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Sample records for acute severe asthma

  1. Acute severe childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and children must know exactly what to do when an acute attack occurs, and when to seek medical attention. This is very important if the child is using a home nebuliser as many parents continue to administer dose after dose of bronchodilator medication that does not provide oxygen. Failure to improve after a single dose of ...

  2. Corticosteroids in acute severe asthma: effectiveness of low doses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, S D; Mitchell, C. A.; Armstrong, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the need for corticosteroids in acute severe asthma is well established the appropriate dose is not known. METHODS: The response to intravenous hydrocortisone 50 mg (low dose), 100 mg (medium dose), and 500 mg (high dose), administered every six hours for 48 hours and followed by oral prednisone, was compared in patients with acute asthma in a double blind randomised study. After initial emergency treatment with bronchodilators subjects received oral theophylline or intra...

  3. Emergency presentation and management of acute severe asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øymar Knut

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute severe asthma is one of the most common medical emergency situations in childhood, and physicians caring for acutely ill children are regularly faced with this condition. In this article we present a summary of the pathophysiology as well as guidelines for the treatment of acute severe asthma in children. The cornerstones of the management of acute asthma in children are rapid administration of oxygen, inhalations with bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled bronchodilators may include selective b2-agonists, adrenaline and anticholinergics. Additional treatment in selected cases may involve intravenous administration of theophylline, b2-agonists and magnesium sulphate. Both non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be options when medical treatment fails to prevent respiratory failure. It is important that relevant treatment algorithms exist, applicable to all levels of the treatment chain and reflecting local considerations and circumstances.

  4. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A.; Fain, Sean B.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A.; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Busse, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure–function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies. PMID:22095547

  6. Association of obesity and severity of acute asthma exacerbations in Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Michelle Joy B; Gomez, Maria Celeste; Yao, Carlo Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) may be a risk factor for the development and severity of asthma. However, the effect of obesity on asthma exacerbations is unclear. To examine the association of obesity and the severity of acute asthma exacerbations. A retrospective cohort of children aged 5 to 18 years who were seen in the emergency department and admitted for acute asthma exacerbation from 2009 to 2011 was reviewed. Weight and height data to compute the BMI were taken from the medical record review. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI-for-age growth charts for boys and girls aged 2 to 20 years were used to classify underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Severity of asthma exacerbations into mild, moderate, or severe was determined using criteria by the Global Initiative for Asthma 2010. The χ(2) test of association or the Fisher exact probability test for small samples was used to determine the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma exacerbations. Of the 303 cases reviewed, most were boys with a mean (SD) age of 10 (3.8) years. The prevalence of overweight and obese children admitted for acute asthma exacerbation was 21% and 28%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the severity of asthma exacerbations, with 82.9% of the nonobese group and 86.8% of the overweight-obese group having moderate-to-severe exacerbation (likelihood ratio, 0.879; 95% CI, 0.42-0.41; P = .88). Our findings suggest that the severity of acute asthma exacerbations was not affected by increased BMI. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of nebulized epinephrine and terbutaline in patients with acute severe asthma: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoun, Michèle; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Doré, Pierre; Rouffineau, Jean; Godet, Cendrine; Robert, René

    2004-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of nebulized adrenaline and terbutaline in acute severe asthma. Prospective pilot randomized double-blind cross-over trial. Emergency department of a university hospital. Thirty-eight patients admitted with severe acute asthma. Each patient received adrenaline (3 mg) and terbutaline (5 mg) nebulizations over 20 min in randomized order. Additional treatment comprised methylprednisolone, intravenous hydration, and oxygen. The efficacy and tolerability of the two drugs were evaluated at the end of each nebulization as well as potential synergistic effects. Eighteen patients received adrenaline first, and 20 received terbutaline first. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) improved significantly in both groups after the first nebulization (from 157 L/min +/- 111 L/min to 199 L/min +/- 134 L/min with adrenaline, P nebulization. No adverse effects were observed. Adrenaline nebulization was as effective and as well tolerated as terbutaline in acute severe asthma. No synergistic effect between terbutaline and adrenaline was observed.

  8. Acute asthma severity identification of expert system flow in emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Nurul Atikah Mohd; Ahmad, Norazura; Ahmad, Nazihah; Desa, Wan Laailatul Hanim Mat

    2017-11-01

    Integration of computerized system in healthcare management help in smoothening the documentation of patient records, highly accesses of knowledge and clinical practices guideline, and advice on decision making. Exploit the advancement of artificial intelligent such as fuzzy logic and rule-based reasoning may improve the management of emergency department in terms of uncertainty condition and medical practices adherence towards clinical guideline. This paper presenting details of the emergency department flow for acute asthma severity identification with the embedding of acute asthma severity identification expert system (AASIES). Currently, AASIES is still in preliminary stage of system validation. However, the implementation of AASIES in asthma bay management is hope can reduce the usage of paper for manual documentation and be a pioneer for the development of a more complex decision support system to smoothen the ED management and more systematic.

  9. Pear shaped spacer nebuhaler compared with nebulised solution for terbutaline administration in acute severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, C R; O'Donnell, T V

    1985-10-09

    The efficacy of terbutaline (1 mg) administered from pressurised aerosol through a nebuhaler was compared in a crossover trial with terbutaline (4 mg) as nebulised solution in 20 patients with acute severe asthma. The improvements following the nebuhaler, which did not require an electrical or pressure source, were worthwhile. In contrast to earlier experience in stable asthma, the increases in FEV1 (p = 0.04) and VC (p = 0.05) at 20 minutes were greater following the higher dose as nebuliser solution than following nebuhaler use. Nebuhaler technique requires individual attention since some patients with the severe asthma breathed out through the nebuhaler reservoir due to failure to close the one-way valve.

  10. Costs and effectiveness of spacer versus nebulizer in young children with moderate and severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversha, A M; Campanella, S G; Aickin, R P; Asher, M I

    2000-04-01

    To compare the costs and effectiveness of albuterol by metered dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer versus nebulizer in young children with moderate and severe acute asthma. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department at a children's hospital. The participants were children 1 to 4 years of age with moderate to severe acute asthma. Patients assigned to the spacer group received albuterol (600 microg) by MDI by spacer (AeroChamber) followed by placebo by nebulizer (n = 30). The nebulizer group received placebo MDI by spacer followed by 2.5 mg albuterol by nebulizer (n = 30). Treatments were repeated at 20-minute intervals until the patient was judged to need no further doses of bronchodilator, or a total of 6 treatments. Clinical score, heart rate, respiratory rate, auscultatory findings, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline, after each treatment, and 60 minutes after the last treatment. Baseline characteristics and asthma severity were similar for the treatment groups. The spacer was as effective as the nebulizer for clinical score, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation but produced a greater reduction in wheezing (P =.03). Heart rate increased to a greater degree in the nebulizer group (11.0/min vs 0.17/min for spacer, P vs 60% in the nebulizer group, P =.04, adjusted for sex). No differences were seen in rates of tremor or hyperactivity. The mean cost of each emergency department presentation was NZ$825 for the spacer group and NZ$1282 for the nebulizer group (P =.03); 86% of children and 85% of parents preferred the spacer. The MDI and spacer combination was a cost-effective alternative to a nebulizer in the delivery of albuterol to young children with moderate and severe acute asthma.

  11. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  13. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  14. [Metered-dose inhaler with spacer vs nebulization for severe and potentially severe acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannier, N; Timsit, S; Cojocaru, B; Leis, A; Wille, C; Garel, D; Bocquet, N; Chéron, G

    2006-03-01

    To compare treatment with beta 2 agonist delivered either by a spacer device or a nebulizer in children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma. In this randomized trial, children 4 to 15 years, cared for in the emergency department for severe or potentially severe acute asthma, received 6 times either nebulizations of salbutamol (0.15mg/kg) or puffs of a beta 2 agonist (salbutamol 50 microg/kg or terbutaline 125 microg/kg). The primary outcome was the hospitalization rate. Secondary outcomes included percentage improvement in Bishop score, in PEF, SaO(2), respiratory and heart rates, side effects, length of stay and relapses 10 and 30 days later. Groups did not differ for baseline data. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (nebulizer N=40, spacer N=39) for baseline characteristics before emergency department consultation except for length of acute asthma in the spacer group. Clinical evolution after treatment, hospitalization rate, relapse were similar including the more severe subgroup. In the spacer group, tachycardia was less frequent (Pvs 108+/-13 min, Pmetered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma in the emergency department. Time gained can be used for asthma education.

  15. Patient and physician evaluation of the severity of acute asthma exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of patients not experienced in the use of peak expiratory flow meters to assess the severity of their asthma exacerbations and compared it to the assessment of experienced clinicians. We also evaluated which data of physical examination and medical history are used by physicians to subjectively evaluate the severity of asthma attacks. Fifty-seven adult patients (15 men and 42 women, with a mean (± SD age of 37.3 ± 14.5 years and 24.0 ± 17.9 years of asthma symptoms with asthma exacerbations were evaluated in a University Hospital Emergency Department. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the severity of the asthma attack using a linear scale. Patient score, physician score and forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1 were correlated with history and physical examination variables, and were also considered as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models. FEV1 correlated significantly with the physician score (rho = 0.42, P = 0.001, but not with patient score (rho = 0.03; P = 0.77. Use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity were the explanatory variables in the FEV1 regression model and were also present in the physician score model. We conclude that physicians evaluate asthma exacerbation severity better than patients and that physician's scoring of asthma severity correlated significantly with objective measures of airway obstruction (FEV1. Some variables (the use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity persisted as explanatory variables in physician score and FEV1 regression models, and should be emphasized in medical schools and emergency settings.

  16. Patient and physician evaluation of the severity of acute asthma exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Atta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of patients not experienced in the use of peak expiratory flow meters to assess the severity of their asthma exacerbations and compared it to the assessment of experienced clinicians. We also evaluated which data of physical examination and medical history are used by physicians to subjectively evaluate the severity of asthma attacks. Fifty-seven adult patients (15 men and 42 women, with a mean (± SD age of 37.3 ± 14.5 years and 24.0 ± 17.9 years of asthma symptoms with asthma exacerbations were evaluated in a University Hospital Emergency Department. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the severity of the asthma attack using a linear scale. Patient score, physician score and forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1 were correlated with history and physical examination variables, and were also considered as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models. FEV1 correlated significantly with the physician score (rho = 0.42, P = 0.001, but not with patient score (rho = 0.03; P = 0.77. Use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity were the explanatory variables in the FEV1 regression model and were also present in the physician score model. We conclude that physicians evaluate asthma exacerbation severity better than patients and that physician's scoring of asthma severity correlated significantly with objective measures of airway obstruction (FEV1. Some variables (the use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity persisted as explanatory variables in physician score and FEV1 regression models, and should be emphasized in medical schools and emergency settings.

  17. Spirometry and PRAM severity score changes during pediatric acute asthma exacerbation treatment in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Donald H; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Hartert, Tina V

    2013-03-01

    To examine the time-dependent changes of spirometry (percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [%FEV(1)]) and the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) during the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations. We conducted a prospective study of participants aged 5-17 years with acute asthma exacerbations managed in a Pediatric Emergency Department. %FEV(1) and the PRAM were recorded pretreatment and at 2 and 4 hours. We examined responses at 2 and 4 hours following treatment and assessed whether the changes of %FEV(1) and of the PRAM differed during the first and the second 2-hour treatment periods. Among 503 participants, median [interquartile range, IQR] age was 8.8 [6.9, 11.4], 61% were male, and 63% were African-American. There was significant mean change of %FEV(1) during the first (+15.4%; 95% CI 13.7 to 17.1; p spirometry does not. This suggests that spirometry and clinical severity scores do not have similar trajectories and that clinical severity scores may be more sensitive to clinical change of acute asthma severity than spirometry.

  18. [Obesity and the severity of asthma crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussoffara, L; Boudawara, N; Touil, I; El Fahem, N; Sakka, M; Knani, J

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammatory processes, which could influence the airway inflammation that is found in patients with asthma. Obesity may thus have a role in the development of asthma. However, the role of obesity in the severity of acute asthma has not been well described. We performed a retrospective study, which included 77 patients hospitalized for acute asthma. Two groups of patients were formed according to their body mass index (BMI): group 1 consisting of 59 patients with a BMI inferior to 30 kg/m(2) and group 2 consisting of 18 patients with a BMI superior or equal to 30 kg/m(2). These two groups were compared according to demographic factors, clinical features and the spirometric severity of asthma. The mean age was 43 ± 17.4 years with a sex-ratio 0.57 (28 men/49 women). Thirty-one percent of these patients had a severe asthma attack requiring hospitalization in intensive care in four patients with the use of mechanical ventilation in two patients. The comparison between obese and non-obese patients did not show a significant difference in the severity of asthma. Although a contribution of obesity to the manifestation and severity of asthma is commonly recognized, the present data to not confirm the impact of obesity on the severity of acute attacks. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Dexmedetomidine facilitates induction of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yasushi; Kido, Takanori; Semba, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has been reported to be effective for acute respiratory failure in patients with severe asthma. Although NPPV requires less sedative than invasive mechanical ventilation, agitated patients with severe asthma should be given the minimum sedation necessary to facilitate the induction of NPPV. Two asthmatic patients (a 65-year-old man and a 32-year-old woman) separately presented to the intensive care unit with exacerbating respiratory failure. We initiated NPPV using bilevel positive airway pressure (PAP) ventilation. The ventilation was initially set as an inspiratory PAP of 15 cmH(2)O and an expiratory PAP of 4 cmH2O. Because they seemed too agitated to tolerate the mask ventilation, dexmedetomidine was administered intravenously, at 3 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] for 10 min, followed by a continuous infusion at 0.2-0.6 mircog x kg(-1) x h(-1) [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED]. One hour after the institution of NPPV, the patients were well cooperative with the mask ventilation and the respiratory symptoms had markedly improved. While the Ramsay sedation scale was maintained at 2 or 3 during the continuous dexmedetomidine infusion, we successfully weaned the patients from NPPV by reducing the inspiratory PAP. Dexmedetomidine helped the agitated patients cooperate with mask ventilation without inducing respiratory depression. We conclude that dexmedetomidine may be a valuable sedative to facilitate the induction of NPPV.

  20. Treatment of acute severe asthma with inhaled albuterol delivered via jet nebulizer, metered dose inhaler with spacer, or dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, A C; Schottlender, J; Lombardi, D; Molfino, N A

    1997-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of dry powder formulations in the ambulatory setting, there is a paucity of information on the efficacy of this therapeutic modality to treat acute severe asthma. In addition, studies that compared wet nebulization vs metered dose inhalers formulated with chlorofluorocarbon (CFCMDI) attached to holding chambers have yielded discrepant results. Thus, it is unclear which of the three delivery systems would elicit a superior bronchodilator response, particularly in patients with life-threatening asthma. In a prospective, randomized open design, we studied the response to inhaled albuterol (salbutamol) in 27 adult asthmatics presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an FEV1 nebulizer (Puritan-Bennett Raindrop; Lawrenceville, Ga) impelled with oxygen (O2) at 8 L/min; group B, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.15) L, received albuterol, 400 microg, via a CFCMDI attached to a 145-mL valved aerosol holding chamber (Aerochamber; Trudell Medical; London, ON); and group C, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.17) L, received albuterol powder, 400 microg, by another means (Rotahaler; Glaxo; Research Triangle Park, NC). All groups received the respective treatments on arrival in the ED, every 30 min during the first 2 h, and then hourly until the sixth hour. Clinical parameters and FEV1 were recorded on ED admission and 15 min after each dose of albuterol. At the time of ED admission, all patients also received continuous O2 and one dose of I.V. steroids (dexamethasone, 8 mg). The total dose of inhaled albuterol administered during the 6-h treatment was 45 mg of nebulized solution in group A and 3,600 microg of albuterol aerosol and dry powder in groups B and C, respectively. No significant differences were found in the population demographics, baseline FEV1, and arterial blood gas values on air. FEV1 improved significantly in all patients after the 6 h of treatment. The 6-h area under the curve FEV1 improved similarly with the three delivery methods despite

  1. Management of an acute asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Amanda

    2005-07-01

    Despite a more proactive approach to asthma management, which includes an increased range of drugs, wide dissemination of guidelines, and the use of asthma action plans, an acute severe asthma attack is one of the most common emergencies a general practitioner will encounter. This article discusses the management of an acute asthma attack in the general practice setting. Assessment of severity is vital and can be ascertained quite quickly with a brief history and rapid physical examination. It is important to remember that wheeze is an unreliable indicator of the severity of attack and may be absent in severe asthma. The cornerstones of treatment are oxygen and inhaled beta 2 agonists. Beta 2 agonists can be given continuously in severe life threatening asthma. Early administration of systemic steroids is important. Patients discharged to home after treatment of an asthma attack require close follow up including beta 2 agonists for symptom control, review of medications including a consideration of a short course of oral steroids, a written asthma action plan and detailed advice about what to do in case of deterioration in the next 24 hours. They should be reviewed in 24-48 hours.

  2. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  3. Guidelines for severe uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Serrano, Carolina; Melero Moreno, Carlos; Almonacid Sánchez, Carlos; Perpiñá Tordera, Miguel; Picado Valles, César; Martínez Moragón, Eva; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Soto Campos, José Gregorio; Urrutia Landa, Isabel; García Hernández, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication, 9 years ago, of the latest SEPAR (Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery) Guidelines on Difficult-to-Control Asthma (DCA), much progress has been made in the understanding of asthmatic disease. These new data need to be reviewed, analyzed and incorporated into the guidelines according to their level of evidence and recommendation. Recently, consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) addressing this issue have been published. In these guidelines, specific mention will be made of what the previous DCA guidelines defined as "true difficult-to-control asthma". This is asthma that remains uncontrolled after diagnosis and a systematic evaluation to rule out factors unrelated to the disease itself that lead to poor control ("false difficult-to-control asthma"), and despite an appropriate treatment strategy (Spanish Guidelines for the Management of Asthma [GEMA] steps 5 and 6): severe uncontrolled asthma. In this respect, the guidelines propose a revised definition, an attempt to classify the various manifestations of this type of asthma, a proposal for a stepwise diagnostic procedure, and phenotype-targeted treatment. A specific section has also been included on DCA in childhood, aimed at assisting healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Allergy in Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The classification of asthma to identify forms which have different contributing causes is useful for all cases in which the disease requires regular treatment, but it is essential for the management of severe asthma. Many forms of the disease can occur, and complex mixtures are not uncommon; here we artificially separated the cases into four groups: i) inhalant allergy, ii) fungal sensitization with or without colonization (including ABPA); iii) severe sinusitis with or without aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and iv) non-inflammatory cases, including those associated with severe obesity and vocal cord dysfunction (VCD). The reason for focusing on these groups is because they illustrate how much the specific management depends upon correct classification. Inhalant allergy can present as chronically severe asthma. However, severe attacks of asthma requiring hospital admission can occur in cases which are generally only mild or moderate. The best recognized and probably the most common cause of these acute episodes is acute infection with a rhinovirus. Recent evidence suggests that high titer IgE, particularly to dust mite, correlates to exacerbations of asthma related to rhinovirus infection. While it is well recognized that the fungus Aspergillus can colonize the lungs and cause severe disease, it is less well recognized that those cases may not have full criteria for diagnosis of ABPA or may involve other fungi. Identifying fungal cases is important, because treatment with imidazole antifungals can provide significant benefit. Taken together, specific treatment using allergen avoidance, immunotherapy, anti-IgE, or antifungal treatment is an important part of the successful management of severe asthma, and each of these requires correctly identifying specific sensitization. PMID:22515388

  5. Acute asthma exacerbations: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. All patient with asthma are at risk of having exacerbations characterized by worsening symptoms, airflow obstruction, and an increased requirement for rescue bronchodilators. Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. The goals of treatment are correction of severe hypoxemia, rapid reversal of airflow obstruction, and reduction of the risk of relapse.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i3.932

  6. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  7. Genetics of Asthma Susceptibility and Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Li, Xingnan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    This article summarizes major findings in genome-wide studies of asthma susceptibility and severity. Two large meta-analyses identified four chromosomal regions which were consistently associated with development of asthma. Genes that are associated with asthma subphenotypes such as lung function,

  8. Insights into disease severity in adult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated and associated several new insights into disease severity in adult asthma. First we identified several clusters of adult-onset asthma and in addition to this we showed that severe disease is mostly associated with persistent eosinophilia and ENT disease. Also we showed

  9. Phenotype-Driven Therapeutics in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opina, Maria Theresa D; Moore, Wendy C

    2017-02-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of asthma treatment using a step-up approach with incremental dosing and additional controller medications in order to achieve symptom control and prevent exacerbations. While most patients respond well to this treatment approach, some patients remain refractory despite high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting β-agonist. The problem lies in the heterogeneity of severe asthma, which is further supported by the emergence of severe asthma phenotypes. This heterogeneity contributes to the variability in treatment response. Randomized controlled trials involving add-on therapies in poorly controlled asthma have challenged the idea of a "one size fits all" approach targeting specific phenotypes in their subject selection. This review discusses severe asthma phenotypes from unbiased clustering approaches and the most recent scientific evidence on novel treatments to provide a guide in personalizing severe asthma treatment.

  10. Intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate versus standard therapy for severe acute asthma (3Mg trial): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Cohen, Judith; Bradburn, Mike; Gray, Alasdair; Benger, Jonathan; Coats, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) might improve respiratory function in patients with acute asthma. We aimed to determine whether intravenous or nebulised MgSO(4) improve symptoms of breathlessness and reduce the need for hospital admission in adults with severe acute asthma. In our double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled adults (aged ≥16 years) with severe acute asthma at emergency departments of 34 hospitals in the UK. We excluded patients with life-threatening features or contraindication to study drugs. We used a central randomisation system to allocate participants to intravenous MgSO(4) (2 g in 20 min) or nebulised MgSO(4) (three 500 mg doses in 1 h) alongside standard therapy including salbutamol, or placebo control plus standard therapy alone. We assessed two primary outcome measures in all eligible participants who started treatment, according to assigned treatment group: the proportion of patients admitted to hospital within 7 days and breathlessness measured on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) in the 2 h after initiation of treatment. We adjusted for multiple testing using Simes's method. The trial stopped before recruitment was completed because funding expired. This study is registered, number ISRCTN04417063. Between July 30, 2008, and June 30, 2012, we recruited 1109 (92%) of 1200 patients proposed by the power calculation. 261 (79%) of 332 patients allocated nebulised MgSO(4) were admitted to hospital before 7 days, as were 285 (72%) of 394 patients allocated intravenous MgSO(4) and 281 (78%) of 358 controls. Breathlessness was assessed in 296 (89%) patients allocated nebulised MgSO(4), 357 (91%) patients allocated intravenous MgSO(4), and 323 (90%) controls. Rates of hospital admission did not differ between patients treated with either form of MgSO(4) compared with controls or between those treated with nebulised MgSO(4) and intravenous MgSO(4). Change in VAS breathlessness did not

  11. Inhaled furosemide is not effective in severe asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Muraoka, Norimasa; Ogawa, Masakatsu; Matsui, Mika; Tajima, Seiki; Miike, Teruhisa

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not inhaled furosemide has any therapeutic benefit in acute asthma in children. Aerosolized furosemide (20 mg) was administered four times per day together with conventional asthma therapy for 2 days in five children with severe asthma exacerbation. The oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter (SpO2), and the peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before and 10 min after furosemide inhalation. Although a little improvement in SpO2 ...

  12. Role of antileukotrienes in acute asthma exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute asthma exacerbations are one of the most frequent reasons to visit the emergency department or general practitioner. Although current standard treatments for acute asthma – including supplemental oxygen, short-acting β2-agonists, systemic corticosteroids and anticholinergics – are quite effective in most patients, they are inadequate for rapid and sustained improvement in a significant proportion. The antileukotrienes, a relatively new class of drugs, have a role in the treatment of chronic asthma. Their relatively rapid onset of action after endovenous or oral administration and their additive effect to β2-agonists led to the hypothesis that they might be of benefit in acute asthma. This review examines the efficacy of antileukotrienes in the treatment of acute asthma.

  13. Development and pretesting of an electronic learning module to train health care professionals on the use of the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure to assess acute asthma severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Anab R; McKinney, Martha L; Gouin, Serge; Blais, Jean-Guy; Pusic, MV; Ducharme, Francine M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severity-specific guidelines based on the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM), a validated clinical score, reduce pediatric asthma hospitalization rates. OBJECTIVE: To develop, pretest the educational value of and revise an electronic learning module to train health care professionals on the use of the PRAM. METHODS: The respiratory efforts of 32 children with acute asthma were videotaped and pulmonary auscultation was recorded. A pilot module, composed of a tutorial and 18 clinical cases, was developed in French and English. Health care professionals completed the module and provided feedback. The performance of participants, case quality and difficulty, and learning curve were assessed using the Rasch test; quantitative and qualitative feedback served to revise the module. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (19 physicians, 22 nurses, four respiratory therapists and 27 health care trainees) with a balanced distribution across self-declared expertise (26% beginner, 35% competent and 39% expert) were included. The accuracy of experts was superior to beginners (OR 1.79, 1.15 and 2.79, respectively). Overall performance significantly improved between the first and latter half of cases (P<0.001). Participants assessed the module to be clear (96%), relevant (98%), realistic (94%) and useful (99%) to learn the PRAM. The qualitative/quantitative analysis led to the deletion of three cases, modification of remaining cases to further enhance quality and reordering within three levels of difficulty. DISCUSSION: Using rigorous educational methods, an electronic module was developed to teach health care professionals on use of the PRAM score. Using the back-translation technique, both French and English versions were developed and validated simultaneously. The pilot module comprised a tutorial and three case-scenario sections, and was tested on a target audience of physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists and medical trainees. CONCLUSION: The final

  14. Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K. C. L.; Hedlin, G.; Bush, A.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary assessm......Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi...... in our current knowledge in all these steps are highlighted, and recommendations for current clinical practice and future research are made. The lack of good data and the heterogeneity of problematic severe asthma still limit our ability to optimise the management on an individual basis in this small...

  15. Vitamin D deficiency and severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Audrey H; Mahboub, Bassam; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D has received tremendous amount of attention recently due to the ever-increasing reports of association between vitamin D deficiency and a wide range of conditions, from cancer to fertility to longevity. The fascination of disease association with vitamin D deficiency comes from the relatively easy solution to overcome such a risk factor, that is, either by increase in sun exposure and/or diet supplementation. Many reviews have been written on a protective role of vitamin D in asthma and related morbidities; here, we will summarize the epidemiological evidence supporting a role of vitamin D against hallmark features of severe asthma, such as airway remodeling and asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, we discuss data from in vitro and in vivo studies which provide insights on the potential mechanisms of how vitamin D may protect against severe asthma pathogenesis and how vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of severe asthma. Approximately 5-15% of asthmatic individuals suffer from the more severe forms of disease in spite of aggressive therapies and they are more likely to have irreversible airflow obstruction associated with airway remodeling. At present drugs commonly used to control asthma symptoms, such as corticosteroids, do not significantly reverse or reduce remodeling in the airways. Hence, if vitamin D plays a protective role against the development of severe asthma, then the most effective therapy may simply be a healthy dose of sunshine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Children with problematic severe asthma: A biopsychosocial perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on problematic severe asthma in children and its treatment from a biopsychosocial perspective. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. In children with problematic severe asthma, asthma is not under control despite optimal medical treatment. Asthma control is the

  17. Determinants of asthma after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharier, Leonard B; Cohen, Rebecca; Schweiger, Toni; Yin-Declue, Huiquing; Christie, Chandrika; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Strunk, Robert C; Castro, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The development of asthma after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis has been demonstrated in case-control studies, although the determinants of post-RSV asthma remain undefined. We sought to evaluate the potential determinants of physician-diagnosed asthma after severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy. We enrolled 206 children during an initial episode of severe RSV bronchiolitis at 12 months of age or less in a prospective cohort study and followed these children for up to 6 years. In a subset of 81 children, we analyzed CCL5 (RANTES) mRNA expression in upper airway epithelial cells. Forty-eight percent of children had physician-diagnosed asthma before the seventh birthday. Independent determinants significantly associated with increased risk for physician-diagnosed asthma by the seventh birthday included maternal asthma (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7-15.9; P = .004), exposure to high levels of dog allergen (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7; P = .012), aeroallergen sensitivity at age 3 years (OR, 10.7; 95% CI, 2.1-55.0; P = .005), recurrent wheezing during the first 3 years of life (OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.2-43.3; P = .028), and CCL5 expression in nasal epithelia during acute RSV infection (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; P bronchiolitis have a subsequent asthma diagnosis. The presence of increased CCL5 levels in nasal epithelia at the time of bronchiolitis or the development of allergic sensitization by age 3 years are associated with increased likelihood of subsequent asthma. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Al-Ajmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, known asthmatic since seven years, developed severe bronchospasm in the preop-erative period. Bronchospasm remained unresponsive to the inhaled beta-agonist plus anticholinergic, IV ami-nophylline and hydrocortisone but responded quickly with magnesium sulfate® ( PSI, KSA infusion 1.25gm in 100ml normal saline over 20 minutes and another 1.25 gm over next 30 minutes as the initial infusion showed improvement in her clinical symptoms. Within half an hour of administering the 1st infusion of magnesium sulfate (1.25 gm the respiratory rate started reducing, rhonchi became less, SpO 2 came upto 92% and re-mained always above 90%. Encouraged by this result IV magnesium sulfate 2.5 gm in 500 ml normal saline was infused over next 24 hours along with alternate salbutamol and ipratropium nebulization every 6 hourly. With this treatment regimen the patient became asymptomatic within next 24 hours with normal clinical parameters and FEV 1 value. Hence it may be concluded that IV magnesium sulfate can be considered for patients with acute severe asthma who do not respond to standard therapeutic medications.

