respiratory infections. Identified some changes in indicators of haemogram depending on the etiology and character of the clinical course of the disease. On the basis of the leukocyte formula defined leukocyte indices of intoxication and illustrates their importance in assessing the severity of the infection process.

  1. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Cases in the Country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V.; Bautista, Christian T.; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ≥ 38°C for ≥ 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

  2. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. WHO Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) Definition often Underdiagnoses Serious Respiratory Viral Infections in Hospitalized Jordanian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Piya, Bhinnata; Shehabi, Asem; Faouri, Samir; Williams, John V; Vermund, Sten; Halasa, Natasha B

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) is anyone with an acute respiratory infection with symptoms within 10 days of presentation, cough, fever, and hospitalization. This is used to standardize global influenza surveillance with the caveat not all cases will be captured. We sought to determine the proportion of hospitalized Jordanian children admitted with acute respiratory illnesses meeting the SARI definition. Methods We conducted 3-year viral surveillance study in children <2 years admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever into a large government hospital in Amman. Demographic and clinical data were collected. We tested nasal/throat swabs for 11 viruses using q-RT-PCR. We compared children who met SARI definition to non-SARI. Results We enrolled 3168 children. Table 1 compares those children who met SARI definition vs. those who did not. Figure 1 compares % of children who were virus-positive and met SARI definition. Table 1. N (%) SARI (n = 1198) Non-SARI (n = 1970) p-values Male 729 (60.9) 1183 (60.1) 0.655 Median Age 6.7 months 2.3 months 0.000 Underlying medical condition 160 (13.4) 215 (10.9) 0.039 Pneumonia 192 (16.0) 202 (10.3) 0.000 Sepsis 150 (12.5) 750 (38.1) 0.000 Bronchiolitis 169 (14.1) 378 (19.2) 0.000 Bronchopneumonia 656 (54.8) 364 (18.5) 0.000 ≤10-day duration 1198 (100) 1848 (93.8) 0.000 Cough 1198 (100) 1172 (59.5) 0.000 Fever 1198 (100) 649 (32.9) 0.000 Fever and Cough 1198 (100) 48 (2.4) 0.000 Virus positive 1076 (89.8) 1505 (76.4) 0.000 Rhinovirus 438 (36.6) 800 (40.6) 0.024 Adenovirus 201 (16.8) 274 (13.9) 0.028 Parainfluenza 1–3 75 (6.3) 100 (5.1) 0.157 Respiratory Syncytial Virus 635 (53.0) 762 (38.7) 0.000 Influenza A-C 61 (5.1) 58 (2.9) 0.002 Human Metapneumovirus 153 (12.8) 120 (6.1) 0.000 Conclusion Children who met the definition of SARI were more likely to be older, have an underlying medical condition, have the diagnoses of pneumonia and

  4. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni.

  5. Encephalomyelitis following rabies vaccination - report of a case and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtelli, Celso Montenegro; Leon, Hector L. Coraspe; Francisco, Luis Miguel; Leite, Luciana S. Batista

    1997-01-01

    Encephalomyelitis is a rare complication following rabies vaccination. In patients with acute or subacute central nervous system illnesses such event must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play important role in diagnosis and prognosis. (author)

  6. Sodium fusidate (fusidin) ameliorates the course of monophasic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, R; Puglisi, G; Papaccio, G

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on the course of acute monophasic experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE) in male Lewis rats. Prophylactic treatment with fusidin, 80 or 120 mg/kg bd wt., markedly ameliorated the course of the disease in rats immunized...

  7. Sodium fusidate (fusidin) ameliorates the course of monophasic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, R; Puglisi, G; Papaccio, G

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on the course of acute monophasic experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE) in male Lewis rats. Prophylactic treatment with fusidin, 80 or 120 mg/kg bd wt., markedly ameliorated the course of the disease in rats immunized ...

  8. The value of acute phase reactants and LightCycler® SeptiFast test in the diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlu, Gulcin; Tanriverdi, Huseyin; Aslan, Gonul; Kuyucu, Necdet

    2018-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the value of acute phase reactants and LightCycler® SeptiFast test to differentiate bacterial and viral infections. Children with fever were enrolled to this prospective study. Peripheral white blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were studied from all patients on day 1, 3 and 7. Blood culture and chest X-ray were also obtained on day 1. Blood samples for LightCycler® SeptiFast test were obtained in all patients to use them if there was uncertain diagnosis between bacterial or viral infection. The patients were divided into two groups as bacterial and viral infection. A total of 94 children with fever were enrolled. The mean value of fever was significantly higher in bacterial group than viral group (p acute phase reactants, especially PCT, and LightCycler® SeptiFast test may help to differentiate bacterial and viral infections. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  9. Aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury in patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' encountered on a liaison neurology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova-Mihaylova, Petya; Burke, David; O'Dwyer, John P; Bradley, David; Williams, Jennifer A; Cronin, Simon J; Smyth, Shane; Murphy, Raymond P; Murphy, Sinead M; Wall, Catherine; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2018-01-06

    Patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' are frequently empirically treated with intravenous aciclovir. Increasing urea and creatinine are 'common', but rapidly progressive renal failure is reported to be 'very rare'. To describe the clinical course and outcome of cases of aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) encountered by the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH and to highlight the importance of surveillance and urgent treatment of this iatrogenic complication. Retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH on patients who received IV aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis and developed AKI were analysed. Aciclovir-induced AKI was defined by a consultant nephrologist in all cases as a rise in serum creatinine of > 26 μmol/L in 48 h or by ≥ 1.5 times the baseline value. Renal function, haematocrit, and fluid balance were monitored following AKI onset. Data from 10 patients were analysed. Median time to AKI onset was 3.5 days (range: 1-6 days). Aciclovir was stopped or the dose adjusted. All patients recovered with IV normal saline, aiming for a urine output > 100-150 ml/h. The interval between first rise in creatinine and return to normal levels varied between 5 and 19 days. Liaison neurologists and general physicians need to be aware that aciclovir may cause AKI attributed to distal intra-tubular crystal nephropathy. Daily fluid balance and renal function monitoring are essential because AKI may arise even with intensive pre-hydration. Prognosis is good if identified early and actively treated.

  10. Bacterial and viral pathogen spectra of acute respiratory infections in under-5 children in hospital settings in Dhaka city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Sarower Bhuyan

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines. About 82.5% (n = 165 of specimens were positive for pathogens. Of 165 infected cases, 3% (n = 6 had only single bacterial pathogens, whereas 43.5% (n = 87 cases had only single viral pathogens. The remaining 36% (n = 72 cases had coinfections. In symptomatic cases, human rhinovirus was detected as the predominant virus (31.5%, followed by RSV (31%, HMPV (13%, HBoV (11%, HPIV-3 (10.5%, and adenovirus (7%. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogen (9%, whereas Klebsiella pneumaniae, Streptococcus spp., Enterobacter agglomerans, and Haemophilus influenzae were 5.5%, 5%, 2%, and 1.5%, respectively. Of 15 multidrug-resistant bacteria, a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate and an Enterobacter agglomerans isolate exhibited resistance against more than 10 different antibiotics. Both ARI incidence and predominant pathogen detection rates were higher during post-monsoon and winter, peaking in September. Pathogen detection rates and coinfection incidence in less than 1-year group were significantly higher (P = 0.0034 and 0.049, respectively than in 1-5 years age group. Pathogen detection rate (43% in asymptomatic cases was significantly lower compared to symptomatic group (P<0.0001. Human rhinovirus, HPIV-3, adenovirus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Klebsiella pneumaniae had

  11. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... conducted by the Department have established that horses having Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis antibody...

  12. Coxsackievirus B3 Directly Induced Th17 Cell Differentiation by Inhibiting Nup98 Expression in Patients with Acute Viral Myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qi; Liao, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yu; Liang, Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Yuan, Jing; Yu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Th17 cells play a key role in the progression of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced acute viral myocarditis (AVMC). However, the direct effect of virus on Th17 cell differentiation is still unknown. Recently, nucleoporin (Nup) 98 has been proved to be associated with lymphocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nup98 mediated Th17 cell differentiation in AVMC. In our study, patients with AVMC and healthy controls were recruited. The results showed that CVB3 could enter into the CD4 + T cells in AVMC patients and healthy controls. After transfecting purified CD4 + T cells with CVB3 in vitro , the Th17 cell frequency, IL-17 secretion, and RORγT synthesis were increased while the Nup98 levels were decreased. Furthermore, down-regulating Nup98 expression by siRNA-Nup98 in CD4 + T cells resulted in the elevated Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 secretion, along with enhanced levels of RORγT, dissociative p300/CBP, and acetylated Stat3. Up-regulation of Nup98 expression by pcDNA3.1-Nup98 showed the opposite effects. Our results suggested that CVB3 directly induced CD4 + T cell differentiation into Th17 cells by inhibiting Nup98 expression, representing a therapeutic target in AVMC.

  13. Coxsackievirus B3 directly induced Th17 cell differentiation by inhibiting Nup98 expression in patients with acute viral myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Long

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Th17 cells play a key role in the progression of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-induced acute viral myocarditis (AVMC. However, the direct effect of virus on Th17 cell differentiation is still unknown. Recently, nucleoporin (Nup 98 has been proved to be associated with lymphocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nup98 mediated Th17 cell differentiation in AVMC. In our study, patients with AVMC and healthy controls were recruited. The results showed that CVB3 could enter into the CD4+ T cells in AVMC patients and healthy controls. After transfecting purified CD4+ T cells with CVB3 in vitro, the Th17 cell frequency, IL-17 secretion, and RORγT synthesis were increased while the Nup98 levels were decreased. Furthermore, down-regulating Nup98 expression by siRNA-Nup98 in CD4+ T cells resulted in the elevated Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 secretion, along with enhanced levels of RORγT, dissociative p300/CBP, and acetylated Stat3. Up-regulation of Nup98 expression by pcDNA3.1-Nup98 showed the opposite effects. Our results suggested that CVB3 directly induced CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th17 cells by inhibiting Nup98 expression, representing a therapeutic target in AVMC.

  14. [Acute respiratory infections of viral origin in the children of Algiers, Algeria based on a seroepidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Z; Bouguermouh, A; Belhocine, Z; Hamlaoui, M; Kermani, S; Bakouri, S; Chaulet, P; Hadji, N

    1990-01-01

    401 double serum samples from 0 to 14 year old children with acute respiratory diseases (ARD) were analysed in view to establish the viral etiology. 198 (49.4%) out of the 401 were positive. The syncytial respiratory virus (SRV) was the most frequent (29.8%) among the positives, followed by the parainfluenzae virus type 3 (24.7), the influenza A virus (23.7%), the parainfluenzae type 1 (8.5%), the influenza B (7%) and the parainfluenza type 2 (2%). Seven samples out of 109 were positive for adenovirus. The SRV infections were very frequent before one year of age and after six. The parainfluenza virus type 3 was found mostly during the second year of life and was different in this from the types 1 and 2 prevalent after the age of six. The SRV is responsible for subglottic ARD (73%), as well as the parainfluenza virus type 3 (68.5%), the influenza virus types A (69%) and B (61.5%). On the contrary, the parainfluenza viruses types 1 (70%) and 2 (67%) attacked especially the upper respiratory tract. Studies were also worked out on the effects of season, sex, antibiotherapy, as well as on the viruses most incriminated in hospitalization.

  15. Freqüência e implicações dos auto-anticorpos em hepatites agudas virais Frequency and implications of autoantibodies in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Codes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem interações entre viroses hepatotrópicas e o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro que podem influenciar na patogenicidade da agressão hepática. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a freqüência de auto-anticorpos na fase aguda da hepatite viral, sua relação com atividade bioquímica, gravidade da doença e cronicidade. Foram estudados 156 pacientes com hepatite aguda viral de 1992 a 2000. Destes, 32% tiveram infecção por vírus A, 31% por vírus B, 8% por vírus C, 3% tiveram hepatite E e 24% não A-E. Na fase aguda, 20,5% apresentaram FAN e 14,8% antimúsculo liso positivos. Na convalescença, 6,4% persistiram com FAN e 3,9% com antimúsculo liso positivos. Pacientes que persistiam com anticorpos detectáveis não apresentavam níveis de transaminases e bilirrubinas significativamente diferentes daqueles com auto-anticorpos negativos. Concluindo, os anticorpos que aparecem na fase inicial da infecção são transitórios e não têm implicação prognóstica.There are interactions between hepatotropic viruses and the host immune system, which could contribute to liver damage in viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of autoantibodies in patients with acute viral hepatitis and their relationship with biochemical activity, severity of acute illness and chronicity rate. From 1992 to 2000, 156 patients with acute viral hepatitis were enrolled in a prospective study. Among these, hepatitis A was detected in 32%, hepatitis B in 31%, hepatitis C in 8%, hepatitis E in 3% and 24% were considered non A-E hepatitis. During the acute phase, 20.5% of patients presented ANA and 14.8% anti-smooth muscle antibody positive. During convalescence, 6.4% of patients showed ANA and 3.9% anti-smooth muscle positive. Comparison between autoantibodies-positive and negative groups showed no differences regarding ALT and bilirubin levels. In conclusion, autoantibodies can occur in acute viral hepatitis but there are no

  16. Adults hospitalised with acute respiratory illness rarely have detectable bacteria in the absence of COPD or pneumonia; viral infection predominates in a large prospective UK sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G

    2014-11-01

    Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Sinha; Suvrendu Sankar Kar; Tirtha Pratim Purkait; Uttam Kumar Pandit

    2016-01-01

    An 11 years old male was admitted with upper motor type of weakness of both lower limbs, retention of urine, impaired consciousness, tremor and convulsion on 11th day after vesicular eruption of chickenpox. He was investigated and treated. MRI Brain and Spine suggests encephalitis and myelitis. Other causes were excluded by relevant investigations. Patient was improved satisfactorily. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000): 103-104

  18. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Kroetz

    2015-12-01

    alveolar Mϕ in the lungs. Finally, Setdb2 expression by Mϕ suppressed IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells in vitro, as well as proliferation in IAV-infected lungs. Collectively, these findings identify Setdb2 as a novel regulator of the immune system in acute respiratory viral infection.

  19. Rhinopharyngeal Retrograde Clearance Induces Less Respiratory Effort and Fewer Adverse Effects in Comparison With Nasopharyngeal Aspiration in Infants With Acute Viral Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gabriela R; Calvete, Fernanda Pg; Rosito, Gabriela F; Donadio, Márcio Vf

    2016-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is an inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract. This study aimed to compare the immediate effects of retrograde rhinopharyngeal clearance with nasopharyngeal aspiration in children admitted with acute viral bronchiolitis. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial with children admitted for acute viral bronchiolitis up to 12 months old. Subjects were divided into a nasopharyngeal aspiration group and a clearance group, submitted to retrograde rhinopharyngeal clearance with physiological solution (0.9%) instillation. In both groups, there were 3 evaluations on the same day (data collections 1, 2, and 3), including cardiorespiratory parameters, clinical score of respiratory dysfunction, and adverse effects. One hundred children were included, with no statistical differences between groups regarding the characteristics of the sample. There was a significant reduction (P bronchiolitis can be an alternative for the clearance of the upper airways, since it showed immediate positive effects on the occurrence of complications and signs of respiratory effort compared with nasopharyngeal aspiration. Children classified with a moderate clinical score appear to benefit the most. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02460614.). Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Hua [Department of Emergency, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Fu, Jia [Department of Infection, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Sun, Da-Qing, E-mail: daqingsuncd@163.com [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, NO. 69 Xijuyuan Lane, Xi' an 710003, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-29

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. - Highlights: • Halofuginone (HF) increases the survival of suckling BALB/c mice infected with acute CVB3. • HF reduces the expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17 and IL-23) and the number of CD4{sup +} IL17{sup +} cells. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels associated with myocarditis were reduced by HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. • HF alleviates VMC via inhibition of TGF-β1-mediated NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway.

  1. Diagnosis of Porcine teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Republic of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming Y; Millien, Max; Jacques-Simon, Rodney; Flanagan, J Keith; Bracht, Alexa J; Carrillo, Consuelo; Barrette, Roger W; Fabian, Andrew; Mohamed, Fawzi; Moran, Karen; Rowland, Jessica; Swenson, Sabrina L; Jenkins-Moore, Melinda; Koster, Leo; Thomsen, Bruce V; Mayr, Gregory; Pyburn, Dave; Morales, Paula; Shaw, John; Burrage, Thomas; White, William; McIntosh, Michael T; Metwally, Samia

    2012-07-01

    In February and March 2009, approximately 1,500 backyard pigs of variable age became sick, and approximately 700 of them died or were euthanized in the Lower Artibonite Valley and the Lower Plateau of the Republic of Haiti. The main clinical sign was posterior ataxia followed by paresis and/or paralysis on the second or third day of illness. No gross lesions were observed at postmortem examinations. The morbidity and mortality were approximately 60% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostic samples (whole blood, brain, tonsil, lymph nodes, spleen, and lung) were negative for Classical swine fever virus and African swine fever virus. Porcine teschovirus type 1 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions in brain samples. Results of virus isolation, electron microscopy of virus particles, histopathological analysis on brain tissues, nucleic acid sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the viral isolate supported the diagnosis of teschovirus encephalomyelitis. The outbreak of the disease in Haiti is the first appearance of the severe form of teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Americas. This disease poses a potential threat to the swine industries in other Caribbean countries, as well as to Central and North American countries.

  2. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continuing Education Event Resources Disability and ME-CFS Diagnosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a patient’s doctor or healthcare provider ...

  3. Acute pancreatitis associated with acute viral hepatitis: case report and review of literature Pancreatite aguda associada com hepatite A aguda: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bora Moleta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report, along with the review presented, describes a patient diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis, who developed a framework of intense abdominal pain and laboratorial alterations compatible with acute pancreatitis. The association of acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant and non-fulminant acute hepatitis virus (AHV has been reported and several mechanisms have been proposed for this complication, but so far none is clearly involved. As acute hepatitis is a common disease, it is important to stimulate the development of other studies in order to determine local incidence and profile of patients presenting this association in our environment.Este relato de caso, junto com a revisão de literatura, descreve um paciente com diagnóstico de hepatite viral aguda, que desenvolveu quadro de dor abdominal intensa e alterações laboratoriais compatíveis com pancreatite aguda. Casos de pancreatite aguda complicando hepatites virais agudas fulminantes e não fulminantes tem sido esporadicamente relatados e vários mecanismos são propostos para explicar esta complicação, no entanto sua causa ainda se mantém desconhecida. Como a hepatite aguda é doença comum, é importante estimular o desenvolvimento de mais estudos na América Latina que visem determinar a incidência local e o perfil dos pacientes que apresentam esta complicação.

  4. [The specific features of the clinical course of acute suppurative otitis media of viral and mixed viral-bacterial etiology in the children of the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bugaichuk, O V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the spectrum of the pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute suppurative otitis media in the children of the preschool age and to reveal the specific clinical features of this disease depending on its etiological factors. The study involved 138 patients (186 ears) of either sex at the age from 1 year to 84 months who presented with acute suppurative otitis media. The following methods were employed for the purpose of the study: analysis of the patients' complaints and the past medical histories, examination of the ENT organs, microbiological (bacteriological and virological) studies of secretion from the tympanic cavity, diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, laboratory investigations. The study allowed to reveal the characteristic clinical manifestations of the pathology of interest depending on its etiology.

  5. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  6. Physio-chemical and morphological characteristics of avian encephalomyelitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosting, L.H.; Grinnell, B.W.; Matsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) was purified from infected chick embryos by a gradient centrifugation in cesium chloride. The virus had a buoyant density of 1.31 to 1.32 g/ml and a sedimentation coefficient of 148 S. The purified AEV was resistant to treatments with chloroform, acid pH or trypsin. The presence of Mg++ stabilized the virus against heat inactivation (56°C, 1 h). Electron microscopic study showed the virus to be 24 to 32 nm in diameter. The surface structure of the purified virus was not easily discernable. Nevertheless, with uranyl acetate-stained particles, Markham's rotation technique revealed that AEV has five-fold symmetry with 32 or 42 capsomers. Exact classification of AEV awaits characterization of the viral nucleic acid.

  7. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological...

  8. High Frequency of Enteric Protozoan, Viral, and Bacterial Potential Pathogens in Community-Acquired Acute Diarrheal Episodes: Evidence Based on Results of Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Ismail, Khadiga A.; Almehmadi, Mazen

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses...

  9. Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis from immature guinea pig donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, S H; Snyder, D H; Raine, C S

    1983-01-01

    In immature Strain 13 guinea pigs sensitized to syngeneic spinal cord, a chronic allergic encephalomyelitis is elicited reminiscent of demyelinating diseases of man and which features relapses or progressive downhill course and extensive areas of demyelination in the central nervous system. However, juvenile recipients of syngeneic lymphocytes from similarly sensitized juveniles show only the acute form of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Neuropathologically, the CNS of affected animals displayed mild changes only and minimal demyelination. These observations indicate that the age-dependent differences seen between the acute disease of adults and the chronic disease of juveniles may be due to differences in availability of modulating or reparatory factors, rather than differences in the central nervous system organ or in the immune response itself.

  10. Metabolism of /sup 32/P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezes, V.; Bukovsky, V.; Drgova, A.; Mezesova, V. (Komenskeho Univ., Martin (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-06-01

    The metabolism of intraventricularly administered /sup 32/P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of /sup 32/P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs.

  11. Imaging in viral infections of the central nervous system: can images speak for an acutely ill brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Vijetha Vinod; Bathla, Girish; Moritani, Toshio; Helton, Kathleen J

    2017-06-01

    Viral infections involving the central nervous system (CNS) may result from a wide variety of agents and have clinically overlapping manifestations. The diagnosis is often made based on a combination of the clinical exam, local epidemiology, imaging, and biochemical findings. Despite the advances in medicine and imaging, the diagnosis often remains elusive. Imaging, however, still plays a vital role in suggesting the diagnosis in typical cases, excluding potential mimics, and in evaluating changes with therapy. Herein, the authors present a review of various common and rare viral encephalitides with emphasis on the imaging literature.

  12. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Kevin; Chen, Feng; Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W; Kharel, Madan K; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel; Hsia, S Victor

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency.

  13. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen® in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia García-Menor MD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p < 0.001. The duration of diarrhea (median and interquartile range was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377. The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children.

  14. A molecular survey for selected viral enteropathogens revealed a limited role of Canine circovirus in the development of canine acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgier, Giulia; Lorusso, Eleonora; Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lanave, Gianvito; Buonavoglia, Canio; Elia, Gabriella

    2017-05-01

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a canine virus, whose pathogenetic role is still uncertain. Based on recent data suggesting its role as entheropathogen, a case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 to investigate the association of CanineCV with gastroenteritis in dogs, alone or in combination with other viral pathogens, including canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). A total of 219 dogs suffering from acute gastroenteritis disorders and 67 controls randomly recruited among healthy dogs or patients presenting without enteric signs were screened by a panel of real-time (RT-)PCR assays for CanineCV, CPV, CCoV and CDV. A high prevalence of viral infections was detected in dogs with gastroenteritis (77.16%), with CPV representing the most frequently detected enteropathogen, followed by CanineCV and CCoV. While CPV and CCoV infections displayed a strong association with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis (pgastroenteritis (p<0.00001). This study supports the role of CanineCV as a co-pathogen in the development of gastrointestinal disease, mainly acting in synergism with other enteric viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic but not acute virus infection induces sustained expansion of myeloid suppressor cell numbers that inhibit viral-specific T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian A; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Nakaya, Helder I; Price, Aryn A; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-02-21

    Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72 hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers and stimulated antiviral CD8(+) T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after infection, there was an increase in Ly6C(hi) monocytic and Gr-1(hi) neutrophilic cells in lymphoid organs and blood. This expansion in cell numbers was enhanced and sustained in C13 infection, whereas it occurred only transiently with ARM infection. These cells resembled myeloid-derived suppressor cells and potently suppressed T cell proliferation. The reduction of monocytic cells in Ccr2(-/-) mice or after Gr-1 antibody depletion enhanced antiviral T cell function. Thus, innate cells have an important immunomodulatory role throughout chronic infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute immunological responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge in heifers administered transdermal flunixin meglumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time of flunixin meglumine transdermal (FTD; Finadyne Transdermal, Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) administration relative to a viral-bacterial challenge was evaluated in beef heifers. Thirty-two beef heifers (170 ± 21.1 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1) Control (CON), rec...