  19. Severe asthma: lessons learned from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Nizar N; Erzurum, Serpil C; Bleecker, Eugene R; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A A; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A; Fain, Sean B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaston, Benjamin M; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D; Meyers, Deborah A; Moore, Wendy C; Peters, Stephen P; Sorkness, Ronald L; Teague, W Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E; Busse, William W

    2012-02-15

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure-function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies.

  20. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower.

  1. Effect of asthma severity on symptom perception in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.B. Cabral

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual ability to perceive airway obstruction varies substantially. The factors influencing the perception of asthma are probably numerous and not well established in children. The present study was designed to examine the influence of asthma severity, use of preventive medication, age and gender on the association between respiratory symptoms (RS and peak expiratory flow (PEF rates in asthmatic children. We followed 92 asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, for five months. Symptom scores were recorded daily and PEF was measured twice a day. The correlations among variables at the within-person level over time were analyzed for each child and for the pooled data by multivariate analysis. After pooling the data, there was a significant (P<0.05 correlation between each symptom and PEF; 60% of the children were accurate perceivers (defined by a statistically significant correlation between symptoms and PEF across time for diurnal symptoms and 37% for nocturnal symptoms. The accuracy of perception was independent of asthma severity, age, gender or the use of preventive medication. Symptom perception is inaccurate in a substantial number of asthmatic children, independently of clinical severity, age, gender or use of preventive medication. It is not clear why some asthmatic patients are capable of accurately perceiving the severity of airway obstruction while others are not.

  2. Airway Microbiota in Severe Asthma and Relationship to Asthma Severity and Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhang

    Full Text Available The lower airways harbor a community of bacterial species which is altered in asthma.We examined whether the lower airway microbiota were related to measures of asthma severity.We prospectively recruited 26 severe asthma, 18 non-severe asthma and 12 healthy subjects. DNA was extracted from induced sputum and PCR amplification of the V3-V5 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was performed.We obtained 138,218 high quality sequences which were rarefied at 133 sequences/sample. Twenty OTUs had sequences ≥1% of total. There were marked differences in the distribution of Phyla between groups (P = 2.8x10-118. Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were reduced in non-severe and severe asthmatic groups. Proteobacteria were more common in non-severe asthmatics compared to controls (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.94-2.64 and Firmicutes were increased in severe asthmatics compared to controls (OR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.89-2.45. Streptococcal OTUs amongst the Firmicutes were associated with recent onset asthma, rhinosinusitis and sputum eosinophilia.Sputum microbiota in severe asthma differs from healthy controls and non-severe asthmatics, and is characterized by the presence of Streptococcus spp with eosinophilia. Whether these organisms are causative for the pathophysiology of asthma remains to be determined.

  3. Low magnesium concentration in erythrocytes of children with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mostafa; Pourpak, Zahra; Bavarian, Behrouz; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Zare, Ahad; Moin, Mostafa

    2006-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant intracellular cation and is involved in numerous physiological functions, including protein folding, intracellular signaling and enzyme catalysis. It has been shown that magnesium deficiency exacerbates pulmonary airways hyper reactivity. Several studies suggest that magnesium level has no effect on asthma but others had shown a contributory effect. Because of its intracellular abundance the aim of this study was to determine if there was any difference in plasma and intracellular Mg concentrations of children with acute asthma compared to non asthmatic children. Twenty nine patients with acute asthma aged 2 to11 years admitted to the emergency department of hospital and 37 non asthmatic children with the same age were included in our study. 0.5 mL of heparinized whole blood samples of patients who were meeting inclusion criteria at the onset of admission with bronchoconstriction and before using any medication was drawn and it was immediately sent to the laboratory. Plasma and erythrocytes were separated and stored at -20C and later their Mg levels were quantified with atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The average plasma and intracellular magnesium levels in patients were (0.79 +/- 0.098 mmol/L) and (1.17 +/- 0.27 mmol/L) respectively. Results of 37 non asthmatic persons [plasma (0.85 +/- 0.1 mmol/L ) and erythrocytes (1.33 +/- 0.21 mmol/L)] showed that there was no significant difference between plasma Mg levels in two groups (p 0.06) but intracellular magnesium level was significantly lower (p 0.03) in patients group. These results indicate that intracellular Mg level may be a more accurate method to assess Mg level in patients with asthma. Hence, determination of Mg concentration in erythrocytes may be used in evaluation of asthma pathophysiology. There are recommendations for using intravenous Mg sulfate in acute asthma, and this study supports the rational for using it in emergency departments for acute

  4. Severe asthma: emergency care patient driven solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karen; Corrigan, Chris; Punshon, Geoffrey; Leary, Alison

    2017-08-14

    Purpose Patients with severe asthma were choosing not to use the emergency department (ED) in extremis and were self-medicating when experiencing severe asthma, putting their lives at risk. This local issue reflected a nationwide situation. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the reasons behind patients' reluctance to attend ED and to consider practical solutions in a structured way. Design/methodology/approach Systems thinking (soft systems methodology) was used to examine the issues resulting in this reluctance to attend the ED. Once this tame (well-defined) problem was revealed, a potential solution was developed in co-production with patients. Findings Patients feared attending the ED and felt vulnerable while in the ED for several reasons. This appeared to be a well-defined and solvable problem. The solution proposed was an asthma patient passport (APP), which increased patient's confidence in their ability to communicate their needs while in severe distress. The APP decreases (from 12 to 5 steps) the work patients had to do to achieve care. The APP project is currently being evaluated. Practical implications The APP should be offered to all people with severe asthma. Originality/value By revisiting systems thinking and identifying problems, a solution was identified. Although methods such as soft systems methodology have limitations when used in wicked (difficult or impossible to resolve) problems, such methods still have merit in tame problems and were applicable in this case to fully understand the issues, and to design practical solutions.

  5. Benralizumab: a unique IL-5 inhibitor for severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan LD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laren D Tan,1 Jennifer M Bratt,2 Dorottya Godor,3 Samuel Louie,2 Nicholas J Kenyon2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3School of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: The presence of eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of chronic and acute inflammation in asthma. An estimated 5%–10% of the 300 million people worldwide who suffer from asthma have a severe form. Patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation represent approximately 40%–60% of this severe asthmatic population. This form of asthma is often uncontrolled, marked by refractoriness to standard therapy, and shows persistent airway eosinophilia despite glucocorticoid therapy. This paper reviews personalized novel therapies, more specifically benralizumab, a humanized anti-IL-5Rα antibody, while also being the first to provide an algorithm for potential candidates who may benefit from anti-IL-5Rα therapy. Keywords: asthma, eosinophils, asthma treatments, benralizumab, IL-5, IL-5Rα, MEDI-563

  6. "Association between Asthma Severity and Obesity in Two Asthma Clinics in Tehran "

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Tavasoli; Hassan Heidarnazhad; Anooshirvan Kazemnejad; Sara Miri

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of both obesity and asthma has increased in recent years. Thus we decided to investigate the relation between obesity and asthma severity. We undertook a cross-sectional study in outpatient asthma clinics of 2 tertiary hospitals in Tehran. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than 30. Asthma severity was defined by using the Guide for Asthma Management and Prevention 2004 guidelines, according to patients’ clinical and/or spirometerical parameters. Active cigare...

  7. Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean? Page Content Article Body After confirming an asthma diagnosis, your pediatrician will grade the severity of your child’s condition. This grading ...

  8. Acute exacerbation of asthma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with a worldwide prevalence ranging from 1% to 18%. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with acute asthma exacerbation admitted to Emergency Department. All patients with asthma are at risk of having exacerbations characterised by worsening symptoms, airflow obstruction, and an increased requirement for rescue bronchodilators. Patients should be evaluated and triaged quickly to assess the presence of exacerbations and the need for urgent intervention. The goals of treatment may be summarised as maintenance of adequate oxygen saturation with supplemental oxygen, relief of airway obstruction with repetitive administration of rapid-acting inhaled bronchodilators, and treatment of airway inflammation with systemic corticosteroids.

  9. Atopy, but not obesity is associated with asthma severity among children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kim D; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Balcer-Whaley, Susan; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of asthma in children. Atopic sensitization is a major risk factor for asthma including severe asthma in children. It is unclear if obesity is associated with worse asthma control or severity in children and how its effects compare to atopy. We sought to examine relationships of weight status and atopy to asthma control and severity among a population of predominantly low income, minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma. A cross-sectional analysis of 832 children and adolescents, age range 5-17 years, with persistent asthma was performed. Clinical assessments included asthma questionnaires of symptoms, asthma severity score, health care utilization and medication treatment step, lung function testing, and skin prick testing as well as measures of adiposity. Data were collected between December 2010 and August 2014 from Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD and Children's Hospital of Boston, MA. Obesity was not associated with worse asthma control or severity in this group of predominantly low income, minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma. However, a greater degree of atopy was associated with lower lung function, higher asthma severity score, and higher medication treatment step. Atopy may be a more important risk factor for asthma severity than obesity among low-income minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma living in Northeastern cities in the United States.

  10. Attendance for general practitioner asthma care by children with moderate to severe asthma in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Richards, Deborah; Mitchell, Ed; Gribben, Barry; Adair, Vivienne; Coster, Gregor; Hight, Makere

    2004-11-01

    Attendance for general practitioner (GP) care of childhood asthma varies widely in New Zealand (NZ). There is little current research to account for the variations, although groups such as Māori and Pacific peoples have traditionally faced barriers to accessing GP care. This paper aims to describe and account for attendance levels for GP asthma care among 6-9 year-olds with moderate to severe asthma in Auckland, NZ. During 2002, randomly selected schools identified all 6-9 year-olds with possible breathing problems. Completion of a questionnaire by each parent/guardian indicated which children had moderate to severe asthma, and what characteristics influenced their access to GP asthma care. A multilevel, negative binomial regression model (NBRM) was fitted to account for the number of reported GP visits for asthma, with adjustment for clustering within schools. Twenty-six schools (89.7 percent) identified 931 children with possible breathing problems. Useable questionnaires were returned to schools by 455 children (48.9 percent). Results indicated 209 children with moderate to severe asthma, almost one in every three reportedly making 5 or more GP visits for asthma in the previous year. Māori, Pacific and Asian children were disproportionately represented among these 'high attendees'. Low attendees (0-2 visits) were mainly NZ Europeans. The NBRM (n=155) showed that expected visits were increased by perceived need, ill-health, asthma severity and, in particular, Māori and Pacific child ethnicity. It may be that Māori and Pacific children no longer face significant barriers to accessing GP asthma care. However, more likely is that barriers apply only to accessing routine, preventative care, leading to poor asthma control, exacerbations requiring acute care, and paradoxically an increase in GP visits. That barriers may increase total numbers of visits challenges the assumption, for all health systems, that access can be defined in terms of barriers that must be

  11. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p < 0.001 for all). The MiA group showed higher scores for all of the PAQLQ components than did the MoA and SA groups. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower. PMID:26785958

  12. Survey of the management of acute asthma in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Widger, J

    2009-12-01

    Acute asthma is one of the most common reasons for children presenting to the emergency department. International guidelines for the management of acute paediatric asthma are widely available. In this study we examined how acute asthma in children is managed across hospitals in Ireland and compared Irish practice with standard international guidelines. We surveyed 54 paediatricians across 18 centres in Ireland. A total of 30 (55.5%) individual paediatricians across 17 (94%) centres replied. The majority of centres had a written protocol for the management of acute asthma. A large number of centres use MDI and spacer devices in acute management although doses used varied widely. Only 29% of centres had written asthma action plans available from the emergency department and 53% had plans available from the ward. Irish practice is largely inline with established guidelines. A national asthma strategy could further help to improve asthma care.

  13. Age-Specific Characteristics of Inpatients with Severe Asthma Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sekiya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The characteristics of inpatients with severe asthma vary depending on age. We need to establish countermeasures for asthma exacerbation according to the characteristics of patients depending on age.

  14. Perceived Stress, Severity of Asthma, and Quality of Life in Young Adults with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kimura

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: A major variable related to the disease-specific quality of life was perceived stress, followed by the severity of asthma. Stress management of patients with asthma may improve their quality of life.

  15. [Association between obesity and asthma severity in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaníz-Flores, Angélica; Canseco-Raymundo, María del Rosario; Granados-Gómez, Andrea; Becerril-Ángeles, Martín

    2013-01-01

    The association of prevalence of obesity and asthma has increased significantly, this phenomenon seems multifactorial. Obesity is considered a risk factor for asthma. It has been reported positive association between obesity and allergic asthma. In Mexico there is no conclusive data about this issue. The study was conducted in patients from 4 to 14 years of age, with allergic asthma. A history and physical examination and BMI estimation were performed, as well as the classification of asthma severity. We included 244 patients diagnosed with childhood allergic asthma, Fifty two patients (21.31%, OR 3.6) showed some degree of obesity (above the 85 percentile), 15.1% were male and 6% were female. Morbid obesity was found in 40 patients (16.3%). Our study found an increased prevalence of obesity in children with asthma, with a predominance in male gender, and showed a high association between the severity of asthma and increased BMI.

  16. Prognostic value of cluster analysis of severe asthma phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, Arnaud; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Varrin, Muriel; Marin, Grégory; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Paganin, Fabrice; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional severe asthma cluster analysis identified different phenotypes. We tested the hypothesis that these clusters will follow different courses. We aimed to identify which asthma outcomes are specific and coherently associated with these different phenotypes in a prospective longitudinal cohort. In a longitudinal cohort of 112 patients with severe asthma, the 5 Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) clusters were identified by means of algorithm application. Because patients of the present cohort all had severe asthma compared with the SARP cohort, homemade clusters were identified and also tested. At the subsequent visit, we investigated several outcomes related to asthma control at 1 year (6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ-6], lung function, and medication requirement) and then recorded the 3-year exacerbations rate and time to first exacerbation. The SARP algorithm discriminated the 5 clusters at entry for age, asthma duration, lung function, blood eosinophil measurement, ACQ-6 scores, and diabetes comorbidity. Four homemade clusters were mostly segregated by best ever achieved FEV1 values and discriminated the groups by a few clinical characteristics. Nonetheless, all these clusters shared similar asthma outcomes related to asthma control as follows. The ACQ-6 score did not change in any cluster. Exacerbation rate and time to first exacerbation were similar, as were treatment requirements. Severe asthma phenotypes identified by using a previously reported cluster analysis or newly homemade clusters do not behave differently concerning asthma control-related outcomes, which are used to assess the response to innovative therapies. This study demonstrates a potential limitation of the cluster analysis approach in the field of severe asthma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The potential role of vitamin D in the link between obesity and asthma severity/control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong; Bair-Merritt, Megan; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    Childhood obesity and asthma are major public health problems. Obesity is not only associated with increased risk of incident asthma, but it may worsen asthma severity/control. Although the mechanisms linking obesity with asthma expression have not been completely elucidated, evidence suggests that increased frequency of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and decreased corticosteroid responsiveness may help to explain how obesity worsens asthma expression. In addition, obese individuals have low vitamin D status, and emerging evidence suggests vitamin D affects risk of ARI and corticosteroid responsiveness in individuals with asthma. In this review, we summarize the association between obesity and asthma severity/control in children and discuss ARI and corticosteroid responsiveness as potential mediators in the obesity-asthma pathway. We also discuss the potential role of vitamin D, including a brief summary of recent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation.

  18. The relation of innate and adaptive immunity with viral-induced acute asthma attacks: Focusing on IP-10 and cathelicidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, T; Akyilmaz, E; Yildirim, D D; Batmaz, S B; Ulger, S T; Aslan, G; Kuyucu, S

    Despite growing evidence suggesting potential association between innate and adaptive immunity in viral-induced acute asthma, there is paucity of data in this area. This study aimed to investigate the association of innate and adaptive immunity with acute asthma attacks by analysing the role of IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D and cytokines. This prospective study included 33 patients with viral-induced acute asthma and 30 children with controlled asthma. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected for virus identification and asthma attack scores assessed in acute asthma group. Blood sampling for IP-10, TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D levels, and spirometric indices were employed. Serum IP-10 and cathelicidin levels of acute asthma group were significantly higher and vitamin D levels were lower than controlled asthma group (IP-10; p=0.006, cathelicidin; p=0.002, vitamin D; p, TLR2 (p=0.05) and spirometric indices (p=0.002) in all asthmatics and a significant positive correlation with parameters of asthma attack severity (p=0.03) in acute asthma group. Higher cathelicidin values showed significant positive relation to IP-10 (beta coefficient: 33, p=0.02). Serum IP-10 levels higher than 38.9pg/ml (sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 47%, p=0.002) were predictive of virus-induced asthma. Serum IP-10 and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly related to viral-asthma attacks (IP-10; aOR: 8.93, p=0.03 and vitamin D; aOR: 0.82, p=0.001). Innate immunity biomarkers such as serum IP-10 and cathelicidin can be used to predict viral-induced acute asthma. These biomarkers may provide potential new treatment targets for acute asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-morbidities in severe asthma: Clinical impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), bronchiectasis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and eosinophilic granulomatous with polyangiitis (EGPA). Furthermore, the review offers a summary of recommended diagnostic and management approaches for each co-morbidity. Finally, the review links co-morbid conditions to specific phenotypes of severe asthma, in order to guide the clinician on which co-morbidities to look for in specific patients. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. The level of diagnostic assessment in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bulow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Bodtger, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    .3%) patients fulfilled the criteria for having severe asthma. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed objectively in 53/98 patients (54.1%). In total, 83.7% underwent at least one diagnostic test for asthma: reversibility test: 63.3%, PEF: 52% and bronchial challenge test: 21.4%. Among patients eligible...... for a bronchial challenge test (FEV1 ≥ 70%; negative PEF measurement/reversibility test), only 23.1% had such a test performed. Inhalation technique and adherence were assessed in 19.4 and 30.6% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among patients managed for severe asthma in a specialist setting, only half had...

  1. Bronchial Thermoplasty: A Novel Therapy for Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Ajay; Castro, Mario; Chen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis This article presents an overview of bronchial thermoplasty, a novel treatment for severe asthma. Within, the authors discuss the rationale for bronchial thermoplasty in severe asthma, current clinical evidence for the use of this procedure, clinical recommendations, and future directions. PMID:23993815

  2. Acute bacterial exacerbations in bronchitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodosh, S

    1987-04-27

    Symptomatic exacerbations are frequent problems in the management of chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Identification of a bacterial etiology as the cause of specific exacerbations should be based on changes in clinical symptoms and documentation of significant bronchial bacterial flora and a neutrophilic inflammatory response. Most acute bacterial exacerbations in patients with bronchitis or asthma are caused by Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Branhamella catarrhalis. Treatment with ampicillins, synthetic tetracyclines, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is successful in 80 to 90 percent of bacterial exacerbations. Emergence of resistant Hemophilus species and pneumococci motivates development of new orally administered antimicrobial drugs. Appropriate treatment depends on the prompt recognition that bacterial infection is present. Once instituted, antimicrobial therapy should be continued for a minimum of 10 to 14 days, which should increase the duration of the infection-free period until the next bacterial exacerbation. Adequate response should be evaluated by the return of symptoms to pre-infectious levels and by decreased sputum bacterial flora and neutrophilic inflammation.

  3. The association of vitamin D, cathelicidin, and vitamin D binding protein with acute asthma attacks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, Tugba; Kuyucu, Semanur; Karaismailoglu, Eda; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Balci, Senay

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence about the various effects of vitamin D (vit D) on innate and adaptive immunity has led to a search for the role of vit D in asthma. It is postulated that a decrease in cathelicidin, a multifunctional host defense molecule, production due to low vit D status may predispose to infectious complications in children with asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the association of vit D, vit D-binding protein (VDBP) and cathelicidin with acute asthma attacks among children with allergic asthma. This prospective study included 35 patients with acute asthma attack and 32 children with controlled asthma, and all were matched by sampling season, sensitization to mites, and previous severity of asthma. A comprehensive questionnaire about risk factors, blood sampling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D vit D, VDBP, and cathelicidin levels; spirometric indices were used. Factors that influence serum vit D and cathelicidin levels and the development of asthma attacks were evaluated with multivariate analysis. The mean serum vit D levels of the attack group was significantly lower than that of the controlled asthma group (p asthma group than with the controlled subjects with asthma (p = 0.002). There was no difference between the acute and controlled asthma groups in terms of markers of allergy and serum VDBP levels. Risk factors that may influence vit D levels revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.038), duration of sun exposure (p , and amount of dietary vit D (p asthma showed that low serum levels of vit D were significantly related to the risk of asthma attacks (p , adjusted odds ratio 16.11). Cathelicidin levels showed a significant positive association with asthma attacks and BMI. Vit D deficiency showed a significant relationship to the development of asthma attacks independent of cathelicidin deficiency and other factors associated with the severity of chronic asthma.

  4. The study of severe asthma in Latin America and Spain (1994-2004: characteristics of patients hospitalized with acute severe asthma Estudo sobre Asma Grave na América Latina e Espanha (1994-2004: características dos pacientes hospitalizados com asma aguda grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Javier Rodrigo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies assessing the characteristics and management of patients hospitalized with asthma have been limited to a small number of facilities and have evaluated short time periods. The present study evaluated long-term changes among hospitalized asthma patients at a large number of facilities. METHODS: This was a retrospective, hospital-based observational case series, designated the Study of Severe Asthma in Latin America and Spain, which was conducted in Spain and in eight Latin-American countries. We reviewed the hospital records of 3,038 patients (age range, 15-69 years hospitalized with acute severe asthma at one of nineteen tertiary-care hospitals in 1994, 1999 and 2004. RESULTS: Over time, the use of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists increased significantly, whereas the use of theophylline as a controller medication decreased. The utilization of pulmonary function tests also increased. There was a significant reduction in the mean hospital stay (8.5 days, 7.4 days and 7.1 days in 1994, 1999 and 2004, respectively, p = 0.0001 and a significant increase in the mean of the lowest arterial pH at hospital admission. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of cases in which PEF was determined in the emergency room (48.6% in 1994 vs. 43.5% in 2004, p = 0.0001. We found the quality of asthma management and care to be generally better in Spain than in Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: Although there have been certain improvements in the management of asthma between severe exacerbations and during hospitalization, asthma management remains suboptimal in Spain and, especially, in Latin America.OBJETIVO: Estudos que avaliem as características e o gerenciamento de pacientes asmáticos hospitalizados têm sido limitados a um número pequeno de serviços e a curtos períodos de duração. O presente estudo avaliou alterações de longo prazo de pacientes asmáticos hospitalizados em um grande número de

  5. Novel monoclonal treatments in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Meteran, Hanieh; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To provide a general overview of the current biological treatments and discuss their potential anti-asthmatic effects. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed articles in PubMed found using the search words "Asthma/therapy AND antibodies, monoclonal/therapeutic use AND cytokines." STUDY SELECTIONS: Only...... articles published in English since 2000 were considered. The search identified 29 studies; 8 additional studies were found by hand search, generating 37 studies. RESULTS: Of the 37 studies investigating biological treatments of asthma, 5 were on the effects of anti-IgE (omalizumab); 12 on anti-IL-5; 8...... TSLP, IL-9, and TNF-α lacked convincing effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Research on the biological treatment of asthma shows promising results. While anti-IgE (omalizumab) has been used in the treatment of asthma for some years, anti-IL-5 has recently been approved for use. The efficacy of results of other...

  6. A study of asthma severity in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; van der Sluis, Sophie; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    component was also found for the severity of specific asthma symptoms; wheezing 12% (3%-22%), P = 0.007 and shortness of breath 17% (7%-27%), P = 0.0006, but not for chest tightness and cough. Asthma symptom severity correlated weakly with rhinitis severity as well as with objective markers of lung function......, airway inflammation, airway responsiveness and allergic sensitization. Conclusion: The individual variation in asthma symptom severity is to some degree influenced by genetic factors, but environmental factors explain the main part of the variation. The genetic architectures underlying the severity...

  7. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  8. Novel monoclonal treatments in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteran, Howraman; Meteran, Hanieh; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-12-01

    To provide a general overview of the current biological treatments and discuss their potential anti-asthmatic effects. We reviewed articles in PubMed found using the search words "Asthma/therapy AND antibodies, monoclonal/therapeutic use AND cytokines." Only articles published in English since 2000 were considered. The search identified 29 studies; 8 additional studies were found by hand search, generating 37 studies. Of the 37 studies investigating biological treatments of asthma, 5 were on the effects of anti-IgE (omalizumab); 12 on anti-IL-5; 8 on anti-IL-13; 5 on anti-IL-4R-α; 3 on anti-IL-9; one on TNF-α; one on anti-IL-2R-α; one on TSLP (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin); and one on OX40L. Sample sizes ranged from 3 to 943 participants. Studies of therapies targeting IgE, IL-2, IL4R-α, IL-5, and IL-13 showed some efficacy, whereas those targeting TSLP, IL-9, and TNF-α lacked convincing effectiveness. Research on the biological treatment of asthma shows promising results. While anti-IgE (omalizumab) has been used in the treatment of asthma for some years, anti-IL-5 has recently been approved for use. The efficacy of results of other large studies with a longer duration is needed to draw a firm conclusion. Such studies should not only focus on clinical outcomes, but also consider asthma-related quality of life. Knowledge on the asthma phenotypes and identification of biomarkers associated with these will be useful for physicians considering the right treatment for the asthma patient.

  9. Teenage use of GP care for moderate to severe asthma in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Richards, Deborah; Mitchell, Ed A; Gribben, Barry; Adair, Vivienne; Coster, Gregor; Hight, Makere

    2005-07-15

    To describe and understand teenagers' frequency of attendance for General Practitioner (GP) care of moderate to severe asthma in the Auckland region. Ten Auckland schools identified 510 children aged 13-14 years with breathing problems, who were invited to complete a screening questionnaire. 271 children participated, of whom 114 had moderate to severe asthma. 39% of the 114 had made 0-1 GP visit for asthma, and 17% made 'greater than and equal to' 5 visits. Low attendees (0-1 visit) were disproportionately New Zealand European. High attendees ('greater than and equal to' 5 visits) tended to be Maori and/or Pacific Islanders. Half of the teenagers attended GP asthma care as often as it wanted, independently of ethnicity; 62% tell their parents when they cannot manage their asthma; and 29% must pay for GP care. Expected attendance was increased for Maori and Pacific students versus others by 77% (p=0002), and by asthma of increased severity (pNew Zealand Europeans) in this case, challenges whether such barriers persist, at least for acute care of moderate to severe asthma.