  17. Acute immunological responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge in feedlot heifers supplemented with yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two treatments were evaluated in commercial feedlot heifers to determine the effects of a yeast supplement on immune responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (325 +/- 19.2 kg BW) were selected and randomly assigned to one of two treatments, and fed for 3...

  18. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  19. Preventive Treatment with Methylprednisolone Paradoxically Exacerbates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Wüst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs represent the standard treatment for acute disease bouts in multiple sclerosis (MS patients, for which methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy is the most frequently used protocol. Here, we compared the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive MP application in MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. When administered briefly after the onset of the disease, MP efficiently ameliorated EAE in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, MP administration around the time of immunization was contraindicated as it even increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS and worsened the disease symptoms. Our analyses suggest that in the latter case an incomplete depletion of peripheral T cells by MP triggers homeostatic proliferation, which presumably results in an enhanced priming of autoreactive T cells and causes an aggravated disease course. Thus, the timing and selection of a particular GC derivative require careful consideration in MS therapy.

  20. Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyeoun; Jeong, Hansol; Park, Surim; Yang, Myeon-Sik; Kim, Jongwon; Bae, Jaehyun; Kwon, Yonghwan; Kim, Min-Su; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lim, Chae-Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-06-10

    Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old female Korean Holstein dairy cattle were inoculated with AKAV-7 by various routes, including intracerebral (IC), intrasubarachnoid space (IS), subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV); a separate group was vaccinated before intravenous infection. Five of the six cows in the IC group and two of the six cows in the IS group showed clinical signs such as locomotor ataxia and paralysis of the hind limbs. Three of six cows died after IC infection 9-12 days post infection (dpi). Histopathologic changes such as nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis were confirmed in various parts of the central nervous system in the IC, IS and SC groups. Early onset of neutralizing antibodies in the serum and lower viral mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and various tissues in the vaccinated group was noticeable compared to the unvaccinated group (IV group). We suggest that the AKAV vaccine currently used in Korea may be partially effective for protection against AKAV-7 in cows.

  1. Interleukin 10 modulation of pathogenic Th17 cells during fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsar, Kirsten A; Baxter, Victoria K; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Griffin, Diane E

    2014-11-11

    Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are important causes of epidemic encephalomyelitis. Neuronal cell death during fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis is immune-mediated; however, the types of cells involved and their regulation have not been determined. We show that the virus-induced inflammatory response was accompanied by production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10, and in the absence of IL-10, paralytic disease occurred earlier and mice died faster. To determine the reason for accelerated disease in the absence of IL-10, immune responses in the CNS of IL-10(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. There were no differences in the amounts of brain inflammation or peak virus replication; however, IL-10(-/-) animals had accelerated and increased infiltration of CD4(+)IL-17A(+) and CD4(+)IL-17A(+)IFNγ(+) cells compared with WT animals. Th17 cells infiltrating the brain demonstrated a pathogenic phenotype with the expression of the transcription factor, Tbet, and the production of granzyme B, IL-22, and GM-CSF, with greater production of GM-CSF in IL-10(-/-) mice. Therefore, in fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis, pathogenic Th17 cells enter the CNS at the onset of neurologic disease and, in the absence of IL-10, appear earlier, develop into Th1/Th17 cells more often, and have greater production of GM-CSF. This study demonstrates a role for pathogenic Th17 cells in fatal viral encephalitis.

  2. Hepatitis viral aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés; René F. Espinosa Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, ...

  3. Laboratory Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by the Tick Hyalomma Truncatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    equine On day 21 after infestation of the first guinea - pig , none encephalomyelitis virus by the tick of 95 unfed nv mphs sampled contained virus...however.when 100 unled nymphs were placed on a guinea - pig the Hyalomnma truncatumn* animal died 6 d later with a serum viral titre of 107 _____ - PFt ml...oma Al Loan’ About 80 partial ly fed nymphs were transferred to an- Departmnent of 1-?itomology~, IS Arm-lr .~tddical C.omlponetnt. other guinea - pig

  4. STUDIES ON EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lester S.

    1938-01-01

    The action of the virus of equine encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig brain has been studied, and various histological changes have been described in detail. After peripheral inoculation (as in the pad) the earliest detectable pathologic change in the nervous system is the accumulation of leucocytes within the lumen of blood vessels, and the proliferation of the vascular adventitia. This precedes the appearance of any significant perivascular cuffing, and may or may not be accompanied by a few polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the tissue. The typical lesion is a fairly well circumscribed focus of polymorphonuclear leucocytes accompanying the blood vessel changes described above. The leucocytes may be numerous or sparse, and may or may not be accompanied by neuronal destruction. In early cases, before the onset of symptoms, such circumscribed lesions appear in small number irregularly scattered through the gray matter. The neo- and olfactory cortices are the principal sites of predilection, although basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, and lower olfactory centers may also be involved. The hippocampus is much less affected than other parts of the brain. A rough distinction is made between inflammatory and degenerative lesions, a distinction which depends on the relationship between the neuronal destruction and the exudative changes in any given site. These two types are described, and their significance is discussed. After intracerebral inoculation, the inflammatory changes are much less marked than after peripheral inoculation. This is due not to insufficient time for the development of lesions but to a different type of pathological process. Following intracerebral inoculation, there is primary destruction of neurones, involving especially the hippocampus, and also large areas of the neo-cortex. This change, similar to ischemic necrosis, is regarded in part as a non-specific reaction of especially vulnerable tissue. PMID:19870810

  5. Presumptive diagnosis of Avian encephalomyelitis in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A report of Avian encephalomyelitis outbreak in two flocks of adult Japanese quail is presented. High mortalities, tremor, ataxia and lateral recumbency were the prominent clinical signs observed. Absence of gross pathology and microscopic lesions of gliosis, neuronal degeneration, meningitis, congested blood vessel with ...

  6. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF THE RECOMBINANT INTERFERON alfa-2b OF ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL MONONUCLEOSIS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted clinical and immunological examination of 51 children with acute Epstein-Barr viral mononucleosis (EBV in age from 1 year to 7 years. All children diagnosed with a moderate degree of the disease. In the treatment of 25 people (comparison group used the standard treatment (pathogenetic, symptomatic, treatment 26 people (main group included the use as antiviral and immunotropic means of the preparation of human recombinant interferon Alfa-2b in the form of rectal suppositories — VIFERON®. The immunological survey was conducted in dynamics: at the height of the disease and in the convalescence period. The blood was determined indicators of cellular immunity (leukocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD56+, HLAII+, CD95+, CD1 6+, CD25+, the concentration of IFN-a, IFN-y, IL-4 levels in spontaneous and induced production, in the serum. At milestones children of the main group noted rapid regression of clinical symptoms, normalization of body temperature, reducing intoxication, positive dynamics lymphoproliferative syndrome, a significant reduction in bed-days, no layering respiratory viral infections. Interferon had also expressed a positive impact on the changed parameters of cellular immunity and cytokine links. At the same time, 80% of patients after basic treatment is established the predominance of Th2 type immune response, indicating a high risk of developing chronic course of EBV-mononucleosis.

  7. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Enrrico Bloise; Sophie Petropoulos; Majid Iqbal; Alisa Kostaki; Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho; William Gibb; Stephen G. Matthews

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of...

  8. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood...... mechanistic link between acute HIV-infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction....

  9. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1b with High Viral Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ando

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis, an uncommon side effect of pegylated interferon α (PEG-IFN α and ribavirin (RBV combination therapy, has rarely been reported in the English language literature. Here, acute pancreatitis associated with PEG-IFN plus RBV treatment is described in three patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1b with high serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels. The patients had been started on weekly subcutaneous injections of PEG-IFN α (60, 80, and 90 μg plus a daily oral dose of RBV (600 mg. The therapy was discontinued, however, because of the onset of acute pancreatitis (after 15 weeks, 48 weeks, and 3 weeks respectively. The drug-induced pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated levels of amylase and lipase and the absence of other identifiable causes. High tumor necrosis factor-α was found in one patient and high interleukin-6 in the other two. The immune system stimulated by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy might have caused the acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of the onset of drug-induced pancreatitis by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy.

  10. Encephalomyelitis following rabies vaccination - report of a case and review of the literature; Encefalomielite pos-vacinacao anti-rabica - relato de um caso e revisao de literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtelli, Celso Montenegro; Leon, Hector L. Coraspe; Francisco, Luis Miguel; Leite, Luciana S. Batista [Faculdade de Medicina do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil). Hospital-escola

    1997-07-01

    Encephalomyelitis is a rare complication following rabies vaccination. In patients with acute or subacute central nervous system illnesses such event must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play important role in diagnosis and prognosis. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  12. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  13. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  14. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M.R.; Irani, S.R.; Leite, M.I.; Nithi, K.; Vincent, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The syndrome of progressive encephalopathy with limb rigidity has been historically termed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) or stiff-person syndrome plus. Methods: The case is presented of a previously healthy 28-year-old man with a rapidly fatal form of PERM developing over 2 months. Results: Serum antibodies to both NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and glycine receptors (GlyR) were detected postmortem, and examination of the brain confirmed an autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with particular involvement of hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje cells and relative sparing of the neocortex. No evidence for an underlying systemic neoplasm was found. Conclusion: This case displayed not only the clinical features of PERM, previously associated with GlyR antibodies, but also some of the features associated with NMDAR antibodies. This unusual combination of antibodies may be responsible for the particularly progressive course and sudden death. PMID:21775733

  15. Progressive Encephalomyelitis With Rigidity: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraba, Ranka; Jušić, Anica; Sruk, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: The most prominent clinical features of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PER) are painful spasms and rigidity accompanied by clinical signs of brainstem and spinal cord involvement. In initial reports, PER had fatal outcome. Later, clinical improvement related to corticosteroid therapy has been described in some cases. The objective of this study was to signify a reputed clinical significance of corticosteroid therapy in PER. Methods: Case report. Results: A 50-year-old man developed progressive syndrome of tonic extensor spasms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed areas of signal changes in cervical spinal cord and lower brainstem, whereas cerebrospinal fluid analysis indicated subacute encephalomyelitis. His condition dramatically improved on oral corticosteroid therapy. Clinical improvement was accompanied by normalization of MRI findings. Conclusion: For this patient with PER, corticosteroid therapy was a dramatically effective and life-saving treatment, although initiated rather late in the course of the disease. PMID:20397447

  16. Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Other herpes viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus are more common in immunocompromised hosts. Arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus are important pathogens globally, but the prevalence varies significantly by geographic region and often season. Early diagnosis from radiographic evidence and molecular (eg, rapid diagnostics is important for targeted therapy. Antivirals may be used effectively against some pathogens, although several viruses have no effective treatment. This article provides a review of epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of common viral pathogens in CNS disease.

  17. Viral Polymerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung H.

    2016-01-01

    Viral polymerases play a central role in viral genome replication and transcription. Based on the genome type and the specific needs of particular virus, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are found in various viruses. Viral polymerases are generally active as a single protein capable of carrying out multiple functions related to viral genome synthesis. Specifically, viral polymerases use variety of mechanisms to recognize initial binding sites, ensure processive elongation, terminate replication at the end of the genome, and also coordinate the chemical steps of nucleic acid synthesis with other enzymatic activities. This review focuses on different viral genome replication and transcription strategies, and the polymerase interactions with various viral proteins that are necessary to complete genome synthesis. PMID:22297518

  18. Outbreaks of Neuroinvasive Astrovirus Associated with Encephalomyelitis, Weakness, and Paralysis among Weaned Pigs, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Ákos; Albert, Mihály; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Pesavento, Patricia A; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2017-12-01

    A large, highly prolific swine farm in Hungary had a 2-year history of neurologic disease among newly weaned (25- to 35-day-old) pigs, with clinical signs of posterior paraplegia and a high mortality rate. Affected pigs that were necropsied had encephalomyelitis and neural necrosis. Porcine astrovirus type 3 was identified by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization in brain and spinal cord samples in 6 animals from this farm. Among tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, the highest viral loads were detected in brain stem and spinal cord. Similar porcine astrovirus type 3 was also detected in archived brain and spinal cord samples from another 2 geographically distant farms. Viral RNA was predominantly restricted to neurons, particularly in the brain stem, cerebellum (Purkinje cells), and cervical spinal cord. Astrovirus was generally undetectable in feces but present in respiratory samples, indicating a possible respiratory infection. Astrovirus could cause common, neuroinvasive epidemic disease.

  19. The evidence of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus induced nonsuppurative encephalitis as the cause of death in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An acute outbreak of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV infection in piglets, characterized with neurological symptoms, vomiting, diarrhea, and wasting, occurred in China. Coronavirus-like particles were observed in the homogenized tissue suspensions of the brain of dead piglets by electron microscopy, and a wild PHEV strain was isolated, characterized, and designated as PHEV-CC14. Histopathologic examinations of the dead piglets showed characteristics of non-suppurative encephalitis, and some neurons in the cerebral cortex were degenerated and necrotic, and neuronophagia. Similarly, mice inoculated with PHEV-CC14 were found to have central nervous system (CNS dysfunction, with symptoms of depression, arched waists, standing and vellicating front claws. Furthmore, PHEV-positive labeling of neurons in cortices of dead piglets and infected mice supported the viral infections of the nervous system. Then, the major structural genes of PHEV-CC14 were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed, and the strain shared 95%–99.2% nt identity with the other PHEV strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis clearly proved that the wild strain clustered into a subclass with a HEV-JT06 strain. These findings suggested that the virus had a strong tropism for CNS, in this way, inducing nonsuppurative encephalitis as the cause of death in piglets. Simultaneously, the predicted risk of widespread transmission showed a certain variation among the PHEV strains currently circulating around the world. Above all, the information presented in this study can not only provide good reference for the experimental diagnosis of PHEV infection for pig breeding, but also promote its new effective vaccine development.

  20. School absenteeism among school-aged children with medically attended acute viral respiratory illness during three influenza seasons, 2012-2013 through 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A

    2017-05-01

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Usefulness of B-mode and doppler sonography for the diagnosis of severe acute viral hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Jinoo; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Hwan Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography (US) features correlating with laboratory findings for the diagnosis of severe acute hepatitis (SAH) in patients with hepatitis A virus infection. Thirty-nine consecutive serologically proven patients were enrolled. Decreased parenchymal echotexture, periportal tracking, gallbladder wall change, and splenomegaly were assessed on B-mode images. Blood flow velocities were measured in the main portal (V(PORTAL)) and in the hepatic veins, and the hepatic venous pulsatility index was calculated. SAH was defined as high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥ 15 with or without coagulopathy. The relationship between US features and laboratory findings was assessed, and SAH diagnosis was evaluated. Serum alanine transaminase and prothrombin time were significantly different depending on the presence of gallbladder wall change and splenomegaly (p hepatic venous waveform and hepatic venous pulsatility index were significantly correlated with MELD score. For the diagnosis of SAH, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of V(PORTAL) was 0.798. It reached 0.869 in the patients with typical GB change. Both B-mode and Doppler US correlated well with several laboratory variables and may be helpful to diagnose SAH in patients with hepatitis A virus infection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to granulocytes and its application for variation of granulocytes in scallop Chlamys farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

    2011-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb 6H7) specific to granulocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri was produced by immunising mice with separated granulocytes as an antigen. Characterised using a flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay, MAb 6H7 reacted to granulocytes by 87.1% of total positive haemocytes. At the ultrastructural level, MAb 6H7 demonstrated epitope in cytoplasmic granules of granulocytes. Western blotting analysis indicated that a peptide of 155 kDa was recognised by MAb 6H7. It was therefore used to investigate granulocyte variation in C. farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result illustrated that granulocytes varied greatly by AVNV infection, and their amount significantly increased on day 1 post-injection, then decreased on days 2, 3 and 4, thereafter, rebounded and approached to a second peak on day 6, finally went down gradually to the control level on day 8. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinico-pathogenetic substantiation and experience of the use of interferon alpha 2b in children with acute respiratory viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko Yu.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of interferon preparations in children under three years with acute respiratory viral infections. Patients and methods. A total of 97 observed children with a diagnosis ARVI has been consulted by doctor at 152 days after the onset of the disease. In the main group in the complex treatment additionally was prescribed nasal interferon alpha 2b «Nazoferon» in the age dosages. Children of the control group had received conventional treatment only. Results. Due to the application of Nazoferon was observed a decrease in the duration as of the main symptoms of the disease (catarrhal phenomena and temperature reaction, so the effects of intoxication. On the fifth day of treatment the difference between clinical parameters was more pronounced. It is found that Nazoferon well tolerated, does not cause discomfort on the part of the respiratory system. Conclusions. The good clinical efficacy and lack of adverse reactions allow recommending Nazoferon for use in pediatric patients. Application of Nazoferon is important to start from the early 152 days of the disease. Allow it to use as a prophylactic measure.

  4. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  5. Clinical evaluation of viral acute respiratory tract infections in children presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooskens, Jairo; van der Ploeg, Vishnu; Sukhai, Ram N; Vossen, Ann C T M; Claas, Eric C J; Kroes, Aloys C M

    2014-12-10

    The relative incidence and clinical impact of individual respiratory viruses remains unclear among children presenting to the hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). During two winter periods, respiratory virus real-time multiplex PCR results were evaluated from children (presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital with ARTI that had been sampled within 48 hours of hospital presentation. In an attempt to identify virus-specific distinguishing clinical features, single virus infections were correlated with presenting signs and symptoms, clinical findings and outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. In total, 274 children with ARTI were evaluated and most were aged presenting signs and symptoms and the high frequency of mixed viral infections. We observed virus-associated outcome differences among children aged presenting to the hospital emergency department with ARTI and require PCR diagnosis since presenting signs and symptoms are not discriminant for a type of virus. RSV and HRV bear a high burden of morbidity in the pediatric clinical setting.

  6. Therapy for influenza and acute respiratory viral infection in young and middle-aged schoolchildren: Effect of Ingavirin® on intoxication, fever, and catarrhal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Farber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the clinical results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter phase III study evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of Ingavirin® capsules 30 mg at a daily dose of 60 mg for the treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in 7–12-year-old children.The study included 310 children of both sexes. The study participants took Ingavirin® 60 mg/day or placebo for 5 days. The drug was shown to be effective in normalizing temperature and alleviating intoxication and catarrhal syndromes just at day 3 of therapy. Ingavirin® was demonstrated to considerably reduce the risk of bacterial complications of ARVI/influenza, which require antibiotic therapy, which is important for clinical use in children. This clinical trial has shown the high safety and tolerance of the drug. Ingavirin® contributes to accelerated virus elimination, shorter disease duration, and lower risk of complications.

  7. Burden, seasonal pattern and symptomatology of acute respiratory illnesses with different viral aetiologies in children presenting at outpatient clinics in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L; Chan, K-H; Ip, D K M; Fang, V J; Fung, R O P; Leung, G M; Peiris, M J S; Cowling, B J

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory viruses cause acute respiratory diseases with a broad and overlapping spectrum of symptoms. We examined the clinical symptoms and explored the patterns of various respiratory viral infections in children in Hong Kong. Among 2090 specimens collected from outpatient care (2007-2010), 1343 (64.3%) were positive for any virus by the xTAG assay, and 81 (3.9%) were positive for co-infection. The most frequently detected viruses among children aged 6-15 years were enterovirus/rhinovirus and influenza virus A, whereas most non-influenza viruses were more frequently detected in younger children. Higher body temperature was more common for illnesses associated with influenza viruses than for those associated with non-influenza viruses, but other symptoms were largely similar across all infections. The seasonality pattern varied among different viruses, with influenza virus A being the predominant virus detected in winter, and enterovirus/rhinovirus being more commonly detected than influenza virus A in the other three seasons, except for 2009. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pemasaran ViralViral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, James Rianto

    2010-01-01

    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  9. Recruitment and retention of B cells in the central nervous system in response to alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Talibah U; Baxter, Victoria K; Nilaratanakul, Voraphoj; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons results in nonfatal viral encephalomyelitis and provides a model system for understanding recovery from virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Infection is followed by clearance of infectious virus, a gradual decrease in viral RNA, and then long-term maintenance of low levels of viral RNA. Antibody to the E2 glycoprotein is important for virus clearance, and B cells enter the CNS along with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells during the early clearance phase. Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are present in the CNS and become enriched for SINV-specific ASCs. We have evaluated the factors within the CNS that facilitate continued local antibody production after infection. Expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL1, CCL2, and CCL5 chemokine mRNAs increased early, and infiltrating B cells expressed CXCR3, CXCR5, and CCR7. The mRNAs for IL-10 and IL-21, cytokines important for B cell proliferation and differentiation, rose rapidly and remained elevated long after clearance of infectious virus. Active proliferation of B cells, as indicated by Ki-67 expression, continued for months. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of proliferating cells showed that ASCs produced in the draining cervical lymph nodes during the early germinal center response were preferentially retained in the CNS. Sustained increase in B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) mRNA in the CNS and BAFF receptor expression by B cells coincided with the long-term maintenance of SINV-specific ASCs in the brain. We conclude that multiple changes in the brain microenvironment facilitate B-cell entry and support proliferation and differentiation and long-term survival of antiviral ASCs during recovery from alphaviral encephalomyelitis.