  10. Role of T2 inflammation biomarkers in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    Purpose of reviewSevere asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome. Classification of asthma into phenotypes and endotypes can improve understanding and treatment of the disease. Identification and utilization of biomarkers, particularly those linked to T2 inflammation, can help group patients into

  11. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Christodoulou, I; Rohde, G

    2011-01-01

    and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE systematic review. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02505.x. ABSTRACT: A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections...... and sensitive methodologies. This systematic review summarizes current knowledge and developments in infection epidemiology of acute asthma in children and adults, describing the known impact for each individual agent and highlighting knowledge gaps. Among infectious agents, human rhinoviruses are the most...... prevalent in regard to asthma exacerbations. The newly identified type-C rhinoviruses may prove to be particularly relevant. Respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus are important in infants, while influenza viruses seem to induce severe exacerbations mostly in adults. Other agents are relatively...

  12. Implementation of spacer therapy for acute asthma in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vandeleur, M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination. Children admitted to Cork University Hospital Paediatric Department with acute asthma were identified during two identical 2 month seasonal periods before (2005) and after (2006) implementation of the new guidelines in September 2006. Pre-intervention and post-intervention audits by case note review were performed to determine the impact of and compliance with this evidence-based guideline emphasising patient assessment, spacer delivered bronchodilator and specific discharge criteria. Patients had similar characteristics during the two study periods. There was a raised threshold for admission after guideline implementation with 11\\/52 patients having mild exacerbations in 2006, compared to 21\\/36 in 2005. Duration of admission was less in the post-implementation group for equivalent exacerbation severity e.g. for moderate severity; 28 hours in 2005, 23 hours in 2006. Duration of bronchodilator therapy was shorter in 2006 and more likely to be given by spacer device earlier for equivalent levels of severity e.g. for moderate exacerbations, in 2006 the average length of salbutamol therapy was 18 hours with 12 hours by spacer device, in 2005 the average length of therapy was 25 hours with 3 hours by spacer. There was earlier initiation of oral corticosteroids; the average time to administration was 56 minutes in 2006 and 227 minutes in 2005. There was an improved documentation of asthma education in 2006 e.g. inhaler technique was reviewed in 37\\/52 in 2006, 21\\/35 in 2005 and better use of written action plans.

  13. Stable admission rate for acute asthma in Danish children since 1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is consistently reported to have increased in recent decades in most westernized countries, but it is unknown if this increase is similar across severities. We aimed to study the time-trend of acute hospital admission and readmission for asthma of school-aged children in the recent...... 35 years in Denmark. We analyzed time-trends in the national incidence rate of hospitalization for acute severe asthma in children aged 5-15 in Denmark during the 35-year period 1977-2012 in the Danish national registry. Only in-patient admissions with a principal diagnosis of asthma (ICD-8: 493...... per thousand children at risk and a per-year incidence rate ratio 0.999 [95 % CI 0.997-1.001]. The rate of any readmission decreased from approximately 20 per thousand children in the eighties to less than 10 in the early nineties before stabilizing at around 10 per thousand children from mid...

  14. DNA methylation levels associated with race and childhood asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marcia A; Ciaccio, Christina E; Gigliotti, Nicole M; Rezaiekhaligh, Mo; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its incidence and severity. A disproportionate number of children with asthma are economically disadvantaged and live in substandard housing with potential indoor environmental exposures such as cockroaches, dust mites, rodents and molds. These exposures may manifest through epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to changes in relevant gene expression. We examined the association of global DNA methylation levels with socioeconomic status, asthma severity and race/ethnicity. We measured global DNA methylation in peripheral blood of children with asthma enrolled in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program. Inclusion criteria included residing in the same home for a minimum of 4 days per week and total family income of less than 80% of the Kansas City median family income. DNA methylation levels were quantified by an immunoassay that assessed the percentage of 5-methylcytosine. Our results indicate that overall, African American children had higher levels of global DNA methylation than children of other races/ethnicities (p = 0.029). This difference was more pronounced when socioeconomic status and asthma severity were coupled with race/ethnicity (p = 0.042) where low-income, African American children with persistent asthma had significantly elevated methylation levels relative to other races/ethnicities in the same context (p = 0.006, Hedges g = 1.14). Our study demonstrates a significant interaction effect among global DNA methylation levels, asthma severity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  15. Effectiveness of omalizumab in reducing corticosteroid burden in patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, Jill; Massanari, Marc; Geba, Gregory P; Kianifard, Farid; Inhaber, Neil; Zeldin, Robert K

    2010-12-01

    Asthma guidelines advocate maintaining asthma control while minimizing corticosteroid exposure. To assess the reduction in corticosteroid burden during long-term treatment and the corresponding impact of this reduction on asthma control, lung function, and inflammation in patients with moderate to severe allergic asthma. We conducted a pooled analysis (N = 1,071) of 2 similarly designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled omalizumab trials and their extension phases. Each study included a 16-week steroid-stable phase, a 12-week steroid-reduction phase, and a 24-week extension phase. Patients received subcutaneous omalizumab (minimum, 0.016 mg/kg/IU (IgE/mL) every 4 weeks) or placebo every 2 or 4 weeks. Outcomes included change from baseline in inhaled corticosteroid dose, number of oral corticosteroid bursts, and other clinical measures, including asthma exacerbations and change in asthma quality-of-life score (questionnaire), lung function, and eosinophil count. The median reduction from baseline in inhaled corticosteroid dose (beclomethasone dipropionate equivalent dose) by the completion of the extension phase was greater for the omalizumab group than for the placebo group (-420.0 vs -252.0 μg/d; P < .001). During that time, omalizumab-treated patients required fewer oral corticosteroid bursts overall for treatment of acute exacerbations (mean, 0.2 vs 0.3; relative risk, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.76; P < .001) and demonstrated greater improvements in measures of asthma control. The addition of omalizumab to baseline therapy in patients 12 years or older with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma resulted in a durable reduction in the overall steroid burden and improvement in other clinical measures of asthma control. Copyright © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inalação contínua com fenoterol na criança com asma aguda grave: efeitos clínicos imediatos Continuous fenoterol inhalation by children with severe acute asthma: immediate clinical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Z. Zanoni

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar as alterações da freqüência cardíaca, da pressão arterial, do psiquismo e da saturação arterial de oxigênio, após a inalação contínua com fenoterol, na criança com asma aguda grave. Casuística e Métodos: foram estudados 30 pacientes com asma aguda grave, atendidos no PAM-Pediatria do Hospital Universitário - UFMS. Os pacientes receberam inalação contínua durante uma hora, com 0,5 mg/kg (2 gotas/kg de fenoterol. O psiquismo, a saturação arterial de oxigênio, a freqüência cardíaca e a pressão arterial foram avaliados antes, imediatamente após, e uma hora após a inalação com fenoterol. Resultados: 17 crianças eram do sexo masculino (56,6%, e 13 do sexo feminino (43,4%. Foi observado sonolência em 16 (53,3%, agitação psicomotora em 1 (3,3%, náusea e vômito em 12 pacientes (40%. A média da saturação arterial de oxigênio aumentou de 90,9 2,8% para 92,7 2,5% (pObjective: to evaluate the alterations of heart rate, blood pressure, psychological aspects and oxygen saturation after continuous fenoterol inhalation (0.5 mg/Kg by children with severe acute asthma. Methods: we studied 30 patients with severe acute asthma who were treated at the pediatric ward of Hospital Universitário - UFMS. The patients inhaled 0.5 mg/Kg of fenoterol (two drops/Kg during one hour. Psychological aspects, oxygen arterial saturation, heart rate and blood pressure were evaluated at three different moments: before, after and one hour after the fenoterol inhalation. Results: there were 17 males (56.6% and 13 females (43.4%. Sleepiness was observed in 16 (53.3%, psychomotor agitation in one (33% and nausea and vomiting in 12 patients (40%. The average of oxygen arterial saturation increased from 90.9 ± 2.8% to 92.7 ± 2.5% (P<0.05 after inhalation. There was statistically significant increase in the average heart rate before and after inhalation (139.5 ± 13.5 beats/min, 166.5 ± 11.1 beats/min, respectively, P<0.05. A

  17. Association between dietary habits and asthma severity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Denise Halpern; Zhang, Linjie; Prietsch, Silvio O M; Vecchi, Amilcare Angelo; Susin, Lulie Rosane Odeh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate association between dietary habits and asthma severity in children. Cross-sectional study. Two teaching hospitals in Brazil. Cases (n=268) were children (3-12yr) with persistent asthma and age-matched controls (n=126) were those with intermittent asthma. Dietary habits were determined based on food consumption in the past 12 months classified as frequent (≥3 times per week) or infrequent (never or 2Z-score of BMI-for-age; non-obese: ≤2Z-score of BMI-for-age. After adjusting for confounding factors, maternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth and obesity were significantly associated with persistent asthma, with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 2.11 (1.08- 4.13), 2.61(1.07-6.35) and 2.89 (1.49-5.61), respectively. No significant association was observed between frequency of consumption of specific foods, food groups, or dietary pattern (pro- or contra-Mediterranean diet) and the severity of asthma. This study did not find a significant association between dietary habits and asthma severity in children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth and obesity were independent factors associated with persistent asthma.

  18. Application of the asthma phenotype algorithm from the Severe Asthma Research Program to an urban population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paru Patrawalla

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Identification and characterization of asthma phenotypes are challenging due to disease complexity and heterogeneity. The Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP used unsupervised cluster analysis to define 5 phenotypically distinct asthma clusters that they replicated using 3 variables in a simplified algorithm. We evaluated whether this simplified SARP algorithm could be used in a separate and diverse urban asthma population to recreate these 5 phenotypic clusters. METHODS: The SARP simplified algorithm was applied to adults with asthma recruited to the New York University/Bellevue Asthma Registry (NYUBAR to classify patients into five groups. The clinical phenotypes were summarized and compared. RESULTS: Asthma subjects in NYUBAR (n = 471 were predominantly women (70% and Hispanic (57%, which were demographically different from the SARP population. The clinical phenotypes of the five groups generated by the simplified SARP algorithm were distinct across groups and distributed similarly to those described for the SARP population. Groups 1 and 2 (6 and 63%, respectively had predominantly childhood onset atopic asthma. Groups 4 and 5 (20% were older, with the longest duration of asthma, increased symptoms and exacerbations. Group 4 subjects were the most atopic and had the highest peripheral eosinophils. Group 3 (10% had the least atopy, but included older obese women with adult-onset asthma, and increased exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the simplified SARP algorithm to the NYUBAR yielded groups that were phenotypically distinct and useful to characterize disease heterogeneity. Differences across NYUBAR groups support phenotypic variation and support the use of the simplified SARP algorithm for classification of asthma phenotypes in future prospective studies to investigate treatment and outcome differences between these distinct groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00212537.

  19. Severe exacerbations and decline in lung function in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Lamm, Carl Johan

    2009-01-01

    are associated with a persistent decline in lung function. METHODS: The START (inhaled steroid treatment as regular therapy in early asthma) study was a 3-year, randomized, double-blind study of 7,165 patients (5-66 yr) with persistent asthma for less than 2 years, to determine whether early intervention...... with low-dose inhaled budesonide prevents severe asthma-related events (exacerbations requiring hospitalization or emergency treatment) and decline in lung function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 315 patients who experienced at least one severe asthma exacerbation, of which 305 were analyzable...... difference was seen in both children and in adults, but not in adolescents. In the budesonide group, the change in the post-bronchodilator FEV(1) % predicted in patients who did or did not experience a severe exacerbation was -2.48% and -1.72%, respectively (P = 0.57). The difference in magnitude...

  20. From asthma severity to control: a shift in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    -treatment. Several validated asthma control assessment tools have been developed to facilitate correct assessment of the level of control in clinical practice. It is hoped that focusing on control will reduce the frequency of sub-optimal treatment in the primary care setting. Further validation of the best way......Variability is a characteristic feature of asthma, and the aim of asthma management is to eliminate or minimise disease variability. Controlled asthma shows little or no variability, and is achievable and sustainable in the majority of patients. New international guidelines recommend control...... involves the control of several outcomes. Its assessment should include components relevant to achievement of best possible clinical control and reduction of future risk of adverse outcomes. Focusing on a single or a few outcomes can lead to incorrect control assessment and increased risk of under...

  1. Prevalence of obesity in asthma and its relations with asthma severity and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Gabriele Carra; Grutcki, Denis Maltz; Menegotto, Samuel Millán; Pereira, Rosemary Petrik; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity in asthmatic patients attending at an outpatient clinic, and to investigate its relationships with asthma severity and level of asthma control. In a cross-sectional study we recruited patients aged 11 years and older with confirmed asthma diagnosis from the outpatient asthma clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. They underwent an evaluation by a general questionnaire, an asthma control questionnaire and by pulmonary function tests. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index (BMI). 272 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 51.1 ± 16.5 years and there were 206 (74.9%) female patients. Mean BMI was 27.5 ± 5.3kg/m(2), and 96 (35.3%) patients were classified as normal weight, 97 (35.7%) as overweight and 79 (29%) as obesity. There was a significant higher proportion of female than male patients (34.3% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.002) in the obesity group. There were no significant differences with respect to asthma control (p = 0.741) and severity classification (p = 0.506). The FEV1% predicted was significantly higher in the obese than in the non-obese group (73.7% vs. 67.2%, p = 0.037). Logistic regression analysis identified sex (OR = 3.84, p = 0.002) as an independent factor associated with obesity. This study showed a high prevalence of obesity in asthmatic patients. Obese and non-obese subjects were similar in regard to asthma severity and level of asthma control. Female sex was associated with obesity in this asthma population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  3. Association between severe asthma and changes in the stomatognathic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Carvalho-Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe orofacial muscle function in patients with severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive study comparing patients with severe controlled asthma (SCA and severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA. We selected 160 patients, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6, as well as undergoing evaluation of orofacial muscle function. Results: Of the 160 patients evaluated, 126 (78.8% and 34 (21.2% presented with SCA and SUA, respectively, as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. Regardless of the level of asthma control, the most frequent changes found after evaluation of muscle function were difficulty in chewing, oronasal breathing pattern, below-average or poor dental arch condition, and difficulty in swallowing. When the sample was stratified by FEV1 (% of predicted, was significantly higher proportions of SUA group patients, compared with SCA group patients, showed habitual open-mouth chewing (24.8% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.02, difficulty in swallowing water (33.7% vs. 17.3%; p < 0.04, and voice problems (81.2% vs. 51.9%; p < 0.01. When the sample was stratified by ACQ-6 score, the proportion of patients showing difficulty in swallowing bread was significantly higher in the SUA group than in the SCA group (66.6% vs. 26.6%; p < 0.01. Conclusions: The prevalence of changes in the stomatognathic system appears to be high among adults with severe asthma, regardless of the level of asthma control. We found that some such changes were significantly more common in patients with SUA than in those with SCA.

  4. Drug therapies in severe asthma - the era of stratified medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Kathy J; Heaney, Liam G

    2015-10-01

    Difficult-to-treat asthma affects up to 20% of patients with asthma and is associated with significant healthcare cost. It is an umbrella term that defines a heterogeneous clinical problem including incorrect diagnosis, comorbid conditions and treatment non-adherence; when these are effectively addressed, good symptom control is frequently achieved. However, in 3-5% of adults with difficult-to-treat asthma, the problem is severe disease that is unresponsive to currently available treatments. Current treatment guidelines advise the 'stepwise' increase of corticosteroids, but it is now recognised that many aspects of asthma are not corticosteroid responsive, and that this 'one size fits all' approach does not deliver clinical benefit in many patients and can also lead to side effects. The future of management of severe asthma will involve optimisation with currently available treatments, particularly corticosteroids, including addressing non-adherence and defining an 'optimised' corticosteroid dose, allied with the use of 'add-on' target-specific novel treatments. This review examines the current status of novel treatments and research efforts to identify novel targets in the era of stratified medicines in severe asthma. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining Profiles of Family Functioning in Pediatric Asthma: Longitudinal Associations With Child Adjustment and Asthma Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al G Hriwati, Nour; Winter, Marcia A; Everhart, Robin S

    2017-05-01

    Identify profiles of functioning in families of children with asthma and examine whether profile membership predicts subsequent child mental and physical well-being. Primary caregivers and children ( N  = 1,030) from the Childhood Asthma Management Program completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adaptation at five time points. Asthma severity was also assessed via spirometry. Latent profile analyses identified a four-profile solution as best fitting the data: cohesive, permissive, controlling/disengaged, and controlling/enmeshed families. Distal outcome analyses using Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars techniques suggested that children from families that were more cohesive had fewer internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These associations remained stable across time. Family profiles did not differ with regards to child asthma severity. Results highlight the importance of looking beyond the effects of distinct components of family functioning and instead using pattern-based approaches. Recommendations for incorporating screenings and services for families in pediatric care settings are provided.

  6. Reducing asthma attacks in patients with severe asthma: The role of bronchial thermoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ryan; Wechsler, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Asthma remains one of the most common diseases worldwide and results in significant societal health care costs and in morbidity and mortality to those afflicted. Despite currently available medications, 5-10% of patients with asthma have severe disease with debilitating symptoms and/or life-threatening exacerbations. Bronchial thermoplasty is a device-based therapy with proven efficacy in this subgroup of patients. Thus far, bronchial thermoplasty has been shown to reduce exacerbations and to improve important measures of asthma control. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology of severe asthma, including the role of airway smooth muscle cells and the procedural aspects of bronchial thermoplasty, and to review the evidence behind this important therapy.

  7. Asthma in adult patients presenting with symptoms of acute bronchitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, HA; Postma, DS; de Bock, GH; Huysman, DAN; van Houwelingen, HC; Springer, MP

    Objectives - To investigate the association between asthma and acute bronchitis in adults and to ascertain criteria to help general practitioners (GPs) differentiate between acute bronchitis and asthma. Design - Descriptive study. Setting - Primary health care centre in The Netherlands. Patients -

  8. ALX receptor ligands define a biochemical endotype for severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Isabell; Barkas, Ioanna; Duvall, Melody G.; Grossman, Nicole L.; Israel, Elliot; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Mauger, David T.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Coverstone, Andrea M.; Fajt, Merritt L.; Hastie, Annette T.; Johansson, Mats W.; Peters, Michael C.; Phillips, Brenda R.; Levy, Bruce D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In health, inflammation resolution is an active process governed by specialized proresolving mediators and receptors. ALX/FPR2 receptors (ALX) are targeted by both proresolving and proinflammatory ligands for opposing signaling events, suggesting pivotal roles for ALX in the fate of inflammatory responses. Here, we determined if ALX expression and ligands were linked to severe asthma (SA). METHODS. ALX expression and levels of proresolving ligands (lipoxin A4 [LXA4], 15-epi-LXA4, and annexin A1 [ANXA1]), and a proinflammatory ligand (serum amyloid A [SAA]) were measured in bronchoscopy samples collected in Severe Asthma Research Program-3 (SA [n = 69], non-SA [NSA, n = 51] or healthy donors [HDs, n = 47]). RESULTS. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 were decreased and SAA was increased in SA relative to NSA. BAL macrophage ALX expression was increased in SA. Subjects with LXA4loSAAhi levels had increased BAL neutrophils, more asthma symptoms, lower lung function, increased relative risk for asthma exacerbation, sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and were assigned more frequently to SA clinical clusters. SAA and aliquots of LXA4loSAAhi BAL fluid induced IL-8 production by lung epithelial cells expressing ALX receptors, which was inhibited by coincubation with 15-epi-LXA4. CONCLUSIONS. Together, these findings have established an association between select ALX receptor ligands and asthma severity that define a potentially new biochemical endotype for asthma and support a pivotal functional role for ALX signaling in the fate of lung inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Severe Asthma Research Program-3 (SARP-3; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01606826) FUNDING Sources. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the NIH, and the German Society of Pediatric Pneumology. PMID:28724795

  9. The role of airway hyperresponsiveness measured by methacholine challenge test in defining asthma severity in asthma-obesity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Catherine B; Pakhalé, Smita

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is a complex disease defined by chronic inflammation of the airways. In research and clinical practice measures used for diagnosis, an assessment of control and severity of asthma are varied and there exists no gold standard. To date, several studies have explored the link between obesity and asthma although the exact mechanism is not yet fully understood. A study undertaken by our research group in 2015, on the effects of weight loss on asthma severity in obese asthmatics, demonstrated that an improvement in airway hyperresponsiveness could be achieved after significant weight reduction with a weight loss program. The objective of this article is to review the current literature for the primary and secondary outcomes studied to estimate the effects of weight loss on asthma severity in adults with obesity and asthma. A review of the most recent research conducted since 2014 demonstrates that effects of weight loss on asthma severity in adults with obesity and asthma has not been the focus of majority of the studies. Apart from our study published in 2015, very few studies used airway hyperresponsiveness as the primary or secondary outcome measure. The literature reveals that significant weight loss does, however, lead to improvement in asthma severity and control in adults with obesity and asthma. The current literature suggests that improvement in lung function requires moderate to significant (5-10%) weight loss in adults with obesity and asthma. However, with a few exceptions, the majority of these studies were small and used variable and questionable asthma severity outcome measures. There is an urgent need for standardization of diagnosis of asthma, study inclusion criteria, and outcome measures to assess asthma severity in research setting. Long-term effects of weight loss interventions on asthma severity and control, in adults with obesity and asthma, also remain unanswered.

  10. Clinical usefulness of mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzella F

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Gloria Montanari, Carla Galeone, Nicola Facciolongo, Luigi ZucchiDepartment of Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular and Intensive Care Medicine, Pneumology Unit, IRCCS – Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, ItalyAbstract: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with variable clinical severity from very mild and occasional symptoms to recurrent critical exacerbations, at risk of fatal or near-fatal outcome, in a small percentage of patients. Within the different inflammatory cascades involved in asthma, eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis and largely influence disease severity. Interleukin-5 (IL-5 is the main cytokine controlling eosinophil activity and proliferation at the site of inflammation. Mepolizumab was the first biological humanized anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody tested in randomized clinical trials on eosinophilic asthma and other eosinophilic diseases. On the basis of several positive clinical efficacy data, it has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Unfortunately, high costs are at present a critical issue. Future studies will probably help in the correct selection of a potential “responder phenotype”, allowing the prescription of this promising therapy to appropriate patients and best define cost-effectiveness issues.Keywords: asthma, mepolizumab, phenotype, IL-5, effectiveness, biomarkers

  11. Admissions to Canadian hospitals for acute asthma: A prospective, multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Brian H; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Stenstrom, Rob; Mackey, Duncan; Stiell, Ian G; Campbell, Sam; Young, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations constitute one of the most common causes of emergency department (ED) attendance in most developed countries. While severe asthma often requires hospitalization, variability in admission practices has been observed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors associated with admission to Canadian hospitals for acute asthma after ED treatment. METHODS: Subjects 18 to 55 years of age treated for acute asthma in 20 Canadian EDs prospectively underwent a structured ED interview (n=695) and telephone interview two weeks later. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 30 years, and the majority were women (62.8%). The admission rate was 13.1% (95% CI 10.7% to 15.8%). Admitted patients were older, more often receiving oral or inhaled corticosteroids at presentation, and more frequently receiving systemic corticosteroids and magnesium sulphate in the ED. Similar proportions received beta-2 agonists and/or ipratropium bromide within 1 h of arrival. On multivariable analyses, factors associated with admission included age, previous admission in the past two years, more than eight beta-2 agonist puffs in the past 24 h, a Canadian Triage and Acuity Score of 1 to 2, a respiratory rate of greater than 22 breaths/min and an oxygen saturation of less than 95%. CONCLUSION: The admission rate for acute asthma from these Canadian EDs was lower than reported in other North American studies. The present study provides insight into practical factors associated with admission for acute asthma and highlights the importance of history and asthma severity markers on ED decision making. Further efforts to standardize ED management and expedite admission decision-making appear warranted. PMID:20186368

  12. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, Rachel; Milan, Stephen J; Hughes, Rodney; Knopp-Sihota, Jennifer A; Rowe, Brian H; Normansell, Rebecca; Powell, Colin

    2017-11-28

    Asthma exacerbations can be frequent and range in severity from mild to life-threatening. The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) is one of numerous treatment options available during acute exacerbations. While the efficacy of intravenous MgSO₄ has been demonstrated, the role of inhaled MgSO₄ is less clear. To determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled MgSO₄ administered in acute asthma. to quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO₄ I) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled β₂-agonist and ipratropium bromide; ii) in addition to inhaled β₂-agonist; and iii) in comparison to inhaled β₂-agonist. We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from the Cochrane Airways Group register of trials and online trials registries in September 2017. We supplemented these with searches of the reference lists of published studies and by contact with trialists. RCTs including adults or children with acute asthma were eligible for inclusion in the review. We included studies if patients were treated with nebulised MgSO₄ alone or in combination with β₂-agonist or ipratropium bromide or both, and were compared with the same co-intervention alone or inactive control. Two review authors independently assessed trial selection, data extraction and risk of bias. We made efforts to collect missing data from authors. We present results, with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), as mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for pulmonary function, clinical severity scores and vital signs; and risk ratios (RRs) for hospital admission. We used risk differences (RDs) to analyse adverse events because events were rare. Twenty-five trials (43 references) of varying methodological quality were eligible; they included 2907 randomised patients (2777 patients completed). Nine of the 25 included studies involved adults; four included adult and paediatric patients; eight studies enrolled paediatric patients; and in the remaining four studies the age

  13. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Global pattern of SARS epidemic · Slide 5 · SARS – clinical features ... SARS virus · SARS – Koch´Postulates proved. SARS – virus jumps species · How infectious is SARS virus · SARS – Global Distribution- 10th July 2003.

  14. Pulmonary Function Tests in Emergency Department Pediatric Patients with Acute Wheezing/Asthma Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18 yrs with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35% were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission.

  15. Exacerbations of asthma - A descriptive study of 425 severe exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersfield, AE; Postma, DS; Barnes, PJ; Svensson, K; Bauer, CA; O'Byrne, PM; Lofdahl, CG; Pauwels, RA; Ullman, A

    The identification, prevention, and prompt treatment of exacerbations are major objectives of asthma management. We looked at change in PEF, symptoms, and use of rescue p-agonists during the 425 severe exacerbations that occurred during a 12-mo parallel group study (FACET) in which low and high

  16. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praznik Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or other organ systems. The severe form of the disease occurs in 10-20% of cases, and usually requires prolonged hospitalization due to a frequent local and systemic complications. Additionally, considerable mortality despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, makes this disease a serious health problem nowadays. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of randomized controlled trials to determine differences in the efficiency between standard methods of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis and new treatment ways in terms of decreased mortality. Search of the 'Medline' database of original scientific papers and systematic review articles was made, using a combination of the following keywords: acute pancreatitis, treatment, mortality. In total 914 papers were found, published in the last 13 years; 14 of 64 randomized controlled clinical trials met the selection criteria and were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 16 papers, the conservative treatment was related to 11, which includes some of the new treatment methods, while the effects of new methods of treatment have been the subject of research in the four studies. Combined endoscopic and surgical treatment was applied in only one study. The largest sample of 290 patients was included in the study with platelet activation factor antagonist, while the smallest sample of 22 patients was used in the study that compared total parenteral with enteral nutrition. Continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitors in combination with antibiotics, intravenous supplementation of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide and the early, high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration showed the best results in the treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Also, the use of low molecular weight heparin and enteral nutrition significantly reduced mortality.

  17. Mold sensitization is common amongst patients with severe asthma requiring multiple hospital admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkinson Linda C; O'Driscoll B Ronan; Denning David W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple studies have linked fungal exposure to asthma, but the link to severe asthma is controversial. We studied the relationship between asthma severity and immediate type hypersensitivity to mold (fungal) and non-mold allergens in 181 asthmatic subjects. Methods We recruited asthma patients aged 16 to 60 years at a University hospital and a nearby General Practice. Patients were categorized according to the lifetime number of hospital admissions for asthma (82 never ad...

  18. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

  19. Challenges in the management of severe allergic asthma in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk AB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayse Bilge Ozturk,1 Sinem Iliaz21Department of Allergy and Immunology, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Koç University Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Little is known about the features of asthma and allergy in the elderly. A significant number of elderly patients with asthma have uncontrolled and severe asthma. This review aims to provide an analysis of the literature on the assessment and phenotype of severe allergic asthma in the elderly. Gaps and pitfalls in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as management of severe allergic asthma in the elderly, are also discussed.Keywords: allergy, asthma, elderly, severe, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atopy

  20. Markov Chain-Based Acute Effect Estimation of Air Pollution on Elder Asthma Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma caused substantial economic and health care burden and is susceptible to air pollution. Particularly, when it comes to elder asthma patient (older than 65, the phenomenon is more significant. The aim of this study is to investigate the Markov-based acute effects of air pollution on elder asthma hospitalizations, in forms of transition probabilities. Methods. A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalizations for asthma in a region of Sichuan province, China. Approximately 12 million residents were covered during this period. Relative risk analysis and Markov chain model were employed on daily hospitalization state estimation. Results. Among PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2, only SO2 was significant. When air pollution is severe, the transition probability from a low-admission state (previous day to high-admission state (next day is 35.46%, while it is 20.08% when air pollution is mild. In particular, for female-cold subgroup, the counterparts are 30.06% and 0.01%, respectively. Conclusions. SO2 was a significant risk factor for elder asthma hospitalization. When air pollution worsened, the transition probabilities from each state to high admission states increase dramatically. This phenomenon appeared more evidently, especially in female-cold subgroup (which is in cold season for female admissions. Based on our work, admission amount forecast, asthma intervention, and corresponding healthcare allocation can be done.

  1. Markov Chain-Based Acute Effect Estimation of Air Pollution on Elder Asthma Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Zhang, Fengyi; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Huang, Debin; Han, Gao; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Asthma caused substantial economic and health care burden and is susceptible to air pollution. Particularly, when it comes to elder asthma patient (older than 65), the phenomenon is more significant. The aim of this study is to investigate the Markov-based acute effects of air pollution on elder asthma hospitalizations, in forms of transition probabilities. A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalizations for asthma in a region of Sichuan province, China. Approximately 12 million residents were covered during this period. Relative risk analysis and Markov chain model were employed on daily hospitalization state estimation. Among PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2, only SO2 was significant. When air pollution is severe, the transition probability from a low-admission state (previous day) to high-admission state (next day) is 35.46%, while it is 20.08% when air pollution is mild. In particular, for female-cold subgroup, the counterparts are 30.06% and 0.01%, respectively. SO2 was a significant risk factor for elder asthma hospitalization. When air pollution worsened, the transition probabilities from each state to high admission states increase dramatically. This phenomenon appeared more evidently, especially in female-cold subgroup (which is in cold season for female admissions). Based on our work, admission amount forecast, asthma intervention, and corresponding healthcare allocation can be done.

  2. Airway Inflammation after Bronchial Thermoplasty for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Darcy R; Doeing, Diana C; Hogarth, D Kyle; Dugan, Karen; Naureckas, Edward T; White, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is an alternative treatment for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma in which the airway smooth muscle is eliminated using radioablation. Although this emerging therapy shows promising outcomes, little is known about its effects on airway inflammation. We examined the presence of bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines and expression of smooth muscle actin in patients with severe asthma before and in the weeks after bronchial thermoplasty. Endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 11 patients with severe asthma were collected from the right lower lobe before and 3 and 6 weeks after initial bronchial thermoplasty. Samples were analyzed for cell proportions and cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage and for the presence of α-SMA in endobronchial biopsies. α-SMA expression was decreased in endobronchial biopsies of 7 of 11 subjects by Week 6. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, both transforming growth factor-β1 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 were substantially decreased 3 and 6 weeks post bronchial thermoplasty in all patients. The cytokine tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which induces apoptosis in several cell types, was increased in concentration both 3 and 6 weeks post bronchial thermoplasty. Clinical improvement and reduction in α-SMA after bronchial thermoplasty in severe, uncontrolled asthma is associated with substantial changes in key mediators of inflammation. These data confirm the substantial elimination of airway smooth muscle post thermoplasty in the human asthmatic airway and represent the first characterization of significant changes in airway inflammation in the first weeks after thermoplasty.

  3. Serum decoy receptor 3 is a biomarker for disease severity in nonatopic asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: High serum DcR3 levels are associated with disease severity in nonatopic asthma patients, which suggests that DcR3 is a potential biomarker that can be used to predict the severity of nonatopic asthma.

  4. Impaired fibrinolysis and lower levels of plasma α2-macroglobulin are associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan-Socha, Stanislawa; Mastalerz, Lucyna; Cybulska, Agnieszka; Zareba, Lech; Kremers, Romy; Zabczyk, Michal; Pulka, Grazyna; Iwaniec, Teresa; Bazan, Jan G; Hemker, Coenraad; Undas, Anetta

    2017-09-08

    Recently we have reported that asthma is associated with enhanced plasma thrombin formation, impaired fibrinolysis and platelet activation. In the present study we investigated whether described prothrombotic blood alterations might predispose to thromboembolic events or asthma exacerbations. In 164 adult asthmatics we assessed clinical events during 3-year follow-up and analyzed their associations with measured at baseline prothrombotic blood parameters. Data were obtained from 157 (95.7%) of the asthma patients. We documented 198 severe asthma exacerbations (64/year), which occurred in 53 subjects (34%). These patients were older (p = 0.004), had worse asthma control (p = 0.02) and lower spirometry values (p = 0.01), at baseline. Interestingly, this subgroup had longer clot lysis time (CLT), as well as lower α2-macroglobulin (p = 0.038 and p = 0.04, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders). Increased CLT and lower α2-macroglobulin were demonstrated as independent predictors of asthma exacerbation in multiple regression model. Moreover, we documented two episodes of deep vein thrombosis (1.3%), and eight acute coronary syndromes (5.1%). Patients who experienced thromboembolic events (n = 10, 6.4%, 2.1%/year) had lower α2-macroglobulin (p = 0.04), without differences in efficiency of fibrinolysis and thrombin generation. Impaired fibrinolysis and lower levels of α2-macroglobulin might predispose to a higher rate of asthma exacerbations, suggesting new links between disturbed hemostasis and asthma.

  5. Psychopathology in patients with severe asthma is associated with increased health care utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, A.; Ouwerkerk, M. E.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Spinhoven, P.; Bel, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    Severe asthma accounts for the majority of health costs for this disease, which is mainly related to the treatment of failed control. Several psychosocial factors have been associated with poor asthma control, but the question remains whether psychiatric disorder in patients with severe asthma

  6. Nebulized magnesium sulphate versus nebulized salbutamol in acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abdelnabi

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The use of MgSO4 by nebulization in patients with acute asthma attacks results in improvement of clinical condition, increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, reduction in heart rate (HR, reduction in respiratory rate (RR and improvement in oxygen saturation (SO2. The increase in PEFR (bronchodilatory effect was significantly less than that achieved in patients receiving the usual treatment with Short acting β2 agonists, e.g. salbutamol, when either agents were used alone.

  7. A review of omalizumab for the management of severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Hsiung Lin,1–3 Shih-Lung Cheng4,5 1Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Care, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Zhongli City, Taoyuan County, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Despite the expansion of the understanding in asthma pathophysiology and the continual advances in disease management, a small subgroup of patients remain partially controlled or refractory to standard treatments. Upon the identification of immunoglobulin E and other inflammatory mediators, investigations and developments of targeted agents have thrived. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the circulating immunoglobulin E, which in turn impedes and reduces subsequent releases of the proinflammatory mediators. In the past decade, omalizumab has been proven to be efficacious and well-tolerated in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma in both trials and real-life studies, most notably in reducing exacerbation rates and corticosteroid use. While growing evidence has demonstrated that omalizumab may be potentially beneficial in treating other allergic diseases, its indication remains confined to treating severe allergic asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Future efforts may be focused on determining the optimal length of omalizumab treatment, seeking biomarkers that could better predict treatment response, as well as extending its indications. Keywords: severe asthma, IgE, omalizumab, exacerbation, chronic idiopathic urticarial, inhaled corticosteroid

  8. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  9. Transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes associated with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Rachel L; Coward, William R; Knox, Alan J; John, Alison E

    2011-01-01

    The 10% of patients with the most severe asthma are responsible for a large part of healthcare expenditure and morbidity. Understanding the processes involved is key if new therapeutic approaches are to be developed. Evidence is accumulating that chronic diseases such as asthma are associated with temporal and spatial alterations in the pattern of inflammatory gene expression within the airways. Expression of these genes can be regulated by transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational and epigenetic mechanisms. It is well established that binding of activated transcription factors to specific inducible gene promoter sites is tightly controlled by chromatin state as a result of histone modifications, particularly the balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation [1]. The interaction between transcription factors and the promoter is key to the diversification of gene expression in a time dependent manner leading to altered gene expression profiles. Alterations of the accessibility of transcription factors to the DNA can have residing effects upon gene transcription. This review will focus on the regulation of several groups of key genes which are involved in chronic airway inflammation and remodelling in asthma drawing mainly from our experience of studying these processes in airway smooth muscle cells. An overview is shown in figure 1.

  10. Prevalence of uncontrolled severe persistent asthma in pneumology and allergy hospital units in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, S; Plaza, V; Picado, C; Vennera, M; Casafont, J

    2011-01-01

    Severe persistent asthma is often poorly controlled and its prevalence in pneumology and allergy hospital units in Spain is unknown. To determine the prevalence of uncontrolled severe persistent asthma in hospital units in Spain and to describe the clinical characteristics of this condition. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 164 Spanish hospital pneumology and allergology units. A record was made of all patients with asthma and patients with uncontrolled severe asthma (diagnosed on the basis of clinical criteria) seen in these units over 6 months. Information on sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, pharmacological asthma treatment, skin prick testing, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity), asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ]), and quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) was collected. According to the clinicians' judgement, 1423 out of 36 649 asthma patients (3.9%, 95% confidence interval, 3.7%-4.1%]) had uncontrolled severe persistent asthma.These patients had a mean (SD) ACQ score of 3.8 (1.0); 55.8% had a positive skin prick test to common aeroallergens and 54.2% had high levels of total serum IgE.The agreement between the assessment of asthma control based on clinicians' criteria and according to the Global Initiative forAsthma (GINA) guidelines was moderate (63.2%, Kic = 0.337), with an underestimation of asthma severity by clinicians; 53.2% of the patients classified as having controlled moderate to severe asthma had uncontrolled severe persistent asthma according to GINA criteria. There is a low prevalence of uncontrolled severe persistent asthma in patients seen at hospital units in Spain according to clinical criteria, although it should be noted that level of asthma control is overestimated by clinicians.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae, and mycoplasma pneumoniae: Are they related to severe asthma in childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iramain, Ricardo; De Jesús, Raùl; Spitters, Cristopher; Jara, Alfredo; Jimenez, Jimmy; Bogado, Norma; Cardozo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are frequent agents of acute respiratory diseases and they have been recognized as infectious triggers of asthma. To determine the frequency of these triggers and their relationship to severe asthma. 82 patients were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study from January 2007 to March 2013 and they were divided into three study groups: Group 1: 27 children with severe asthma, Group 2: 29 children with stable asthma and Group 3: 26 children which was the control group. Serological tests included IgG and IgM for both C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae. Average age ± SD was 10.9 ± 2.5 for Group 1; 10.1 ± 2.9 for Group 2 and 9.9± 1.9 for Group 3 (p = 0.4). M. pneumoniae IgM was observed in 6/27 (22.2%) in Group 1, 2/29 (6.9%) in Group 2 and 0/26 in the Control Group (p = 0,01). C.pneumoniae IgM was present in 7/26 (26.9%) in Group 1, 2/29 (6.9%) in Group 2 and 0/26 in Group 3 (p = 0.005). No significant difference was observed between Group 2 and Group 3. M. pneumoniae IgG was observed in 7/27 (25.9%) in Group 1, 4/29 (13.7%) in Group 2 and 0/26 in the Control Group (p pneumoniae IgG was present in 8/26 (30.7%) in Group 1, 5/29 (17.2%) in Group 2 and 0/26 in Group 3 (p pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae may play a role in the development of severe asthma.

  12. Airway inflammation and illness severity in response to experimental rhinovirus infection in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Message, Simon D; Qiu, Yusheng; Mallia, Patrick; Kebadze, Tatiana; Contoli, Marco; Ward, Christine K; Barnathan, Elliot S; Mascelli, Mary Ann; Kon, Onn M; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A; Jeffery, Peter K; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2014-06-01

    The nature of bronchial mucosal inflammation and its physiologic and clinical significance in rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations is unclear. We investigated bronchial mucosal inflammatory response and its association with physiologic and clinical outcomes in an experimental model of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. We used immunohistochemistry methods to detect phenotypes of inflammatory cells infiltrating the bronchial mucosa before and after experimental rhinovirus infection in 10 subjects with asthma and 15 normal subjects. Compared with baseline, rhinovirus infection significantly increased the number of epithelial (P = .005) and subepithelial (P = .017) neutrophils in subjects with asthma only and subepithelial CD68+ macrophages in both subjects with asthma (P = .009) and normal subjects (P = .018) but more so in those with asthma (P = .021). Numbers of CD45+, CD68+, and CD20+ cells; neutrophils; and eosinophils at day 4 postinfection were positively associated with virus load (r = 0.50-0.72, P = .016-0.03). At acute infection in subjects with asthma, CD4+ cells correlated with chest symptom scores (r = 0.69, P = .029), the fall in the 10% fall in FEV1 (PC10) correlated with neutrophils (r = -0.89, P = .029), the PC10 correlated inversely with CD4+ (r = -0.67, P = .023) and CD8+ cells (r = -0.65, P = .03), the 20% fall in FEV1 was inversely associated with CD20+ cells (r = -0.65, P = .03), and higher epithelial CD8+ cell counts were significantly associated with a greater maximum fall in FEV1 (r = -0.72, P = .03), whereas higher subepithelial mast cell counts were significantly associated with a lower maximum percent fall in peak expiratory flow (r = 0.8, P = .024). In subjects with asthma, rhinovirus infection induces bronchial mucosal neutrophilia and more severe monocyte/macrophage infiltration than in normal subjects. Airway neutrophils, eosinophils, and T and B lymphocytes during infection are related to virus load and physiologic and

  13. Gene Expression Correlated with Severe Asthma Characteristics Reveals Heterogeneous Mechanisms of Severe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Brian D; Bleecker, Eugene R; Busse, William W; Erzurum, Serpil C; Gaston, Benjamin M; Jarjour, Nizar N; Meyers, Deborah A; Milosevic, Jadranka; Tedrow, John R; Wu, Wei; Kaminski, Naftali; Wenzel, Sally E

    2017-06-01

    Severe asthma (SA) is a heterogeneous disease with multiple molecular mechanisms. Gene expression studies of bronchial epithelial cells in individuals with asthma have provided biological insight and underscored possible mechanistic differences between individuals. Identify networks of genes reflective of underlying biological processes that define SA. Airway epithelial cell gene expression from 155 subjects with asthma and healthy control subjects in the Severe Asthma Research Program was analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis to identify gene networks and profiles associated with SA and its specific characteristics (i.e., pulmonary function tests, quality of life scores, urgent healthcare use, and steroid use), which potentially identified underlying biological processes. A linear model analysis confirmed these findings while adjusting for potential confounders. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis constructed 64 gene network modules, including modules corresponding to T1 and T2 inflammation, neuronal function, cilia, epithelial growth, and repair mechanisms. Although no network selectively identified SA, genes in modules linked to epithelial growth and repair and neuronal function were markedly decreased in SA. Several hub genes of the epithelial growth and repair module were found located at the 17q12-21 locus, near a well-known asthma susceptibility locus. T2 genes increased with severity in those treated with corticosteroids but were also elevated in untreated, mild-to-moderate disease compared with healthy control subjects. T1 inflammation, especially when associated with increased T2 gene expression, was elevated in a subgroup of younger patients with SA. In this hypothesis-generating analysis, gene expression networks in relation to asthma severity provided potentially new insight into biological mechanisms associated with the development of SA and its phenotypes.

  14. The complexities of defining atopy in severe childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, J; Fleming, L; Bossley, C; Ullmann, N; Bush, A

    2011-07-01

    Defining atopy in children with severe, therapy-resistant asthma is complex. There is currently no gold standard test; both skin prick testing (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) are used. Furthermore, atopy is increasingly considered to be a spectrum, not an all-or-none phenomenon. SPTs and sIgE cannot be used interchangeably, and if both tests are not performed, opportunities for intervention will be missed. Furthermore, the severity of atopy will be defined differently by the two tests. Cross-sectional study of 47 children with severe, therapy-resistant asthma, mean age 11.8 years, range 5.3-16.6 years, who underwent SPT, and measurement of total and sIgE as part of their clinical work-up. Overall, 42/47 (89%) were atopic (defined as either one positive SPT or sIgE). There was 98% concordance between the two tests in classifying atopy. When each allergen was considered individually, in 40/200 (20%), the SPT and sIgE results were discordant, most commonly in 25/200 (12.5%), the SPT was negative and the sIgE was positive. House dust mite and cat sensitization were more likely detected by sIgE, but dog sensitization by SPT. When atopy was quantified, the sum of sIgEs compared with the sum of SPT weal diameter showed a moderate correlation (r(2) =0.44, Patopy equally well; however, for individual allergens, concordance is poor, and when used to quantify atopy, SPTs and sIgE were only moderately correlated. In a clinical setting, if allergen avoidance is contemplated in children with severe, therapy-resistant asthma, both tests should be performed in order to detect sensitization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Challenges in the management of severe allergic asthma in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk AB; Iliaz S

    2016-01-01

    Ayse Bilge Ozturk,1 Sinem Iliaz21Department of Allergy and Immunology, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Koç University Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Little is known about the features of asthma and allergy in the elderly. A significant number of elderly patients with asthma have uncontrolled and severe asthma. This review aims to provide an analysis of the literature on the assessment and phenotype of severe allergic asthma in the elderly. Gaps and pitfalls in diagnostic an...

  16. Management of severe acute malnutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , with ... It is important to differentiate between acute and chronic malnutrition, as the management and mortality for these ..... Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: Pooled analysis of ...

  17. Bronchial thermoplasty for moderate or severe persistent asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrego, Alfons; Solà, Ivan; Munoz, Ana Maria; Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan Jose; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Plaza, Vicente

    2014-03-03

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a procedure that consists of the delivery of controlled radiofrequency-generated heat via a catheter inserted into the bronchial tree of the lungs through a flexible bronchoscope. It has been suggested that bronchial thermoplasty works by reducing airway smooth muscle, thereby reducing the ability of the smooth muscle to bronchoconstrict. This treatment could then reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, resulting in improved asthma control and quality of life. To determine the efficacy and safety of bronchial thermoplasty in adults with bronchial asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials (CAGR) up to January 2014. We included randomised controlled clinical trials that compared bronchial thermoplasty versus any active control in adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma. Our primary outcomes were quality of life, asthma exacerbations and adverse events. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included three trials (429 participants) with differences regarding their design (two trials compared bronchial thermoplasty vs medical management and the other compared bronchial thermoplasty vs a sham intervention) and participant characteristics; one of the studies included participants with more symptomatic asthma compared with the others.The pooled analysis showed improvement in quality of life at 12 months in participants who received bronchial thermoplasty that did not reach the threshold for clinical significance (3 trials, 429 participants; mean difference (MD) in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.50; moderate-quality evidence). Measures of symptom control showed no significant differences (3 trials, 429 participants; MD in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores -0.15, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.10; moderate-quality evidence). The risk of bias for these outcomes was high because two of the studies did not

  18. Expression of asthma susceptibility genes in bronchial epithelial cells and bronchial alveolar lavage in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingnan; Hawkins, Gregory A; Moore, Wendy C; Hastie, Annette T; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Milosevic, Jadranka; Li, Huashi; Busse, William W; Erzurum, Serpil C; Kaminski, Naftali; Wenzel, Sally E; Bleecker, Eugene R; Meyers, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genes associated with asthma, however expression of these genes in asthma-relevant tissues has not been studied. This study tested expression and correlation between GWAS-identified asthma genes and asthma or asthma severity. Correlation analyses of expression levels of GWAS-identified asthma genes and asthma-related biomarkers were performed in cells from human bronchial epithelial biopsy (BEC, n = 107) and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL, n = 94). Expression levels of asthma genes between BEC and BAL and with asthma or asthma severity were weakly correlated. The expression levels of IL18R1 were consistently higher in asthma than controls or in severe asthma than mild/moderate asthma in BEC and BAL (p asthma (P = 0.03). rs17772583 in RAD50 was significantly correlated with RAD50 expression in BAL and BEC (P = 7.4 × 10(-7) and 0.04) but was not associated with asthma. This is the first report studying the expression of GWAS-identified asthma genes in BEC and BAL. IL13, rather than RAD50, IL4, or IL5, is more likely to be the asthma susceptibility gene. Our study illustrates tissue-specific expression of asthma-related genes. Therefore, whenever possible, disease-relevant tissues should be used for transcription analysis.

  19. Guiding principles for use of newer biologics and bronchial thermoplasty for patients with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, Michael S; Castro, Mario; Chipps, Bradley E; Zitt, Myron; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foggs, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Severe asthma poses significant disease-related and economic burdens in the United States. Challenges in practice include how to define "severe asthma" for a given patient, knowing which are the right tests to perform and when, and having a better understanding of a patient's asthma phenotype. Furthermore, current guidelines do not address a clear, practical approach to treatment that is based on a patient's asthma phenotype. To develop a consensus on the definition of severe asthma, the role of biomarkers and phenotyping severe asthma, and the use of newer biologic therapies and bronchial thermoplasty to help guide practicing clinicians. A roundtable meeting was convened with a panel of severe asthma experts to discuss areas in practice that are not adequately addressed by current guidelines, specifically phenotype-guided treatment. We describe a consensus on the definition of severe asthma, asthma phenotyping with the use of available biomarkers, and guiding principles for newer biologic therapies and bronchial thermoplasty. To optimize therapy and improve outcomes such as daily symptoms, quality of life, exacerbations, and hospitalizations, a clear picture of a patient's asthma phenotype is needed to guide therapy. Determining asthma phenotypes is the foundation of precision medicine for this persistent, often difficult-to-treat disease. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The comparative morbidities of acute dental pain and acute asthma on quality of life in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thikkurissy, S; Glazer, Kathryn; Amini, Homa; Casamassimo, Paul S; Rashid, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cross-section survey study was to examine the comparative burden of acute exacerbations of the two most common chronic illnesses of childhood: acute dental pain and acute asthma. All patients came from one of three distinct clinics within Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio: (1) outpatient dental clinic; (2) urgent medical care unit; or (3) emergency department. Caregivers were asked information about their child's condition and the impact on their daily function. A total of 112 parent-child dyads were included in this study. Children were significantly more likely to be under the care of a physician for asthma than a dentist for caries (Pdental caries than asthma-related symptoms (Pdental caries, which kept them from sleeping; 45% were prevented from playing; 45% were prevented from going to school; and 68% from eating in the preceding week. Acute dental disease had a comparative and, in some aspects, greater impact on a child's quality of life than acute asthma.

  1. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiyah Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  2. Burden of Obesity on Pediatric Inpatients with Acute Asthma Exacerbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yusuke; Nochioka, Kotaro; Hataya, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro; Testa, Marcia

    Obesity and asthma are common health problems in the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burdens of obesity on hospitalized children with acute asthma exacerbation in 2012. Hospital discharge records of patients aged 2 to 18 years with a diagnosis of asthma were obtained from the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database, wherein the data were compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The discharge records were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations because of asthma exacerbations in the United States. To classify whether the patient was obese or not, we used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 278.0x. We compared the odds of using noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, mean total charges for inpatient service, and length of hospital stay between obese and nonobese patients. A total of 74,338 patient discharges were extracted. Of these, 3,494 discharges were excluded because of chronic medical conditions. Using discharge weight variables, we estimated a total of 100,157 hospitalizations with asthma exacerbations among children aged between 2 and 18 years in 2012. Obesity was significantly associated with higher odds of using mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.99), higher mean total hospital charges (adjusted difference: $1588, 95% CI $802-$2529), and longer mean length of hospital stay (0.24 days, 95% CI 0.17-0.32 days) compared with nonobesity. These findings suggest that obesity is a significant risk factor of severe asthma exacerbation that requires mechanical ventilation, and obesity is an economically complicating factor. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical experience with Omalizumab in a Portuguese severe asthma unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alfarroba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that asthma control is not always possible in patients with very severe asthma despite available treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Omalizumab on asthma control as an add‐on therapy in patients from the “Severe Asthma Outpatient Service” of Pulido Valente Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to assess asthma control by the ACT score and by GINA classification, frequency and severity of exacerbations, medication use and pulmonary function in patients treated with Omalizumab. Clinical information was collected from medical records from the start of treatment and at 6‐, 12‐ and 24‐month follow‐ups. Results: 26 patients started the treatment with Omalizumab, and all (100% were classified by GINA with uncontrolled asthma prior to treatment. Mean ACT score was 11.5. All the patients had treatment with fixed‐dose ICS and LABA and 34.6% also had an anti‐cholinergic inhaler. 42.3% of patients were also treated with oral glucocorticosteroids for control. Patients reported an average of 1.8 moderate and 3.1 severe exacerbations/year. Statistical differences were found at 6‐month follow‐up in most end‐points: GINA score improved: 60.9% of patients with partially controlled asthma and only 39.1% with uncontrolled asthma (Wilcoxon 0.00; ACT score improved to 19.52 (Wilcoxon 0.00; mean FEV1 improved to 76.7% (Wilcoxon 0.025; the proportion of patients requiring oral glucocorticosteroid therapy reduced to 17.4% (Wilcoxon 0.014; and the number of moderate and severe exacerbations also decreased to 1.04 and 1.83 respectively (Wilcoxon 0.007; Wilcoxon 0.002 respectively. Conclusions: The current analysis shows evidence that omalizumab is successful in improving asthma control as an add‐on therapy GINA step 5 treatment. Resumo: Introdução: Está bem documentado que o controlo de asma nem

  4. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R2 = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic analysis of the phase III MENSA study evaluating mepolizumab for severe asthma with eosinophilic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Dalal, Anand; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Forshag, Mark; Yancey, Steven W; Nagar, Saurabh; Bell, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    Severe eosinophilic asthma patients are at risk of exacerbations, which are associated with substantial costs. Mepolizumab lowers eosinophil levels and reduces exacerbation risk in severe eosinophilic asthma. We evaluated asthma-related exacerbation costs in mepolizumab-treated patients (versus placebo). A within-trial economic analysis of the Mepolizumab as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Severe Asthma (MENSA) trial. Objectives were to quantify the incremental: (1) medical costs of asthma-related exacerbation; (2) asthma-related exacerbation emergency department visit/hospitalization costs; and (3) asthma-related total healthcare resource utilization. Mean medical costs of asthma-related exacerbations at 8 months were $969, $852, and $1692 in the mepolizumab 75 mg intravenous (IV), mepolizumab 100 mg subcutaneous (SC), and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.16). Mean medical costs from emergency department visits or hospitalizations due to asthma-related exacerbations were $901, $795, and $1557 in the mepolizumab 75 mg IV, mepolizumab 100 mg SC, and placebo groups (p = 0.020). Asthma-related healthcare resource utilization (all services) was lower for the mepolizumab groups versus placebo. Adding mepolizumab to standard-of-care treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma lowered asthma exacerbation-related medical costs/healthcare resource utilization; although the cost savings ranged from $723-$840 per patient, differences were not statistically significant.

  6. Trend in asthma severity in steroid naive asthmatic children in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the trend in severity of asthma in steroid naive children, in an era when steroid use in the treatment of asthma was uncommon. Materials and Methods: Case notes of patients managed for asthma from 1985 to 1995 and age 5 - 16 years were retrieved and reviewed (these case notes are usually ...