  10. Neurological images and the predictors for neurological sequelae of epidemic herpangina/hand-foot-mouth disease with encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Kuo, Hung-Tsung; Chen, Shan-Ming; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2014-04-01

    Since 1998 in Taiwan, enterovirus (EV) 71 epidemics have caused encephalomyelitis and placed a significant burden on parents and physicians. In this study, we present clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, and neurological sequelae on epidemic EV-infected patients with encephalomyelitis. Of the 46 patients, 14 patients presented with neurological sequelae; of them, 3 patients suffered from complications of mental regression. Predictors of unfavorable neurological sequelae were myoclonic jerks (> 4 times/night) and pleocytosis (167/μL) of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results from viral culture and MR imaging indicated that positive identification of EV71 infection was associated significantly with lesions on MR imaging. Our results show that hand-foot-mouth disease carries a higher risk of encephalomyelitis and that frequent myoclonic jerks and pleocytosis of the CSF are risk factors for subsequent neurological sequelae. Positive identification of EV71 might be useful as a predictor of lesions in MR imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mutant with Point Mutations in UL39 Is Impaired for Acute Viral Replication in Mice, Establishment of Latency, and Explant-Induced Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Heba H; Thompson, Thornton W; Konen, Adam J; Haenchen, Steve D; Hilliard, Joshua G; Macdonald, Stuart J; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2018-04-01

    In the process of generating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutations in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39 , which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6. These mutations resulted in lysine-to-proline (residue 393) and arginine-to-histidine (residue 950) substitutions in ICP6. To determine whether alteration of these amino acids was responsible for the KOS-NA phenotypes in vivo , we recombined the wild-type UL39 gene into the KOS-NA genome and rescued its acute replication phenotypes in mice. To further establish the role of UL39 in KOS-NA's decreased pathogenicity, the UL39 mutations were recombined into HSV-1 (generating UL39 mut ), and this mutant virus showed reduced ocular and TG replication in mice comparable to that of KOS-NA. Interestingly, ICP6 protein levels were reduced in KOS-NA-infected cells relative to the wild-type protein. Moreover, we observed that KOS-NA does not counteract caspase 8-induced apoptosis, unlike wild-type strain KOS. Based on alignment studies with other HSV-1 ICP6 homologs, our data suggest that amino acid 950 of ICP6 likely plays an important role in ICP6 accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis, consequently impairing HSV-1 pathogenesis in a mouse model of HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a major human pathogen that infects ∼80% of the human population and can be life threatening to infected neonates or immunocompromised individuals. Effective therapies for treatment of recurrent HSV-1 infections are limited, which emphasizes a critical need to understand in

  12. High Frequency of Enteric Protozoan, Viral, and Bacterial Potential Pathogens in Community-Acquired Acute Diarrheal Episodes: Evidence Based on Results of Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Yousry A; Ismail, Khadiga A; Almehmadi, Mazen

    2017-10-01

    Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9.8% mixed). Rotavirus (19.6%), Giardia duodenalis (16.5%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (8.5%) were the mostly detected pathogens. Adenovirus 40/41 (4.2%), Salmonella (3%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (3%), and Entamoeba histolytica (2.4%) were also detected. Norovirus GI/II, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B were not detected in any patients. All pathogens were involved in coinfections except E. histolytica. Giardia (5.5%) and rotavirus (3%) were the most commonly detected in co-infections. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (2.4%), Campylobacter spp. (2.4%), E. coli 0157 (1.8%), and Shigella spp. (1.2%) were detected in patients only as co-infections. Infections were more in children 0-4 years, less in adults 40 years, with statistically significant differences in risk across age groups observed with rotavirus (P<0.001), Giardia (P=0.006), and Cryptosporidium (P=0.036) infections. Lastly, infections were not significantly more in the spring. This report demonstrates the high burden of various enteropathogens in the setting. Further studies are needed to define the impact of these findings on the clinical course of the disease.

  13. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Pharyngitis - viral URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  14. Viral gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  15. Subacute encephalomyelitis following measles infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, L.; Manchev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A 36-years-old woman was admitted in a Clinic of Neurology due to emergency presented with acute onset of altered mental status, tonic-clonic convulsions in four extremities, bladder and bowel dysfunction. This attack lasted for 2-3 minutes.The neurological investigation showed lesion of n.facialis and n.hypoglossus on the right side from central origin, right hemiparesis, positive pathologic reflex Babinski on the right side, partial sensor and motor aphasia. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed increased levels of protein - 2.15 g/l. A week before admission to the hospital the patient had been discharged from an Infectious ward, where Measles had been diagnosed.The diagnosis was verified also with the presence of specific IgM in serum. Magnetic resonance tomography: Supratentorial on the T2W and more visibly on the FLAIR images were seen relatively homogenous high signal foci, affecting the left putamen, partially the hind limb of the left internal capsule, the body of the left nucleus caudatis, as well as more diffuse changes, affecting the cortex and subcortex in the stroke area, the upper and partially the left medial temporal gyrus. On the T1W images the changes were low signal ones. Small-degree compression of the cella media of the left lateral ventricle was noted in the changes, affecting nucleus caudatus. Infratentorial: No signal changes, affecting the cerebral stem, the small brain structures, the pontocerebral angles and the internal auditory canals were observed. Conclusion: The finding corresponds to areas of demielinization, edema and gliosis with the localization described with possible infectious genesis (encephalitis)

  16. [Neurological outcome associated with influenza viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, N; Matsuzaka, T; Tsuji, Y

    1997-04-01

    Several neurological complications associated with Influenza virus infection are known as a febrile convulsion, polyneuritis, meningitis, encephalomyelitis and encephalopathy. Influenza encephalopathy is the most severe complication associated with Influenza. It may be classified into several subtypes according to the clinical symptoms and laboratory data. In this review, Reye's syndrome, acute necrotizing encephalopathy and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSE) are described in detail. The 1995 influenza pandemia in Nagasaki prefecture was markedly neurovirulent and lethal. Twelve cases developed influenza encephalopathy, and the mortality rate between them was 50%. Almost all of them had never be inoculated of influenza vaccine before.

  17. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  18. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  19. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: What is ME/CFS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CFS? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disabling ...

  20. [Abdominal pain in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguier, J; Serratrice, J; Lachaud, A; Belenotti, P; Benyamine, A; Verschueren, A; Boucraut, J; Attarian, S; Weiller, P-J

    2015-04-01

    Stiff-person syndrome is rare neurological disease, associating trunk rigidity and painful muscular spasms. A clinical variant of stiff person syndrome is the progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), which includes neurological cognitive disturbances. We report a 73-year-old woman initially addressed for abdominal pain, anorexia and severe weight-loss, for whom diagnosis of PERM was made. Because of its various clinical presentations, sometimes without evidence for neurological disease, the diagnosis of PERM is delayed. The presence of antineuropile antibodies associated with muscular spasms at electromyogram are strong evidence for this diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Preemptive CD8 T-Cell Immunotherapy of Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection Prevents Lethal Disease, Limits the Burden of Latent Viral Genomes, and Reduces the Risk of Virus Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, Hans-Peter; Kurz, Sabine; Holtappels, Rafaela; Reddehase, Matthias J.

    1998-01-01

    In the immunocompetent host, primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is resolved by the immune response without causing overt disease. The viral genome, however, is not cleared but is maintained in a latent state that entails a risk of virus recurrence and consequent organ disease. By using murine CMV as a model, we have shown previously that multiple organs harbor latent CMV and that reactivation occurs with an incidence that is determined by the viral DNA load in the respective organ (M. J....

  2. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Shollie M; Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-11-01

    Naïve pregnant cattle exposed to pestiviruses between 40-125 days of gestation can give birth to persistently infected (PI) calves. Clinical presentation and survivability, in PI cattle, is highly variable even with the same pestivirus strain whereas the clinical presentation in acute infections is more uniform with severity of symptoms being primarily a function of virulence of the infecting virus. The aim of this study was to compare thymic depletion, as measured by comparing the area of the thymic cortex to the medulla (corticomedullary ratio), in acute and persistent infections of the same pestivirus isolate. The same general trends were observed with each pestivirus isolate. Thymic depletion was observed in both acutely and persistently infected calves. The average thymic depletion observed in acutely infected calves was greater than that in age matched PI calves. PI calves, regardless of infecting virus, revealed a greater variability in amount of depletion compared to acutely infected calves. A trend was observed between survivability and depletion of the thymus, with PI calves surviving less than 5 weeks having lower corticomedullary ratios and greater depletion. This is the first study to compare PI and acutely infected calves with the same isolates as well as to evaluate PI calves based on survivability. Further, this study identified a quantifiable phenotype associated with potential survivability.

  3. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Pathological differences in acute inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, C

    2005-04-01

    This article reviews the different pathological and immunological features of MS, acute variants of MS and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). T-cell-mediated inflammatory reactions are involved in all acute inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, but the diseases discussed also exhibit distinct immunopathological features. The perivascular infiltrate of T-cells and macrophages seen in ADEM resembles the pathological pattern found in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, there is evidence that humoral mechanisms play a crucial role in some acute MS lesions, Devics syndrome and Marburgs syndrome. Analysis of acute MS lesions shows many different structural and immunological features, indicating that different mechanisms may be involved in lesion formation. Distinct subtypes of acute lesions exhibit either similarities with T-cell-mediated autoimmune encephalomyelitis or signs of primary oligodendrocyte damage.

  5. Gadolinium ring enhancement and mass effect in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyden, C.H. van der (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)); Villiers, J.F.K. de (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)); Middlecote, B.D. (Dept. of Anatomical Pathology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)); Terblanche, J. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa))

    1994-04-01

    A 9-year-old boy presented with a subacute history of optic neuritis followed by brainstem involvement, with fever and a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid. Gadolinium-enhancing ring lesions were demonstrated in the white matter of the cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum on day 17 of the illness, all appearing simultaneously as part of a monophasic illmess. A parietal lesion exerted mass effect. Needling and biopsy yielded no evidence of a pyogenic lesion, tumour or tuberculosis and showed vasculitis. There was insufficient material for myelin staining. Dexamethasone therapy lead to rapid improvement of the radiological lesions: MRI and CT on day 34 of the illness showed complete clearing of the lesions except for residual abnormality at the biopsy site. (orig.)

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  7. MicroRNA Profiling Identifies MicroRNA-155 as an Adverse Mediator of Cardiac Injury and Dysfunction During Acute Viral Myocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsten, Maarten F.; Papageorgiou, Anna; Verhesen, Wouter; Carai, Paolo; Lindow, Morten; Obad, Susanna; Summer, Georg; Coort, Susan L. M.; Hazebroek, Mark; van Leeuwen, Rick; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; Wijnands, Erwin; Biessen, Erik A. L.; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Stassen, Frank R. M.; Carmeliet, Peter; Kauppinen, Sakari; Schroen, Blanche; Heymans, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Viral myocarditis results from an adverse immune response to cardiotropic viruses, which causes irreversible myocyte destruction and heart failure in previously healthy people. The involvement of microRNAs and their usefulness as therapeutic targets in this process are unknown. Objective:

  8. The effects of female sex, viral genotype, and IL28B genotype on spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebely, Jason; Page, Kimberly; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Rice, Thomas M.; Bruneau, Julie; Morris, Meghan D.; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Amin, Janaki; Cox, Andrea L.; Kim, Arthur Y.; McGovern, Barbara H.; Schinkel, Janke; George, Jacob; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Hellard, Margaret; Dore, Gregory J.; Prins, Maria; Lauer, Georg; Morris, Meghan; Hahn, Judy; Rilla, Megan; Alavi, Maryam; Bouchard, Rachel; Evans, Jennifer; Grady, Bart; Aneja, Jasneet; Teutsch, Suzy; White, Bethany; Wells, Brittany; Zang, Geng; Applegate, Tanya; Matthews, Gail; Yeung, Barbara; Prince, Leslie Erin; Roy, Elise; Bates, Anna; Enriquez, Jarliene; Chow, Sammy; McCredie, Luke; Aitken, Campbell; Doyle, Joseph; Spelman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Although 20%-40% of persons with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection demonstrate spontaneous clearance, the time course and factors associated with clearance remain poorly understood. We investigated the time to spontaneous clearance and predictors among participants with acute HCV using Cox

  9. Spinal motoneurone distress during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, L; Giuliani, A; Fernandez, M; Calzà, L

    2004-10-01

    The main pathophysiological feature characterizing multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelination. However, the possibility of neural damage has recently been proposed as a mechanism in chronic disease. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most widely used experimental model for MS. We investigated occurrences of microglial activation and astrocytosis in the spinal cord, choline acetyl-transferase (ChAT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA regulation in spinal motoneurones during EAE. EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by injecting guinea pig spinal cord tissue in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to which heat-inactivated Mycobacterium had been added. Rats injected with CFA and uninjected rats were used as controls. ChAT and CGRP mRNAs were studied by in situ hybridization in the lumbar spinal cord and a computerized grain counting procedure was used for quantification. No differences in ChAT mRNA level were found between control and CFA-injected rats. ChAT mRNA level was strongly reduced in EAE 14 days after immunization and then recovered (29 days after immunization). CGRP mRNA increased 14 days after immunization, and then recovered to control level. Extensive long-lasting gliosis developed in the spinal cord and around motoneurones and a transient expression of p75LNGFR in motoneurones was also found. These data suggest that during EAE, gliosis induces distress in spinal cord neurones involving the synthesis enzyme for the main transmitter.

  10. [Immune-mediated encephalomyelitis following varicella-zoster virus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Takayoshi; Takasaki, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Numata, Ayumi; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Segawa, Fuminori; Fujisawa, Shin; Maruta, Atsuo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2012-04-01

    A 40-year-old Japanese man with acute myeloid leukemia received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. On day 101, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection occurred, but was improved by administration of acyclovir and immunoglobulin. On day 119, he complained of numbness and double vision, and he was admitted due to exacerbation of the symptoms. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid and magnetic resonance image examination were consistent with the diagnosis of immune-mediated encephalomyelitis (IMEM). Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was effective and his neurological findings dramatically improved without recurrence. IMEM is a rare non-infectious inflammatory demyelinating disease that can occur after transplantation. We herein describe a case report with a review of the associated literature.

  11. Genetic and pathogenic characterization of Akabane viruses isolated from cattle with encephalomyelitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Yoon, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Roh, In-Soon; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, O-Soo; Bae, You-Chan

    2012-08-17

    A large-scale outbreak of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle was reported in the southern part of Korea in 2010. Fifteen Akabane virus (AKAV) strains were isolated from the brain and spinal cord samples by using BHK-21 and/or HmLu-1 cells. To examine the genetic relationships and characteristics of the isolates, nucleotide sequences of the S, M, and L segments of the 15 isolates were determined and analyzed. Complete sequence analysis of the 15 AKAV isolates showed 99.9-100% amino acid identities, indicating that the 15 isolates originated from a single strain. The S and M RNA segments of a representative isolate (AKAV-7/SKR/2010) were also compared with the segments of representative reference sequences. This AKAV-7/SKR/2010 strain showed the highest identity with the Iriki and KM-1/Br/06 strains. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees of S and M RNA segments were constructed. Four representative AKAV isolates were classified into subgroup Ia, which contains the Iriki and KM-1/Br/06 strains recognized to cause encephalomyelitis in calves and adult cattle in Japan. Moreover, experimental intraperitoneal infection was performed using the AKAV-7/SKR/2010 and AKAV-17/SKR/2010 strains to assess pathogenesis in suckling mice. The 2 isolates, genetically related to the Iriki strain, were neurovirulent and caused neurological signs in suckling mice. In contrast, the 93FMX strain and the K0505 strain, related to the OBE-1 strain, were avirulent in mice. The present results indicate that these isolates most likely had originated from the Iriki strain and are closely related to the Iriki strain both genetically and pathogenically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolução e característica de lactantes com bronquiolite viral aguda submetidos à ventilação mecânica em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica brasileira Outcome and characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis submitted to mechanical ventilation in a Brazilian pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Umpierre Bueno

    2009-06-01

    bronquiolite viral aguda.OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and the outcome of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis submitted to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study enrolling all infants (less than 12 months old admitted with the diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis and submitted to mechanical ventilation in an university affiliated Brazilian pediatric intensive care unit between March, 2004 and September, 2006 (3 consecutives winters. The mechanical ventilation parameters' employed on 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th day and before extubation were evaluated as well as the evolution (mortality rate, presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the prevalence of complications. The groups were compared using the Student t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the Chi-square test. RESULTS: Fifty-nine infants were included (3.8 ± 2.7 months old, 59% male, with 9.0 ± 9.4 days on mechanical ventilation. Prior mechanical ventilation, non invasive ventilation was instituted in 71% of children. Anemia was observed in 78% of the sample. In 51 infants (86.5% the lower airway obstructive pattern was maintained up to tracheal extubation with a nil mortality and low prevalence of pneumothorax (7.8%. Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 8 infants (13.5%, with higher mortality and a higher prevalence of pneumothorax (62.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The declining mortality in acute viral bronchiolitis is observed even in non developed regions, involving children with high rates of anemia and premature labor. The low mortality is associated with the maintenance of the lower airway obstructive pattern during the period on mechanical ventilation. The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with increased mortality and higher prevalence of complications, representing the actual challenge in the management of children with severe acute viral bronchiolitis.

  13. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Bauermann, Fernando V.; Ridpath, Julia F.

    2017-01-01

    Naïve pregnant cattle exposed to pestiviruses between 40-125 days of gestation can give birth to persistently infected (PI) calves. Clinical presentation and survivability, in PI cattle, is highly variable even with the same pestivirus strain whereas the clinical presentation in acute infections is more uniform with severity of symptoms being primarily a function of virulence of the infecting virus. The aim of this study was to compare thymic depletion, as measured by comparing the area of th...

  14. Freqüência e implicações dos auto-anticorpos em hepatites agudas virais Frequency and implications of autoantibodies in acute viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Codes; Rogério Santos de Jesus; Simone Cunha; Marla Cruz; Raymundo Paraná

    2002-01-01

    Existem interações entre viroses hepatotrópicas e o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro que podem influenciar na patogenicidade da agressão hepática. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a freqüência de auto-anticorpos na fase aguda da hepatite viral, sua relação com atividade bioquímica, gravidade da doença e cronicidade. Foram estudados 156 pacientes com hepatite aguda viral de 1992 a 2000. Destes, 32% tiveram infecção por vírus A, 31% por vírus B, 8% por vírus C, 3% tiveram hepatite E e ...

  15. Preemptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy of acute cytomegalovirus infection prevents lethal disease, limits the burden of latent viral genomes, and reduces the risk of virus recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H P; Kurz, S; Holtappels, R; Reddehase, M J

    1998-03-01

    In the immunocompetent host, primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is resolved by the immune response without causing overt disease. The viral genome, however, is not cleared but is maintained in a latent state that entails a risk of virus recurrence and consequent organ disease. By using murine CMV as a model, we have shown previously that multiple organs harbor latent CMV and that reactivation occurs with an incidence that is determined by the viral DNA load in the respective organ (M. J. Reddehase, M. Balthesen, M. Rapp, S. Jonjic, I. Pavic, and U. H. Koszinowski. J. Exp. Med. 179:185-193, 1994). This predicts that a therapeutic intervention capable of limiting the load of latent viral genome should also reduce the risk of virus recurrence. Here we demonstrate the benefits and the limits of a preemptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy of CMV infection in the immunocompromised bone marrow transplantation recipient. Antiviral CD8 T cells prevented CMV disease and accelerated the resolution of productive infection. The therapy also resulted in a lower load of latent CMV DNA in organs and consequently reduced the incidence of recurrence. The data thus provide a further supporting argument for clinical trials of preemptive cytoimmunotherapy of human CMV disease with CD8 T cells. However, CD8 T cells failed to clear the viral DNA. The therapy-susceptible portion of the DNA load differed between organs and was highest in the lungs. The existence of an invariant, therapy-resistant load suggests a role for immune system evasion mechanisms in the establishment of CMV latency.

  16. Mumps virus encephalomyelitis in a 19-year old male patient with an undefined severe combined immunodeficiency post-haematopoietic bone marrow transplantation: a rare fatal complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Toby A; Pelosi, Emanuela; McQuaid, Stephen; Richardson, Deborah; Newman, Joan; Hill, Kate; Veys, Paul; Davies, Graham; Orchard, Kim H

    2013-06-01

    We describe a rare case of fatal mumps encephalomyelitis occurring in 19-year old male following matched unrelated donor peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The indication for HSCT was for an undefined form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Molecular typing of the mumps viral RNA isolated from neural tissue indicated that the infection was acquired at the time of a mumps outbreak in England and Wales that occurred between 2004 and 2006. This case highlights the importance of considering mumps in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system infection in highly immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral Hepatitis and Thrombosis: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multicausal disease. Among minor risk factors, acute infections in general are associated with a transient increased risk of VTE. However, acute hepatitis is usually not reported as a potential risk factor for VTE. Recent studies suggest a possible role of viral

  18. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  19. Interferon-gamma confers resistance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M; Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and induce inflammation. These CD4+ T cells secrete interferon (IFN)-gamma, levels of which correlate with disease severity, and which is proposed to play a key role in disease induction. Many...

  20. Costimulatory signal blockade in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Stadlbauer, T H

    1999-01-01

    Blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40L-CD40 T cell costimulatory signals prevents induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effect of simultaneous blockade of these signals in EAE is unknown. We show that administration of either MR1 (to block CD40L) or CTLA4Ig (to block...

  1. Interferon-gamma regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, Carmen; Penkowa, Milena; Sáez-Torres, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which shares many clinical and pathological features with and is considered the animal model of multiple sclerosis. There is extensive evidence that EAE is a Th1...

  2. A importância do perfil clínico-laboratorial no diagnóstico diferencial entre malária e hepatite aguda viral Importance of clinical and laboratory profiles for the differential diagnosis of malaria and acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacyane Naiff do Amaral

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Destacar o perfil clínico-laboratorial de malária e hepatite aguda viral em dois grupos de crianças, ressaltando semelhanças e diferenças entre os dois quadros; subsidiar o aumento da sensibilidade clínica de presunção diagnóstica precoce de malária na infância. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de 30 crianças, de dois a dez anos de idade, portadoras de primo infecção malárica ou hepatite viral aguda, confirmados pela pesquisa de plasmódio e pesquisa de marcadores virais de hepatite A e B. As crianças foram submetidas às seguintes avaliações no primeiro dia de atendimento: hemograma, contagem de plaquetas, dosagem de enzimas hepáticas, uréia, creatinina e bilirrubinas. Os achados clínicos e laboratoriais foram descritos e comparados entre os dois grupos. Proporções de indivíduos com exames físicos alterados foram comparadas nos dois grupos, pelo teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A apresentação clínica inicial da doença foi semelhante em todos os pacientes: febre, cefaléia, sintomas digestivos e colúria. Metade dos portadores de malária não apresentou a tríade clássica, apesar de todos terem apresentado febre moderada ou alta, ao contrário dos portadores de hepatite. Na avaliação laboratorial, os portadores de malária apresentaram mais anemia e plaquetopenia quando comparados aos portadores de hepatite. Foram marcantes, nos portadores de hepatite, as elevações de bilirrubinas e enzimas hepáticas. CONCLUSÕES: A propedêutica detalhada e a avaliação criteriosa dos exames laboratoriais inespecíficos constituem peças fundamentais para a diferenciação clínica entre os dois diagnósticos, reforçando a identificação precoce do parasita e, conseqüentemente, o tratamento rápido de malária em crianças.OBJECTIVE: To establish clinical and diagnostic findings of malaria and acute viral hepatitis in children, stressing similarities and differences, so as to enhance the sensitivity of

  3. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  4. [The potential effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the apoptosis of myocardial cells from mice with heart failure induced by acute viral myocarditis caused by B 3 Coxsackie virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Hong-Jun; Xin, Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Min; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Huang, Xia; Zhao, Ming

    2014-09-01

    To explore the apoptotic pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress in the mouse myocardium with heart failure induced by acute viral myocarditis caused by B-3 Coxsackie virus. Forty BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20): the control group and the virus infection group. The BALB/c mouse myocarditis was induced by B-3 Coxsackie virus and the mouse behavior was observed conventionally. All the mice were sacrificed on day 7 and the changes of left ventricular pressure (LVP) and the rate of change of left ventricular pressure (LV dp/dt) were measured. The cardiomyocytic apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL method and the mRNA expression level of endoplasmic reticulum haperones glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 and GRP94 was detected by RT-PCR. (1) Compared with those of control group, the parameters of cardiac hemodynamics in the virus infection group were significantly decreased (P Coxsackie virus.

  5. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography. (author)

  6. Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Eastern Siberia – analysis of 390 cases: In memory of D Carleton Gajdusek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Lev G; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Platonov, Fyodor A; Lee, Hee-Suk; McLean, Catriona A; Masters, Colin L

    2009-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is a unique disease occurring in the Yakut (Sakha) population of Eastern Siberia. VE is always fatal, with some patients dying during the acute encephalitic phase of illness; those surviving the acute phase develop progressive dementia, rigidity and spastic quadriparesis as part of a more prolonged pan-encephalitic syndrome. The disease is characterized neuropathologically by multiple widespread micronecrotic foci with marked inflammatory reactions and subsequent gliosis throughout the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brain stem. The acute febrile onset with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and increased protein and neuropathology showing inflammatory reactions suggest that VE is an infectious disease, but the causative agent has not been identified. Initially detected in a small mixed Yakut-Evenk population of the mid-Viliui region, the disease subsequently spread south to densely populated areas around the capital city of Yakutsk. The occurrence of secondary VE cases in households and the introduction of the disease by migrants into new populations indicate that the disease is horizontally transmitted in a setting of a long intra-household contact. Although there has been a recent decline in the number of cases, increasing travel may result in further spread of this fatal disease to susceptible individuals in other regions of the world. PMID:19618339

  7. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Alexander; Kassubek, Jan; Tumani, Hayrettin; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Hermann, Andreas; Osakovsky, Vladimir L; Baranov, Vladimir A; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian) Republic. In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test). Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  8. Reg-2, a downstream signaling protein in the ciliary neurotrophic factor survival pathway, alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eJiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, originally described as a neurocytokine that could support the survival of neurons, has been recently found to alleviate demyelination, prevent axon loss, and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. However, poor penetration into the brain parenchyma and unfavorable side effects limit the utility of CNTF. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a protein downstream of CNTF, regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2. Using multiple morphological, molecular biology, and electrophysiological methods to assess neuroinflammation, axonal loss, demyelination, and functional impairment, we observed that Reg-2 and CNTF exert similar effects in the acute phase of EAE. Both treatments attenuated axonal loss and demyelination, improved neuronal survival, and produced functional improvement. With a smaller molecular weight and improved penetration into the brain parenchyma, Reg-2 may be a useful substitute for CNTF therapy in EAE and multiple sclerosis.

  9. Viral and bacterial causes of severe acute respiratory illness among children aged less than 5 years in a high malaria prevalence area of western Kenya, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Bigogo, Godfrey; Aura, Barrack; Aol, George; Audi, Allan; Jagero, Geoffrey; Muluare, Peter O; Gikunju, Stella; Nderitu, Leonard; Winchell, Jonas M; Schneider, Eileen; Erdman, Dean D; Oberste, M Steven; Katz, Mark A; Breiman, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Few comprehensive data exist on the etiology of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among African children. From March 1, 2007 to February 28, 2010, we collected blood for culture and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 10 viruses and 3 atypical bacteria among children aged causes and pneumococcus the most likely bacterial cause. Contemporaneous controls are important for interpreting upper respiratory tract specimens.

  10. Protective Effects of Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-l-Norleucine in Mice with Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sivabalan; Baxter, Victoria K.; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation is a necessary part of the response to infection but can also cause neuronal injury in both infectious and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). A neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal paralysis in adult C57BL/6 mice during clearance of infectious virus from the CNS, and the virus-specific immune response is implicated as a mediator of neuronal damage. Previous studies have shown that survival is improved in T-cell-deficient mice and in mice with pharmacological inhibition of the inflammatory response and glutamate excitotoxicity. Because glutamine metabolism is important in the CNS for the generation of glutamate and in the immune system for lymphocyte proliferation, we tested the effect of the glutamine antagonist DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) on the outcome of NSV infection in mice. DON treatment for 7 days from the time of infection delayed the onset of paralysis and death. Protection was associated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation in the draining cervical lymph nodes, decreased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and delayed viral clearance. In vitro studies showed that DON inhibited stimulus-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. When in vivo treatment with DON was stopped, paralytic disease developed along with the inflammatory response and viral clearance. These studies show that fatal NSV-induced encephalomyelitis is immune mediated and that antagonists of glutamine metabolism can modulate the immune response and protect against virus-induced neuroinflammatory disease. IMPORTANCE Encephalomyelitis due to infection with mosquito-borne alphaviruses is an important cause of death and of long-term neurological disability in those who survive infection. This study demonstrates the role of the virus-induced immune response in the generation of neurological disease. DON, a glutamine antagonist, inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes in response to

  11. Protective Effects of Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-l-Norleucine in Mice with Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sivabalan; Baxter, Victoria K; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Slusher, Barbara S; Griffin, Diane E

    2016-10-15

    Inflammation is a necessary part of the response to infection but can also cause neuronal injury in both infectious and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). A neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal paralysis in adult C57BL/6 mice during clearance of infectious virus from the CNS, and the virus-specific immune response is implicated as a mediator of neuronal damage. Previous studies have shown that survival is improved in T-cell-deficient mice and in mice with pharmacological inhibition of the inflammatory response and glutamate excitotoxicity. Because glutamine metabolism is important in the CNS for the generation of glutamate and in the immune system for lymphocyte proliferation, we tested the effect of the glutamine antagonist DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) on the outcome of NSV infection in mice. DON treatment for 7 days from the time of infection delayed the onset of paralysis and death. Protection was associated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation in the draining cervical lymph nodes, decreased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and delayed viral clearance. In vitro studies showed that DON inhibited stimulus-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. When in vivo treatment with DON was stopped, paralytic disease developed along with the inflammatory response and viral clearance. These studies show that fatal NSV-induced encephalomyelitis is immune mediated and that antagonists of glutamine metabolism can modulate the immune response and protect against virus-induced neuroinflammatory disease. Encephalomyelitis due to infection with mosquito-borne alphaviruses is an important cause of death and of long-term neurological disability in those who survive infection. This study demonstrates the role of the virus-induced immune response in the generation of neurological disease. DON, a glutamine antagonist, inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes in response to infection, prevented the

  12. [Differential aspects of multiple sclerosis and chronic borrelial encephalomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N N; Baranova, N S; Fadeeva, O A; Shipova, E G; Stepanov, I O

    2011-01-01

    The Yaroslavl region is an endemic area for Lyme disease (LD) with one of the highest levels of morbidity in Russia. Chronic neuroborreliosis can mimic multiple sclerosis and cause considerable difficulties in differential diagnosis. A comparative clinical-instrumental analysis of patients with definite multiple sclerosis (n=65) and chronic borrelial encephalomyelitis (n=11) was carried out. The key differential-diagnostic features of multiple sclerosis and borrelial encephalomyelitis were specified. Migrating erythema and tick's bite in the anamnesis, combined with lesions of the central and peripheral nervous systems, the absence of retrobulbar neuritis in the anamnesis, artralgia and myalgia, the high blood sedimentation rate were not characteristic of multiple sclerosis. A patient with abovementioned findings should be tested for the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in the blood serum and, if necessary, in the cerebrospinal fluid to exclude the diagnosis of Lime disease.

  13. Encephalomyelitis by Toxoplasma gondii in a captive fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpa, J M; García-Quirós, A; Casares, M; Gerique, A C; Carbonell, M D; Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Uzal, F A; Ortega, J

    2013-03-31

    Encephalomyelitis due to Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). The animal had ataxia, atrophy of hind limb muscles and progressive wasting before dying 12 months after the onset of clinical signs. Toxoplasmosis was suspected antemortem based on clinical signs and the detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR on EDTA-blood from live animal. Necropsy revealed necrotizing gastritis and severe emaciation. The main histological lesions included non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with dilation of myelin sheaths and swollen axons in the spinal cord, and multifocal gliosis in the brain with intralesional protozoan cysts that stained positive for T. gondii immunohistochemistry. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in a fossa, and a new host record. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Imperative of Palliation in the Management of Rabies Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Warrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to guide clinicians in the practical management of patients suffering from rabies encephalomyelitis. This condition is eminently preventable by modern post-exposure vaccination, but is virtually always fatal in unvaccinated people. In the absence of any proven effective antiviral or other treatment, palliative care is an imperative to minimise suffering. Suspicion of rabies encephalomyelitis depends on recognising the classic symptomatology and eliciting a history of exposure to a possibly rabid mammal. Potentially treatable differential diagnoses must be eliminated, notably other infective encephalopathies. Laboratory confirmation of suspected rabies is not usually possible in many endemic areas, but is essential for public health surveillance. In a disease as agonising and terrifying as rabies encephalomyelitis, alleviation of distressing symptoms is the primary concern and overriding responsibility of medical staff. Calm, quiet conditions should be created, allowing relatives to communicate with the dying patient in safety and privacy. Palliative management must address thirst and dehydration, fever, anxiety, fear, restlessness, agitation, seizures, hypersecretion, and pain. As the infection progresses, coma and respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, or gastrointestinal complications will eventually ensue. When the facilities exist, the possibility of intensive care may arise, but although some patients may survive, they will be left with severe neurological sequelae. Recovery from rabies is extremely rare, and heroic measures with intensive care should be considered only in patients who have been previously vaccinated, develop rabies antibody within the first week of illness, or were infected by an American bat rabies virus. However, in most cases, clinicians must have the courage to offer compassionate palliation whenever the diagnosis of rabies encephalomyelitis is inescapable.

  15. Conditional ligands for Asian HLA variants facilitate the definition of CD8+ T-cell responses in acute and chronic viral diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Cynthia X L; Tan, Anthony T; Or, Ming Yan

    2013-01-01

    exchange was accomplished for all variants as demonstrated by an ELISA-based MHC stability assay. HLA tetramers with redirected specificity could detect antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses against human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B (HBV), dengue virus (DENV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections....... The potential of this population-centric HLA library was demonstrated with the characterization of seven novel T-cell epitopes from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, HBV, and DENV. Posthoc analysis revealed that the majority of responses would be more readily identified by our unbiased discovery...

  16. Extensive VZV Encephalomyelitis without Rash in an Elderly Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Varicella zoster virus (VZV encephalomyelitis with cranial nerve involvement is rare. Characteristically it is preceded by a rash and primarily presents in the immunocompromised. The spectrum of VZV neurologic disease is extensive and it is not uncommon to present without rash. We report the case of an elderly otherwise immunocompetent patient who presented with diverse manifestations of VZV CNS infection all occurring without rash. Case Report. A 78-year-old man presented with 1 week of progressive paraparesis and sensory loss, malaise, and fevers. MRI of the neuraxis demonstrated numerous enhancing lesions: intramedullary, leptomeningeal, pachymeningeal, and cranial nerves. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed a white blood cell count of 420/μL with elevated protein (385 mg/dL. CSF VZV qualitative PCR was positive and CSF VZV immunofluorescence assay detected IgM antibody, confirming the diagnosis of VZV encephalomyelitis. Clinical and radiological improvement was observed after intravenous acyclovir treatment. Conclusion. This is a rare report of an immunocompetent patient with extensive VZV encephalomyelitis. We highlight the importance of considering this diagnosis even in the absence of the characteristic rash, and the potential risk of premature discontinuation of antiviral therapy once HSV has been excluded. Prompt recognition and treatment can dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality in patients.

  17. Efficacy of four commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding in early-weaned beef calves exposed simultaneously to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and cattle acutely infected with bovine herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Gard, Julie; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves. 54 early-weaned beef steers (median age, 95 days). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B [11], C [10], D [11], and E [11]). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure. None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E. Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.

  18. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. IFN-γ protects from lethal IL-17 mediated viral encephalomyelitis independent of neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savarin Carine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between IFN-γ, IL-17 and neutrophils during CNS inflammatory disease is complex due to cross-regulatory factors affecting both positive and negative feedback loops. These interactions have hindered the ability to distinguish the relative contributions of neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cell-derived effector molecules from secondary mediators to tissue damage and morbidity. Methods Encephalitis induced by a gliatropic murine coronavirus was used as a model to assess the direct contributions of neutrophils, IFN-γ and IL-17 to virus-induced mortality. CNS inflammatory conditions were selectively manipulated by adoptive transfer of virus-primed wild-type (WT or IFN-γ deficient (GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice, coupled with antibody-mediated neutrophil depletion and cytokine blockade. Results Transfer of GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice induced rapid mortality compared to recipients of WT memory CD4+ T cells, despite similar virus control and demyelination. In contrast to recipients of WT CD4+ T cells, extensive neutrophil infiltration and IL-17 expression within the CNS in recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells provided a model to directly assess their contribution(s to disease. Recipients of WT CD4+ T cells depleted of IFN-γ did not express IL-17 and were spared from mortality despite abundant CNS neutrophil infiltration, indicating that mortality was not mediated by excessive CNS neutrophil accumulation. By contrast, IL-17 depletion rescued recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells from rapid mortality without diminishing neutrophils or reducing GM-CSF, associated with pathogenic Th17 cells in CNS autoimmune models. Furthermore, co-transfer of WT and GKO CD4+ T cells prolonged survival in an IFN-γ dependent manner, although IL-17 transcription was not reduced. Conclusions These data demonstrate that IL-17 mediates detrimental clinical consequences in an IFN-γ-deprived environment, independent of extensive neutrophil accumulation or GM-CSF upregulation. The results also suggest that IFN-γ overrides the detrimental IL-17 effector responses via a mechanism downstream of transcriptional regulation.

  20. Intrathecal Fas ligand infusion strengthens immunoprivilege of central nervous system and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Luo, Liqing; Chen, Yongliang; Paty, Donald W; Cynader, Max S

    2002-08-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) is an essential molecule strongly expressed in some immunoprivileged sites, but is expressed at very low levels in normal CNS. In this study, acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats with guinea pig myelin basic protein. Intrathecal infusion of recombinant FasL before EAE onset dose dependently suppressed acute EAE and alleviated pathological inflammation in lumbosacral spinal cord. This treatment greatly increased apoptosis in CNS inflammatory cells, but did not inhibit systemic immune response to myelin basic protein. Systemic administration of a similar dose of rFasL was ineffective. In vitro, encephalitogenic T cells were highly sensitive to rFasL-induced cell death, and activated macrophages were also susceptible. In addition, in vitro rFasL treatment potentiated the immunosuppressive property of rat cerebrospinal fluid. We conclude that intrathecal infusion of rFasL eliminated the initial wave of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, and therefore blocked the later recruitment of inflammatory cells into CNS. Although Fas receptor expression was observed on spinal cord neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, no damage to these cells or to the myelin structure was detected after rFasL infusion.

  1. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawagishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics.

  2. B-Cell Depletion Attenuates White and Gray Matter Pathology in Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Bauer, Jan; van Driel, Nikki; Bleeker, Wim K.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Laman, Jon D.; Craigen, Jenny L.; Blezer, Erwin; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CD20-positive B-cell depletion on central nervous system (CNS) white and gray matter pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets, a relevant preclinical model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was

  3. Acute pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, that in the detailed study of various types of acute pneumonia s the roentgenologic method plays a great role. The most characteristic roentge nological signs of primary (bacterial, viral, rickettsial, parasitogenic and fun gous) and secondary pneumonias (in the case of lessions in lesser circulation, changes in bronchi, aspirational and other diseases of organism) are presented

  4. Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea-pig: in-vitro analysis of meningeal inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, G; Turk, J L

    1982-01-01

    Inflammatory cells from the meninges of guinea-pigs with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) have been isolated and compared to a similar cell population obtained from guinea-pigs with acute EAE. A mean of 6.2 x 10(6) cells were recovered from the brains of animals with CREAE while a similar number of cells (8.0 x 10(6)) was obtained from animals with acute EAE. Only 5.3% of the cells from animals with CREAE were found to be phagocytic in contrast with 28% of the cells obtained from animals with acute EAE. The meningeal inflammatory cells from guinea-pigs with CREAE did not respond, in the lymphocyte transformation test, to specific antigens or to mitogen. Peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) from these animals did, however, proliferate in the presence of tuberculin and of mitogen, but not with the brain antigen myelin basic protein (MBP). In contrast, the meningeal inflammatory cells from animals with acute EAE did respond to mitogen and PECs from the same animals responded to both the specific antigens and to the mitogen. The meningeal inflammatory cells and PECs from the guinea-pigs with CREAE did, however, behave in a similar manner to similar cell populations obtained from guinea-pigs fully protected against clinical signs of acute EAE.

  5. Myelin basic protein-reactive T cells persist in an inactive state in the bone marrow of Lewis rats that have recovered from autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Taba; Wolf, Norbert A; Swanborg, Robert H

    2009-04-30

    Lewis rats immunized with guinea pig myelin basic protein residues 68-86 develop acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and recover. The predominant T cell receptor expressed by the encephalitogenic T cells is TCRBV8S2. They persist in bone marrow many weeks after recovery. CD3 is down-regulated, but >90% express CD4. They fail to proliferate to GPMBP68-86 unless a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is added to the cultures. Perhaps these are memory T cells that are maintained in a suppressed state in BM by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

  6. Myelin Basic Protein-Reactive T Cells Persist in an Inactive State in the Bone Marrow of Lewis Rats that have Recovered from Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kheradmand, Taba; Wolf, Norbert A.; Swanborg, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Lewis rats immunized with guinea pig myelin basic protein residues 68-86 develop acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and recover. The predominant T cell receptor expressed by the encephalitogenic T cells is TCRBV8S2. They persist in bone marrow many weeks after recovery. CD3 is down-regulated, but > 90% express CD4. They fail to proliferate to GPMBP68-86 unless a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is added to the cultures. Perhaps these are memory T cells that are maintained in a sup...

  7. Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in Spanish honeybees: co-infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Granberg

    Full Text Available The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV, and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV, potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate the new possibilities opened up by high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to study emerging new diseases in domestic and wild animal populations, including honeybees.

  8. Diazepam treatment reduces inflammatory cells and mediators in the central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Hurst, Nicolás; Zanetti, Samanta R; Báez, Natalia S; Bibolini, Mario J; Bouzat, Cecilia; Roth, German A

    2017-12-15

    Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs and some of them also affect immune cells. We here characterized the inflammatory and infiltrating immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) during the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals treated with Diazepam. Also, we evaluated the expression of Translocator Protein (18kDa) (TSPO), which is a biomarker of neuroinflammatory diseases. The results indicate that Diazepam exerts protective effects on EAE development, decreasing the incidence of the disease and reducing the number of inflammatory cells in CNS, with a concomitant decrease of TSPO levels in brain tissue and CNS inflammatory CD11b + cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kostianovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts.

  10. Clinical features, neuroimaging and prognosis of adult patients with clinically diagnosed acute-onset encephalitis treated at a teaching neurology center in the Toyama area of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougu, Nobuhiro; Takashima, Shutaro; Taguchi, Yoshiharu; Sasahara, Etsuko; Tanaka, Kortaro; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Although acute viral encephalitis (AVE) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are etiologically and pathologically distinct, a differential diagnosis between these two disorders is often difficult, especially if the patient exhibits a disturbance in consciousness. To identify useful clinical differences enabling a differential diagnosis to be made at an early stage, we retrospectively analyzed patients who had been admitted to our hospital within the past seven years because of acute-onset encephalitis with a disturbance in consciousness. Eleven adult patients were classified as having AVE, and 8 adult patients were classified as having ADEM within this period. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were then compared. Patients with AVE exhibited a disturbance in consciousness as their first neurological sign, whereas patients with ADEM initially showed focal signs like spastic paralysis, urinary disturbance and ataxia, which were followed by a disturbance in consciousness. ADEM is usually preceded by infection or vaccination, but obtaining a medical history from patients with disturbed consciousness is often difficult. Based on the present analysis, the initial manifestation of focal neurological signs may be very useful for distinguishing ADEM from AVE. (author)

  11. Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikogosyan, D.N. (AN SSSR, Troitsk (USSR). Inst. Spektroskopii); Kapituletz, S.P.; Smirnov, Y.A. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Virusologii)

    1991-11-01

    The effects of usual low-intensity continuous ({lambda} = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m{sup 2}) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond ({lambda} = 266 nm, {tau}{sub p} = 10 ns, I = 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 2}) or picosecond ({lambda} = 266 nm, {tau}{sub p} = 23 ps, I = 10{sup 12} W/m{sup 2}) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author).

  12. Diazepam Inhibits Proliferation of Lymph Node Cells Isolated from Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Hurst, Nicolás; Bibolini, Mario J; Roth, German A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with similarities to human multiple sclerosis involving peripheral activation of autoreactive T cells which infiltrate the central nervous system and react to self antigens leading to damage. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that treatment with diazepam decreases the incidence and histological signs associated with the disease and diminishes immunological responses. The aim of the present work was to evaluate direct effects of diazepam on isolated T cells involved in immune responses during the development of EAE. Animals were sensitized with whole myelin to induce EAE and sacrificed during the acute phase of the disease. In mononuclear cells isolated from popliteal lymph nodes, cell viability, apoptosis induction, proliferation and cytokine production were evaluated. Diazepam did not have a toxic or proapoptotic effect on the cells, at least up to the concentration of 25 μM, but proliferation, CD8+ T-cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine production were dose-dependently decreased. Diazepam has a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes isolated from the main lymphoid organ involved in disease onset and this could be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effect previously observed with diazepam in vivo during EAE development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  14. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv......Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described...... as a survival and differentiation factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes, significantly ameliorates the clinical course of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55, treatment with CNTF did...... not change the peripheral immune response but did reduce the number of perivascular infiltrates and T cells and the level of diffuse microglial activation in spinal cord. Blood brain barrier permeability was significantly reduced in CNTF-treated animals. Beneficial effects of CNTF did not persist after...