  7. Asthma Status and Severity Affects Missed School Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz A.; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry; Castro, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Excessive school absence disrupts learning and is a strong predictor of premature school dropout. School-aged children with asthma are absent more often compared to their healthy peers without asthma; yet, the causes are inadequately documented. We sought to determine the difference in mean absence days between children with and without asthma,…

  8. Predictors of asthma following severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Susan; Hartert, Tina V; Everard, Mark L; Giezek, Hilde; Nelsen, Linda; Mehta, Anish; Patel, Hima; Knorr, Barbara; Reiss, Theodore F

    2016-12-01

    We sought to identify predictors of asthma development following severe early childhood RSV bronchiolitis. Different definitions of asthma were also compared. This longitudinal, observational study (N = 343) followed patients (severity score for RSV bronchiolitis, high respiratory rate, and asthma diagnosis before enrollment. Predictors of atopic disorders included allergic rhinitis before enrollment, a relative with asthma, and the plasma biomarkers IL-5, IL-16, and IL-18. Predictors of chronic asthma therapy use included asthma diagnosis before enrollment and geographic region (Europe and Africa). Only 42% of patients with asthma (primary definition) also met the asthma definition by physician diagnosis and chronic asthma therapy use. Among children with early RSV bronchiolitis, hereditary factors (i.e., having a relative with asthma) and RSV bronchiolitis severity were predictors of asthma and atopic disorders at 6 years of age. Of interest, there was poor agreement among the asthma definitions evaluated. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1382-1392. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. State of the evidence on acute asthma management in children: a critical appraisal of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Offringa, Martin

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate clinical, methodologic, and reporting aspects of systematic reviews on the management of acute asthma in children. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of systematic reviews on acute asthma management in children. We identified eligible reviews by searching

  10. Which functional parameters can help differentiate severe asthma from COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the respiratory function parameters that help in the accurate diagnosis of asthma and COPD. We studied 20 asthma and 30 COPD patients who underwent lung function tests including spirometry and plethysmography both with bronchodilator test and diffusion with carbon monoxide (DLCO. The tests were performed according to International Guidelines (ATS/ERS. The asthma patients were younger (mean age = 48 than those in the COPD group (mean age = 59 and this group also had more female patients (65% than the COPD group (40%. The results showed a more severe obstruction in the asthma group: FEV1/FVC = 59% versus 66% for COPD. There was also a greater bronchodilator response as shown by changes in absolute and percentage values for FEV1 in the asthma group. Average DLCO values were normal in the asthma group (103%P and lower in the COPD (69%. In plethysmography the asthma group had a higher residual volume (%P and a higher airway resistance. We concluded that many functional parameters were useful in distinguishing the asthma and COPD groups. In individual analysis, DLCO was the parameter which best aided in an accurate diagnosis in both groups, with a higher specificity for COPD. The bronchodilator response measured by changes in FEV1 showed a higher sensitivity for asthma. Thus, these two tests are highlighted in the differential diagnosis of obstructive diseases. Resumo: Com o objectivo de identificar parâmetros funcionais respiratórios que contribuam para o diagnóstico diferencial entre asma e DPOC, estudámos 20 asmáticos e 30 bronquíticos, com ou sem enfisema, com os exames usuais de função pulmonar: espirografia, pletismografia e DLCO, pré e pós-broncodilatação para os dois primeiros exames. Os grupos apresentam diferenças significativas na sua constituição. Os asmáticos são mais jovens, média de 48 anos, contra 59 anos no grupo com DPOC, e o

  11. Greater severity of new onset asthma in allergic subjects who smoke: a 10-year longitudinal study

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    Antic Tjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association between cigarette smoking and asthma severity. We assessed smoking as a determinant of disease severity and control in a cohort of clinic-referred allergic subjects who developed new onset asthma. Methods Allergic rhinitis subjects with no asthma (n = 371 were followed-up for 10 years and routinely examined for asthma diagnosis. In those who developed asthma (n = 152, clinical severity and levels of asthma control were determined. Among these subjects, 74 (48.7% were current smokers, 17 (11.2% former smokers, and 61 (40.1% never smokers. Results When comparing current or past smokers to never smokers they had a higher risk of severe asthma in the univariate analysis, which became non-significant in the multivariate analysis. On the other hand, the categories of pack-years were significantly related to severe asthma in a dose response relationship in both the univariate and multivariate analysis: compared to 0 pack years, those who smoked 1-10 pack-years had an OR(95% CI of 1.47(0.46-4.68, those who smoked 11-20 pack-years had an OR of 2.85(1.09-7.46 and those who smoked more than 20 pack-years had an OR of 5.59(1.44-21.67 to develop more severe asthma. Smokers with asthma were also more likely to have uncontrolled disease. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for pack-years and uncontrolled asthma. Compared to 0 pack years, those who smoked 1-10 pack-years had an OR of 5.51(1.73-17.54 and those who smoked more than 10 pack-years had an OR of 13.38(4.57-39.19 to have uncontrolled asthma. Conclusions The current findings support the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is an important predictor of asthma severity and poor asthma control.

  12. Decline in asthma prevalence and severity in Israel over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomo; Berkman, Neville; Avital, Avraham; Springer, Chaim; Kordoba, Levana; Haklai, Ziona; Eshel, Amram; Goldberg, Shmuel; Picard, Elie

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in western countries towards the end of the last century, but recently seems to have stabilized. To evaluate trends in the prevalence and severity of asthma that occurred in Israel over the past decade. The medical records of 17-year-old boys, eligible for national service, between 1999 and 2008 were reviewed. National annual hospitalization and death rates for asthma were extracted. Three hundred thousand medical records were reviewed. During the study period, lifetime asthma prevalence decreased from 9.7 to 8.1% (p = 0.002). The point prevalence of moderate-to-severe and mild persistent asthma decreased significantly from 0.88 and 3.41% to 0.36 and 2.44%, respectively, during this period. The prevalence of intermittent asthma and asthma in clinical remission for more than 3 years did not change significantly. The annual hospitalization rate for asthma decreased from 13.0 to 7.5 per 10,000 population (p < 0.0001), whilst the annual death rate due to asthma decreased between 1999 and 2008 from 2.1 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (p = 0.003). The prevalence of asthma in Israeli teenage boys decreased significantly over the last decade. In addition, asthma hospitalization and asthma-related death rates in the total population also decreased. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk, Asthma Burden and Lower Airway Inflammation in Adults in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Mihaela; Broytman, Oleg; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Crisafi, Gina; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Erzurum, Serpil; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may worsen asthma, but large studies are lacking and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Objective Determine the prevalence of OSA risk among patients with asthma of different severity compared to normal controls (NC), and among asthmatics, test the relationship of OSA risk with asthma burden and airway inflammation. Methods Subjects with severe (SA, n=94) and non-severe asthma (NSA, n=161), and NC (n=146) were recruited in an add-on sub-study, to the observational Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) II; subjects completed sleep quality, sleepiness and OSA risk (Sleep Apnea scale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire [SA-SDQ]) questionnaires and clinical assessments. Sputum was induced in a subset of asthmatics. Results Relative to NC, despite similar sleep duration, the SA and NSA subjects had worse sleep quality, were sleepier and had higher SA-SDQ scores. Among asthmatics, higher SA-SDQ was associated with increased asthma symptoms, β-agonist use, health care utilization, and worse asthma quality of life. Significant association of SA-SDQ with sputum polymorphonuclear cells% was noted: each increase in SA-SDQ by its standard deviation (6.85 units) was associated with a rise in % sputum neutrophils of 7.78 (95 % CI 2.33-13.22, p = 0.0006), independent of obesity and other confounders. Conclusions OSA symptoms are more prevalent among asthmatics, in whom they are associated with higher disease burden. OSA risk is associated with a neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma, suggesting that OSA may be an important contributor to the neutrophilic asthma. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings and better understand the mechanistic underpinnings of this relationship. PMID:26004304

  14. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  15. Omalizumab Treatment Response in a Population With Severe Allergic Asthma and Overlapping COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Steven; Gibson, Peter G; Powell, Heather; McDonald, Vanessa M

    2017-01-01

    Asthma and COPD are common airway diseases. Individuals with overlapping asthma and COPD experience increased health impairment and severe disease exacerbations. Efficacious treatment options are required for this population. Omalizumab (anti-IgE) therapy is effective in patients with severe persistent asthma, but limited data are available on efficacy in populations with overlapping asthma and COPD. Data from the Australian Xolair Registry were used to compare treatment responses in individuals with asthma-COPD overlap with responses in patients with severe asthma alone. Participants were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of omalizumab treatment. We used several different definitions of asthma-COPD overlap. First, we compared participants with a previous physician diagnosis of COPD to participants with no COPD diagnosis. We then made comparisons based on baseline lung function, comparing participants with an FEV1 80% predicted after bronchodilator use. In the population with an FEV1asthma control and health-related quality of life in all populations assessed based on the Asthma Control Questionnaire and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores. Omalizumab treatment did not improve lung function (FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC ratio) in populations that were enriched for asthma-COPD overlap (diagnosis of COPD or FEV1 asthma control and health-related quality of life in individuals with severe allergic asthma and overlapping COPD. These findings provide real-world efficacy data for this patient population and suggest that omalizumab is useful in the management of severe asthma with COPD overlap. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs. nebulized metaproterenol in acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenbaas, R M; Frost, G L; Robinson, W A; Collier, R E; McNabney, W K; Ryan, J L; Singsank, M J

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of subcutaneous epinephrine (E) and aerosolized metaproterenol (M) were compared in acute asthma. Adults randomly received E 0.3 mg sub-Q q20min (max 0.9 mg; n = 20) or M 15 mg in 3.0 ml NaCl 0.9% nebulized over 10 minutes (n = 20) in a double-blind fashion. Vital signs and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured every ten minutes for one hour. The two groups were comparable in age, weight, baseline theophylline concentration, PEFR, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PEFR improved in both groups within ten minutes (p less than 0.01; analysis of variance). There was no difference in PEFR between the groups over the one-hour observation period following treatment. Heart rate decreased following treatment in M patients (p less than 0.05), but remained unchanged in E patients. Systolic blood pressure rose slightly in E patients (p less than 0.01), but remained unchanged in M patients. Subcutaneous E and nebulized M are equally effective as initial therapy in acute asthma.

  17. Comparison of Rapid Bronchodilatory Effects of Salmeterol and Formoterol in Patients with Moderate to Severe Asthma

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    Ebrahim Salehifar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: All of Long-acting β2-agonists are beneficial in maintenance treatment of asthma but their use in relieving acute asthma attacks is not well known. The aim of this study was to compare rapid bronchodilatory effects of Salmeterol and Formoterol in patient with moderate to severe asthma.Methods: It was a randomized, double blind, cross-over study on 60 patients with moderate to severe asthma. Patients randomly received 50 micrograms of salmeterol or 18 micrograms of formoterol  and  after  one-week  washed  out  period  exchanged  their  medications. All  patients undergone spirometry for four times (before receiving the drugs, as well as 3, 30 and 60 minutes after drug inhalation and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, FVC percentage predicted value, FEV1/FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR and PEFR percentage predicted value were measured.Results: Both medications could significantly increase FEV1/FVC and PEFR at 3, 30 and 60 minutes after inhalation (P<0.001 compared to baseline.Three minutes after inhalation of salmeterol and formoterol, FEV1 increased by 8.7% and 12.2% respectively. Formoterol was associated with more increase in the amounts of FEV1 compared to Salmeterol.Conclusion: This study showed that fromoterol has a more rapid onset of bronchodilating action compared with salmeterol at 3 minutes after inhalation. Both agents had significant increases in FEV1/FVC and PEFR compared to baseline with no significant differences between two drugs.

  18. [Identifying the severe acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Tizón, Anais; Targarona Modena, Javier; Málaga Rodríguez, Germán; Barreda Cevasco, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To compare patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis without any additional complications during their hospital stay (Group A) versus patients with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis with additional complications during their hospital stay (Group B). Data obtained from a pre-existing base from hospitalized patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the specialized unit of "Unidad de Pancreatitis Aguda Grave del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" between 2000 and 2010. Data included patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, of ages 18 and over. Data from 215 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was included. Patients from Group A represented 32% (68) and from Group B 68% (147). Group A had a average of 39 hospitalized days and Group B had an average of 56 days (p=0.01). From Group A 22% had more than 50% of necrosis while 43% of Group B had this extension of necrosis (p pancreatitis, based on the presence of necrosis, behave likewise. It is an extended necrosis, described as more than 50% of pancreatic necrosis, and not the presence itself which will determine additional complications during the course of disease and a greater mortality.

  19. Environmental and Personal Factors Related to Asthma Severity among Children: Hospital Based Study, Egypt

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    Omaima Ibrahim AboElkheir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood asthma is a complex disorder in which many environmental and personal factors play a role. However, the contribution of these factors to asthma severity is poorly understood. This study aims to determine the relationship between environmental exposures, personal factors and asthma severity among asthmatic children. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted on 180 asthmatic children; they were divided into mild, moderate and severe asthma according to forced expiratory volume in first second. Environmental factors (indoor and outdoor, food allergy, history of other allergic diseases, family history of allergic disorders, time trend of attacks as well as asthma outcome were reported. Results: Children with severe asthma were younger than those with mild or moderate asthma. Severe asthma was significantly linked to family history of allergy, presence of co-morbid allergic diseases, fish, egg and milk allergy, as well as exposure to passive smoking (73.7% and poor housing conditions. Also, it was significantly linked to presence of unauthorized factories in residential area (31.6 %, p=0.001. As well as, contact with pets (42.1%. Children with severe asthma had more limitations of physical activities (73.7%, missed school days (81.5%, with poor school performance (p=0.04 than those with mild moderate or asthma. Conclusion: Severe asthma was linked to female gender and younger age, co-morbid allergic diseases, family history of atopy and food allergy. It was higher among children residing in places with unauthorized factories and living in substandard housing condition. Children with severe asthma had poor asthma outcome.

  20. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli V; Vieira, Graciete O; Vieira, Tatiana O; Cruz, Álvaro A; Guimarães, Armênio C; Teles, Carlos; Camargos, Paulo; Cruz, Constança M S

    To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461). The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40), modifier effect p=0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30) and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69) were other identified risk factors for asthma. Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort,

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    Heli V. Brandão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72 h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461. The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40, modifier effect p = 0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30 and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69 were other identified risk factors for asthma. Conclusion: Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma.

  2. Pathway discovery using transcriptomic profiles in adult-onset severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul; Loza, Matt J; Pavlidis, Stelios

    2017-01-01

    in nasal brushings (5 signatures), sputum (3 signatures), and endobronchial brushings (6 signatures). Signatures associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, mast cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells were more enriched in adult-onset severe asthma, whereas signatures associated with induced lung...... injury were less enriched in adult-onset severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Adult-onset severe asthma is characterized by inflammatory pathways involving eosinophils, mast cells, and group 3 innate lymphoid cells. These pathways could represent useful targets for the treatment of adult-onset severe asthma....

  3. Body Height of Children with Bronchial Asthma of Various Severities

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    Tatiana I. Eliseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of bronchial asthma (BA severity on physical development in children patients was evaluated in comparison with healthy population. Materials and Methods. 1042 children and adolescents (768 boys with atopic BA were evaluated. All children underwent standard examination in a clinical setting, including anthropometry. The control group included 875 healthy children of a comparable age (423 boys. Results. The fraction of patients with the normal, lower, and increased height among the whole group of patients with BA is close to the corresponding values in the healthy population (χ2=3.32, p=0.65. The fraction of BA patients with the reduced physical development is increased monotonically and significantly when the BA severity increases: healthy group, 8.2% (72/875, BA intermittent, 4.2% (6/144, BA mild persistent 9% (47/520, BA moderate persistent, 11.7% (36/308, and BA severe persistent, 24.3% (17/70 (χ2=45.6, p=0,0009. Conclusion. The fraction of the children with the reduced height is increased monotonically and significantly in the groups of increasing BA severities. At the same time, the fraction of such children in groups of intermittent and mild persistent BA practically does not differ from the conditionally healthy peers.

  4. Serum eosinophil cationic protein and interleukin-5 in children with bronchial asthma and acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oymar, K; Elsayed, S; Bjerknes, R

    1996-11-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and total eosinophil counts in childhood asthma and bronchiolitis. These parameters were measured in 44 children aged 12-84 months with moderate and mild asthma during symptomatic and asymptomatic phases of disease. Fifteen of the patients were included at the time of admission to hospital due to an acute asthmatic attack, and ten of these were also examined one month after discharge. None of the patients were treated with glucocorticoids or cromoglycate at any time during the study. Serum ECP was significantly increased in the children with acute asthma compared to children with stable moderate asthma, stable mild asthma, as well as to controls. There was no difference between the groups with stable asthma or between stable asthma and controls, and there was large overlap between all groups of asthmatics and controls. Detectable levels of circulating IL-5 were demonstrated in eight of 15 children with acute asthma, with significantly higher levels in atopic children, whereas all samples from children with stable asthma and controls were negative. The results suggest that even though serum ECP and IL-5 increases during acute asthmatic attacks, these parameters cannot alone be used to discriminate between different groups of young children with stable asthma, nor between asthmatics and healthy controls. In addition, the same parameters of eosinophil inflammation were examined in serum samples from 25 children aged 1-17 months undergoing their first episode of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis had significantly higher levels of serum ECP than those with RSV negative disease, whereas the total eosinophil counts were significantly decreased in all patients with acute bronchiolitis. Serum IL-5 was only detected in two children with acute bronchiolitis. The results suggest that the

  5. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies. Poor asthma control increases the risk of preeclampsia, a condition in which a pregnant woman develops ... other conditions that can interfere with your asthma management. Watch for Signs That Your Asthma Is Getting ...

  6. Severe bronchial asthma in children: the role of clinical and anamnestic indices in diagnosis verification

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    Kolyubakina L.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparative analysis of results of clinical and anamnestic examination of children depending on the asthma severity. Severe asthma in schoolchildren relative to moderate phenotype characterized by birth overweight, more burdened individual allergic history, highly infectious index, drug or combined (medication, food and household allergies, seasonal exacerbations (mainly from November to March, what associated with the trigger role of ARVI and meteorological factors, inadequate asthma control during standard basic therapy.

  7. Exposure to secondhand smoke and asthma severity among children in Connecticut.

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    Jessica P Hollenbach

    Full Text Available To determine whether secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is associated with greater asthma severity in children with physician-diagnosed asthma living in CT, and to examine whether area of residence, race/ethnicity or poverty moderate the association.A large childhood asthma database in CT (Easy Breathing was linked by participant zip code to census data to classify participants by area of residence. Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for enrollment date, sex, age, race/ethnicity, area of residence, insurance type, family history of asthma, eczema, and exposure to dogs, cats, gas stove, rodents and cockroaches were used to examine the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and clinician-determined asthma severity (mild, moderate, and severe persistent vs. intermittent asthma.Of the 30,163 children with asthma enrolled in Easy Breathing, between 6 months and 18 years old, living in 161 different towns in CT, exposure to SHS was associated with greater asthma severity (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR: 1.07 [1.00, 1.15] and aRRR: 1.11 [1.02, 1.22] for mild and moderate persistent asthma, respectively. The odds of Black and Puerto Rican/Hispanic children with asthma being exposed to SHS were twice that of Caucasian children. Though the odds of SHS exposure for publicly insured children with asthma were three times greater than the odds for privately insured children (OR: 3.02 [2.84,3,21], SHS exposure was associated with persistent asthma only among privately insured children (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.23 [1.11,1.37].This is the first large-scale pragmatic study to demonstrate that children exposed to SHS in Connecticut have greater asthma severity, clinically determined using a systematic approach, and varies by insurance status.

  8. The efficacy of nebulized racemic epinephrine in children with acute asthma: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, A C; Osmond, M H; Klassen, T P

    2000-10-01

    Recent work in bronchiolitis has demonstrated a significant clinical improvement in children treated with epinephrine over nebulized salbutamol. The objective of this study was to determine whether nebulized epinephrine, as compared with nebulized salbutamol, causes a greater clinical improvement in children with acute asthma. Children, aged 1 to 17 years, with acute asthma presenting to the emergency department (ED) were eligible. In this double-blind study, patients were randomly allocated to receive either salbutamol or racemic epinephrine by nebulization at 0, 20, and 40 minutes. All patients received oral steroids. The primary outcome measure was a change in pulmonary index score (PIS). One hundred twenty patients were randomized. The groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, asthma severity, previous treatments, and use of inhaled steroids. There was no significant difference between treatments in the change in PIS, length of stay, admission to hospital, or relapse rate. The epinephrine-treated group had significantly more minor side effects (such as excess or brownish nasal discharge). There is no significant clinical benefit of nebulized epinephrine over salbutamol in children 1-17 years old with mild to moderate acute asthma. Salbutamol remains the treatment of choice in children with known asthma.

  9. Appropriate selection for omalizumab treatment in patients with severe asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Leo; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Madsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    .3-11.1, p = 0.0005), respectively. Conclusion: Only 42% of the omalizumab-treated patients were appropriately selected according to current guidelines. Still, as omalizumab showed significant improvement in asthma control over time, it is important to keep this drug in mind as an add-on to asthma therapy...

  10. The clinical significance of lung hypoexpansion in acute childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spottswood, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, 601 Children' s Lane, Norfolk, VA 23507 (United States); Allison, Kelley Z.; Narla, Lakshmana D.; Lowry, Patricia A. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Lopatina, Olga A.; Sethi, Narinder N. [School of Medicine, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA (United States); Nettleman, Mary D. [Department of Internal Medicine, B-427 Clinical Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Many children experiencing acute asthmatic episodes have chest radiographs, which may show lung hyperinflation, hypoinflation, or normal inflation. Lung hypoinflation may be a sign of respiratory fatigue and poor prognosis. To compare the clinical course in children with asthma according to the degree of lung inflation on chest radiographs. We conducted a retrospective study during a 24-month period (from July 1999 to July 2001) of children aged 0-17 years, who presented to a pediatric emergency department or outpatient clinic with an asthma exacerbation. Chest radiographs obtained at presentation were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the admission status of the patient. The correlation between hypoinflation and hospital admission was assessed in three age groups: 0-2 years, 3-5 years, and 6-17 years. Hypoinflation on chest radiographs was significantly correlated with hospital admission for children aged 6-17 years (odds ratio 16.00, 95% confidence interval 1.89-135.43). The inter-reader agreement for interpretation of these radiographs was strong, with a kappa score of 0.76. Hypoinflation was not correlated with admission in younger children. Lung hypoinflation is associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission in children aged 6 years or older. Therefore, hypoinflation was a poor prognostic sign and may warrant more aggressive therapy. (orig.)

  11. Noninvasive assessment of asthma severity using pulse oximeter plethysmograph estimate of pulsus paradoxus physiology

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    Jenkins Cathy A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulsus paradoxus estimated by dynamic change in area under the oximeter plethysmograph waveform (PEP might provide a measure of acute asthma severity. Our primary objective was to determine how well PEP correlates with forced expiratory volume in 1-second (%FEV1 (criterion validity and change of %FEV1 (responsiveness during treatment in pediatric patients with acute asthma exacerbations. Methods We prospectively studied subjects 5 to 17 years of age with asthma exacerbations. PEP, %FEV1, airway resistance and accessory muscle use were recorded at baseline and at 2 and 4 hours after initiation of corticosteroid and bronchodilator treatments. Statistical associations were tested with Pearson or Spearman rank correlations, logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, or Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results We studied 219 subjects (median age 9 years; male 62%; African-American 56%. Correlation of PEP with %FEV1 demonstrated criterion validity (r = - 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI], - 0.56 to - 0.30 and responsiveness at 2 hours (r = - 0.31, 95% CI, - 0.50 to - 0.09 and 4 hours (r = - 0.38, 95% CI, - 0.62 to - 0.07. PEP also correlated with airway resistance at baseline (r = 0.28 for ages 5 to 10; r = 0.45 for ages 10 to 17, but not with change over time. PEP was associated with accessory muscle use (OR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.21, P Conclusions PEP demonstrates criterion validity and responsiveness in correlations with %FEV1. PEP correlates with airway resistance at baseline and is associated with accessory muscle use at baseline and at 2 and 4 hours after initiation of treatment. Incorporation of this technology into contemporary pulse oximeters may provide clinicians improved parameters with which to make clinical assessments of asthma severity and response to treatment, particularly in patients who cannot perform spirometry because of young age or severity of illness. It might also allow for earlier recognition

  12. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mohammed Nadeem; Malapati, Brahma Reddy; Gokani, Ruchi; Patel, Bhavita; Chatriwala, Mitul

    2016-01-01

    Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity.

  13. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OHD], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OHD and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity.

  14. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Junior, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Rizzo, José Angelo; Sarinho, Silvia Wanick

    To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; p<0.03). Associated factors that remained significant after adjustment were history of asthma in parents (PR=2.65, p<0.001) and personal diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (PR=1.96, p<0.001) and/or atopic dermatitis (PR=2.18, p<0.001). Asthma prevalence in this low-humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Are operating room nurses at higher risk of severe persistent asthma? The Nurses' Health Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moual, N. le; Varraso, R.; Zock, J.P.; Henneberger, P.; Speizer, F.E.; Kauffmann, F.; Camargo, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between operating room (OR) nursing, a category of health care workers at high risk of exposure to various inhaled agents, and asthma severity/control among women with asthma. Methods: The level of severity/control in nurses with prevalent doctor-diagnosed

  16. Sputum neutrophil counts are associated with more severe asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy C; Hastie, Annette T; Li, Xingnan; Li, Huashi; Busse, William W; Jarjour, Nizar N; Wenzel, Sally E; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2014-06-01

    Clinical cluster analysis from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) identified 5 asthma subphenotypes that represent the severity spectrum of early-onset allergic asthma, late-onset severe asthma, and severe asthma with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characteristics. Analysis of induced sputum from a subset of SARP subjects showed 4 sputum inflammatory cellular patterns. Subjects with concurrent increases in eosinophil (≥2%) and neutrophil (≥40%) percentages had characteristics of very severe asthma. To better understand interactions between inflammation and clinical subphenotypes, we integrated inflammatory cellular measures and clinical variables in a new cluster analysis. Participants in SARP who underwent sputum induction at 3 clinical sites were included in this analysis (n = 423). Fifteen variables, including clinical characteristics and blood and sputum inflammatory cell assessments, were selected using factor analysis for unsupervised cluster analysis. Four phenotypic clusters were identified. Cluster A (n = 132) and B (n = 127) subjects had mild-to-moderate early-onset allergic asthma with paucigranulocytic or eosinophilic sputum inflammatory cell patterns. In contrast, these inflammatory patterns were present in only 7% of cluster C (n = 117) and D (n = 47) subjects who had moderate-to-severe asthma with frequent health care use despite treatment with high doses of inhaled or oral corticosteroids and, in cluster D, reduced lung function. The majority of these subjects (>83%) had sputum neutrophilia either alone or with concurrent sputum eosinophilia. Baseline lung function and sputum neutrophil percentages were the most important variables determining cluster assignment. This multivariate approach identified 4 asthma subphenotypes representing the severity spectrum from mild-to-moderate allergic asthma with minimal or eosinophil-predominant sputum inflammation to moderate-to-severe asthma with neutrophil-predominant or mixed granulocytic

  17. Sputum neutrophils are associated with more severe asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy C.; Hastie, Annette T.; Li, Xingnan; Li, Huashi; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Peters, Stephen P.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical cluster analysis from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) identified five asthma subphenotypes that represent the severity spectrum of early onset allergic asthma, late onset severe asthma and severe asthma with COPD characteristics. Analysis of induced sputum from a subset of SARP subjects showed four sputum inflammatory cellular patterns. Subjects with concurrent increases in eosinophils (≥2%) and neutrophils (≥40%) had characteristics of very severe asthma. Objective To better understand interactions between inflammation and clinical subphenotypes we integrated inflammatory cellular measures and clinical variables in a new cluster analysis. Methods Participants in SARP at three clinical sites who underwent sputum induction were included in this analysis (n=423). Fifteen variables including clinical characteristics and blood and sputum inflammatory cell assessments were selected by factor analysis for unsupervised cluster analysis. Results Four phenotypic clusters were identified. Cluster A (n=132) and B (n=127) subjects had mild-moderate early onset allergic asthma with paucigranulocytic or eosinophilic sputum inflammatory cell patterns. In contrast, these inflammatory patterns were present in only 7% of Cluster C (n=117) and D (n=47) subjects who had moderate-severe asthma with frequent health care utilization despite treatment with high doses of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, and in Cluster D, reduced lung function. The majority these subjects (>83%) had sputum neutrophilia either alone or with concurrent sputum eosinophilia. Baseline lung function and sputum neutrophils were the most important variables determining cluster assignment. Conclusion This multivariate approach identified four asthma subphenotypes representing the severity spectrum from mild-moderate allergic asthma with minimal or eosinophilic predominant sputum inflammation to moderate-severe asthma with neutrophilic predominant or mixed granulocytic inflammation

  18. Effects of vitamin D levels on asthma control and severity in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeli, A; Ayaz, O; Uncu, A; Ozhan, B; Bas, V N; Tufan, A K; Yilmaz, O; Yuksel, H

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and vitamin D deficiency has been increasing and leading to significant morbidities. This study aimed to compare the vitamin D levels in the pre-school children with asthma and in healthy controls and to assess the relationship between vitamin D levels and asthma clinical parameters and control. Vitamin D [25(OH)D3] levels were measured in 102 pre-school children, aged 1-4 years with asthma and 102 healthy controls in winter. The patients with asthma were grouped according to serum vitamin D levels as sufficient, insufficient and deficient. Asthma control was classified according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines and the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in 1-4 years-old children. Serum vitamin D levels were 22.64 (9.96) ng/ml in the asthma group and 32.11 (14.74) ng/ml in the control group (p = 0.001). Total number of exacerbations during the previous year were significantly lower in the vitamin D sufficient group, compared to the deficient and insufficient groups (p = 0.03). Frequency of patients with controlled asthma was higher in the sufficient group compared to the deficient and insufficient groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a positive correlation between serum vitamin D levels and asthma control. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was higher in children with asthma, compared to the controls. Therefore, we suggest that lower levels of vitamin D are associated with poor asthma control and increased asthma severity.