  15. Synapsin I deletion reduces neuronal damage and ameliorates clinical progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Bellani, Serena; Yekhlef, Latefa; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Finardi, Annamaria; Fesce, Riccardo; Pozzi, Davide; Monzani, Elena; Fornasiero, Eugenio F; Matteoli, Michela; Martino, Gianvito; Furlan, Roberto; Taverna, Stefano; Muzio, Luca; Valtorta, Flavia

    2018-02-01

    The classical view of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis states that inflammation-mediated demyelination is responsible for neuronal damage and loss. However, recent findings show that impairment of neuronal functions and demyelination can be independent events, suggesting the coexistence of other pathogenic mechanisms. Due to the inflammatory milieu, subtle alterations in synaptic function occur, which are probably at the basis of the early cognitive decline that often precedes the neurodegenerative phases in MS patients. In particular, it has been reported that inflammation enhances excitatory synaptic transmission while it decreases GABAergic transmission in vitro and ex vivo. This evidence points to the idea that an excitation/inhibition imbalance occurs in the inflamed MS brain, even though the exact molecular mechanisms leading to this synaptic dysfunction are as yet not completely clear. Along this line, we observed that acute treatment of primary hippocampal neurons in culture with pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increased phosphorylation of synapsin I (SynI) by ERK1/2 kinase and to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic vesicle release events, which is prevented by SynI deletion. In vivo, the ablation of SynI expression is protective in terms of disease progression and neuronal damage in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of MS. Our results point to a possible key role in MS pathogenesis of the neuronal protein SynI, a regulator of excitation/inhibition balance in neuronal networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A monoclonal antibody to ameliorate central nervous system infection and improve survival in a murine model of human Enterovirus-A71 encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-08-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) encephalomyelitis is an often fatal disease for which there is no specific treatment available. Passive immunization with a specific monoclonal antibody to EV-A71 was used on a murine model of EV-A71 encephalomyelitis to evaluate its therapeutic effectiveness before and after established central nervous system (CNS) infection. Mice were intraperitoneally-infected with a mouse-adapted EV-A71 strain and treated with a dose of monoclonal antibody (MAb) daily for 3 days on day 1, 2 and 3 post-infection or for 3 days on 3, 4 and 5 post-infection. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by signs of infection and survival rate. Histopathology and qPCR analyses were performed on mice sacrificed a day after completing treatment. In mock-treated mice, CNS infection was established from day 3 post-infection. All mice treated before established CNS infection, survived and recovered completely without CNS infection. All mice treated after established CNS infection survived with mild paralysis, and viral load and antigens/RNA at day 6 post-infection were significantly reduced. Passive immunization with our MAb could prevent CNS infection in mice if given early before the establishment of CNS infection. It could also ameliorate established CNS infection if optimal and repeated doses were given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis predicts disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinman Lawrence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a widely used animal model to understand not only multiple sclerosis but also basic principles of immunity. The disease is scored typically by observing signs of paralysis, which do not always correspond with pathological changes. Methods Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in transgenic mice expressing an injury responsive luciferase reporter in astrocytes (GFAP-luc. Bioluminescence in the brain and spinal cord was measured non-invasively in living mice. Mice were sacrificed at different time points to evaluate clinical and pathological changes. The correlation between bioluminescence and clinical and pathological EAE was statistically analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results Bioluminescence from the brain and spinal cord correlates strongly with severity of clinical disease and a number of pathological changes in the brain in EAE. Bioluminescence at early time points also predicts severity of disease. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of bioluminescence imaging to monitor neuroinflammation for rapid drug screening and immunological studies in EAE and suggest that similar approaches could be applied to other animal models of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  18. [Case of recurrent encephalomyelitis associated with eosinophilia in CSF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Sugeno, Naoto; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Kaneko, Kimihiko; Misu, Tatsuro; Tateyama, Maki; Endo, Toshiki; Aoki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    We report a 30-year-old man with recurrent eosinophilic encephalomyelitis. He had a history of childhood asthma and allergic rhinitis. A half year before admission, when he suffered from a headache, a few lesions were indicated by brain MRI at another hospital. From a month before admission, he noticed gait disturbance, sensory impairment, difficulty in micturition, and constipation. Neurological examination revealed moderate muscle weakness in the feet, hypoesthesia below Th6, and bladder-bowel disturbance including impotence. Lumbar T(2) weigthed MRI showed a severe swelling and a hyperintense lesion at the conus medullaris. Brain MRI revealed several asymptomatic white matter lesions. Eosinophilia was documented in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in the peripheral blood. Clinical symptoms and MRI findings were remarkably improved after steroid pulse therapy. Note that eosinophils in the CSF were also decreased after the treatment with apoptosis-like cells. We thought that CSF eosinophilia was the core pathogenic feature of this case, but clinical settings that provoke CSF eosinophilia such as parasites and other infectious agents, neuromyelitis optica, atopic myelitis, eosinophilic leukemia and hypereosinophilic syndrome could be ruled out. The remarkable responses to steroids without any additional therapy, compatible with idiopathic eosinophilic syndromes, confirmed that this was a case of idiopathic eosinophilic recurrent encephalomyelitis.

  19. Children with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG): Extending the spectrum of MOG antibody positive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Matthias; Hennes, Eva-Maria; Schanda, Kathrin; Karenfort, Michael; Kornek, Barbara; Seidl, Rainer; Diepold, Katharina; Lauffer, Heinz; Marquardt, Iris; Strautmanis, Jurgis; Syrbe, Steffen; Vieker, Silvia; Höftberger, Romana; Reindl, Markus; Rostásy, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies have been described in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), recurrent optic neuritis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and more recently in children with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). To delineate the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and radiological features of paediatric MDEM with MOG antibodies. Clinical course, serum antibodies, CSF, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and outcome of paediatric MDEM patients were reviewed. A total of 8 children with two or more episodes of ADEM were identified from a cohort of 295 children with acute demyelinating events. All children had persisting MOG antibodies (median titre: 1:1280). All ADEM episodes included encephalopathy, polyfocal neurological signs and a typical MRI. Apart from ADEM episodes, three children had further clinical attacks without encephalopathy. Median age at initial presentation was 3 years (range: 1-7 years) and median follow-up 4 years (range: 1-8 years). New ADEM episodes were associated with new neurological signs and new MRI lesions. Clinical outcome did range from normal (four of the eight) to mild or moderate impairment (four of the eight). A total of four children received monthly immunoglobulin treatment during the disease course. Children with MDEM and persisting MOG antibodies constitute a distinct entity of relapsing demyelinating events and extend the spectrum of MOG antibody-associated diseases. © The Author(s), 2016.

  20. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual behavioral characteristics of wild-type rats predict susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, CJ; Tennekes, R; Bruggink, JE; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Neuroendocrine-immune interactions are thought to be important in determining susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Animal studies have revealed that differences in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are related to:reactivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  2. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peferoen, Laura A. N.; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H. W. G. M.; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M.; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical

  3. Prolonged stimulation of a brainstem raphe region attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pernille M.; Sloley, Stephanie S.; Vitores, Alberto A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a neuroinflammatory disease, has few treatment options, none entirely adequate. We studied whether prolonged electrical microstimulation of a hindbrain region (the nucleus raphe magnus) can attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a murine model of MS induced ...

  4. Differential expression of metallothioneins in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Carrasco, J; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice with two different genetic backgrounds: 129/Sv and C57BL/6x129/Sv.Mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis showed a significant induction of metallothioneins-I+II in the spinal cord white matter......, and to a lower extent in the brain. Interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice suffered from a more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and interestingly showed a higher metallothioneins-I+II induction in both white and grey matter of the spinal cord and in the brain. In contrast...... to the metallothioneins-I+II isoforms, metallothionein-III expression remained essentially unaltered during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice showed an altered metallothionein-III expression (a slight increase in the spinal cord white matter) only in the C57BL/6x129/Sv...

  5. PET Imaging of Disease Progression and Treatment Effects in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Vlaming, Maria L. H.; Copray, Sjef C. V. M.; Tielen, Frans; Anthonijsz, Herma J. A.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Hoorn, Jose W. A.; de Vries, Erik F. J.

    The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model is a model of multiple sclerosis that closely mimics the disease characteristics in humans. The main hallmarks of multiple sclerosis are neuroinflammation (microglia activation, monocyte invasion, and T-cell infiltration) and demyelination. PET

  6. The opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, protects spinal motor neurons in a murine model of alphavirus encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A.; Irani, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Spread of neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) to motor neurons (MN) of the spinal cord (SC) causes severe hind limb weakness in C57BL/6 mice and models the paralysis that can accompany alphavirus and flavivirus encephalomyelitis in humans. The fate of spinal MN dictates the severity of NSV-induced paralysis, and recent data suggest that MN damage can occur indirectly via the actions of activated microglial cells. Because the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (NAL), blocks microglial-mediated neurodegeneration in other models, we examined its effects during NSV infection. Drug treatment prevented paralysis and enhanced the survival of MN without altering NSV tropism, replication, or clearance from SC tissue. Further studies showed that NAL most effectively inhibited paralysis in a 72-hour window after NSV challenge, suggesting that the drug inhibits an early event in SC pathogenesis. Histochemical studies demonstrated that NAL blocked early microglial activation in SC tissue sections, and protein assays showed that the early induction of pathogenic IL-1β was blunted in SC homogenates. Finally, loss of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression in SC, an astrocyte glutamate reuptake protein responsible for lowering toxic extracellular levels of glutamate and preventing MN damage, was reversed by NAL treatment. This GLT-1 loss proved to be highly IL-1β-dependent. Taken together, these data suggest that NAL is neuroprotective in the SC by inhibiting microglial activation that, in turn, maintains normal astrocyte glutamate homeostasis. We propose that drugs targeting such microglial responses may have therapeutic benefit in humans with related viral infections. PMID:17459376

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor protects axons in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via an oligodendrocyte-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M Gresle

    Full Text Available Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and Ciliary Neurotrophic factor (CNTF are members of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, defined by use of the gp130 molecule as an obligate receptor. In the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, antagonism of LIF and genetic deletion of CNTF worsen disease. The potential mechanism of action of these cytokines in EAE is complex, as gp130 is expressed by all neural cells, and could involve immuno-modulation, reduction of oligodendrocyte injury, neuronal protection, or a combination of these actions. In this study we aim to investigate whether the beneficial effects of CNTF/LIF signalling in EAE are associated with axonal protection; and whether this requires signalling through oligodendrocytes. We induced MOG₃₅₋₅₅ EAE in CNTF, LIF and double knockout mice. On a CNTF null background, LIF knockout was associated with increased EAE severity (EAE grade 2.1±0.14 vs 2.6±0.19; P<0.05. These mice also showed increased axonal damage relative to LIF heterozygous mice, as indicated by decreased optic nerve parallel diffusivity on MRI (1540±207 µm²-/s vs 1310±175 µm²-/s; P<0.05, and optic nerve (-12.5% and spinal cord (-16% axon densities; and increased serum neurofilament-H levels (2.5 fold increase. No differences in inflammatory cell numbers or peripheral auto-immune T-cell priming were evident. Oligodendrocyte-targeted gp130 knockout mice showed that disruption of CNTF/LIF signalling in these cells has no effect on acute EAE severity. These studies demonstrate that endogenous CNTF and LIF act centrally to protect axons from acute inflammatory destruction via an oligodendrocyte-independent mechanism.

  8. Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis: a spontaneous multiple sclerosis-like disease in a nonhuman primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthelm, Michael K.; Bourdette, Dennis N.; Marracci, Gail H.; Su, Weiping; Mullaney, Elizabeth T.; Manoharan, Minsha; Kohama, Steven G.; Pollaro, Jim; Witkowski, Ellen; Wang, Paul; Rooney, William D.; Sherman, Lawrence S.; Wong, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME), a spontaneous inflammatory demyelinating disease occurring in the Oregon National Primate Research Center’s (ONPRC) colony of Japanese macaques (JM, Macaca fuscata). Methods JM with neurologic impairment were removed from the colony, evaluated and treated with supportive care. Animals were humanely euthanized and their central nervous system (CNS) examined. Results ONPRC’s JM colony was established in 1965 and no cases of JME occurred until 1986. Since 1986, 56 JM spontaneously developed a disease characterized clinically by paresis of one or more limbs, ataxia or ocular motor paresis. Most animals were humanely euthanized during their initial episode. Three recovered, later relapsed and were then euthanized. There was no gender predilection and the median age for disease was 4 years. Magnetic resonance imaging of eight cases of JME revealed multiple gadolinium enhancing T1-weighted hyperintensities in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, cerebellum and cervical spinal cord. The CNS of monkeys with JME contained multifocal plaque-like demyelinated lesions of varying ages, including acute and chronic, active demyelinating lesions with macrophages and lymphocytic periventricular infiltrates, and chronic, inactive demyelinated lesions. A previously undescribed gamma-herpesvirus was cultured from acute JME white matter lesions. Cases of JME continue to affect 1–3% of the ONPRC colony per year. Interpretation JME is a unique spontaneous disease in a nonhuman primate that has similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with a novel simian herpesvirus. Elucidating the pathogenesis of JME may shed new light on MS and other human demyelinating diseases. PMID:21674589

  9. Molecular piracy: the viral link to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    1998-11-01

    The vast majority of the human experience with viral infections is associated with acute symptoms, such as malaise, fever, chills, rhinitis and diarrhea. With this acute or lytic phase, the immune system mounts a response and eliminates the viral agent while acquiring antibodies to that specific viral subtype. With latent or chronic infections, the viral agent becomes incorporated into the human genome. Viral agents capable of integration into the host's genetic material are particularly dangerous and may commandeer the host's ability to regulate normal cell growth and proliferation. The oncogenic viruses may immortalize the host cell, and facilitate malignant transformation. Cell growth and proliferation may be enhanced by viral interference with tumor suppressor gene function (p53 and pRb). Viruses may act as vectors for mutated proto-oncogenes (oncogenes). Overexpression of these oncogenes in viral-infected cells interferes with normal cell function and allows unregulated cell growth and proliferation, which may lead to malignant transformation and tumour formation. Development of oral neoplasms, both benign and malignant, has been linked to several viruses. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with oral hairy leukoplakia, lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, B-cell lymphomas, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Human herpesvirus-8 has been implicated in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, multiple myeloma, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and Castleman's disease. Human herpesvirus-6 has been detected in lymphoproliferative disease, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The role of human papillomavirus in benign (squamous papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris), premalignant (oral epithelial dysplasia), and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) neoplasms within the oral cavity is well recognized. Herpes simplex virus may participate as a cofactor in oral squamous

  10. Importance of viral diseases in irradiated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.; Jebavy, L.; Merka, V.; Horacek, J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed aimed at establishing the incidence of some viral diseases in radiation syndrome patients and the significance of the diseases for prognosis. In the study, 77 patients with syndromologically identical acute hematological forms of radiation sickness, mainly leukemic patients suffering from severe blood formation suppression and/or hematoblastosis were examined for concurrent herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections. Active viruses were isolated in almost 30% of the patients; nearly 90% of the patients were serologically positive, shedding antibodies. The findings thus confirmed the view that viral disease, especially in immunocompromised patients, has a critical effect on the survival of radiation sickness sufferers. (L.O.). 12 refs

  11. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Kyaw Phyu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia, acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland, lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen, and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles, liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  12. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  13. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoofnagle JH, Shafritz OA, Popper H. Chronic hepatitis B and the 'healthy'. HBsAG carrier state. Hepato/ogy 1987; 7: 758-763. 81. Hsu H-C. Wu M-Z, Chang M-H, Su I-J, Chen D-S. Childhood hepatocellular carcinoma develops exclusively in hepatitis 8 surface antigen carriers in three decades in Taiwan. Report of 52 cases ...

  14. Características clínicas e da saturação transcutânea de oxigênio em lactentes hospitalizados com bronquiolite viral aguda Clinical and transcutaneous oxygen saturation characteristics in hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Rubin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever as características clínicas de lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda (BVA e verificar a influência do tempo de dessaturação de oxigênio (TD como teste preditivo para estimar a evolução desses pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte realizado com 111 lactentes hospitalizados com diagnóstico de BVA e em oxigenoterapia por cateter nasal. Os desfechos foram: tempo de internação, tempo de oxigenoterapia e tempo para saturar 95% em ar ambiente. Foi aplicado, duas vezes ao dia, um escore de gravidade com os sinais clínicos verificados durante o período em que o paciente necessitou de oxigênio suplementar. Após suspender o oxigênio do paciente, foi observado o tempo necessário para a saturação transcutânea de oxigênio decrescer até 90% e 85%. Utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher, para comparar entre si os grupos de variáveis categóricas, e o teste t ou Mann-Whitney, para as variáveis numéricas. A correlação de Spearman foi utilizada para avaliar associações entre variáveis contínuas de distribuição assimétrica. RESULTADOS: Houve predominância de idade inferior a quatro meses (61,3%. Os pacientes com história de sibilância prévia (45% foram analisados separadamente e tiveram resultados semelhantes ao grupo com BVA (pOBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB and to assess the influence of oxygen desaturation time (DT as a prognostic test to estimate the evolution of such patients. METHODS: We performed a cohort study with 111 hospitalized patients diagnosed with AVB receiving oxygen therapy through nasal prong. The outcomes were: length of admission, length of oxygen therapy and time elapsed to read 95% saturation in room air. A severity score was obtained twice a day based on clinical signs during the time when the patient required oxygen supplementation. After the supply of oxygen was interrupted, the time required

  15. Modelling person-to-person transmission in an Enterovirus A71 orally infected hamster model of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-07-12

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which may be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. Although fecal-oral or oral-oral routes are important in person-to-person transmission, how viral shedding and exposure may predispose individuals to infection remains unknown. We investigated person-to-person transmission by using a model of HFMD and encephalomyelitis based on EV-A71 oral infection of 2-week-old hamsters. Animals (index animals) infected with 10 4 50% cell culture infective doses of virus uniformly developed severe disease four days post-infection (dpi), whereas littermate contacts developed severe disease after six to seven days of exposure to index animals. Virus was detected in oral washes and feces at 3-4 dpi in index animals and at three to eight days after exposure to index animals in littermate contact animals. In a second experiment, non-littermate contact animals exposed for 8 or 12 h to index animals developed the disease six and four days post-exposure, respectively. Tissues from killed index and contact animals, studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, exhibited mild inflammatory lesions and/or viral antigens/RNA in the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, tongue, paws, skin, esophagus, gastric epithelium, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, central nervous system neurons, muscles (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles) and liver. Orally shed viruses were probably derived from infected oral mucosa and salivary glands, whereas fecal viruses may have derived from these sites as well as from esophageal and gastric epithelia. Asymptomatic seroconversion in exposed mother hamsters was demonstrated. Our hamster model should be useful in studying person-to-person EV-A71 transmission and how drugs and vaccines may interrupt transmission.

  16. Interferon-gamma regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, Carmen; Penkowa, Milena; Sáez-Torres, Irene

    2002-01-01

    . Here we analyze the role of IFN-gamma during EAE by using both IFN-gamma receptor-knockout (IFN-gamma R(-/-)) and wild-type mice, both strains immunized with peptide 40-55 from rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The levels of oxidative stress were determined through the analysis......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which shares many clinical and pathological features with and is considered the animal model of multiple sclerosis. There is extensive evidence that EAE is a Th1...... disease eliciting secretion of proinflammatory cytokines like IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, and it has been suggested that cytokine-induced oxidative stress could have a role in EAE neuropathology. However, the individual roles of these and other cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease are still uncertain...

  17. West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada. PMID:12839240

  18. Immunopathology of Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis is similar to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Tiffany C; Manoharan, Minsha; Rawlings-Rhea, Stephanie D; Tagge, Ian; Kohama, Steven G; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Ferguson, Betsy; Woltjer, Randall L; Frederick, Meredith C; Pollaro, James; Rooney, William D; Sherman, Larry S; Bourdette, Dennis N; Wong, Scott W

    2016-02-15

    Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that occurs spontaneously in a colony of Japanese macaques (JM) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Animals with JME display clinical signs resembling multiple sclerosis (MS), and magnetic resonance imaging reveals multiple T2-weighted hyperintensities and gadolinium-enhancing lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we undertook studies to determine if JME possesses features of an immune-mediated disease in the CNS. Comparable to MS, the CNS of animals with JME contain active lesions positive for IL-17, CD4+ T cells with Th1 and Th17 phenotypes, CD8+ T cells, and positive CSF findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (EAE) BY VITAMIN C DEPRIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter S.; Kies, Marian W.; Alvord, Ellsworth C.; Shaw, Cheng-Mei

    1962-01-01

    Scorbutic guinea pigs injected with CNS and mycobacterium to induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) showed no clear-cut neurological signs and failed to show histological evidence of central nervous system damage. The degree of protection afforded by vitamin C deprivation was related directly to the duration of the scorbutogenic diet and inversely to the strength of the CNS challenge. Vitamin C deprivation also abolished tuberculin sensitivity as measured by the PPD skin reaction. Upon restoration of vitamin C, the animals recovered their sensitivity to PPD but did not develop EAE. It was further demonstrated that these effects of vitamin C deprivation were not related to inanition or to the endogenous levels of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids. PMID:14476938

  20. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  1. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  2. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  3. Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xudong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD, VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis. Conclusion This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms.

  4. Early-onset acute transverse myelitis following hepatitis B vaccination and respiratory infection: case report Mielite transversa aguda de início precoce precedida de vacinação para hepatite B e infecção viral respiratória: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Fonseca

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute transverse myelitis is an acute inflammatory process of the spinal cord and it is a rare clinical syndrome in childhood. In this paper, we report a case of 3 years-old boy who developed acute onset tetraparesia following a viral respiratory infecction and hepatitis B vaccination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord disclosed signal-intensity abnormalities from C4 to C3. A diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis was made and the patient was treated with IV methylprednisolone and IV immunoglobulin. The child had a fair outcome despite of the very acute course of the disease and the presence of a cervical sensory level which usually harbor a poor prognosis.A mielite transversa aguda é processo inflamatório agudo da medula espinhal de ocorrência rara na infância. Neste artigo, reportamos o caso de um menino de 3 anos que desenvolveu tetraparesia aguda precedida de infecção viral respiratória e pós-vacinação para Hepatite B. A imagem pela Ressonância Magnética da medula espinhal revelou anormalidade de aumento de sinal em C4-T3. Após o diagnóstico da mielite transversa aguda, o paciente foi tratado com metilprednisolona e imunoglobulina. Embora a doença tenha se apresentado de forma aguda e acompanhada de nível sensitivo, o que usualmente levaria a um prognóstico sombrio, a criança evoluiu favoravelmente.

  5. Glutamine antagonist-mediated immune suppression decreases pathology but delays virus clearance in mice during nonfatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Victoria K; Glowinski, Rebecca; Braxton, Alicia M; Potter, Michelle C; Slusher, Barbara S; Griffin, Diane E

    2017-08-01

    Infection of weanling C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) causes nonfatal encephalomyelitis associated with hippocampal-based memory impairment that is partially prevented by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutamine antagonist (Potter et al., J Neurovirol 21:159, 2015). To determine the mechanism(s) of protection, lymph node and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from SINV-infected mice treated daily for 1 week with low (0.3mg/kg) or high (0.6mg/kg) dose DON were examined. DON treatment suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in cervical lymph nodes resulting in reduced CNS immune cell infiltration, inflammation, and cell death compared to untreated SINV-infected mice. Production of SINV-specific antibody and interferon-gamma were also impaired by DON treatment with a delay in virus clearance. Cessation of treatment allowed activation of the antiviral immune response and viral clearance, but revived CNS pathology, demonstrating the ability of the immune response to mediate both CNS damage and virus clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial epidemiological analysis of bovine encephalomyelitis outbreaks caused by Akabane virus infection in western Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Yoko; Moriguchi, Sachiko; Yanase, Tohru; Ishikura, Youji; Abe, Shigeki; Higashi, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Sota; Murai, Kiyokazu; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Akabane disease, which is distributed in temperate and tropical regions in the world, is a vector-borne disease of ruminants caused by the Akabane virus, transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2011, outbreaks of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis occurred in the Shimane Prefecture in western Japan. In this study, a spatial epidemiological analysis was conducted to understand environmental factors associated with the spread of Akabane disease. By applying a conditional autoregressive model, the relationship between infection and environmental variables was explored. The results showed that the dominance of farmlands and the presence of infected farms within a 3-km radius had a significant effect on infection. This result implies that land use, which would relate with the vector habitat, and the presence of neighboring infected farms as a source of infection may have influenced the spread of the disease in this region. These findings provide basic insights into the spread of Akabane disease and useful suggestions for developing a surveillance program and preventive measures against the disease.