  19. Association of Body Mass Index with Asthma Severity and Pulmonary Function among Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuol Nasiri Kalmarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in respiratory system and obesity is another inflammatory disease which incidence rate is increasing. Although, many studies have been conducted on severity of asthma and its relationship with obesity, but different results have been obtained. This study aimed to determine a relationship between asthma severity, Body Mass Index (BMI and pulmonary function in Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 asthmatic patients referred to referral hospital in Kurdistan, North West of Iran, were selected by simple random method. BMI was calculated by dividing weight by height.Pulmonary Function Test (PFT and bronchial-stimulation-test were used for confirmation and investigation of asthma severity. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 and Chi-square and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results: Relationship between BMI and severity of asthma (mild, medium and severe was evaluated, there was a relationship and positive relationship between them (P

  20. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Cough How the Lungs Work Oxygen Therapy Pulmonary Function Tests Other Resources NHLBI Resources "Asthma Action Plan" "Asthma and Physical Activity in the School" "At-A-Glance: Asthma" "How Asthma-Friendly Is ...

  1. Psychopathology in patients with severe asthma is associated with increased health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brinke, A; Ouwerkerk, M E; Zwinderman, A H; Spinhoven, P; Bel, E H

    2001-04-01

    Severe asthma accounts for the majority of health costs for this disease, which is mainly related to the treatment of failed control. Several psychosocial factors have been associated with poor asthma control, but the question remains whether psychiatric disorder in patients with severe asthma predisposes for increased health care utilization. In the present study we compared outpatients with severe asthma with and without psychological dysfunctioning with respect to health care utilization. All patients used high dose inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators for more than 1 yr, and had difficult-to-control asthma, requiring one or more courses of corticosteroids during the past year or maintenance therapy with prednisone. Medical history was taken and health care utilization questionnaires were completed. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to identify psychiatric cases (GHQ-12 score of > or = 6). There were no differences between the psychiatric cases (n = 21) and the noncases (n = 77) with respect to demographic and objective disease characteristics. However, the psychiatric cases had increased odds ratios (OR) for frequent visits to GP (OR = 5.9), frequent emergency visits (OR = 5.3), frequent exacerbations (OR = 12.4), and frequent hospitalizations (OR = 4.8) as compared with the nonpsychiatric patients. The present findings suggest that the morbidity and costs of asthma might be related to the level of psychological dysfunctioning in patients with severe asthma rather than to asthma severity per se, thereby identifying an area of potential intervention.

  2. Association between severe asthma and changes in the stomatognathic system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvalho-Oliveira, Mayra; Salles, Cristina; Terse, Regina; D'Oliveira Júnior, Argemiro

    2016-01-01

    .... Regardless of the level of asthma control, the most frequent changes found after evaluation of muscle function were difficulty in chewing, oronasal breathing pattern, below-average or poor dental...

  3. Environmental factors association between asthma and acute bronchiolitis in young children--a perspective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Lin, Sheng-Chieh

    2012-11-01

    Acute bronchiolitis and asthma are respiratory tract diseases of childhood that are characterized by wheezing. However, the diagnosis of asthma is difficult in patients younger than 2 years. We evaluated the association between asthma or acute bronchiolitis and various risk factors in young children. This perspective cohort study included a study group of children younger than 2 years with a recorded diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis (N = 4,586) as well as a control group (N = 4,263). Children in both groups were registered between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004, on the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (2005), and each child was followed in our study until December 31, 2006, using data from the same source. Of the 8,849 children in our study, 355 experienced asthma during the 3-year follow-up period. Among these 355 asthma patients, 332 children (29.1 per 1,000 person-years, 95% CI 26.2-36.4) belonged to the acute bronchiolitis cohort and 23 children (2.0 per 1,000 person-years, 95% CI 13.3-29.9) belonged to the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that children with acute bronchiolitis were more likely to have asthma than the control population, after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 13.55, 95% CI 8.87-20.71). Boys with acute bronchiolitis had a higher HR for asthma than girls during the 3-year follow-up. Children with acute bronchiolitis who lived in rural areas had a 1.49 HR for asthma compared with their urban counterparts. Children living in the northern region of Taiwan had a higher HR ratio than those in other regions. Sex, urbanization, and geographic region all showed significant associations with acute bronchiolitis and asthma. Based on the asthma-free survival curves of Kaplan-Meier analysis in our study, young children with acute bronchiolitis should be monitored for 2 years to prevent them from developing asthma. This was the first study to evaluate the length of time

  4. The dark side of the moon: severe therapy-resistant asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, F M; Carloni, I; Bush, A

    2012-06-01

    Problematic severe asthma is the term used to describe children whose asthma is not responsive to standard therapy with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and additional controllers. These children need to be assessed by a step-wise systematic protocol in order to confirm the diagnosis, evaluate co-morbidities, assess the adherence to treatment, and finally evaluate the basic management. More than half of these children have "difficult-to-treat asthma", which improves if the basic management is correct. Children whose asthma remains uncontrolled despite resolution of any reversible factors are termed "severe therapy-resistant" asthmatics; for them, an individualised treatment plan is developed after a detailed and invasive protocol of investigation. Therapeutic options for these patients can be divided into medications used in lower doses for children with less severe asthma, and those used in other pediatric diseases but not for asthma. Most treatments are unlicensed and there is a lack of high-quality evidence. Children with recurrent severe exacerbations, in particular in the context of good baseline asthma control, are particularly difficult to treat, and there is no evidence on which therapeutic option to recommend. International collaborations, using standard protocols of investigation, are needed to better understand mechanisms of severe therapy-resistant asthma and to deliver evidence-based treatments in the future.

  5. Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae is not related to asthma control, asthma severity, and location of airway obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Khalil; Abedi, Siavoush; Ghotaslou, Reza; Soroush, Mohammad Hossein; Ghabili, Kamyar; Chapman, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism that reportedly has a strong relationship to asthma. However, asthma severity and location of airway obstruction have not been compared between asthmatic patients with and without evidence for remote mycoplasma infection. Objectives The aim of this research was to study the relationship between previous M. pneumoniae infections in asthmatic patients and presence of any predilection for the involvement of central or peripheral airways, the severity of the disease, and asthma control. Methods Sixty-two patients with asthma were assessed by a validated asthma control test (ACT). All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume studies by body plethysmography. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured. An oropharyngeal swab was obtained for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect the mycoplasma antigen. Moreover, blood samples were obtained to measure the titration of antimycoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. The asthmatic patients with a positive IgG for mycoplasma and negative PCR and negative IgM antibody were considered to have remote history of mycoplasma infection. The relationship between the asthma control using ACT score and pulmonary function variables were compared in patients with and without evidence for remote mycoplasma infection. Results The incidence of postnasal drip was higher among the patients with asthma who had no evidence for remote mycoplasma infection (61.3% vs 32%, P = 0.035). The median ACT score was 16.5 (11–22) and 20 (13.75–24) in patients with and without remote M. pneumoniae infection, respectively (P > 0.05). In addition, the medians of the predicted values of the pulmonary function test parameters (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FRC, FRC/TLC, RV/TLC, maximal mean expiratory flow 25%–75%, forced expiratory flow [FEF] 50%, and FEF 75%) and

  6. Bronchial thermoplasty : Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Laviolette, Michel; Rubin, Adalberto S.; Fiterman, Jussara; Silva, Jose R. Lapa e; Shah, Pallav L.; Fiss, Elie; Olivenstein, Ronald; Thomson, Neil C.; Niven, Robert M.; Pavord, Ian D.; Simoff, Michael; Hales, Jeff B.; McEvoy, Charlene; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Holmes, Mark; Phillips, Martin J.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Sumino, Kaharu; Kraft, Monica; Cox, Gerard; Sterman, Daniel H.; Hogarth, Kyle; Kline, Joel N.; Mansur, Adel H.; Louie, Brian E.; Leeds, William M.; Barbers, Richard G.; Austin, John H. M.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Quiring, John; Armstrong, Brian; Castro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. Objective: We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of BT in asthmatic patients 5 years after therapy. Methods: BT-treated subjects from the

  7. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency enhances oxidative stress and corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lan

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in exacerbation of asthma. The role of vitamin D in oxidative stress and asthma exacerbation remains unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between vitamin D status and oxidative stress in asthma exacerbation. Severe asthma exacerbation patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency (V-D deficiency or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-sufficiency (V-D sufficiency were enrolled. Severe asthma exacerbation with V-D-deficiency showed lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 compared to that with V-D-sufficiency. V-D-deficiency intensified ROS release and DNA damage and increased TNF-α, OGG1 and NFκB expression and NFκB phosphorylation in severe asthma exacerbation. Supplemental vitamin D3 significantly increased the rates of FEV1 change and decreased ROS and DNA damage in V-D-deficiency. Vitamin D3 inhibited LPS-induced ROS and DNA damage and were associated with a decline in TNF-α and NFκB in epithelial cells. H2O2 reduces nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines. V-D pretreatment enhanced the dexamethasone-induced nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines and monocytes from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency asthma patients. These findings indicate that V-D deficiency aggravates oxidative stress and DNA damage, suggesting a possible mechanism for corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.

  8. Trend in asthma severity in steroid naive asthmatic children in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Of all these, corticosteroids have been used worldwide for the treatment of both chronic asthma. Trend in asthma severity in steroid naive asthmatic children in Benin city, Nigeria. O Oviawe, WO Osarogiagbon. Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

  9. Sputum transcriptomics reveal upregulation of IL-1 receptor family members in patients with severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossios, Christos; Pavlidis, Stelios; Hoda, Uruj; Kuo, Chih-Hsi; Wiegman, Coen; Russell, Kirsty; Sun, Kai; Loza, Matthew J.; Baribaud, Frederic; Durham, Andrew L.; Ojo, Oluwaseun; Lutter, Rene; Rowe, Anthony; Bansal, Aruna; Auffray, Charles; Sousa, Ana; Corfield, Julie; Djukanovic, Ratko; Guo, Yike; Sterk, Peter J.; Chung, Kian Fan; Adcock, Ian M.

    2018-01-01

    Sputum analysis in asthmatic patients is used to define airway inflammatory processes and might guide therapy. We sought to determine differential gene and protein expression in sputum samples from patients with severe asthma (SA) compared with nonsmoking patients with mild/moderate asthma. Induced

  10. Elevation of serum soluble E-selectin and VCAM-1 in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Hamzaoui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the significance of circulating adhesion molecules associated with leucocyteendothelial cell interactions in asthma, serum levels of soluble E (sE-selectin, soluble P (sP-selectin, soluble L (sL-selectin, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1 were measured in mild, moderate and severe asthma.

  11. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Brusselle (Guy); C. VanderStichele (Christine); P. Jordens (Paul); R. Deman (René); H. Slabbynck (Hans); V. Ringoet (Veerle); G. Verleden (Geert); I.K. Demedts (Ingel); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); A. Delporte (Anja); B. Demeyere (Bénédicte); T. Claeys (Tine); J. Boelens (Jerina); E. Padalko (Elizaveta); J. Verschakelen (Johny); G. van Maele (Georges); E. Deschepper (Ellen); G.F. Joos (Guy)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases

  12. Investigation of asthma comorbidity in children with different severities of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Mahmut

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma comorbidity is widely seen. However, the effects of AR on asthma are more likely to be studied in the literature. To investigate the prevalence of asthma in children with AR who are followed-up and to evaluate the effect of asthma on the severity of AR. A total of 509 children with AR who were followed-up in the pediatric allergy-immunology department between January 2012 and December 2013 were enrolled in the study. Asthma and AR are diagnosed by using the Global Initiative for Asthma and the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, respectively. The patients were categorized into two groups according to the presence of asthma. The two groups were compared according to sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features, and laboratory findings. Skin-prick test results, serum immunoglobulin E levels, and the percentage of eosinophils of the patients were evaluated. A total of 299 of the patients were boys (58.7%) the mean age was 7.2 ± 3.5 years (range, 1.5-18 years). Patients with moderate-severe persistent rhinitis (40.5% of all patients) were the most common rhinitis subgroup. Mild intermittent rhinitis was diagnosed in 17.7%, mild persistent rhinitis in 11.2%, and moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis in 30.6% of the patients. Two hundred seventy-one children with AR (53.2%) also had concomitant asthma. The patients were categorized into two groups: AR-asthma comorbidity group (group I) and AR-only group (group II). There was no significant difference between these two groups when compared with the sex, age, familial atopy, exposure to smoke, and severity of AR (p > 0.05). The duration of illness, immunoglobulin E levels, number of positive sensitivity, sensitivity to house-dust mites, sensitivity to cockroaches, and polysensitization were significantly higher in the AR-asthma comorbidity group (p < 0.05). This study showed that asthma comorbidity had no effect on the severity of AR. However, it was also shown that the

  13. Increased body mass index predicts severity of asthma symptoms but not objective asthma traits in a large sample of asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildstrup, Line; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and different indicators of asthma severity in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. METHODS: A total of 1186 subjects, 14-44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and its impact on asthma severity in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiar, Nasrin; Alaei, Fariba; Fallah, Shahrzad; Babaie, Delara; Sedghi, Niloofar

    2016-12-17

    Despite obtaining evidences on association between vitamin D and development of lung in fetus, little is known about vitamin D level and its impact on severity of asthma in children. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the asthma severity and vitamin D deficiency in asthmatic children. This case-control study was conducted on 106 individuals including asthmatic (n = 53) and healthy children (n = 53) who referred to Mofid hospital in Tehran in 2013. The level of serum vitamin D in both groups was measured by radioimmunoassay method at the reference lab and was categorized as sufficient (> 30 ng/ml), insufficient (20 to 30 ng/ml), or deficient (asthma in patients group was classified as controlled, partially controlled, and uncontrolled. In the groups with and without asthma, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 73.6 and 49.1%, and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 18.9 and 18.9%, while normal vitamin D level was revealed in 7.5 and 32.1%, respectively with a significant difference (p = 0.005). Using the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of asthma was associated with reduced level of vitamin D (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.027-1.110, P = 0.001). In this context, the risk for asthma in the children with vitamin D deficiency was 6.3 times of those with normal vitamin D level. Although the presence of asthma was strongly associated with reduced level of vitamin D in serum, neither severity of asthma nor control status of asthma were associated with vitamin D deficiency. The presence of vitamin D deficiency effectively predict increased risk for childhood asthma; however the severity or control status of this event may not be predicted by confirming vitamin D deficiency.

  15. Severe hypertriglyceridemia-related acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Morozzi, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. In some cases, inborn errors of metabolism such as lipoprotein lipase deficiency, apoprotein C-II deficiency, and familial hypertriglyceridemia have been reported as causes of severe hypertriglyceridemia. More often, severe hypertriglyceridemia describes various clinical conditions characterized by high plasma levels of triglycerides (>1000 mg/dL), chylomicron remnants, or intermediate density lipoprotein like particles, and/or chylomicrons. International guidelines on the management of acute pancreatitis are currently available. Standard therapeutic measures are based on the use of lipid-lowering agents (fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, niacin, Ω-3 fatty acids), low molecular weight heparin, and insulin in diabetic patients. However, when standard medical therapies have failed, non-pharmacological approaches based upon the removal of triglycerides with therapeutic plasma exchange can also provide benefit to patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Plasma exchange could be very helpful in reducing triglycerides levels during the acute phase of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis, and in the prevention of recurrence. The current evidence on management of acute pancreatitis and severe hypertriglyceridemia, focusing on symptoms, treatment and potential complications is reviewed herein. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  16. Cohort Study of Severe Bronchiolitis during Infancy and Risk of Asthma by Age 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balekian, Diana S; Linnemann, Rachel W; Hasegawa, Kohei; Thadhani, Ravi; Camargo, Carlos A

    Severe bronchiolitis (ie, bronchiolitis requiring hospital admission) is thought to markedly increase asthma risk, with 30%-50% developing asthma by age 5 years. To date, studies of this association are small, and most are from outside the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between severe bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in a US birth cohort. We studied a cohort nested within the Massachusetts General Hospital Obstetric Maternal Study (MOMS), a prospective cohort of pregnant women enrolled during 1998-2006. Children of mothers enrolled in MOMS were included in the analysis if they received care within our health system (n = 3653). Diagnoses and medications were extracted from the children's electronic health records; we also examined pregnancy and perinatal risk factors collected for the underlying pregnancy study. The birth cohort was 52% male, 49% white, and 105 infants (2.9%) had severe bronchiolitis. Overall, 421 children (11.5%) developed asthma by age 5 years. Among the children with severe bronchiolitis, 27.6% developed asthma by age 5 years. In multivariable logistic regression adjusting for 12 risk factors, severe bronchiolitis remained a strong risk factor for developing asthma by age 5 years (odds ratio 2.57; 95% confidence interval 1.61-4.09). In a large Boston birth cohort, the frequency of severe bronchiolitis and childhood asthma was similar to published data. Among children with severe bronchiolitis, the risk of developing asthma was lower than prior studies but still high (27.6%). This difference may be due to different study designs, populations, and outcome definitions studied. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Medical Home Model and Pediatric Asthma Symptom Severity: Evidence from a National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanasarot, Sirikan; Carlson, Angeline M

    2017-08-14

    The objective was to investigate the association between receiving care under the medical home model and parental assessment of the severity of asthma symptoms. It was hypothesized that parents of children who received care under the medical home model reported less severe asthma symptoms compared with their counterparts, whose care did not meet the medical home criteria. Secondary analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Children with asthma aged 0-17 years were included and classified as receiving care from the medical home if their care contained 5 components: a personal doctor, a usual source of sick care, family-centered care, no problems getting referrals, and effective care coordination. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parent-rated severity of asthma symptoms (mild, moderate, and severe symptoms) and the medical home. Approximately 52% of 8229 children who reported having asthma received care from the medical home. Only 30.8% of children with severe asthma symptoms received care that met the medical home criteria, compared to 55.7% of children with mild symptoms. After accounting for confounding factors, obtaining care under the medical home model decreased the odds of parent-reported severe asthma symptoms by 31% (adjusted odds ratio 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.85). Study results suggest that the medical home model can reduce parent-rated severity of asthma symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of providing medical home care to children with asthma to improve the outcomes that matter most to children and their families.

  18. ANTI-IGE THERAPY FOR SEVERE ASTHMA IN CHILDREN: TWO-YEAR TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Kulichenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes a two-year experience of treating children and adolescents with severe uncontrolled atopic asthma using Omalizumab. This treatment facilitated to achieve full asthma control in 70% of patients and partial control in 30% of patients. Anti-Ig Etherapy contributes to reduce the frequency of asthma relapses 77%, and the number of those seeking emergency medical treatment, particularly no need for in-patient asthma care. Thanks to treatment, lung function parameters improve, particularly in children with low bronchial patency parameters even after administration of broncholytics. Thanks to treatment with omalizumab, the dosage of inhalant glucocorticosteroids is reduced 1.5 to 2.5 times in 75% patients. Treatment tolerance in all children is satisfactory, no serious adverse events associated with the medication or any system side effects are registered in patients. Anti-IgE therapy is a good alternative to use of high and ultra-high doses of inhalant glucocorticosteroids in children with severe atopic asthma. Key words: omalizumab, anti-IgE-antibodies, treatment-resistant asthma, atopic asthma, treatment, children, adolescents, asthma control. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:57-65

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a state funded programme for control of severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loureiro Sebastião

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and a major economical burden to families and health systems. Whereas efficacy of current therapeutical options has been clearly established, cost-effectiveness analysis of public health interventions for asthma control are scarce. Methods 81 patients with severe asthma (12–75 years joining a programme in a reference clinic providing free asthma medication were asked retrospectively about costs and events in the previous 12 months. During 12 months after joining the programme, information on direct and indirect costs, asthma control by lung function, symptoms and quality of life were collected. The information obtained was used to estimate cost-effectiveness of the intervention as compared to usual public health asthma management. Sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results 64 patients concluded the study. During the 12-months follow-up within the programme, patients had 5 fewer days of hospitalization and 68 fewer visits to emergency/non scheduled medical visits per year, on average. Asthma control scores improved by 50% and quality of life by 74%. The annual saving in public resources was US$387 per patient. Family annual income increased US$512, and family costs were reduced by US$733. Conclusion A programme for control of severe asthma in a developing country can reduce morbidity, improve quality of life and save resources from the health system and patients families.

  20. Response to omalizumab in patients with severe allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Louise; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    at a specialized outpatient asthma clinic were included. Change in GETE score, time to discontinuation of treatment and associated risk factors were analysed. RESULTS: As a result of omalizumab treatment, most patients improved in GETE score from poor/worsening to excellent. Women were treated for a median time...

  1. Sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides and severity of childhood asthma in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunninghake, Gary M; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Avila, Lydiana; Ly, Ngoc P; Liang, Catherine; Sylvia, Jody S; Klanderman, Barbara J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celedón, Juan C

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about sensitization (defined as a positive IgE) to helminths and disease severity in patients with asthma. To examine the relationship between sensitization (defined as a positive IgE) to Ascaris lumbricoides and measures of asthma morbidity and severity in a Costa Rican population with low prevalence of parasitic infection but high prevalence of parasitic exposure. Cross-sectional study of 439 children (ages 6 to 14 years) with asthma. Linear regression and logistic regression were used for the multivariate statistical analysis. After adjustment for parental education and other covariates, sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with having at least 1 positive skin test to allergens (odds ratio, 5.15; 95% CI, 2.36-11.21; P < .001), increased total serum IgE and eosinophils in peripheral blood, reductions in FEV(1) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity, increased airway responsiveness and bronchodilator responsiveness, and hospitalizations for asthma in the previous year (odds ratio, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.23-7.68; P = .02). Sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with increased severity and morbidity of asthma among children in Costa Rica. This association is likely mediated by an increased degree of atopy among children with asthma who are sensitized to Ascaris. In areas with a low prevalence of helminthiasis such as Costa Rica, Ascaris sensitization may be an important marker of severe atopy and disease morbidity in children with asthma.

  2. Cluster Analysis of Acute Care Use Yields Insights for Tailored Pediatric Asthma Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Truchil, Aaron; Wiest, Dawn; Nelson, Daniel B; Goldstick, Jason E; Koegel, Paul; Lozon, Marie M; Choi, Hwajung; Brenner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    We undertake this study to understand patterns of pediatric asthma-related acute care use to inform interventions aimed at reducing potentially avoidable hospitalizations. Hospital claims data from 3 Camden city facilities for 2010 to 2014 were used to perform cluster analysis classifying patients aged 0 to 17 years according to their asthma-related hospital use. Clusters were based on 2 variables: asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations. Demographics and a number of sociobehavioral and use characteristics were compared across clusters. Children who met the criteria (3,170) were included in the analysis. An examination of a scree plot showing the decline in within-cluster heterogeneity as the number of clusters increased confirmed that clusters of pediatric asthma patients according to hospital use exist in the data. Five clusters of patients with distinct asthma-related acute care use patterns were observed. Cluster 1 (62% of patients) showed the lowest rates of acute care use. These patients were least likely to have a mental health-related diagnosis, were less likely to have visited multiple facilities, and had no hospitalizations for asthma. Cluster 2 (19% of patients) had a low number of asthma ED visits and onetime hospitalization. Cluster 3 (11% of patients) had a high number of ED visits and low hospitalization rates, and the highest rates of multiple facility use. Cluster 4 (7% of patients) had moderate ED use for both asthma and other illnesses, and high rates of asthma hospitalizations; nearly one quarter received care at all facilities, and 1 in 10 had a mental health diagnosis. Cluster 5 (1% of patients) had extreme rates of acute care use. Differences observed between groups across multiple sociobehavioral factors suggest these clusters may represent children who differ along multiple dimensions, in addition to patterns of service use, with implications for tailored interventions. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians

  3. Non invasive proportional assist ventilation in management of severe asthma exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: NIV can relieve respiratory distress and improve gas exchange in the majority of patients with severe asthma exacerbation who are candidate for intubation after failure of conventional medical therapy.

  4. Sensitization to Aspergillus species is associated with frequent exacerbations in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh KJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ken Junyang Goh,1 Anthony Chau Ang Yii,1,2 Therese Sophie Lapperre,1,2 Adrian KW Chan,1–3 Fook Tim Chew,4 Sanjay H Chotirmall,5,* Mariko Siyue Koh1–3,* 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 2Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, 3Allergy Centre, Singapore General Hospital, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 5Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Severe asthma is a largely heterogeneous disease with varying phenotypic profiles. The relationship between specific allergen sensitization and asthma severity, particularly in Asia, remains unclear. We aim to study the prevalence of specific allergen sensitization patterns and investigate their association with outcomes in a severe asthma cohort in an Asian setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients receiving step 4 or 5 Global Initiative for Asthma treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between sensitization to a specific identifiable allergen by skin prick test (SPT and uncontrolled asthma (defined in our study as the use of ≥2 steroid bursts or hospitalization in the past year, a history of near-fatal asthma or evidence of airflow obstruction on spirometry. Results: Two hundred and six severe asthma patients (mean age 45±17 years, 99 [48.1%] male were evaluated. Of them, 78.2% had a positive SPT to one or more allergens. The most common allergen to which patients were sensitized was house dust mites (Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Also, 11.7% were sensitized to Aspergillus species. On multivariate analysis, Aspergillus sensitization was associated with uncontrolled asthma (odds ratio 6.07, 95% confidence interval 1.80–20.51. In particular, Aspergillus

  5. Therapy with omalizumab for patients with severe allergic asthma improves asthma control and reduces overall healthcare costs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costello, R W

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled steroids and long-acting beta agonists are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IgE, which is used as an add-on treatment for patients who have severe persistent allergic asthma. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical benefit and healthcare utilisation of patients who responded to omalizumab therapy and to establish an overall cost implication. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of omalizumab on exacerbations of asthma before and after 6 months of treatment in Irish patients. RESULTS: Centres who had treated patients with severe allergic asthma for the 6 months prior and post omalizumab treatment were audited with a standardised assessment tool. Sixty-three (32 male) patients were studied. In the 6 months prior to omalizumab 41 of 63 (66%) had been hospitalised, and this fell to 15 of 63 (24%), p < 0.0001 in the 6 months after treatment was started. Hospital admissions reduced from 2.4 +\\/- 0.41 to 0.8 +\\/- 0.37 and the mean number of bed days occupied was reduced from 16.6 +\\/- 2.94 to 5.3 +\\/- 2.57 days, p < 0.001. The number of oral corticosteroid doses used fell from 3.1 +\\/- 0.27 to 1.2 +\\/- 0.17, p < 0.001. The overall cost saving per omalizumab responder patients for 6 months was 834. CONCLUSIONS: Six months therapy with omalizumab reduced the number of bed days, the number of hospitalisations and the use of oral corticosteroids compared to the 6 months prior to commencement. Despite the cost of the additional therapy there were overall savings in health costs.

  6. Folate Deficiency, Atopy, and Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Joshua; Brehm, John M; Sordillo, Joanne; Forno, Erick; Boutaoui, Nadia; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about folate and atopy or severe asthma exacerbations. We examined whether folate deficiency is associated with number of positive skin tests to allergens or severe asthma exacerbations in a high-risk population and further assessed whether such association is explained or modified by vitamin D status. Cross-sectional study of 582 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 304) and without (n = 278) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Folate deficiency was defined as plasma folate less than or equal to 20 ng/ml. Our outcomes were the number of positive skin tests to allergens (range, 0-15) in all children and (in children with asthma) one or more severe exacerbations in the previous year. Logistic and negative binomial regression models were used for the multivariate analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, residential proximity to a major road, and (for atopy) case/control status; those for severe exacerbations were also adjusted for use of inhaled corticosteroids and vitamin D insufficiency (a plasma 25[OH]D atopy and 2.2 times increased odds of at least one severe asthma exacerbation (95% confidence interval for odds ratio, 1.1-4.6). Compared with children who had normal levels of both folate and vitamin D, those with both folate deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency had nearly eightfold increased odds of one or more severe asthma exacerbation (95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio, 2.7-21.6). Folate deficiency is associated with increased degree of atopy and severe asthma exacerbations in school-aged Puerto Ricans. Vitamin D insufficiency may further increase detrimental effects of folate deficiency on severe asthma exacerbations.

  7. Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of asthma: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Elyce; Jain, Paras; Bernoth, Maree

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterised by reversible airway obstruction caused by bronchospasm, mucous and oedema. People with asthma commonly experience acute exacerbations of their disease requiring hospitalisation and subsequent utilisation of economic and healthcare resources. Noninvasive ventilation has been suggested as a treatment for acute exacerbations of asthma due to its ability to provide airway stenting, optimal oxygen delivery and decreased work of breathing. This paper is a systematic review of the available published research focused on the use of noninvasive ventilation for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma to determine if this treatment provides better outcomes for patients compared to standard medical therapy. Database searches were conducted using EBSCOhost, MEDLINE and PubMed. Search terms used were combinations of 'noninvasive ventilation', 'BiPAP', 'CPAP', 'wheez*' and 'asthma'. Articles were included if they were research papers focused on adult patients with asthma and a treatment of noninvasive ventilation, and were published in full text in English. Included articles were reviewed using the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) evidence hierarchy and quality appraisal tools. There were 492 articles identified from the database searches. After application of inclusion/exclusion criteria 13 articles were included in the systematic review. Studies varied significantly in design, endpoints and outcomes. There was a trend in better outcomes for patients with acute asthma who were treated with noninvasive ventilation compared to standard medical therapy, however, the variability of the studies meant that no conclusive recommendations could be made. More research is required before noninvasive ventilation can be conclusively recommended for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mold sensitization is common amongst patients with severe asthma requiring multiple hospital admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkinson Linda C

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have linked fungal exposure to asthma, but the link to severe asthma is controversial. We studied the relationship between asthma severity and immediate type hypersensitivity to mold (fungal and non-mold allergens in 181 asthmatic subjects. Methods We recruited asthma patients aged 16 to 60 years at a University hospital and a nearby General Practice. Patients were categorized according to the lifetime number of hospital admissions for asthma (82 never admitted, 53 one admission, 46 multiple admissions. All subjects had allergy skin prick tests performed for 5 mold allergens (Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Candida and 4 other common inhalant allergens (D. pteronyssinus, Grass Pollen, Cat and Dog. Results Skin reactivity to all allergens was commonest in the group with multiple admissions. This trend was strongest for mold allergens and dog allergen and weakest for D. pteronyssinus. 76% of patients with multiple admissions had at least one positive mold skin test compared with 16%-19% of other asthma patients; (Chi squared p Conclusion These findings support previous suggestions that mold sensitization may be associated with severe asthma attacks requiring hospital admission.

  9. Vitamin D insufficiency and severe asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, John M; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Klei, Lambertus; Roeder, Kathryn; Barmada, Michael; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Kelly, Roxanne; Paul, Kathryn; Sylvia, Jody; Litonjua, Augusto A; Cabana, Michael; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-07-15

    Vitamin D insufficiency (a serum 25(OH)D asthma exacerbations, but this could be explained by underlying racial ancestry or disease severity. Little is known about vitamin D and asthma in Puerto Ricans. To examine whether vitamin D insufficiency is associated with severe asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children, independently of racial ancestry, atopy, and time outdoors. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 560 children ages 6-14 years with (n = 287) and without (n = 273) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. We measured plasma vitamin D and estimated the percentage of African racial ancestry among participants using genome-wide genotypic data. We tested whether vitamin D insufficiency is associated with severe asthma exacerbations, lung function, or atopy (greater than or equal to one positive IgE to allergens) using logistic or linear regression. Multivariate models were adjusted for African ancestry, time outdoors, atopy, and other covariates. Vitamin D insufficiency was common in children with (44%) and without (47%) asthma. In multivariate analyses, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with higher odds of greater than or equal to one severe asthma exacerbation in the prior year (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.9; P = 0.001) and atopy, and a lower FEV(1)/FVC in cases. After stratification by atopy, the magnitude of the association between vitamin D insufficiency and severe exacerbations was greater in nonatopic (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2-21.6; P = 0.002) than in atopic (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1-4.1; P = 0.04) cases. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with severe asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children, independently of racial ancestry, atopy, or markers of disease severity or control.

  10. Effect of disease severity and pharmacotherapy of asthma on oral health in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeborn, K; Dahllöf, G; Hedlin, G; Lindell, M; Modéer, T

    1987-04-01

    Oral health was studied in a group of asthmatic children (n = 61). The children were divided in two groups, 5-10 and 11-18 yr of age. The individuals with asthma were further subgrouped with respect to the disease severity. Severe asthma was defined as more than 10 asthmatic attacks per year. This patient group had daily medication compared to children with moderate asthma (less than 10 asthmatic attacks/yr) who medicated temporarily. 55 age matched children from the same area made up the control group. All children were examined clinically and two bitewing radiographs were taken. The results showed no statistically significant differences concerning caries prevalence and gingival condition in asthmatic children compared to a healthy control group. The study shows that neither the asthma per se nor the disease severity affected the caries prevalence and gingival condition in asthmatic children.

  11. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Activation Contributes to Airway Smooth Muscle Growth and Asthma Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Shams-Un-Nisa; Clements, Debbie; Jackson, David J; Philp, Christopher; Billington, Charlotte K; Soomro, Irshad; Reynolds, Catherine; Harrison, Timothy W; Johnston, Sebastian L; Shaw, Dominick E; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-04-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and mast cells are present in the airways of people with asthma. To investigate whether MMP-1 could be activated by mast cells and increase asthma severity. Patients with stable asthma and healthy control subjects underwent spirometry, methacholine challenge, and bronchoscopy, and their airway smooth muscle cells were grown in culture. A second asthma group and control subjects had symptom scores, spirometry, and bronchoalveolar lavage before and after rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Extracellular matrix was prepared from decellularized airway smooth muscle cultures. MMP-1 protein and activity were assessed. Airway smooth muscle cells generated pro-MMP-1, which was proteolytically activated by mast cell tryptase. Airway smooth muscle treated with activated mast cell supernatants produced extracellular matrix, which enhanced subsequent airway smooth muscle growth by 1.5-fold (P asthma, airway pro-MMP-1 was 5.4-fold higher than control subjects (P = 0.002). Mast cell numbers were associated with airway smooth muscle proliferation and MMP-1 protein associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. During exacerbations, MMP-1 activity increased and was associated with fall in FEV1 and worsening asthma symptoms. MMP-1 is activated by mast cell tryptase resulting in a proproliferative extracellular matrix. In asthma, mast cells are associated with airway smooth muscle growth, MMP-1 levels are associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and MMP-1 activation are associated with exacerbation severity. Our findings suggest that airway smooth muscle/mast cell interactions contribute to asthma severity by transiently increasing MMP activation, airway smooth muscle growth, and airway responsiveness.

  13. From bedside to bench to clinic trials: identifying new treatments for severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Mishra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthmatics with a severe form of the disease are frequently refractory to standard medications such as inhaled corticosteroids, underlining the need for new treatments to prevent the occurrence of potentially life-threatening episodes. A major obstacle in the development of new treatments for severe asthma is the heterogeneous pathogenesis of the disease, which involves multiple mechanisms and cell types. Furthermore, new therapies might need to be targeted to subgroups of patients whose disease pathogenesis is mediated by a specific pathway. One approach to solving the challenge of developing new treatments for severe asthma is to use experimental mouse models of asthma to address clinically relevant questions regarding disease pathogenesis. The mechanistic insights gained from mouse studies can be translated back to the clinic as potential treatment approaches that require evaluation in clinical trials to validate their effectiveness and safety in human subjects. Here, we will review how mouse models have advanced our understanding of severe asthma pathogenesis. Mouse studies have helped us to uncover the underlying inflammatory mechanisms (mediated by multiple immune cell types that produce Th1, Th2 or Th17 cytokines and non-inflammatory pathways, in addition to shedding light on asthma that is associated with obesity or steroid unresponsiveness. We propose that the strategy of using mouse models to address clinically relevant questions remains an attractive and productive research approach for identifying mechanistic pathways that can be developed into novel treatments for severe asthma.

  14. Family functioning and child asthma severity: A bio-behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghriwati, Nour; Winter, Marcia A; Everhart, Robin S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2017-12-01

    Family factors are directly associated with the psychosocial adjustment of children with chronic illnesses such as asthma (Kaugars, Klinnert, & Bender, 2004). Research indicates that negative family factors may also contribute to child disease severity via bio-behavioral mechanisms of effect. For instance, children from more conflicted families often experience greater internalizing symptoms that subsequently impact their asthma severity (Wood et al., 2006). These pathways have yet to be examined with a comprehensive focus on strength-based family factors. This study examined whether factors such as family cohesion, problem-solving abilities, and communication influence asthma severity via their effects on child depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 215 children (136 males and 79 females), ages 5 to 12 years old, and their families. Primary caregiver, child, and teacher ratings of child and family functioning in addition to objective measures of parent-child interactions and asthma severity were collected. Using structural equation modeling, the authors identified significant indirect associations between family factors and child asthma severity via child depressive symptoms; however, these associations were not present in models with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest an indirect effect of family functioning on children's lung function, with differential roles of anxiety and depression in these pathways. This article also highlights the importance of incorporating multirater multimethod measures to understand children's experiences in pediatric asthma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Efficacy and cost comparisons of bronchodilatator administration between metered dose inhalers with disposable spacers and nebulizers for acute asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuper, Sunil; Chandra, Alpana; Ahmed, Aziz; Bista, Sabin; Moghekar, Ajit; Verma, Rajesh; Chong, Cynthia; Shim, Chang; Cohen, Hillel; Choksi, Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Despite demonstration of equivalent efficacy of beta agonist delivery using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) with spacer vs. nebulizer in asthma patients, use of a nebulizer remains standard practice. We hypothesize that beta agonist delivery with a MDI/disposable spacer combination is an effective and low-cost alternative to nebulizer delivery for acute asthma in an inner-city population. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 60 acute asthma adult patients in two inner-city emergency departments. Subjects (n = 60) received albuterol with either a MDI/spacer combination or nebulizer. The spacer group (n = 29) received albuterol by MDI/spacer followed by placebo nebulization. The nebulizer group (n = 29) received placebo by MDI/spacer followed by albuterol nebulization. Peak flows, symptom scores, and need for rescue bronchodilatator were monitored. Median values were compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Patients in the two randomized groups had similar baseline characteristics. The severity of asthma exacerbation, median peak flows, and symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The median (interquartile range) improvement in peak flow was 120 (75-180) L/min vs. 120 (80-155) L/min in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.56). The median improvement in the symptom score was 7 (5-9) vs. 7 (4-9) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.78). The median cost of treatment per patient was $10.11 ($10.03-$10.28) vs. $18.26 ($9.88-$22.45) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p nebulizer to MDI/spacer beta agonist delivery for emergency management of acute asthma in the inner-city adult population. MDI/spacer may be a more economical alternative to nebulizer delivery. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral montelukast in acute asthma exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Salahuddin, Nawal; Khawaja, Ali; Awan, Safia; Shah, Adil Aijaz; Haque, Ahmed Suleman; Husain, Shahid Javed; Rao, Nisar; Khan, Javaid Ahmad

    2013-03-28

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are well established in the management of outpatient asthma. However, there is very little information as to their role in acute asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that LTRAs may accelerate lung function recovery when given in an acute exacerbation. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital to assess the efficacy of oral montelukast on patients of 16 years of age and above who were hospitalized with acute asthma exacerbation. The patients were given either montelukast or placebo along with standard therapy throughout the hospital stay for acute asthma. Improvements in lung function and duration of hospital stay were monitored. 100 patients were randomized; their mean age was 52 years (SD +/- 18.50). The majority were females (79%) and non-smokers (89%). The mean hospital stay was 3.70 ± 1.93 days with 80% of patients discharged in 3 days. There was no significant difference in clinical symptoms, PEF over the course of hospital stay (p = 0.20 at day 2 and p = 0.47 at day 3) and discharge (p = 0.15), FEV1 at discharge (p = 0.29) or length of hospital stay (p = 0.90) between the two groups. No serious adverse effects were noted during the course of the study. Our study suggests that there is no benefit of addition of oral montelukast over conventional treatment in the management of acute asthma attack. 375-Med/ERC-04.

  17. NEW OPPORTUNITIES OF PROPHYLAXIS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA EXACERBATIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Chernyshov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on pidotimod (Imunorix effectiveness in prophylaxis of bronchial asthma exacerbations in children are analyzed. Authors’ trial included 55 children 5–10 years old with exacerbations of a disease caused by acute respiratory infections. Authors studied influence of pidotimod on antioxidant system of blood serum. The effectiveness of the drug for the prophylaxis of respiratory infections in children with bronchial asthma was shown, and this effect favored to the decrease of rate of exacerbations.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, prophylaxis, pidotimod.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:54-57

  18. Does periodontal infection have an effect on severe asthma in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Soledade-Marques, Kaliane Rocha; Seixas da Cruz, Simone; de Santana Passos-Soares, Johelle; Trindade, Soraya Castro; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Fischer Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina; de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Eneida; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Costa de Santana, Teresinha; Freitas Coelho, Julita Maria

    2014-06-01

    The effect of periodontal infection on systemic diseases and conditions has been the subject of numerous studies worldwide. It is considered that periodontitis may influence the hyperinflammatory response in patients with severe asthma as a result of immuno-inflammatory changes. This study aims to evaluate the influence of periodontitis on severe asthma in adults. A case-control study was carried out, comprising 220 adult individuals: 113 diagnosed with asthma (case group) and 107 without asthma diagnosis (control group). The diagnosis of periodontitis was established after a full clinical examination using probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing. The diagnosis of severe asthma was based on the criteria recommended by the Global Initiative of Asthma (2012). Descriptive analyses of the variables were performed, followed by bivariate analyses, using the χ(2) test. Association measurements (odds ratio [OR]), with and without adjustment for potential confounders, were obtained. A significance level of 5% was used. The ORunadjusted for the main association was 4.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 7.75). In the logistic regression model, after adjusting for age, education level, osteoporosis, smoking habit, and body mass index, the ORadjusted was 4.82 (95% CI = 2.66 to 8.76), which was statistically significant. Individuals with periodontal infection showed, approximately, five times more likelihood to have bronchial inflammation than those without such periodontal tissue infection. The findings demonstrate the influence of periodontitis on severe asthma, given that the frequency of periodontitis is higher in individuals with severe asthma than in those without a diagnosis of bronchial inflammation.

  19. Omalizumab therapy in severe asthma: experience from the Spanish registry--some new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennera, María Del Carmen; Pérez De Llano, Luis; Bardagí, Santiago; Ausin, Pilar; Sanjuas, Carles; González, Héctor; Gullón, José A; Martínez-Moragón, Eva; Carretero, José A; Vera, Elisabet; Medina, Juan F; Alvarez, Francisco J; Entrenas, Luis M; Padilla, Alicia; Irigaray, Rosa; Picado, César

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of omalizumab in severe asthma has been widely demonstrated. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of omalizumab in a real-life setting in Spain, particularly in those patients with immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels out of range. Totally 266 uncontrolled severe asthma patients receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) were recruited. Main efficacy outcomes were asthma exacerbation rate (AER), asthma control test (ACT), and global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE). AER was reduced from 3.6 (3.6) in previous year to 0.67 (1.2) at 4 months (p 700 IU/ml. At follow-up, maintenance treatment with oral steroids was discontinued in a considerable number of patients: from 89 to 19 (p 700 IU/ml.

  20. Phenotypes determined by cluster analysis in severe or difficult-to-treat asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Michael; Hsu, Jin-Wen Y; Zeiger, Robert S; Chen, Wansu; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Chipps, Bradley E; Haselkorn, Tmirah

    2014-06-01

    Asthma phenotyping can facilitate understanding of disease pathogenesis and potential targeted therapies. To further characterize the distinguishing features of phenotypic groups in difficult-to-treat asthma. Children ages 6-11 years (n = 518) and adolescents and adults ages ≥12 years (n = 3612) with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma from The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study were evaluated in this post hoc cluster analysis. Analyzed variables included sex, race, atopy, age of asthma onset, smoking (adolescents and adults), passive smoke exposure (children), obesity, and aspirin sensitivity. Cluster analysis used the hierarchical clustering algorithm with the Ward minimum variance method. The results were compared among clusters by χ(2) analysis; variables with significant (P < .05) differences among clusters were considered as distinguishing feature candidates. Associations among clusters and asthma-related health outcomes were assessed in multivariable analyses by adjusting for socioeconomic status, environmental exposures, and intensity of therapy. Five clusters were identified in each age stratum. Sex, atopic status, and nonwhite race were distinguishing variables in both strata; passive smoke exposure was distinguishing in children and aspirin sensitivity in adolescents and adults. Clusters were not related to outcomes in children, but 2 adult and adolescent clusters distinguished by nonwhite race and aspirin sensitivity manifested poorer quality of life (P < .0001), and the aspirin-sensitive cluster experienced more frequent asthma exacerbations (P < .0001). Distinct phenotypes appear to exist in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma, which is related to outcomes in adolescents and adults but not in children. The study of the therapeutic implications of these phenotypes is warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  1. Efficacy of omalizumab in cat-allergic patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanari, Marc; Kianifard, Farid; Zeldin, Robert K; Geba, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Cat allergen (Fel d 1) is a pervasive and common trigger of exacerbations in sensitized patients with IgE-mediated asthma. This study was designed to evaluate the effect on asthma-related outcome measures of adding omalizumab to current treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma and cat allergen sensitivity. A pooled analysis was conducted of two double-blind, placebo-controlled, 28-week pivotal U.S. registration trials. In all patients, asthma was inadequately controlled with moderate-high dose inhaled corticosteroids. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous omalizumab (minimum, 0.016 mg/kg per IgE IU/mL every 4 weeks) or matched placebo. The effects of omalizumab on asthma-related outcomes were assessed for patients with cat allergen sensitivity (n = 811), identified by positive skin-prick test. The mean number of asthma exacerbations requiring treatment with systemic steroid bursts in cat allergen-sensitive patients was lower in those receiving omalizumab versus placebo (0.6 versus 1.3, respectively; relative risk = 0.50, p < 0.001). Compared with placebo, omalizumab treatment led to significantly lower asthma symptom scores (least squares means (LSMs) treatment difference [95% confidence interval {CI}]: -0.57 [-0.77, -0.37]; p < 0.001), less rescue medication use (LSMs treatment difference [95% CI]: -0.75 puffs of rescue beta-agonist per day [-1.04, -0.46]; p < 0.001), and improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (LSMs treatment difference [95% CI]: 100.84 mL [51.86, 149.81]; p < 0.001). Patient and investigator global evaluations of treatment effectiveness paralleled these outcomes. Omalizumab improved asthma control by reducing exacerbations and decreasing symptoms in cat-allergic patients with moderate-to-severe persistent IgE-mediated asthma.

  2. February 2015 pulmonary case of the month: severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapu S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. History of present illness: A 50-year-old African-American woman with a history of asthma presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of shortness of breath for 2 weeks. She reported some chest tightness, wheezing and dry cough. She denied fever, chills, myalgias or arthralgias at the time of admission. PMH, SH and FH: In addition to asthma, she has a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and multiple sclerosis. She admitted to social smoking but states she quit 6 to 7 months ago. She denies alcohol, recreational drug use, or a family history of early coronary artery disease, strokes or cancers. Medications: montelukast 10 mg daily; salmeterol/fluticasone 250/50 inhaled twice a day; albuterol inhaler as needed for shortness of breath; metformin 500 mg bid; dimethyl fumarate 240 mg bid; omega 3 fish oil; calcium carbonate 600 mg daily; naproxen 500 mg bid; lisinopril 10 mg daily ...

  3. Do eosinophil counts correlate differently with asthma severity by symptoms versus peak flow rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, E A; Alamoudi, O S

    1999-12-01

    Discrepancy in asthmatic assessment by symptoms and peak flow rate (PFR) is a frequent dilemma. Currently, total peripheral eosinophil count (TPEC) is under study for asthma evaluation. To explore the correlation between TPEC and asthma severity assessed by symptoms alone versus symptoms and PFR. Adults asthmatics were selected from the Asthma Clinic. Severity assessment was based on two methods: symptoms alone or symptoms and PFR. Expiratory PFR was recorded by a Wright peak flow meter. Severity levels included mild intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent. Total peripheral eosinophil count was performed on a Celldyn-3500 counter. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. Sixty asthmatics aged 15 to 70 years (mean = 34 years), of which 68.3% were female, were studied. Severity levels differed between the two assessment methods in 45% of the cases and showed a predominance of the moderate persistent type. Total peripheral eosinophil count ranged between 22 and 2470 cells/mm3 (mean = 520 +/- SD = 393) and eosinophilia was found in 50% of the cases. Total peripheral eosinophil count showed a high positive correlation with increased asthma severity level assessed by history alone (r = 0.460, P < .001); more than by history and PFR (r = 0.328, P < .05). The discrepancy between symptoms and PFR is confirmed by these results. A reliable objective parameter in asthma assessment is a continuous challenge. This study advocates the possible supplementation of TPEC as another objective parameter that might help in selecting the appropriate severity level in asthmatics.

  4. Association Between Severe Vitamin D Deficiency, Lung Function and Asthma Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan-Sagmen, Seda; Baykan, Ozgur; Balcan, Baran; Ceyhan, Berrin

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship between severe vitamin D deficiency, asthma control, and pulmonary function in Turkish adults with asthma. One hundred six asthmatic patients underwent pulmonary function tests skin prick test, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, IgE, body mass index and vitamin D levels were determined. Patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to vitamin D levels (vitamin D level<10ng/ml and vitamin D level≥10 ng/ml). Asthma control tests were performed. The mean age of subgroup i (vitamin D level<10) was 37±10 and the mean age of subgroup ii (vitamin D level≥10ng/ml) was 34±8. Sixty-six percent of patients had severe vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D level<10 ng/ml). There was a significant trend towards lower absolute FEV 1 (L) values in patients with lower vitamin D levels (P=.001). Asthma control test scores were significantly low in the severe deficiency group than the other group (P=.02). There were a greater number of patients with uncontrolled asthma (asthma control test scores<20) in the severe vitamin D deficiency group (P=.040). Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a higher usage of inhaled corticosteroids than the group without severe vitamin D deficiency (P=.015). There was a significant trend towards lower absolute FEV 1 (L) (P=.005, r=.272) values in patients with lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels were inversely related with body mass index (P=.046). The incidence of severe vitamin D deficiency was high in adult Turkish asthmatics. In addition, lower vitamin D levels were associated with poor asthma control and decreased pulmonary function. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Beta2 adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) haplotype pair (2/4) is associated with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Li Ping; Baltic, Svetlana; Ferreira, Manuel; Temple, Suzanna; Waterer, Grant; Thompson, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) polymorphisms including ADRβ2+46G>A have been reported to cause adverse outcomes in mild asthmatics. The extent to which ADRβ2 polymorphisms and in particular their haplotypes contribute to severe asthma is unknown. To determine the association of ADRβ2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with asthma severity. Caucasians (n = 2979) were genotyped for 11 ADRβ2 polymorphisms. The cohort (mean age 39.6, 60% female) included 2296 non-asthmatics, 386 mild asthmatics, 172 moderate asthmatics and 125 severe asthmatics. Haplotype frequency and haplotype pair for each subject was determined using the PHASE algorithm. The three asthmatic cohorts were comparable in age and gender but were distinguishable from each other in terms of symptoms, spirometry, medication use and health care utilisation (p haplotypes were identified and no association was found with asthma diagnosis or severity per se. Haplotype pair 2/4 was associated with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 1.42, p = 0.0008) but not with asthma per se. Prevalence of haplotype pair 2/2 appeared to decrease with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 0.78, p = 0.067). Two new haplotypes were identified, occurring exclusively in asthmatics at a frequency of ≥ 1%. In addition, a positive association between carriage of ADRβ2 +523*C and increased risk of atopy was discovered. ADRβ2 haplotype pair 2/4 is associated with severe asthma and is consistent with findings of poor bronchodilator response in mild asthmatics who are also haplotype 2/4.

  6. Comparison of nebulized terbutaline (TERB) and subcutaneous epinephrine (EPI) in the treatment of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkelman, D G; Vanderpool, G E; Carroll, M S; Lotner, G Z; Spangler, D L

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nebulized terbutaline 5 mg vs. subcutaneous epinephrine (1/1000, 0.3 cc) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma in adult patients. Patients with a known diagnosis of asthma, who presented to the investigators in acute respiratory distress, without any previous adrenergic agents for six hours, were the subjects for this study. There were 33 patients enrolled in the study between 16 and 64 years of age. The results indicate both treatment groups gave significant increases in pulmonary function at all times when compared to baseline (p less than 0.001). Nebulized terbutaline and subcutaneous epinephrine appeared equally effective in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma, without significant differences in bronchodilator effectiveness or side effects.

  7. Multidisciplinary treatment in children with problematic severe asthma: A prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkleij, Marieke; Beelen, Anita; van Ewijk, Bart E; Geenen, Rinie

    2017-05-01

    For children with problematic severe asthma, achieving adequate control of asthma is difficult. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effects of intensive multidisciplinary inpatient treatment on multiple outcome variables in children with problematic severe asthma. Participants were 89 children with problematic severe asthma (mean age 13.6 ± 2.5 years) treated in tertiary care clinics at high altitude (Switzerland) or sea level (Netherlands) and their parents (85 mothers, 55 fathers). The primary outcome variable was the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). Other outcome variables were forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), quality of life [PAQLQ(S)], children's coping (UCL-A), parents' report of behavioral problems (CBCL), and parenting stress (PSI/NOSI). Evaluations were taken pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-6 months follow-up. Median [P25;P75] treatment duration 74 [56;80] days; Median follow-up interval 131 [103;177] days. The percentages of children showing controlled asthma (C-ACT) were 18% (pre-treatment), 69% (post-treatment), and 44% (follow-up). The vast majority of the children (80%) showed an improvement on C-ACT with 4% showing a deterioration. On C-ACT, FeNO, quality of life, and behavioral problems, improvements at post-treatment were highly significant. Improvements generally remained at a functional level at follow-up. Children's coping and parenting stress in parents did not change. The improvement in asthma control and other outcome variables suggests that multidisciplinary inpatient treatment is an effective approach for a heterogeneous group of children with asthma that remained uncontrolled in secondary care. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:588-597. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Unsupervised phenotyping of Severe Asthma Research Program participants using expanded lung data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Bleecker, Eugene; Moore, Wendy; Busse, William W; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Calhoun, William J; Erzurum, Serpil; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wenzel, Sally E

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have identified asthma phenotypes based on small numbers of clinical, physiologic, or inflammatory characteristics. However, no studies have used a wide range of variables using machine learning approaches. We sought to identify subphenotypes of asthma by using blood, bronchoscopic, exhaled nitric oxide, and clinical data from the Severe Asthma Research Program with unsupervised clustering and then characterize them by using supervised learning approaches. Unsupervised clustering approaches were applied to 112 clinical, physiologic, and inflammatory variables from 378 subjects. Variable selection and supervised learning techniques were used to select relevant and nonredundant variables and address their predictive values, as well as the predictive value of the full variable set. Ten variable clusters and 6 subject clusters were identified, which differed and overlapped with previous clusters. Patients with traditionally defined severe asthma were distributed through subject clusters 3 to 6. Cluster 4 identified patients with early-onset allergic asthma with low lung function and eosinophilic inflammation. Patients with later-onset, mostly severe asthma with nasal polyps and eosinophilia characterized cluster 5. Cluster 6 asthmatic patients manifested persistent inflammation in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exacerbations despite high systemic corticosteroid use and side effects. Age of asthma onset, quality of life, symptoms, medications, and health care use were some of the 51 nonredundant variables distinguishing subject clusters. These 51 variables classified test cases with 88% accuracy compared with 93% accuracy with all 112 variables. The unsupervised machine learning approaches used here provide unique insights into disease, confirming other approaches while revealing novel additional phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge of primary school teachers about asthma: a cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.176, respectively). Areas of particular concern included knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of a severe acute asthma attack, asthma medication and management, and asthma and sports. Conclusion: This study demonstrates deficiencies in teachers' knowledge of asthma, which will need to be addressed if they ...