  7. Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Frederick, Terra J.; Huff, Terry B.; Goings, Gwendolyn E.; Miller, Stephen D.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-10-01

    How demyelination is initiated is a standing question for pathology of multiple sclerosis. By label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin lipids, we investigate myelin integrity in the lumbar spinal cord tissue isolated from naïve SJL mice, and from mice at the onset, peak acute, and remission stages of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Progressive demyelinating disease is initially characterized by the retraction of paranodal myelin both at the onset of disease and at the borders of acute demyelinating lesions. Myelin retraction is confirmed by elongated distribution of neurofascin proteins visualized by immunofluorescence. The disruption of paranodal myelin subsequently exposes Kv1.2 channels at the juxtaparanodes and lead to the displacement of Kv1.2 channels to the paranodal and nodal domains. Paranodal myelin is partially restored during disease remission, indicating spontaneous myelin regeneration. These findings suggest that paranodal domain injury precedes formation of internodal demyelinating lesions in relapsing EAE. Our results also demonstrate that CARS microscopy is an effective readout of myelin disease burden.

  8. Neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy decreases the incidence and severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Kovacs, Kalman; Berczi, Istvan

    2005-01-01

    Acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, mediated by T lymphocytes. Immunization of Lewis rats with myelin antigens suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant induces EAE. In a previous study on rats we have found that neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) decreased both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of NIL on the incidence and severity of EAE and on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Lewis rats. NIL, hypophysectomized (Hypox) and sham-operated (Sham) rats were immunized s.c. with guinea-pig brain extract suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant. Untreated rats were used as controls. Water intake, body weight gain, clinical and histopathologic incidence and severity of EAE were evaluated in the operated groups. On killing, plasma adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone levels were measured and adrenals, thymuses and spleens were weighed. Histopathologic lesions were counted in the brain and spinal cord. Water intake and body weight gain were significantly decreased in Sham and Hypox animals with EAE whereas higher intakes persisted in the NIL group. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropin were within the normal range whereas corticosterone levels increased in Sham and occasionally in NIL animals. Thymus weights were decreased in NIL and Hypox groups. The clinical and histopathologic incidence and severity of EAE were significantly decreased in NIL animals as compared with Sham and Hypox rats. We concluded that NIL affects the cell-mediated immune response and plays a role in the development and progression of EAE in the Lewis rat.

  9. Postnatal NMR changes in guinea pig central nervous system: potential relevance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, J H; Gilbert, J J; Vandervoort, M K; Karlik, S J

    1988-02-01

    The age of sensitization determines the clinical course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the guinea pig. Adult animals immunized with central nervous system (CNS) tissue develop acute, fulminant EAE, whereas a relapsing-remitting illness resembling multiple sclerosis occurs if sensitization occurs in the first 2 weeks of life. This study characterized the changes in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and imaging of the CNS during the immediate postnatal period. T1 and T2 relaxation times in cerebral hemispheres and spinal cords of strain 13 guinea pigs were consistently prolonged at birth, progressively shortened in the first few weeks of life, and achieved adult levels by age 6 to 11 weeks. There were no age-dependent differences in T1 and T2 relaxation times and tissue specific gravity in either strain 13 or Hartley guinea pigs following immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant, an agent previously reported to disrupt the blood-brain barrier to IgG and albumin in strain 13 guinea pigs. The CNS of neonatal guinea pigs appeared well myelinated by light microscopy and there was no apparent difference in the extent of myelination between newborn and adult animals. Although it was possible to distinguish gray from white matter in the cervical spinal cord of newborn guinea pigs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, gray/white contrast was less satisfactory in the cerebral hemispheres until approximately 6 weeks of life when it was possible to differentiate gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. This study indicates that NMR relaxation times change during early postnatal life, at a time corresponding to the unexplained differences in susceptibility to an immune challenge. These developmental changes appear to be independent of the degree of CNS myelination.

  10. IGG Subclass and Isotype Specific Immunoglobulin Responses to LASSA fever and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis: Natural Infection and Immunication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    produced by serial passage of the wild virus utilizing guinea pig fetal heart cell culture, has proved to be efficacious (providing long term...VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS : NATURAL INFECTION AND IMMUNIZATION PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Renata J. Engler CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Uniformed Services...TITLE (include Security Classification) IGG SUBCLASS & ISOTYPE SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RESPONSES TO LASSA FEVER & VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

  11. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  13. Acute Hepatitis E: Case Report | Mbugua | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis E viral infection has been reported in North Africa, Western Africa and some outbreaks in refugee camps in Somalia and Sudan. We present the rare case of a Kenyan health care worker with documented acute viral Hepatitis E infection.

  14. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ultraviolet light is not mediated by isomerization of urocanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A; Marling, Steven J; Plum, Lori A; DeLuca, Hector F

    2017-01-05

    Ultraviolet B irradiation confers strong resistance against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. This protection by ultraviolet B is independent of vitamin D production but causes isomerization of urocanic acid, a naturally occurring immunosuppressant. To determine whether UCA isomerization from trans to cis is responsible for the protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis afforded by ultraviolet B, trans- or cis-urocanic acid was administered to animals and their disease progression was monitored. Disease incidence was reduced by 74% in animals exposed to ultraviolet B, and skin cis-urocanic acid levels increased greater than 30%. However, increasing skin cis-urocanic acid levels independent of ultraviolet B was unable to alter disease onset or progression. It is unlikely that urocanic acid isomerization is responsible for the ultraviolet B-mediated suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additional work is needed to investigate alternative mechanisms by which UVB suppresses disease.

  17. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Carrillo-Salinas

    Full Text Available Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅ immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the

  18. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J; Navarrete, Carmen; Mecha, Miriam; Feliú, Ana; Collado, Juan A; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Guaza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅) immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the therapeutic potential

  19. Diffuse glioblastoma resembling acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Carla; Caranci, Ferdinando; Lus, Giacomo; Signoriello, Elisabetta; Eoli, Marica; Anghileri, Elena; Pollo, Bianca; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Ugga, Lorenzo; Tedeschi, Enrico

    2017-10-01

    We report the case of a young man with sudden onset of diplopia after an upper respiratory tract infection. Based on the first radiological findings acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, a variant of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, was suspected and treatment with high dose intravenous dexamethasone was started but it was stopped for intolerance. The patient clinically worsened, developing gait instability, ataxia and ophthalmoplegia; brain MRI performed 20 days later showed severe progression of the disease with subependymal dissemination. After brain biopsy of the right temporal lesion the histological diagnosis was glioblastoma. These findings suggest that MRI features of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis may dissimulate the diagnosis of diffuse glioma/glioblastoma. This case underscores the importance of considering diffuse glioma in the differential diagnosis of atypical signs and symptoms of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis and underlines the relevant role of integrating neuroradiologic findings with neuropathology.

  20. Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Diane; Qing, Zhu; Reinke, Emily; Elliot, David; Weinstock, Joel; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsa

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS) characterized by chronic inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology of EAE involves autoimmune CD4(+) T(h)1 cells. There is a striking inverse correlation between the occurrence of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. We demonstrate that in mice with Schistosoma mansoni ova immunization, the severity of EAE is reduced as measured by decreased clinical scores and CNS cellular infiltrates. Disease suppression is associated with immune deviation in the periphery and the CNS, demonstrated by decreased IFN-gamma and increased IL-4, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-10 levels in the periphery, and increased frequency of IL-4 producing neuroantigen-specific T cells in the brain. S. mansoni helminth ova treatment influenced the course of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in STAT6-deficient animals. This indicates that STAT6 plays a critical role in regulating the ameliorating effect of S. mansoni ova treatment on the autoimmune response, and provides the direct link between helminth treatment, T(h)2 environment and improved EAE. As some intestinal helminthic infections induce minimal pathology, they might offer a safe and inexpensive therapy to prevent and/or ameliorate MS.

  1. T cells in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, J M

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which involves autoimmune responses to myelin antigens. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, have provided convincing evidence that T cells specific for self-antigens mediate pathology in these diseases. Until recently, T helper type 1 (Th1) cells were thought to be the main effector T cells responsible for the autoimmune inflammation. However more recent studies have highlighted an important pathogenic role for CD4(+) T cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-17, termed Th17, but also IL-17-secreting gammadelta T cells in EAE as well as other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. This has prompted intensive study of the induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cells in MS and EAE. In this paper, we review the contribution of Th1, Th17, gammadelta, CD8(+) and regulatory T cells as well as the possible development of new therapeutic approaches for MS based on manipulating these T cell subtypes.

  2. Genetic analysis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.; Rosenwasser, O.A.; O`Neill, J.K.; Turk, J.L. [Royal College of Surgeons of England, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-15

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that exhibits many pathologic similarities with multiple sclerosis. While products of the MHC are known to control the development of EAE, it is clear that non-MHC products also influence susceptibility. The chromosomal locations of these were investigated in selective crosses between MHC class II-compatible, EAE-susceptible Biozzi ABH, and low responder nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The disease was dominant and highly influenced by gender in the backcross one (BC{sub 1}) generation. Female mice were significantly more susceptible than male mice. Segregation of disease frequency of female animals in this cross suggested that EAE was controlled by a major locus. Although microsatellite-based exclusion mapping indicated that a number of regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 18 showed evidence of linkage (p<0.05) compared with expected random distributions of alleles, disease susceptibility was most strongly linked (p<0.05) to chromosome 7. However, by selectively analyzing animals that were either severely affected or almost normal, additional susceptibility loci were mapped on chromosomes 18 and 11 that were linked (p<0.001) to resistance and the development of severe disease, respectively. The data indicate a major locus on chromosome 7, affecting initiation and severity of EAE that is probably modified by several other unlinked loci. These localizations may provide candidate loci for the analysis of human autoimmune-demyelinating disease. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Spinal cord hydrolysate ameliorate immunological reaction in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Michałkiewicz, Jacek; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Zielińska, Joanna; Kasarello, Kaja; Kurzepa, Katarzyna; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins to induce oral tolerance in the animal model of sclerosis multiplex - experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. The female Lewis rats were fed with hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins in two doses for one week before immunization, which was induced by injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate. At the peak of clinical symptoms (the 13th day post immunization) the rats were sacrificed and the spleen removed. Splenocytes were suspended in a culture medium and placed in microculture plates. The cells were stimulated with homogenate. The cells were cultured for seven days. Proliferation of splenocytes was estimated by means of methyl-3H thymidine incorporation. In supernatants of cultures of splenocytes the level of cytokines INF-gamma, IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-gamma was measured. It was demonstrated that homogenate-induced splenocytes of hydrolysate-fed rats gave rise to low proliferation as compared to the controls used. The IFN-gamma was inhibited in hydrolysate-fed animals. The hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins has a modulatory effect on the immune reaction, particularly on the orally-induced antigen-specific modulation of autoimmune response.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS: THE EFFECT OF 6-MERCAPTOPURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Leon W.; Good, Robert A.; Condie, Richard M.

    1962-01-01

    1. 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) prevents experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) during the period of drug administration in both rabbits and guinea pigs. The disease is suppressed even when treatment is started as late as the 5th day after antigenic stimulation in guinea pigs and the 12th day in rabbits. 2. After discontinuation of 6-MP treatment, there is a latent period before the disease is noted. The length of this latent period is not modified by the duration of 6-MP treatment. 3. The effect of 6-MP on EAE is not the result of leukopenia, non-specific toxicity and debilitation, anti-inflammatory activity, or mere masking of clinical signs of the disease. It is, rather, the result of 6-MP's specific anti-immunologic activity. 4. The effects of 6-MP on antibody production, delayed hypersensitivity, and EAE are compared. This provides indirect evidence for the importance of circulating antibody in the pathogenesis of EAE. 5. The important considerations in the use of 6-MP are discussed and the possible usefulness of 6-MP in human neurologic diseases is considered. PMID:14449435

  5. Therapeutic effects of cisplatin on rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bo; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2006-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a prototypic Th1-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and serves as a model for the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. Cisplatin is a drug widely used in the treatment of a variety of human neoplasias, such as advanced bladder carcinoma, adrenal cortex carcinoma, breast cancer, head and neck or lung carcinoma. Cisplatin binds to DNA and interferes with cellular repair and other mechanism, which eventually result into cell death. It is known that cisplatin can induce immunosuppressive effects through inhibition of T cell activity. Therefore we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of cisplatin in a rat EAE model. EAE was induced in male LEW rats by immunizing with a synthetic peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein. The development of EAE and neurological signs were evaluated by a standard protocol. Immunohistochemistry was applied to show immune cell infiltration into the CNS. Early treatment of EAE rats with cisplatin effectively ameliorated the development of disease and provided a significant protective effect compared to control rats. Further, histological analysis demonstrated that the formation of the typical perivascular cuffs and brain infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes were complete absent in cisplatin treated rats, while abundant T cell infiltration was seen in the CNS of EAE rats. Our data show that cisplatin has protective effects in EAE, indicating that cisplatin could be a candidate in the treatment of human CNS autoimmunity.

  6. Exquisite peptide specificity of oral tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, N H; Gienapp, I E; Cox, K L; Whitacre, C C

    1995-08-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced in Lewis rats by injection of myelin basic protein (MBP) and adjuvant, is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Earlier studies from our laboratory have shown that oral administration of guinea pig MBP before encephalitogenic challenge induces T cell anergy and results in the suppression of clinical signs and CNS histopathologic changes of EAE. In contrast, oral administration of rat MBP did not confer a similar degree of protection. This study was undertaken to determine the tolerogenicity of the synthetic peptide 68-88 derived from guinea pig (GP) MBP and rat MBP. These peptides differ by a single amino acid at position 80. Lewis rats fed GP 68-88 were protected from EAE induced with GP 68-88 or rat 68-88. In contrast, feeding rats 68-88 did not protect the animals from challenge with either peptide. Measurement of the frequency of peptide-reactive Th1 cells showed results consistent with the clinical picture. The in vitro proliferative response was significantly suppressed following oral administration of either whole GP MBP, the GP peptide, or the rat peptide, irrespective of clinical status. These results extend our earlier observation at the whole molecule level that GP but not rat MBP confers oral tolerance. These findings suggest that small structural differences at the amino acid level can produce dramatic differences in clinical outcome, with important implications for the design of multiple sclerosis clinical trials.

  7. Does Viral Marketing really Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Ho-shen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we examine the effectiveness of viral marketing toward young adults since the majority of Internet users are in this age group. It is also noted that we will only focus on video type of viral messages, which is the most common way to utilized viral marketing for firms. We will discuss how viral video influence consumer behavior in terms of brand images, brand choice, user experience and working memory in this paper. Our results illustrated viral video helps major...

  8. Concepts in viral pathogenesis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notkins, A.L.; Oldstone, M.B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains papers divided among 10 sections. The section titles are: Viral Structure and Function; Viral Constructs; Oncogenes, Transfection, and Differentiation; Viral Tropism and Entry into Cells; Immune Recognition of Viruses; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Plant and Animal Models; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Diseases in Humans; New Trends in Diagnosis and Epidemiology; and Vaccines and Antiviral Therapy.

  9. Viral mechanisms of immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcami, A; Koszinowski, U H

    2000-09-01

    During the millions of years they have coexisted with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanisms. Viral gene functions provide an overview of many relevant principles in cell biology and immunology. Our knowledge of viral gene functions must be integrated into virus-host interaction networks to understand viral pathogenesis, and could lead to new anti-viral strategies and the ability to exploit viral functions as tools in medicine.

  10. Reversible paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis as the presenting feature of ovarian teratoma: A clinicopathological correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajappa Senthil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM is a well-characterized neurological syndrome. Its association with ovarian teratoma is rare. A young lady presented with features suggestive of encephalomyelitis with predominant cerebellar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging brain was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Computerized tomography scan of the pelvis revealed a complex left ovarian cyst. With a clinical diagnosis of PEM she underwent a left salpingo-oopherectomy. This was followed by total recovery of the PEM in two weeks. The histopathology revealed immature teratoma. The interesting feature was the clinicopathological correlation between the finding of fetal cerebellar tissue in the tumor and the PEM with predominant cerebellar features.

  11. Differential expression of guinea pig class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, C E; Baker, D; Butter, C; Willoughby, D A; Turk, J L

    1989-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial cells do not normally express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II antigens either in vivo or in vitro. In this investigation it was found that endothelial in the central nervous system (CNS) of normal guinea pigs constitutively express MHC Class II antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies HLA-DR, 27E7, and MSgp8. This phenotype is retained when these CNS-derived endothelial cells are propagated in tissue culture. Furthermore, examination of CNS tissue taken from animals in the acute phase of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis shows that additional epitopes of the MHC Class II antigen, detected by the monoclonal antibodies CI.13.1 and 22C4, are present during the diseased state. This study not only demonstrates constitutive expression of certain MHC Class II determinants by guinea pig endothelial cells, but also shows that other Class II determinants can be differentially expressed in certain disease states.

  12. Persistent activation of microglia is associated with neuronal dysfunction of callosal projecting pathways and multiple sclerosis-like lesions in relapsing--remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Wang, Yue; Kivisäkk, Pia

    2007-01-01

    callosal projecting neurons. There was significant impairment of retrograde labeling of NeuN-positive callosal projecting neurons and reduction in the labelling of their transcallosal axons. These data demonstrate a novel paradigm of cortical and callosal neuropathology in a mouse model of MS, perpetuated......Cortical pathology, callosal atrophy and axonal loss are substrates of progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we describe cortical, periventricular subcortical lesions and callosal demyelination in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice that are similar...... to lesions found in MS. Unlike the T-cell infiltrates that peak during acute disease, we found that microglia activation persists through the chronic disease phase. Microglia activation correlated with abnormal phosphorylation of neurofilaments in the cortex and stripping of synaptic proteins in cortical...

  13. Presentation of myelin basic protein by normal guinea-pig brain endothelial cells and its relevance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, C E; Healey, D G; Baker, D; Willoughby, D A; Turk, J L

    1989-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that endothelial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) of normal guinea-pigs constitutively express certain MHC class II determinants, whilst the expression of other determinants is apparent during the acute phase of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE). The expression of MHC class II determinants is retained by endothelial cells derived from normal guinea-pig brain tissue and maintained in culture. This present study demonstrates that the MHC class II molecules on these cells can be recognized by allogeneic lymphocytes, resulting in a proliferative response which is enhanced by the addition of exogenous IL-2. The endothelial cells were incapable of presenting either purified protein derivative or ovalbumin, but they could present autologous myelin basic protein (MBP), an encephalitogen implicated in the pathogenesis of EAE. The resulting lymphocyte proliferative response was of the same magnitude as that obtained when a control population of macrophages was used to present MBP. These results, therefore, suggest that cerebrovascular endothelia have the potential to play a role in the pathogenesis of EAE.

  14. NMR studies in the relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis in the strain 13 guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlik, S J; Wong, C; Gilbert, J J; Noseworthy, J H

    1989-01-01

    Juvenile strain 13 guinea pigs sensitized with an emulsion of whole isologous central nervous system (CNS) tissue in complete Freund's adjuvant in the first two weeks of life develop a relapsing-remitting form of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) which resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) both clinically and pathologically. In order to determine if this experimental model could be used to identify the tissue factors which contribute to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected lesions in MS, we measured T1 and T2 relaxation times, tissue specific gravity and histology throughout the entire CNS in vitro in eighteen animals during the acute phase (first attack), and twenty-one animals during further periods of clinical worsening (relapses) and recovery (remissions). The neuropathological findings of spinal cord meningeal inflammation, perivascular and parenchymal infiltration (myelitis and encephalitis) and demyelination were more marked during periods of clinical worsening than when the animal had recovered clinically. Even though the histological changes of EAE were present in all experimental animals, NMR relaxation times and tissue specific gravity could not distinguish experimental (first attack, subsequent relapses and remissions) from control animals due to a wide range of values for each of these parameters. Although relapsing EAE in the strain 13 guinea pig has been an instructive model of MS, we have found that in vitro NMR relaxometry cannot be used to predict the presence or degree of pathological change in the nervous system of these experimental animals.

  15. Effect of the leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, SC-41930, on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretland, D J; Widomski, D L; Shone, R L; Levin, S; Gaginella, T S

    1991-09-01

    The accepted model for the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), is experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). We assessed the ability of SC-41930(7-[3(4-acetyl-3-methoxy-2-propyl-phenoxy)-propoxy]- 3,4-dihydro-8-propyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-carboxyl acid), to modulate the symptoms of acute EAE generated in guinea pigs. Animals were pretreated with SC-41930 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days followed by thrice-weekly maintenance. At day 52, a significant number of the SC-41930-treated animals were alive as compared to EAE alone. Control animals had an increase in body weight while EAE animals lost over 20% (p less than 0.5) of their body weight by day 18. SC-41930-treatment significantly reduced, but did not completely inhibit the cachectic response. The results indirectly implicate LTB4 in the pathogenesis of EAE. Agents that modify this model be useful in the treatment of human MS.

  16. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    has a multi-factorial etiology. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV can infect deer and many other wild artiodactyls. Moose, roe deer and the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica are the main hosts of FMDV in the Russian Federation. In addition, serological evidence of a FMD infection without clinical disease was detected in red deer in France. Epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer (EHD and bluetongue (BT are acute non-contagious viral diseases of wild ruminants characterised by extensive haemorrhage. Culicoides insects are the main vectors. EHD and BT only play a minor role in Europe but both diseases are widespread in North America.

  17. Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Yamashita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171 inhibited the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production of primary immune cells in vitro, and alleviated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in mice, a model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In this study, we newly investigated whether LH2171 could relieve the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an autoimmune disease, but develop the symptoms by different mechanisms from RA. In MS and EAE, main cause of the disease is the abnormality in CD4+ T cell immunity, whereas in RA and CIA, is that in antibody-mediated immunity. The intraperitoneal administration of LH2171 significantly decreased the incidence and clinical score of EAE in mice. LH2171 also reduced the numbers of pathogenic immune cells, especially Th17 cells, in the spinal cord at the peak stage of disease severity. Interestingly, before the onset of EAE, LH2171 administration remarkably decreased the ratio of Th17 cells to CD4+ T cells in the inguinal lymph nodes (LNs, where pathogenic immune cells are activated to infiltrate the central nervous system, including the spinal cord. Furthermore, the expression of interleukin (IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine essential for Th17 differentiation, decreased in the LNs of LH2171-administered mice. Moreover, LH2171 significantly inhibited IL-6 production in vitro from both DC2.4 and RAW264.7 cells, model cell lines of antigen-presenting cells. These findings suggest that LH2171 might down-regulate IL-6 production and the subsequent Th17 differentiation and spinal cord infiltration, consequently alleviating EAE symptoms.

  18. Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms and Approaches to Prevention of Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord. Hippocampal infection leads to long-term memory deficits in mice that survive, while motor neuron infection can lead to paralysis and death. Neuronal death is immune-mediated, rather than a direct consequence of virus infection, and associated with entry and differentiation of pathogenic T helper 17 cells in the nervous system. To modulate glutamate excitotoxicity, mice were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists or a glutamine antagonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 protected hippocampal neurons but not motor neurons, and mice still became paralyzed and died. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists GYKI-52466 and talampanel protected both hippocampal and motor neurons and prevented paralysis and death. Glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-l-norleucine protected hippocampal neurons and improved memory generation in mice surviving infection with an avirulent virus. Surprisingly, in all cases protection was associated with inhibition of the antiviral immune response, reduced entry of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, and delayed virus clearance, emphasizing the importance of treatment approaches that include prevention of immunopathologic damage.

  19. Hypothalamic response to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: role of substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Heloisa H; Fernandes, Gilberto A; Namer, Izzie J; Depaulis, Antoine; Levy, Salomon

    2004-01-01

    Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) is thought to be a model for experimental chronic stress that has as main features decreased adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) plasma levels and a rise in median eminence content of arginine vasopressin (AVP) due to the activity of substance P. In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), another chronic stress model, the role of substance P action is not clear. In this paper we tried to clarify the role of substance P in Lewis rats, which are susceptible to this disease. EAE was induced using myelin basic protein plus complete Freund's adjuvant injected into the hind limbs. One day later injections of an antagonist to substance P (RP 67580), saline, and substance P were administered daily for 12-14 days through a stainless steel cannula into the lateral ventricle of the brain, and then the rats were killed. The rats were divided into groups of controls, sham, diseased controls (no intracerebroventricular injections) and EAE (injected intracerebroventricularly). Plasma was used for the quantification of ACTH and corticosterone but not AVP which was assayed in hypothalamic median eminence extracts. In noninjected diseased rats the plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone were significantly higher than in noninjected control rats, whereas the AVP concentrations in the median eminence were unchanged. The substance P antagonist did not affect the levels of these hormones in plasma or the median eminence. Substance P decreased the plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone but did not increase the median eminence content of vasopressin. Administration of the antagonist 30 min before an equivalent dose of substance P increased the plasma levels of the two hormones, but did not change the content of AVP. Based on the lack of response to the antagonist RP 67580 we suggest that the substance P has different roles in EAE and AA at least in the later stages of EAE (after 11 days of immunization). Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown that...

  1. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis...

  2. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model for proteomic biomarker studies : From rat to human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MScl) is defined by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. Some of the disease mechanisms are known but the cause of this complex disorder stays an enigma. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model mimicking many

  3. CD1-dependent regulation of chronic central nervous system inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Anna; Teige, Ingrid; Lavasani, Shahram

    2004-01-01

    The existence of T cells restricted for the MHC I-like molecule CD1 is well established, but the function of these cells is still obscure; one implication is that CD1-dependent T cells regulate autoimmunity. In this study, we investigate their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EA...

  4. The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 chemokine-binding protein M3 inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millward, Jason M; Holst, Peter J; Høgh-Petersen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    M3 (AdM3) directly to the CNS to evaluate the capacity of this protein to inhibit neuroinflammation using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Treatment with the AdM3 vector significantly reduced the clinical severity of EAE, attenuated CNS histopathology, and reduced numbers...

  5. Chemokine expression in GKO mice (lacking interferon-gamma) with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glabinski, A R; Krakowski, M; Han, Y

    1999-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) considered to be an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). The detailed mechanism that specifies accumulation of inflammatory cells within the CNS in these conditions remains a subject...

  6. A role for VAV1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagodic, Maja; Colacios, Celine; Nohra, Rita

    2009-01-01

    region on rat chromosome 9 regulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Using interval-specific congenic rat lines and association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with inflammatory phenotypes, we localized the gene of influence to Vav1, which codes for a signal...

  7. Key metalloproteinases are expressed by specific cell types in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nuttall, Robert K; Edwards, Dylan R

    2004-01-01

    animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We used real-time RT-PCR to profile the expression of all 22 known mouse MMPs, seven ADAMs, and all four known TIMPs in spinal cord from SJL/J mice and mice with adoptively transferred myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific EAE. A significant...

  8. Increased demyelination and axonal damage in metallothionein I+II-deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Martínez-Cáceres, E M

    2003-01-01

    Metallothioneins I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective factors. We previously showed that MT-I+II deficiency during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to increased disease incidence and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the inflammatory response of macrophages and T cells...

  9. Astrocytes and microglia express inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hardin-Pouzet, H; Verge, G

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), may play a role in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We show upregulation of iNOS mRNA in CNS of SJL/J mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using antibodies against mouse i...

  10. Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockinger, J; Stridh, P; Beyeen, A D

    2010-01-01

    regulating neuroinflammation we used a rat model of MS, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and carried out a linkage analysis in an advanced intercross line (AIL). We thereby redefine the Eae18b locus to a 0.88 Mb region, including a cluster...

  11. The effect of gonadectomy on the clinical course of chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trooster, WJ; Teelken, AW; Gerrits, PO; Lijnema, TH; Loof, JG; Minderhoud, JM; Nieuwenhuis, P

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Upon immunization with guinea pig spinal cord under a low dose of Cyclosporin A, male Lewis rats develop a severe chronic (relapsing) course of EAE (CR-EAE). By contrast,

  12. Transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with guinea pig peritoneal exudate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, B F; Kies, M W; Alvord, E C

    1979-02-09

    Incubation with specific antigen, myelin basic protein, greatly enhances the ability of guinea pig peritoneal exudate cells to transfer experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Reproducibly successful transfers are obtained with 10(7) cells. With this relatively small number of cells, in vitro studies to determine the immunologic mechanisms involved in the disease process are now possible.

  13. The role of perivascular and meningeal macrophages in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polfliet, Machteld M. J.; van de Veerdonk, F.; Döpp, Ed A.; van Kesteren-Hendrikx, Esther M. L.; van Rooijen, Nico; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2002-01-01

    The perivascular (PVM) and meningeal (MM) macrophages constitute a major population of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate a possible role of PVM and MM during CNS inflammation, we have analysed PVM and MM during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an

  14. Oxidative Injury and Iron Redistribution Are Pathological Hallmarks of Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Jordon; Bauer, Jan; Campbell, Graham R.; Mahad, Don J.; van Driel, Nikki; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; 't Hart, Bert A.; Lassmann, Hans; Laman, Jon D.; van Horssen, Jack; Kap, Yolanda S.

    Oxidative damage and iron redistribution are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), but these aspects are not entirely replicated in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. Here, we report that oxidative burst and injury as well as

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  17. FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE DURING VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to select using cluster analysis and comparatively characterize immune disorders types in acute and chronic viral infections. Patients with acute and chronic viral infections (n = 896 were examined: 77 patients with acute viral hepatitis B, 94 — chronic viral hepatitis B, 119 — chronic hepatitis C, 531 — recurrent herpes, 75 — human papillomavirus infection. Healthy persons (n = 466 were examined as control. The research of blood lymphocyte phenotype was performed by flow cytometry. Four-color immunophenotyping were used in the following panels: Т-lymphocytes (CD3+CD19–CD16/56–CD45+, Т-helpers (CD3+CD4+CD45+, cytotoxic Т-cells (CD3+CD8+CD45+, NKcells (CD3–CD16/56+CD45+, B-lymphocytes (CD3–CD19+CD16/56+CD45+. Absolute values were obtained on a dualplatform technology using the results of haematological analysis. The immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by ELISA. The clustering was performed by a single linkage method. The number of clusters was determined on the basis of calculating the values of the Euclidean distance between the mean group values. It was found that the parameters, characterizing the functional state of the various parts of the immune system in acute and chronic viral infections, considerable diversity values. Custer analysis allows to allocate 6 immunotypes defined different states of innate and adaptive immunity: characterized by activation of the innate (increasing the number of neutrophils and NK-cells and adaptive immunity humoral response (increasing the concentration of IgG, characterized by hyperreaction of adaptive immunity (a significant increase in the concentration of IgG, discoordinated (multidirectional changes in the values of immunological parameters, immunodeficiency and unresponsiveness (did not differ from the control parameters immunotypes. It is proved that in patients with viral infections most often determined by the

  18. Molecular and pathological insights into Chlamydia pecorum-associated sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis (SBE) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelocnik, Martina; Forshaw, David; Cotter, Jennifer; Roberts, Danny; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2014-05-29

    Despite its global recognition as a ruminant pathogen, cases of Chlamydia pecorum infection in Australian livestock are poorly documented. In this report, a C. pecorum specific Multi Locus Sequence Analysis scheme was used to characterise the C. pecorum strains implicated in two cases of sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis confirmed by necropsy, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. This report provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of mixed infections of C. pecorum strains in Australian cattle. Affected animals were two markedly depressed, dehydrated and blind calves, 12 and 16 weeks old. The calves were euthanized and necropsied. In one calf, a severe fibrinous polyserositis was noted with excess joint fluid in all joints whereas in the other, no significant lesions were seen. No gross abnormalities were noted in the brain of either calf. Histopathological lesions seen in both calves included: multifocal, severe, subacute meningoencephalitis with vasculitis, fibrinocellular thrombosis and malacia; diffuse, mild, acute interstitial pneumonia; and diffuse, subacute epicarditis, severe in the calf with gross serositis. Immunohistochemical labelling of chlamydial antigen in brain, spleen and lung from the two affected calves and brain from two archived cases, localised the antigen to the cytoplasm of endothelium, mesothelium and macrophages. C. pecorum specific qPCR, showed dissemination of the pathogen to multiple organs. Phylogenetic comparisons with other C. pecorum bovine strains from Australia, Europe and the USA revealed the presence of two genetically distinct sequence types (ST). The predominant ST detected in the brain, heart, lung and liver of both calves was identical to the C. pecorum ST previously described in cases of SBE. A second ST detected in an ileal tissue sample from one of the calves, clustered with previously typed faecal bovine isolates. This report provides the first data to suggest that identical C. pecorum STs may be

  19. DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment: Viral load is insufficient with few exceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    In DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment, viral load is insufficient, and requires other viral markers for treatment of hepatitis B patients as in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, end-stage renal disease on dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. There are exceptions to this rule: a residual level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA at 24 wk predicts beneficial outcome and reduced resistance at 1 year. The genotypic viral resistance to antiviral agents and occu...

  20. The psychological impact of dependency in adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley Mai; Christopher, Gary; Jenkinson, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis can limit functional capacity, producing various degrees of disability and psychological distress. Semi-structured interviews explored the experiences of adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis being physically dependent on other people for help in daily life, and whether physical dependency affects their psychological well-being. Thematic analysis generated six themes: loss of independence and self-identity, an invisible illness, anxieties of today and the future, catch-22, internalised anger, and acceptance of the condition. The findings provide insight into the psychological impact of dependency. Implications for intervention include better education relating to chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis for family members, carers, and friends; ways to communicate their needs to others who may not understand chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis; and awareness that acceptance of the condition could improve psychological well-being.

  1. Time-course expression of CNS inflammatory, neurodegenerative tissue repair markers and metallothioneins during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Penkowa, M; Demestre, M

    2005-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by CNS inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. The inflammatory response occurring within the CNS leads to glial activation, dysfunction and death, as well...

  2. Bee Venom Acupuncture Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Upregulating Regulatory T Cells and Suppressing Th1 and Th17 Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Jang, Minhee; Choi, Jonghee; Lee, Gihyun; Min, Hyun Jung; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-In; Jee, Youngheun; Chae, Younbyoung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sung Joong; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The protective and therapeutic mechanism of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in neurodegenerative disorders is not clear. We investigated whether treatment with BVA (0.25 and 0.8 mg/kg) at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoints, located lateral from the anterior border of the tibia, has a beneficial effect in a myelin basic protein (MBP)(68-82)-induced acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. Pretreatment (every 3 days from 1 h before immunization) with BVA was more effective than posttreatment (daily after immunization) with BVA with respect to clinical signs (neurological impairment and loss of body weight) of acute EAE rats. Treatment with BVA at the ST36 acupoint in normal rats did not induce the clinical signs. Pretreatment with BVA suppressed demyelination, glial activation, expression of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β], chemokines [RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α], and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65 and phospho-IκBα) signaling pathways in the spinal cord of acute EAE rats. Pretreatment with BVA decreased the number of CD4(+), CD4(+)/IFN-γ(+), and CD4(+)/IL-17(+) T cells, but increased the number of CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes of acute EAE rats. Treatment with BVA at six placebo acupoints (SP9, GB39, and four non-acupoints) did not have a positive effect in acute EAE rats. Interestingly, onset and posttreatment with BVA at the ST36 acupoint markedly attenuated neurological impairment in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)(35-55)-induced chronic EAE mice compared to treatment with BVA at six placebo acupoints. Our findings strongly suggest that treatment with BVA with ST36 acupoint could delay or attenuate the development and progression of EAE by upregulating regulatory T cells and

  3. Evolução e característica de lactantes com bronquiolite viral aguda submetidos à ventilação mecânica em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica brasileira Outcome and characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis submitted to mechanical ventilation in a Brazilian pediatric intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Umpierre Bueno; Jefferson Pedro Piva; Pedro Celiny Ramos Garcia; Patrícia Miranda Lago; Paulo Roberto Einloft

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e a evolução de lactantes com bronquiolite aguda submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido entre março 2004 e setembro 2006 (três invernos consecutivos), recrutando todos os lactantes (menos de 12 meses de idade) com diagnóstico de bronquiolite viral aguda e submetidos à ventilação mecânica em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, brasileira, ligada a uma universidade. Os parâmetros de ventilação mecânica adotados no 1°, 2°...

  4. Genetic associations with viral respiratory illnesses and asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loisel, D A; Du, G; Ahluwalia, T S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections can cause acute wheezing illnesses in children and exacerbations of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify variation in genes with known antiviral and pro-inflammatory functions to identify specific associations with more severe viral respiratory illness...

  5. Early Fluid Overload Prolongs Mechanical Ventilation in Children With Viral-Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingelse, Sarah A.; Wiegers, Hanke M. G.; Calis, Job C.; van Woensel, Job B.; Bem, Reinout A.

    2017-01-01

    Viral-lower respiratory tract disease is common in young children worldwide and is associated with high morbidity. Acute respiratory failure due to viral-lower respiratory tract disease necessitates PICU admission for mechanical ventilation. In critically ill patients in PICU settings, early fluid

  6. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  7. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  8. Hepatitis viral C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la infección en la madre o el niño. El tratamiento actual no ofrece la certeza de cura, dependiendo del genotipo viral, y presenta efectos adversos que pueden ser severos. La cirrosis descompensada causa la mayoría de muertes relacionadas con esta infección; algunos de estos pacientes desarrollan carcinoma hepatocelular. La reproducción viral causa partículas virales diferentes del virus original, característica que ha impedido el desarrollo de una vacuna. Actualmente, la prevención consiste en evitar el contacto con sangre infectada. Este artículo revisa la infección con el virus de la hepatitis C, incluyendo los últimos progresos en tratamiento. Es necesario educar a la comunidad acerca de los efectos de este virus en la salud pública.

  9. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  10. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning are suspected when two or more family members present with vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Acute gastroenteritis com- monly occurs because of viral, bacterial, and protozoan organisms. Acute gastroenteritis runs a fulminant course in the immunocompromised patients ...

  11. IGG Subclass and Isotype Specific Immunoglobulin Responses to Lassa Fever and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis: Natural Infection and Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-30

    virus utilizing guinea pig fetal heart cell culture, has proved to be efficacious (providing long term immunity) and relatively safe for immunizing horses... ENCEPHALOMYELITIS : NATURAL INFECTION AND IMMUNIZATION PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Renata J. Engler, LTC, MC CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Uniformed Services...Virus (C-84). J INFECT DIS 1979; 140(5): 708-715. 5. Cole FE, May SW, Eddy GA: Inactivated Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine prepared from

  12. Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and transmission. Any hamster that survived 21 d af- guinea pigs (Davis et al. 1991). ter being fed upon by a mosquito with a dissem- Serial 10-fold...AD-A259 565 Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) S1 ls from...Gentilly strain of Ae. albopictus after ingestion of 1 0o. PFU of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (combined data from two infectious feeding

  13. Long-term poor rapport, lack of spontaneity and passive social withdrawal related to acute post-infectious encephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atsurou; Miyachi, Nobuhiro; Miura, Toshiyasu; Suzuki, Masako; Watanabe, Norio; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy is a neurological syndrome that sometimes develops following common viral or bacterial infections. The most common form is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalitis. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is another type of severe autoimmune disorder, characterized by seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric symptoms. In general, the prognosis and long-term outcomes of both ADEM and anti-NMDAR encephalitis are favorable. Most patients show complete, albeit slow recovery over a period of one to 2 years. There are few reports of patients with these disorders showing long-term residual psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of a 16-year-old Japanese male who suffered from acute post-infectious encephalitis. The patient followed an atypical recovery course, in that he showed poor rapport, lack of spontaneity and passive social withdrawal for more than 2 years after the initial symptoms. While treatment with small doses of antipsychotic drugs at the hospital had no effect on the symptoms, the patient recovered gradually over a prolonged period of five or so years. This case report suggests that a type of acute post-infectious encephalitis with demyelinating features, possibly ADEM or anti-NMDAR encephalitis, or an overlap between the two, can cause a prodrome of behavioral changes and long-term residual psychiatric symptoms for many months, although it is eventually associated with a good prognosis.

  14. The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuner, Donalyn; Gromeier, Matthias; Davies, Monique V.; Dorner, Andrew J.; Song Benbo; Patel, Rupali V.; Wimmer, Eckard J.; McLendon, Roger E.; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2003-01-01

    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of viral infections and cell growth. We have studied the role of PKR in viral infection in mice that are defective in the PKR signaling pathway. Transgenic mice were derived that constitutively express a trans-dominant-negative kinase-defective mutant PKR under control of the β-actin promoter. The trans-dominant-negative PKR mutant expressing transgenic mice do not have a detectable phenotype, similar to observations with PKR knock-out mice. The requirement for PKR in viral pathogenesis was studied by intracerebral infection of mice with a mouse-adapted poliovirus. Histopathological analysis revealed diffuse encephalomyelitis with severe inflammatory lesions throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in infected wild-type mice. In contrast, histopathological evaluation of virus-injected trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic mice as well as PKR knock-out mice yielded no signs of tissue damage associated with inflammatory host responses. However, the virus did replicate in both models of PKR-deficient mice at a level equal to that observed in wild-type infected mice. Although the results indicate a clear difference in susceptibility to poliovirus-induced encephalitis, this difference manifests clinically as a slight delay in fatal neuropathy in trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic and PKR knock-out animals. Our observations support the finding that viral-induced PKR activation may play a significant role in pathogenesis by mediating the host response to viral CNS infection. They support PKR to be an effective target to control tissue damage due to deleterious host responses to viral infection

  15. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  16. Mechanism of Innate Resistance to Viral Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    40% of spleen cells from He or RV mice. RAMB was cytotoxic only in the presence of C’ ( guinea pig ). Spleen cells were counhed after treatment and... encephalomyelitis . By day 12 1 of 4 mice given 2x10" SC and 3 of 4 mice given 1x0 8 SC also had encephalitis or myelitis. In each case where...nonsuppura- tive encephalomyelitis . Neuronal necrosis was prominent in hippo- campus and frontal cortex. HAI antibody titers during early stages of

  17. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I

    1996-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disease with sparse demyelination. However, inbred DA rats develop a demyelinating, prolonged and relapsing encephalomyelitis after immunization with rat spinal cord in incomplete Freund's adjuvant...

  18. Why myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) may kill you: disorders in the inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways may explain cardiovascular disorders in ME/CFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Twisk, Frank Nm

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that disorders in inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways and a lowered antioxidant status are important pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Important precipitating and perpetuating factors for ME/CFS are (amongst others) bacterial and viral infections; bacterial translocation due to an increased gut permeability; and psychological stress. Recently, Jason et al (2006) reported that the mean age of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome dying from heart failure, i.e. 58.7 years, is significantly lower than the age of those dying from heart failure in the general US population, i.e. 83.1 years. These findings implicate that ME/CFS is a risk factor to cardio-vascular disorder. This review demonstrates that disorders in various IO&NS pathways provide explanations for the earlier mortality due to cardiovascular disorders in ME/CFS. These pathways are: a) chronic low grade inflammation with extended production of nuclear factor kappa B and COX-2 and increased levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha; b) increased O&NS with increased peroxide levels, and phospholipid oxidation including oxidative damage to phosphatidylinositol; c) decreased levels of specific antioxidants, i.e. coenzyme Q10, zinc and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate; d) bacterial translocation as a result of leaky gut; e) decreased omega-3 polyunsatutared fatty acids (PUFAs), and increased omega-6 PUFA and saturated fatty acid levels; and f) the presence of viral and bacterial infections and psychological stressors. The mechanisms whereby each of these factors may contribute towards cardio-vascular disorder in ME/CFS are discussed. ME/CFS is a multisystemic metabolic-inflammatory disorder. The aberrations in IO&NS pathways may increase the risk for cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Complement and Viral Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoermer, Kristina A.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The complement system functions as an immune surveillance system that rapidly responds to infection. Activation of the complement system by specific recognition pathways triggers a protease cascade, generating cleavage products that function to eliminate pathogens, regulate inflammatory responses, and shape adaptive immune responses. However, when dysregulated, these powerful functions can become destructive and the complement system has been implicated as a pathogenic effector in numerous diseases, including infectious diseases. This review highlights recent discoveries that have identified critical roles for the complement system in the pathogenesis of viral infection. PMID:21292294

  20. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  1. In Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Infiltrating Macrophages Are Immune Activated, Whereas Microglia Remain Immune Suppressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainchtein, I. D.; Vinet, J.; Brouwer, N.; Brendecke, S.; Biagini, G.; Biber, K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Eggen, B. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of

  2. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: glycine and NMDA receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M R; Irani, S R; Leite, M I; Nithi, K; Vincent, A; Ansorge, O

    2011-08-02

    The syndrome of progressive encephalopathy with limb rigidity has been historically termed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) or stiff-person syndrome plus. The case is presented of a previously healthy 28-year-old man with a rapidly fatal form of PERM developing over 2 months. Serum antibodies to both NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and glycine receptors (GlyR) were detected postmortem, and examination of the brain confirmed an autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with particular involvement of hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje cells and relative sparing of the neocortex. No evidence for an underlying systemic neoplasm was found. This case displayed not only the clinical features of PERM, previously associated with GlyR antibodies, but also some of the features associated with NMDAR antibodies. This unusual combination of antibodies may be responsible for the particularly progressive course and sudden death.

  3. [An Adult Case of Enterovirus D68 Encephalomyelitis Presenting as Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy and Dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusabe, Yuta; Takeshima, Akari; Seino, Azusa; Nishida, Mana; Takahashi, Mami; Yamada, Shota; Shimbo, Junsuke; Sato, Aki; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Igarashi, Shuichi

    2017-08-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with bilateral facial nerve paralysis, dysphagia, and muscle weakness in the neck and trunk following fever, headache and throat pain. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense lesions in the tegmentum of the brain stem and the ventral region of the superior cervical cord. Based on the characteristic findings on the brain MRI, we diagnosed the patient with enteroviral encephalomyelitis. Steroid therapy was administered; however, his bilateral facial nerve paralysis and dysphagia were refractory to this therapy. Subsequently, enterovirus D68 was detected in the serum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. At that time, an outbreak of enteroviral D68 infection was reported in Japan. Finally, we diagnosed encephalomyelitis caused by enteroviral D68 infection. Characteristic MRI findings were very useful in narrowing down the differential diagnosis in this patient. (Received March 3, 2017; Accepted April 20, 2017; Published August 1, 2017).

  4. Serological characteristics of affected cattle during an outbreak of bovine enzootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-01-01

    During an outbreak of bovine enzootic encephalomyelitis caused by the Akabane virus (AKAV) in 2010, 210 serum samples were collected from the affected cattle, and serological investigations for the AKAV were performed using a serum neutralization test (SNT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seropositive rates for SNT and ELISA were 90.0 and 85.2 %, respectively. The titers of SNT (log2) against the AKAV were higher than 4.0 in the highly affected cattle (80.0 %). This finding indicates that most affected cattle were infected with the AKAV and that strong immune responses against this virus were elicited in affected cattle. The strong immune response to the AKAV in cattle may provide insight into the occurrence of bovine encephalomyelitis caused by the AKAV.

  5. Distinct Immune Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Mice during Neurovirulent Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsar, Kirsten A; Baxter, Victoria K; Abraham, Rachy; Nelson, Ashley; Griffin, Diane E

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to alphavirus encephalomyelitis is dependent on a variety of factors, including the genetic background of the host. Neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) causes uniformly fatal disease in adult C57BL/6 (B6) mice, but adult BALB/c (Bc) mice recover from infection. In B6 mice, fatal encephalomyelitis is immune mediated rather than a direct result of virus infection. To identify the immunological determinants of host susceptibility to fatal NSV-induced encephalomyelitis, we compared virus titers and immune responses in adult B6 and Bc mice infected intranasally with NSV. B6 mice had higher levels of virus replication, higher levels of type I interferon (IFN), and slower virus clearance than did Bc mice. B6 mice had more neuronal apoptosis, more severe neurologic disease, and higher mortality than Bc mice. B6 mice had more infiltration of inflammatory cells and higher levels of IL1b, IL-6, TNFa, Csf2, and CCL2 mRNAs and interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ, and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) protein in brains than Bc mice. However, Bc mice had more brain antibody at day 7 and a higher percentage of CD4(+) T cells. CD4(+) T cells in the brains of Bc mice included fewer Th17 cells and more regulatory T cells (Tregs) producing IL-10 than B6 mice, accompanied by higher levels of Il2 and Cxcl10 mRNAs. In the absence of IL-10, resistant Bc mice became susceptible to fatal encephalomyelitis after NSV infection. These studies demonstrate the importance of the immune response and its regulation in determining host survival during alphavirus encephalomyelitis. Mosquito-borne alphavirus infections are an important cause of encephalomyelitis in humans. The severity of disease is dependent both on the strain of the virus and on the age and genetic background of the host. A neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus causes immune-mediated fatal encephalomyelitis in adult C57BL/6 mice but not in BALB/c mice. To determine the host-dependent immunological

  6. [Na+-K+-ATPase activity in guinea pig brain synaptosomal fraction in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, J V; Terlets'ka, J T; Metal'nykova, N P; Berezhnyj, H A

    1977-01-01

    The activity Na+, K+-ATPase of the guinea pig brain synaptosome fraction as well as the effect on this enzyme of the blood serum obtained in guinea pigs in different periods after sensibilization of the animals with the basic encephalitogenic protein were studied in dynamics of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis development. The Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the guinea pig brain synaptosome fraction is more than 50% lower from the seventh day of sensibilization up to development of characteristic symptoms of the disease in animals. The guinea pigs blood serum obtained on the seventh and tenth days of sensibilization has an inhibitory effect of the same order on the studied activity of the normal guinea pig brain synaptosome fraction. At the later stages of the disease development and with the presence of characteristic symptoms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the animals the blood serum has no similar effect.

  7. TLR3 signaling is either protective or pathogenic for the development of Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease depending on the time of viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young-Hee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3-mediated signaling plays an important role in the induction of innate cytokine responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV infection. In addition, cytokine levels produced after TMEV infection are significantly higher in the glial cells of susceptible SJL mice compared to those of resistant C57BL/6 mice. However, it is not known whether TLR3-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of demyelinating disease. Methods SJL/J and B6;129S-Tlr3tm1Flv/J (TLR3KO-B6 mice, and TLR3KO-SJL mice that TLR3KO-B6 mice were backcrossed to SJL/J mice for 6 generations were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (2 × 105 PFU with or without treatment with 50 μg of poly IC. Cytokine production and immune responses in the CNS and periphery of infected mice were analyzed. Results We investigated the role of TLR3-mediated signaling in the protection and pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. TLR3KO-B6 mice did not develop demyelinating disease although they displayed elevated viral loads in the CNS. However, TLR3KO-SJL mice displayed increased viral loads and cellular infiltration in the CNS, accompanied by exacerbated development of demyelinating disease, compared to the normal littermate mice. Late, but not early, anti-viral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the CNS were compromised in TLR3KO-SJL mice. However, activation of TLR3 with poly IC prior to viral infection also exacerbated disease development, whereas such activation after viral infection restrained disease development. Activation of TLR3 signaling prior to viral infection hindered the induction of protective IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. In contrast, activation of these signals after viral infection improved the induction of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, poly IC-pretreated mice displayed elevated PDL-1 and

  8. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel José

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  9. HMGB1 expression patterns during the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Chen, Huoying; Dai, Jiapei; Zou, Huijuan; Gao, Ming; Wu, Hao; Ming, Bingxia; Lai, Lin; Xiao, Yifan; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Yong; Gong, Feili; Zheng, Fang

    2015-03-15

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone chromatin associated protein, plays different roles according to the expression pattern such as the amount, cell location and sub-cellular location. It has been recently demonstrated that the systemic HMGB1 is associated with autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, the dynamic change of HMGB1 expression pattern in spinal cords that may be involved in the progression of disease is not fully understood. In this study, the amount, cell location and subcellular location of HMGB1 in adult mice spinal cords during various stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are investigated. HMGB1 is expressed in the nuclei of spinal cord resident cells such as some astrocytes, microglia and a few neurons in normal situation. During EAE progression, the total and extracellular HMGB1 in the spinal cord are increased, more HMGB1 positive astrocytes and microglia are observed, and the intra-neurons HMGB1 in the ventral horn and around the central canal localize majorly in the cytoplasm accompanied by the increasing extracellular HMGB1. Blockade of HMGB1 in central nervous system (CNS) locally attenuates the severity of EAE significantly. Our findings indicate that the HMGB1 expression pattern in the spinal cord is associated with the progression of EAE. HMGB1 may be a potential target for autoimmune encephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis in human) therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Housebound versus nonhousebound patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Tricia; Brown, Abigail; Sunnquist, Madison; Jantke, Rachel; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome who are confined to their homes due to severe symptomatology. The existing literature fails to address differences between this group, and less severe, nonhousebound patient populations. Participants completed the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire, a measure of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome symptomology, and the SF-36, a measure of health impact on physical/mental functioning. ANOVAs and, where appropriate, MANCOVAS were used to compare housebound and nonhousebound patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome across areas of functioning, symptomatology, and illness onset characteristics. Findings indicated that the housebound group represented one quarter of the sample, and were significantly more impaired with regards to physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, fatigue, postexertional malaise, sleep, pain, neurocognitive, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune functioning compared to individuals who were not housebound. Findings indicated that housebound patients have more impairment on functional and symptom outcomes compared to those who were not housebound. Understanding the differences between housebound and not housebound groups holds implications for physicians and researchers as they develop interventions intended for patients who are most severely affected by this chronic illness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: the first pediatric case with glycine receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Joana; Leite, M Isabel; Coutinho, Ester; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Santos, Manuela A; Carrilho, Inês; Vincent, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus is characterized by rigidity, painful muscle spasms, hyperekplexia, and brainstem signs. Recently, glycine receptor alpha 1 antibodies have been described in adult patients with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. We describe a pediatric case. A 14-month-old child developed startle-induced episodes of generalized rigidity and myoclonus, axial hyperextension, and trismus, without impairment of consciousness. Episodes occurred during wakefulness and sleep, lasted seconds, and were accompanied by moaning, tachypnea, and oxygen desaturation. Imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, endocrine, metabolic, and genetic screening findings were normal or negative. She was treated with intravenous steroids and immunoglobulins with resolution of symptoms, but she relapsed weeks later. At this time, episodes were more severe. Glycine receptor alpha 1 antibodies were found in serum (titer of 1:200, later 1:320) and cerebrospinal fluid (titer of 1:2). Treatment was restarted with intravenous steroids and immunoglobulins, with major improvement, and she began treatment with oral steroids. She had 4 milder relapses, with improvement after treatment adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus associated with glycine receptor alpha 1 antibodies, a potentially severe but treatable antibody-mediated neurological disorder.

  12. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  13. The role of kinin receptors in preventing neuroinflammation and its clinical severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C Dutra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating and neuroinflammatory disease of the human central nervous system (CNS. The expression of kinins is increased in MS patients, but the underlying mechanisms by which the kinin receptor regulates MS development have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG(35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Here, we report that blockade of the B(1R in the induction phase of EAE markedly suppressed its progression by interfering with the onset of the immune response. Furthermore, B(1R antagonist suppressed the production/expression of antigen-specific T(H1 and T(H17 cytokines and transcription factors, both in the periphery and in the CNS. In the chronic phase of EAE, the blockade of B(1R consistently impaired the clinical progression of EAE. Conversely, administration of the B(1R agonist in the acute phase of EAE suppressed disease progression and inhibited the increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and any further CNS inflammation. Of note, blockade of the B(2R only showed a moderate impact on all of the studied parameters of EAE progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that kinin receptors, mainly the B(1R subtype, play a dual role in EAE progression depending on the phase of treatment through the lymphocytes and glial cell-dependent pathways.

  14. Anti-S-nitrosocysteine antibodies are a predictive marker for demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implications for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullerne, Anne I; Rodriguez, Jose J; Touil, Tarik; Brochet, Bruno; Schmidt, Stephan; Abrous, Nora D; Le Moal, Michel; Pua, Jeffrey R; Jensen, Mark A; Mayo, Willy; Arnason, Barry G W; Petry, Klaus G

    2002-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammation within the CNS. This inflammatory response is associated with production of nitric oxide (NO) and NO-related species that nitrosylate thiols. We postulated that MS patients would exhibit an antibody (Ab) response directed against proteins containing S-nitrosocysteine (SNO-cysteine) and showed that anti-NO-cysteine Abs of the IgM isotype are in fact present in the sera of some MS patients (Boullerne et al., 1995). We report here the presence of a seemingly identical Ab response directed against SNO-cysteine in an acute model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in Lewis rats with the 68-84 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein (MBP(68-84)). Serum levels of anti-SNO-cysteine Abs peaked 1 week before the onset of clinical signs and well before the appearance of anti-MBP(68-84) Abs. The anti-SNO-cysteine Ab peak titer correlated with the extent of subsequent CNS demyelination, suggesting a link between Ab level and CNS lesion formation. In relapsing-remitting MS patients, we found elevated anti-SNO-cysteine Ab at times of relapse and normal values in most patients judged to be in remission. Two-thirds of patients with secondary progressive MS had elevated anti-SNO-cysteine Ab levels, including those receiving interferon beta-1b. The data show that a rise in circulating anti-SNO-cysteine Ab levels precedes onset of EAE. Anti-SNO-cysteine Abs are also elevated at times of MS attacks and in progressive disease, suggesting a possible role for these Abs, measurable in blood, as a biological marker for clinical activity.

  15. Anti-viral CD8 T cells and the cytokines that they love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Maureen A.; Kahan, Shannon M.; Zajac, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections cause an immunological disequilibrium that provokes CD8 T cell responses. These cells play critical roles in purging acute infections, limiting persistent infections, and conferring life-long protective immunity. At every stage of the response anti-viral CD8 T cells are sensitive to signals from cytokines. Initially cytokines operate as immunological warning signs that inform of the presence of an infection, and also influence the developmental choices of the responding cells. Later during the course of the response other sets of cytokines support the survival and maintenance of the differentiated anti-viral CD8 T cells. Although many cytokines promote virus-specific CD8 T cells, other cytokines can suppress their activities and thus favor viral persistence. In this review we discuss how select cytokines act to regulate anti-viral CD8 T cells throughout the response and influence the outcome of viral infections. PMID:23217625

  16. PD-L1 is increased in the spinal cord and infiltrating lymphocytes in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Jiang, Jiandong; Fu, Bing; Chen, Jiechun; Xue, Qun; Dong, Wanli; Gu, Yanzheng; Tang, Lingtao; Xue, Limin; Fang, Qi; Wang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Xueguang

    2013-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is a mouse model of human multiple sclerosis with similar pathology and pathogenesis. Th1 cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. This study determined the potential effect of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced by injecting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, complete Freund's adjuvant and Bordetella pertussis toxin into C57BL/6J mice. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice developed disease and showed inflammatory changes in the central nervous system by hematoxylin-eosin staining of spinal cord pathological sections, demyelination by Luxol fast-blue staining and clinical manifestations. The expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 in mice was detected by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 in the spinal cord and splenocytes of mice was significantly increased compared with normal mice. Our findings suggest the involvement of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and suggest this should be studied in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25206651

  17. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  18. Arg deficiency does not influence the course of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Freja Aksel; Hulst, Camilla; Bäckström, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhibition of Abl kinases has an ameliorating effect on the rodent model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and arrests lymphocyte activation. The family of Abl kinases consists of the Abl1/Abl and Abl2/Arg tyrosine kinases. While the Abl kinase has been...... extensively studied in immune activation, roles for Arg are incompletely characterized. To investigate the role for Arg in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we studied disease development in Arg-/- mice. Methods: Arg-/- and Arg+/+ mice were generated from breeding of Arg+/- mice on the C57BL/6...... skewing in the frequency of born Arg-/- mice. Loss of Arg function did not affect development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but reduced the number of splenic B-cells in Arg-/- mice following immunization with MOG peptide. Conclusions: Development of MOG-induced experimental autoimmune...

  19. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised April 2018 What's the relationship between drug use and viral infections? People who engage in ...

  20. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on ... demographic characteristics and laboratory tests – Enhanced Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Sites*, 2014 Category MA No. % MI No. % NYS† ...

  1. Avian encephalomyelitis virus nonstructural protein 2C induces apoptosis by activating cytochrome c/caspase-9 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jue; Wei Ting; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 2C is highly conserved among picornaviruses and plays an important role in the assembly of mature virions, membrane association, and viral RNA synthesis. The investigation of other potential functions of nonstructural protein 2C from avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) resulted in identifying for the first time that the protein 2C is involved in apoptosis. Expression of the protein 2C on chick embryo brain (CEB) and Cos-7 cells produced TUNEL-positive cells characterized by a cleavage of cellular DNA and the formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies. Analysis of the protein 2C showed that the N-terminal domain containing 35 amino acid (aa) residues (between 46 and 80 aa) is associated with apoptotic function. Transfection of the deletion mutant lacking this 35 aa's into CEB and Cos-7 cells failed to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, the protein 2C induced apoptosis in the transfected CEB and Cos-7 cells through activation of caspase-9 rather than caspase-8 followed by activation of caspase-3 pathway. Analysis of the Western blots of caspase-3 and caspase-9 showed the characteristics of active caspase-3 and -9 in the 2C-transfected CEB and Cos-7 cells as seen in the AEV-infected CEB cells while they were in the form of procaspase-3 and procaspase-9 in the 2C mutant-transfected cells. To further elucidate the mechanism of the 2C-induced apoptosis, the 2C-transfected CEB and Cos-7 cells were fractionated into mitochondria and cytosol and subjected for Western blotting, located cytochrome c in the mitochondria as well as the cytosol fractions, while it was only sequestered in the mitochondrial fraction in the mutant 2C-transfected cells. The protein 2C was located in the mitochondria and cytosol of the transfected/infected CEB and transfected Cos-7 cells, but the mutant lost its ability to localize to the mitochondria. Altogether, the results demonstrate that the protein 2C localized to the mitochondria of the transfected cells triggered

  2. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses; Miguel T. Vila; Pedro Barbero Aguirre; José F. Montoya

    2013-01-01

    La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Much...

  3. Enfermedades virales emergentes y reemergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño; Ana Isabel Toro Montoya

    1996-01-01

    Los virus no son una excepción al principio de que toda forma de vida de hoyes el producto de la evolución de información gen ética preexistente. Tradicionalmente se ha reconocido que ta expresión clínica de las enfermedades virales cambia con el tiempo; molecularmente se ha demostrado que esos cambios fenotípicos son el producto de variaciones en el genoma viral. La tasa de cambio
    gen ético y fenotípico no es la misma en todos los agentes virales y ello está determinado, principal...

  4. Improved detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine lymphoid cell lines using PrimeFlow RNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...

  5. Antiviral lectins: Selective inhibitors of viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carter A; Ramessar, Koreen; O'Keefe, Barry R

    2017-06-01

    Many natural lectins have been reported to have antiviral activity. As some of these have been put forward as potential development candidates for preventing or treating viral infections, we have set out in this review to survey the literature on antiviral lectins. The review groups lectins by structural class and class of source organism we also detail their carbohydrate specificity and their reported antiviral activities. The review concludes with a brief discussion of several of the pertinent hurdles that heterologous proteins must clear to be useful clinical candidates and cites examples where such studies have been reported for antiviral lectins. Though the clearest path currently being followed is the use of antiviral lectins as anti-HIV microbicides via topical mucosal administration, some investigators have also found systemic efficacy against acute infections following subcutaneous administration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Kinetics of expression of costimulatory molecules and their ligands in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Navikas, V; Schaub, M

    1998-01-01

    We studied the kinetics of expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). During the natural course of EAE, B7-2 expression in the CNS correlated with clinical signs, while B7-1 was exclu......We studied the kinetics of expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). During the natural course of EAE, B7-2 expression in the CNS correlated with clinical signs, while B7...

  7. Selective enrichment of Th1 CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells in autoimmune infiltrates in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Zeine, R; Girard, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cytokine effector status of CD4+ T cells from lymph nodes (LN) and the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice immunized with autoantigen in adjuvant for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was compared. CD4+ T cells were FACS sorted based on the levels of expres......The cytokine effector status of CD4+ T cells from lymph nodes (LN) and the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice immunized with autoantigen in adjuvant for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was compared. CD4+ T cells were FACS sorted based on the levels...

  8. [Encephalomyelitis caused by enterovirus type 71 in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, G A; Lukashev, A N; Khudiakova, L V; Mustafina, A N; Lashkevich, V A

    2010-01-01

    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Europe (Bulgaria, 1975; Hungary, 1978) and South-East Asia (Malaysia, 1977; Taiwan, 1998; Singapore, 2000-2007; People's Republic of China, 2007-2009). HFMD afflicted children less than 10 years of age and resulted in recovery within 3-7 days. In a small percentage of infants (aged 6 months to 3 years), HFMD was accompanied by acute neurological complications, such as serous meningitis, poliomyelitis-like syndrome (extremity pareses and muscle paralyses); brain stem encephalitis (myoclonic jerks, tremor, lethargy, swallowing and speech disorders, cardiopulmonary failure, pulmonary edema, shock, coma, death). X-ray study revealed pulmonary hemorrhages and edema. Mortality rates were as high as 82-94% in severe cases. Incapacitating motor, respiratory, and psychoemotional disorders persisted in some surviving children. Pathomorphologically, patients with central nervous system disease and cardiopulmonary failure were found to have acute inflammation of the grey matter of the brain stem (medulla oblongata, pons) and spinal cord. Inflammatory changes in the lung and myocardial tissues were negligible or absent. Fatal pulmonary edema was neurogenic in origin and resulted from damage to the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the brain stem.

  9. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  10. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Cepko, Constance L.; Born, Richard T.; Beier, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist’s toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and

  11. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  12. CXCR3-Dependent Plasma Blast Migration to the Central Nervous System during Viral Encephalomyelitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Cristina P.; Kapil, Parul; Hinton, David R.; Hindinger, Claudia; Nutt, Stephen L.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Phares, Timothy W.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin in cerebral spinal fluid and antibody secreting cells (ASC) within the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma are common hallmarks of microbial infections and autoimmune disorders. However, the signals directing ASC migration into the inflamed CNS are poorly characterized. This study demonstrates that CXCR3 mediates CNS accumulation of ASC during neurotropic coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis. Expansion of CXCR3-expressing ASC in draining lymph nodes prior to accumulation within the CNS was consistent with their recruitment by sustained expression of CXCR3 ligands during viral persistence. Both total and virus-specific ASC were reduced greater than 80% in the CNS of infected CXCR3−/− mice. Similar T cell CNS recruitment and local T cell-dependent antiviral activity further indicated that the ASC migration defect was T cell independent. Furthermore, in contrast to the reduction of ASC in the CNS, neither virus-specific ASC trafficking to bone marrow nor antiviral serum antibody was reduced relative to levels in control mice. Impaired ASC recruitment into the CNS of infected CXCR3−/− mice coincided with elevated levels of persisting viral RNA, sustained infectious virus, increased clinical disease, and mortality. These results demonstrate that CXCR3 ligands are indispensable for recruitment of activated ASC into the inflamed CNS and highlight their local protective role during persistent infection. PMID:21507985

  13. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Bartee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a ceil type, tissue or species — collectively known as viral tropism — is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly the interferons and tumour necrosis factor, in dictating viral tropism and how these cytokine pathways can be exploited therapeutically for cancer treatment and to better counter future threats from emerging zoonotic pathogens. PMID:19696766

  14. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  15. Detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness and determination of different socio demographic factors as important cause of the disease in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalaxmi Biswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper an attempt has been made to analysis the status of acute respiratory tract infection among children in India. In the present study we aimed to present first time the detection of viruses, bacteria and mix infection of viruses and bacteria in hospitalized children with ARI and also to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status of parent in two divergent geographical settings of Odisha. Hospitalized children with ARI aged <5 were recruited from July 2014 to June 2015. Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngial swabs were collected for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bacteria were isolated by routine culture methods. Bivitiate analysis including chi square was used as test of significance. The analysis revealed 150 (56% were detected with ≥1 bacteria, 40 (15% with ≥ 1virus, 22 (8.2% with ≥ 2 bacteria and 20 (7-4% with both bacteria and virus. Most frequently detected pathogens were Klebsiella pneumonae (18.3%, Sptrptococcus pneumonae (12.7%, Parainfluenza A (36.6% and Influenza- A18 (30%. Incidences of pathogens were detected more among children <1 year, Gender discrimination in the form of dietary neglect of the female children has also been noted mostly in case of tribal patients. The present study had identified low socioeconomic status, poor housing conditions, illiterate mothers, birth weight, tobacco smoking families and nutritional status as important determinants for ARI. Interventions to improve these modifiable risk factors can significantly reduce the ARI burden among children especially in tribal population.

  16. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute..., purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage...

  17. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  18. Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus in an Intellectually Disabled Patient Mimicking Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 32-year-old male with profound mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder who had presented with seizures, rigidity and elevated creatine kinase and was initially diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS. The patient subsequently had a complicated clinical course, developing refractory status epilepticus, which lead to the eventual diagnosis of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM. We discuss the clinical similarities and differences between NMS and PERM, and highlight the need to consider alternative diagnoses when the clinical picture of NMS is atypical, particularly in this patient group where the history and clinical examination may be challenging.

  19. Generating a Social Movement Online Community through an Online Discourse: The Case of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Olaug S; Grue, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Online communities, created and sustained by people sharing and discussing texts on the internet, play an increasingly important role in social health movements. In this essay, we explore a collective mobilization in miniature through an in-depth analysis of two satiric texts from an online community for people with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). By blending a sociological analysis with a rhetorical exploration of these texts, our aim is to grasp the discursive generation of a social movement online community set up by sufferers themselves to negotiate and contest the dominating biomedical perception of their condition.

  20. Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockinger, J; Stridh, P; Beyeen, A D

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system, causing inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. A limited number of genetic risk factors for MS have been identified, but the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown. For the identification of genes...... regulating neuroinflammation we used a rat model of MS, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and carried out a linkage analysis in an advanced intercross line (AIL). We thereby redefine the Eae18b locus to a 0.88 Mb region, including a cluster...