  10. The effect of sand storms on acute asthma in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Alangari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Major sand storms are frequent in the Middle East. This study aims to investigate the role of air particulate matter (PM level in acute asthma in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An aerosol spectrometer was used to evaluate PM 1000 μg/m 3 , representing major sand storms, plus the following 5 days and other days with PM 10 < 1000 μg/m 3 . Conclusion: Sand storms, even major ones, had no significant impact on acute asthma exacerbations in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The very high levels of PM, however, deserve further studying especially of their long-term effects.

  11. Effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe refractory asthma: Clinical and histopathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretolani, Marina; Bergqvist, Anders; Thabut, Gabriel; Dombret, Marie-Christine; Knapp, Dominique; Hamidi, Fatima; Alavoine, Loubna; Taillé, Camille; Chanez, Pascal; Erjefält, Jonas S; Aubier, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has been reported in patients with severe asthma, yet its effect on different bronchial structures remains unknown. We sought to examine the effect of BT on bronchial structures and to explore the association with clinical outcome in patients with severe refractory asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens (n = 300) were collected from 15 patients with severe uncontrolled asthma before and 3 months after BT. Immunostained sections were assessed for airway smooth muscle (ASM) area, subepithelial basement membrane thickness, nerve fibers, and epithelial neuroendocrine cells. Histopathologic findings were correlated with clinical parameters. BT significantly improved asthma control and quality of life at both 3 and 12 months and decreased the numbers of severe exacerbations and the dose of oral corticosteroids. At 3 months, this clinical benefit was accompanied by a reduction in ASM area (median values before and after BT, respectively: 19.7% [25th-75th interquartile range (IQR), 15.9% to 22.4%] and 5.3% [25th-75th IQR], 3.5% to 10.1%, P Asthma Control Test scores, numbers of exacerbations, and visits to the emergency department (all P ≤ .02) 3 and 12 months after BT. BT is a treatment option in patients with severe therapy-refractory asthma that downregulates selectively structural abnormalities involved in airway narrowing and bronchial reactivity, particularly ASM, neuroendocrine epithelial cells, and bronchial nerve endings. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of the treatment of severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Garas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic multifactorial diseases of the lungs. At least 10–12 % of patients with bronchial asthma are suffering from a severe form of the disease. One aspect of inadequate severe asthma control is its phenotypic heterogeneity, interest of experts increases to the problem of exercise-induced asthma. The purpose of the study was to increase efficiency of treatment for severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren based on the analysis of the attack dynamics and to achieve disease control according to main inflammatometric and spirometric indices. Materials and methods. We examined 46 children with severe persistent bronchial asthma, in particular, 15 schoolchildren suffering from severe exercise-induced asthma, the second clinical group (comparison one consisted of 31 children suffering from severe type of the disease, with no signs of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Basic therapy effectiveness was determined prospectively by assessing the disease control using AST-test with an interval of 3 months. The severity of bronchial obstruction syndrome in patients on admission to hospital during exacerbation was assessed by score scale. Airway hyperresponsiveness was evaluated according to the results of bronchoprovocation with histamine. Results. Children of I clinical group had more significant manifestations of bronchial obstruction during the week of inpatient treatment than the comparison group of patients, including significantly more severe manifestations of bronchial obstruction were verified on 1st and 7th day of hospitalization. Due to the analysis of basic therapy effectiveness, only a quarter of I clinical group patients and a larger part of schoolchildren in comparison group achieved the partial control after a 3-month course of anti-inflammatory treatment. Eosinophilic inflammation was observed in most children with severe exercise-induced asthma (60.1 % and in 47.2 % of

  13. Utilization and Costs of Severe Uncontrolled Asthma in a Managed-Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Robert S; Schatz, Michael; Dalal, Anand A; Qian, Lei; Chen, Wansu; Ngor, Eunice W; Suruki, Robert Y; Kawatkar, Aniket A

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and economic burden of patients with severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA) in a real-world managed-care setting required further documentation. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics, clinical, and economic burden of SUA in a managed-care setting. This observational study identified patients with persistent asthma aged 12 years or more (N = 25,935) using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision asthma codes and Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set administrative criteria. An SUA subgroup was identified when all of the following 3 criteria were met in 2012: (1) 2 or more asthma exacerbations; (2) 6 or more medium- or high-dose dispensed canisters of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as monotherapy or with long-acting β2-agonist; and (3) 3 or more dispensed non-ICS controllers. Health care utilization and direct costs (all-cause and asthma-related) in 2013 were compared between SUA and non-SUA subgroups using multivariable regression. Compared with the non-SUA subgroup (N = 25,350, 97.7%), the SUA subgroup (N = 585, 2.3%) at baseline was significantly older and had more comorbidities, asthma specialist care, controller medication dispensed, and asthma exacerbations. During follow-up, patients with SUA exhibited significantly more asthma exacerbations and short-acting β2-agonist use, and higher all-cause and asthma-related costs than patients with non-SUA. The adjusted asthma-related average direct cost per patient at follow-up was significantly higher for SUA (mean ± SE) ($2325 ± $75) than non-SUA ($1261 ± $9) with an incremental cost of $1056 (95% CI, $907-$1205). Asthma drugs accounted for the major difference (incremental cost of $848/patient; 95% CI, $737-$959). Increases and disparities in health care utilization and direct cost by SUA status suggest that patients with SUA require more intensive therapy, greater attention to adherence and comorbidities, more specialist care, and, possibly

  14. Factors associated with severe uncontrolled asthma and the perception of control by physicians and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennera, María del Carmen; Picado, César; Herráez, Lys; Galera, Jordi; Casafont, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    Despite current treatments, more than half of patients with asthma are not controlled. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between control perceived by patients and physicians, compared with control evaluated according to criteria of the Spanish Guidelines for Asthma Management (GEMA), and to investigate the factors associated with that control. Multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study including 343 patients with severe persistent asthma according to GEMA criteria seen in the Department of Pulmonology and Allergology. The correlation between asthma control perceived by the patient, the physician and according to clinical judgment based on the GEMA criteria was calculated, and a multivariate analysis was used to determine variables related to the perception of asthma control. According to GEMA criteria, only 10.2% of patients were well controlled, 27.7% had partial control and 62.1% were poorly controlled. Both the physicians and the patients overestimated control: 75.8% and 59.3% of patients had controlled asthma according to the patient and the physician, respectively, and were not controlled according to GEMA (P<.0001). Patients with uncontrolled asthma according GEMA had higher body mass index (P=.006) and physical inactivity (P=.016). Factors associated with a perceived lack of control by both physicians and patients were: nocturnal awakenings (≥ 1 day/week), frequent use of rescue medication (≥ 5 days/week) and significant limitation in activities. Discrepant factors between physicians and patients were dyspnea and emergency room visits (patients only), FEV1 ≤ 80% and a poorer understanding of the disease by the patient (physicians only). Only 10% of patients with severe asthma evaluated in this study are controlled according to GEMA criteria. Patients and physicians overestimate control and the overestimation by patients is greater. Physical inactivity and obesity are associated with a lack of control according to GEMA. Copyright

  15. Therapy with omalizumab for patients with severe allergic asthma improves asthma control and reduces overall healthcare costs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costello, R W

    2011-05-11

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled steroids and long-acting beta agonists are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IgE, which is used as an add-on treatment for patients who have severe persistent allergic asthma. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical benefit and healthcare utilisation of patients who responded to omalizumab therapy and to establish an overall cost implication. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of omalizumab on exacerbations of asthma before and after 6 months of treatment in Irish patients. RESULTS: Centres who had treated patients with severe allergic asthma for the 6 months prior and post omalizumab treatment were audited with a standardised assessment tool. Sixty-three (32 male) patients were studied. In the 6 months prior to omalizumab 41 of 63 (66%) had been hospitalised, and this fell to 15 of 63 (24%), p < 0.0001 in the 6 months after treatment was started. Hospital admissions reduced from 2.4 ± 0.41 to 0.8 ± 0.37 and the mean number of bed days occupied was reduced from 16.6 ± 2.94 to 5.3 ± 2.57 days, p < 0.001. The number of oral corticosteroid doses used fell from 3.1 ± 0.27 to 1.2 ± 0.17, p < 0.001. The overall cost saving per omalizumab responder patients for 6 months was 834. CONCLUSIONS: Six months therapy with omalizumab reduced the number of bed days, the number of hospitalisations and the use of oral corticosteroids compared to the 6 months prior to commencement. Despite the cost of the additional therapy there were overall savings in health costs.

  16. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating children with acute asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Benedict; Kew, Kayleigh M

    2016-04-29

    Acute asthma in children can be life-threatening and must be treated promptly in the emergency setting. Intravenous magnesium sulfate is recommended by various guidelines for cases of acute asthma that have not responded to first-line treatment with bronchodilators and steroids. The treatment has recently been shown to reduce the need for hospital admission for adults compared with placebo, but it is unclear whether it is equally effective for children. To assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate (IV MgSO4) in children treated for acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). We identified studies by searching the Cochrane Airways Review Group Specialised Register up to 23 February 2016. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of other reviews, and we contacted study authors to ask for additional information. We included randomised controlled trials of children treated in the ED for exacerbations of asthma if they compared any dose of IV MgSO4 with placebo. Two review authors screened the results of the search and independently extracted data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements through discussion and contacted study authors in cases of missing data and other uncertainties relating to the studies.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios and continuous data as mean differences, both using fixed-effect models. We assessed each study for risk of bias and rated the quality of evidence for each outcome with GRADE and presented the results in a 'Summary of findings' table. There was insufficient evidence to conduct the planned subgroup analyses. Five studies (182 children) met the inclusion criteria, and four contributed data to at least one meta-analysis. The included studies were overall at low risk of bias, but our confidence in the evidence was generally low, mainly due to the small sample sizes. Treatment with IV MgSO4 reduced the odds of admission to hospital by 68% (odds ratio (OR) 0

  17. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating adults with acute asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Kayleigh M; Kirtchuk, Liza; Michell, Clare I

    2014-05-28

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by airways inflammation, constriction of airway smooth muscle and structural alteration of the airways that is at least partially reversible. Exacerbations of asthma can be life threatening and place a significant burden on healthcare services. Various guidelines have been published to inform management personnel in the acute setting; several include the use of a single bolus of intravenous magnesium sulfate (IV MgSO4) in cases that do not respond to first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this approach remains unclear, particularly in less severe cases. To assess the safety and efficacy of IV MgSO4 in adults treated for acute asthma in the emergency department. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Specialised Register (CAGR) up to 2 May 2014. We also searched www.ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of other reviews, and we contacted trial authors to ask for additional information. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults treated in the emergency department (ED) for exacerbations of asthma if they compared any dose of IV MgSO4 with placebo. All review authors screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, and at least two review authors independently extracted study characteristics, risk of bias and numerical data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, and we contacted trial investigators to obtain missing information.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios using study participants as the unit of analysis, and we analysed continuous data as mean differences or standardised mean differences using fixed-effect models. We rated all outcomes using GRADE and presented results in Summary of findings table 1.We carried out subgroup analyses on the primary outcome for baseline severity of exacerbations and whether or not ipratropium bromide was given as a co-medication. Unpublished data and studies at high risk of bias for blinding were removed from the main

  18. Obesity-associated severe asthma represents a distinct clinical phenotype: analysis of the British Thoracic Society Difficult Asthma Registry Patient cohort according to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeon, David; Batuwita, Kannangara; Osmond, Michelle; Heaney, Liam G; Brightling, Chris E; Niven, Rob; Mansur, Adel; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Bucknall, Christine E; Rowe, Anthony; Guo, Yike; Bhavsar, Pankaj K; Chung, Kian Fan; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Obesity has emerged as a risk factor for the development of asthma and it may also influence asthma control and airway inflammation. However, the role of obesity in severe asthma remains unclear. Thus, our objective was to explore the association between obesity (defied by BMI) and severe asthma. Data from the British Thoracic Society Difficult Asthma Registry were used to compare patient demographics, disease characteristics, and health-care utilization among three BMI categories (normal weight: 18.5-24.99; overweight: 25-29.99; obese: 30) in a well-characterized group of adults with severe asthma. The study population consisted of 666 patients with severe asthma; the group had a median BMI of 29.8 (interquartile range, 22.5-34.0). The obese group exhibited greater asthma medication requirements in terms of maintenance corticosteroid therapy (48.9% vs 40.4% and 34.5% in the overweight and normal-weight groups, respectively), steroid burst therapy, and short-acting b 2 -agonist use per day. Significant differences were seen with gastroesophageal reflux disease (53.9% vs 48.1% and 39.7% in the overweight and normal weight groups, respectively) and proton pump inhibitor use. Bone density scores were higher in the obese group, while pulmonary function testing revealed a reduced FVC and elevated carbon monoxide transfer coefficient. Serum IgE levels decreased with increasing BMI and the obese group was more likely to report eczema, but less likely to have a history of nasal polyps. Patients with severe asthma display particular characteristics according to BMI that support the view that obesity-associated severe asthma may represent a distinct clinical phenotype.

  19. Predictors of frequent exacerbations in (ex)smoking and never smoking adults with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Guus A; de Groot, Jantina C; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B; Ten Brinke, Anneke; Weersink, Els J; Bel, Elisabeth H

    2016-09-01

    Persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation is an important driver for asthma exacerbations in non-smokers with asthma. Whether eosinophilic inflammation is also a predictor of asthma exacerbations in (ex)smokers is not known. The aim was to investigate factors associated with frequent exacerbations in never smokers and (ex)smokers with asthma. (Ex)smoking (n = 83) and never smoking (n = 70) patients with uncontrolled asthma despite high dose asthma medication (GINA treatment step 4-5) were selected from a cohort of 571 adult-onset asthma patients. Clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters were used in multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with frequent exacerbations (≥3 oral corticosteroid (OCS) bursts in the previous year). Frequent exacerbations in (ex)smokers were independently associated with ICS dose (OR 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3) and blood neutrophil count (OR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.2-2.1). In never smokers frequent exacerbations were independently associated with blood eosinophil count (OR 18.9, 95%CI: 1.8-202.1). This study shows that never smoking and (ex)smoking patients with severe asthma have different predictors of frequent exacerbations: higher blood neutrophils in (ex)smokers versus higher blood eosinophils in never smokers. This suggests that different types of systemic background inflammation play a role in the aetiology of exacerbations in these patients. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2217, NTR1846 and NTR1838. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dupilumab in the management of moderate-to-severe asthma: the data so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barranco P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Barranco,1 Elsa Phillips-Angles,2 Javier Dominguez-Ortega,1 Santiago Quirce1 1Department of Allergy, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research (IdiPAZ, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Allergy, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research (IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Severe asthma constitutes illness in a relatively small proportion of all patients with asthma, but it is a major public health problem – with considerable effect on morbidity, mortality, as well as a high burden on health care resources. Regardless of effective treatments being widely available and the existence of treatment guidelines, a large population of severe asthma cases remain uncontrolled. Achieving and maintaining asthma control in this group of patients is, therefore, of utmost importance. The recognition of distinct inflammatory phenotypes within this population has driven the development of targeted biological therapies – particularly, selective targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. It is noteworthy that in approximately 50% of these patients, there is strong evidence of the pathogenic role of T helper type-2 (Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, orchestrating the eosinophilic and allergic inflammatory processes. Among the recently developed antiasthma biologic drugs, the mAb dupilumab is very promising given its ability to inhibit the biological effects of both IL-4 and IL-13. In this review, we focused on IL-4 and IL-13, as these interleukins are considered to play a key role in the pathophysiology of asthma, and on dupilumab, an anti-IL-4 receptor human mAb, as a forthcoming treatment for uncontrolled severe asthma in the near future. Keywords: dupilumab, asthma, interleukin-4, interleukin-13, monoclonal antibodies, treatment

  1. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Torgerson

    Full Text Available Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV during infancy is strongly associated with the development of asthma. To identify genetic variation that contributes to asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we sequenced the coding exons of 131 asthma candidate genes in 182 European and African American children with severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy using anonymous pools for variant discovery, and then directly genotyped a set of 190 nonsynonymous variants. Association testing was performed for physician-diagnosed asthma before the 7th birthday (asthma using genotypes from 6,500 individuals from the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP as controls to gain statistical power. In addition, among patients with severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we examined genetic associations with asthma, active asthma, persistent wheeze, and bronchial hyperreactivity (methacholine PC20 at age 6 years. We identified four rare nonsynonymous variants that were significantly associated with asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis, including single variants in ADRB2, FLG and NCAM1 in European Americans (p = 4.6x10-4, 1.9x10-13 and 5.0x10-5, respectively, and NOS1 in African Americans (p = 2.3x10-11. One of the variants was a highly functional nonsynonymous variant in ADRB2 (rs1800888, which was also nominally associated with asthma (p = 0.027 and active asthma (p = 0.013 among European Americans with severe RSV bronchiolitis without including the ESP. Our results suggest that rare nonsynonymous variants contribute to the development of asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy, notably in ADRB2. Additional studies are required to explore the role of rare variants in the etiology of asthma and asthma-related traits following severe RSV bronchiolitis.

  2. The relationship between the severity of asthma and comorbidites with anxiety and depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valença Alexandre M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that asthma is associated with increased frequency of psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders. Our aim was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depressive disorders in a sample of asthmatic outpatients and observe if there is any relationship between this comorbidity and the severity of asthma. METHOD: Sixty-two consecutive patients of two outpatient asthma clinics located in university hospitals were evaluated. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 4.4 Version. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (43.5% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were major depression (24%, generalized anxiety disorder (20.9% and panic disorder/agoraphobia spectrum disorders (17.7%. We found no significant differences in the prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression between the groups with mild/moderate and severe asthma. Despite the high frequency of depression and anxiety disorders, only 4 (6.5% patients were under psychiatric treatment and 13 (20.9% patients were taking benzodiazepines. Twelve of 15 (80% patients who reported present use of psychotropic medication were not under psychiatric treatment at the moment of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the high morbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders in asthmatic patients, independent of the severity of asthma.

  3. Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke in relation to asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comhair, Suzy A A; Gaston, Benjamin M; Ricci, Kristin S; Hammel, Jeffrey; Dweik, Raed A; Teague, W Gerald; Meyers, Deborah; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Bleecker, Eugene R; Busse, William W; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, W Nizar; Moore, Wendy; Peters, Stephen P; Wenzel, Sally; Hazen, Stanley L; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2011-05-04

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has adverse effects on the health of asthmatics, however the harmful consequences of ETS in relation to asthma severity are unknown. In a multicenter study of severe asthma, we assessed the impact of ETS exposure on morbidity, health care utilization and lung functions; and activity of systemic superoxide dismutase (SOD), a potential oxidative target of ETS that is negatively associated with asthma severity. From 2002-2006, 654 asthmatics (non-severe 366, severe 288) were enrolled, among whom 109 non-severe and 67 severe asthmatics were routinely exposed to ETS as ascertained by history and validated by urine cotinine levels. ETS-exposure was associated with lower quality of life scores; greater rescue inhaler use; lower lung function; greater bronchodilator responsiveness; and greater risk for emergency room visits, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. ETS-exposure was associated with lower levels of serum SOD activity, particularly in asthmatic women of African heritage. ETS-exposure of asthmatic individuals is associated with worse lung function, higher acuity of exacerbations, more health care utilization, and greater bronchial hyperreactivity. The association of diminished systemic SOD activity to ETS exposure provides for the first time a specific oxidant mechanism by which ETS may adversely affect patients with asthma.

  4. An Unusual Case of Acute Asthma after Snake Bite | Ikuabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Although the cytolytic, neurotoxic and haemolytic actions of snake venoms are well known, the ability of snake venom to induce asthma (as a distinct entity from just difficulty in breathing) is not previously reported in the literature. Methods The case records of the patient in the index case and a review of existing ...

  5. Increase in hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were compared with total admissions for non-surgical causes and lower respiratory tract illness as well as those for bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Asthma admissions showed a sharp upward trend from 1978 to 1984, a slower rise through 1987 and a levelling off since. The profile of hospital admissions for respiratory ...

  6. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA2LEN-DARE* systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, N. G.; Christodoulou, I.; Rohde, G.; Agache, I.; Almqvist, C.; Bruno, A.; Bonini, S.; Bont, L.; Bossios, A.; Bousquet, J.; Braido, F.; Brusselle, G.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Chanez, P.; Fokkens, W. J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Haahtela, T.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.; Konstantinou, G.; Kowalski, M.; Lewandowska-Polak, A.; Lodrup-Carlsen, K.; Makela, M.; Malkusova, I.; Mullol, J.; Nieto, A.; Eller, E.; Ozdemir, C.; Panzner, P.; Popov, T.; Psarras, S.; Roumpedaki, E.; Rukhadze, M.; Stipic-Markovic, A.; Bom, A. Todo; Toskala, E.; van Cauwenberge, P.; van Drunen, C.; Watelet, J. B.; Xatzipsalti, M.; Xepapadaki, P.; Zuberbier, T.

    P>A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses and bacteria are therefore possible treatment targets. To have a reasonable estimate of the burden of disease induced

  7. Bronchial Thermoplasty – Long Term Safety and Effectiveness in Severe Persistent Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Laviolette, Michel; Rubin, Adalberto S.; Fiterman, Jussara; Lapa e Silva, Jose R.; Shah, Pallav L.; Fiss, Elie; Olivenstein, Ronald; Thomson, Neil C.; Niven, Robert M.; Pavord, Ian D.; Simoff, Michael; Hales, Jeff B.; McEvoy, Charlene; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Holmes, Mark; Phillips, Martin J.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Sumino, Kaharu; Kraft, Monica; Cox, Gerard; Sterman, Daniel H.; Hogarth, Kyle; Kline, Joel N.; Mansur, Adel H.; Louie, Brian E.; Leeds, William M.; Barbers, Richard G.; Austin, John H.M.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Quiring, John; Armstrong, Brian; Castro, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. Objective To assess effectiveness and safety of BT in asthma patients 5 years post therapy. Methods BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 (AIR2) Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350414) were evaluated annually for 5 years to assess long-term safety of BT and durability of treatment effect. Outcomes assessed post-BT included severe exacerbations, adverse events, healthcare utilization, spirometry data, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Results 162/190 BT-treated subjects (85.3%) from the AIR2 Trial completed 5 years of follow-up. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations and Emergency Room visits, and the rates of events in each of years 1 to 5 remained low and were less than those observed in the 12 months prior to BT treatment (average 5 year reduction in proportions: 44% for exacerbations and 78% for ER visits). Respiratory adverse events and respiratory-related hospitalizations remained unchanged in Years 2 through 5 as compared to the first year after BT. Pre-BD FEV1 values remained stable between years 1 and 5 after BT, despite a 17% reduction in average daily inhaled corticosteroid dose. HRCT scans from baseline to 5 years after BT showed no structural abnormalities that could be attributed to BT. Conclusions These data demonstrate the 5-year durability of the benefits of BT with regard to both asthma control (based on maintained reduction in severe exacerbations and ER visits for respiratory symptoms) and safety. BT has become an important addition to our treatment armamentarium and should be considered for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain symptomatic despite taking ICS (inhaled corticosteroids) and LABA (long-acting-β2-agonists). PMID:23998657

  8. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  9. The Severity-Dependent Relationship of Infant Bronchiolitis on the Risk and Morbidity of Early Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kecia N.; Wu, Pingsheng; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Griffin, Marie R.; Dupont, William D.; Mitchel, Edward F.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis have a high rate of early childhood asthma. It is not known whether bronchiolitis severity correlates with the risk of early childhood asthma or with asthma-specific morbidity. Objectives To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between severity of infant bronchiolitis and both the odds of developing early childhood asthma and asthma-specific morbidity. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective birth cohort study of term, healthy infants born 1995-2000 and enrolled in a statewide Medicaid program. We defined bronchiolitis severity by categorizing infants into mutually exclusive groups based on most advanced level of healthcare for bronchiolitis. Healthcare visits, asthma-specific medications, and demographics were identified entirely from Medicaid and linked vital records files. Asthma was ascertained between 4-5.5 years, and one-year asthma morbidity (hospitalization, emergency department visit, or oral corticosteroid course) was determined between 4.5-5.5 years, among children with prevalent asthma. Results Among 90,341 children, 18% had an infant bronchiolitis visit, and these infants contributed to 31% of early childhood asthma diagnoses. Relative to children with no infant bronchiolitis visit, the adjusted odds ratios for asthma were 1.86 [95% confidence intervals 1.74-1.99], 2.41 (2.21-2.62) and 2.82 (2.61-3.03) in the Outpatient, Emergency Department, and Hospitalization groups respectively. Children hospitalized with bronchiolitis during infancy had increased early childhood asthma morbidity compared with children with no bronchiolitis visit. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the dose-response relationship between severity of infant bronchiolitis and the increased odds of both developing early childhood asthma and experiencing asthma-specific morbidity. PMID:19361850

  10. Severe bronchial asthma in children: a review of novel biomarkers used as predictors of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwaezuoke SN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Adaeze C Ayuk, Joy N Eze Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Nigeria Abstract: Severe asthma or therapy-resistant asthma in children is a heterogeneous disease that affects all age-groups. Given its heterogeneity, precision in diagnosis and treatment has become imperative, in order to achieve better outcomes. If one is thus able to identify specific patient phenotypes and endotypes using the appropriate biomarkers, it will assist in providing the patient with more personalized and appropriate treatment. However, there appears to be a huge diagnostic gap in severe asthma, as there is no single test yet that accurately determines disease phenotype. In this paper, we review the published literature on some of these biomarkers and their possible role in bridging this diagnostic gap. We also highlight the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in severe asthma, in order to show the basis for the novel biomarkers. Some markers useful for monitoring therapy and assessing airway remodeling in the disease are also discussed. A review of the literature was conducted with PubMed to gather baseline data on the subject. The literature search extended to articles published within the last 40 years. Although biomarkers specific to different severe asthma phenotypes have been identified, progress in their utility remains slow, because of several disease mechanisms, the variation of biomarkers at different levels of inflammation, changes in relying on one test over time (eg, from sputum eosinophilia to blood eosinophilia, and the degree of invasive tests required to collect biomarkers, which limits their applicability in clinical settings. In conclusion, several biomarkers remain useful in recognizing various asthma phenotypes. However, due to disease heterogeneity, identification and utilization of ideal and defined biomarkers in severe asthma are still inconclusive. The development of novel

  11. Prevalence and severity of self-reported asthma in young adults, 1976-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browatzki, A; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, P

    2009-01-01

    ) subjects answered a questionnaire, and had their height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity measured. The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.5, 4.7 and 6.9%, respectively, in the three surveys (pincreasing prevalence of asthma was observed in both...... to increase over the last three decades among young Danish adults, and the observed increase in severity seems, at least partly, to be related to the increase in prevalence of obesity.......The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male...

  12. Depressive symptomatology, quality of life and disease control among individuals with well-characterized severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Marsland, Anna L; Emeremni, Chetachi A; Moore, Charity G; Holguin, Fernando; Wenzel, Sally

    2013-10-01

    A thorough examination of the relationship of asthma severity and control with symptoms of depression is needed to identify groups of asthmatics at high risk for poor disease control outcomes. This study examines the relationship of symptoms of depression with severity and control in a well-characterized cohort of asthmatics and healthy controls. Depressive symptoms and quality of life were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Disease control was measured by a composite index incorporating symptoms, activity limitation and rescue medication use. Individuals with asthma (n = 91) reported more symptoms of depression than controls (n = 36; p control (p control was associated with more depressive symptoms in severe (r = 0.46, p = 0.002) but not in not severe (r = 0.13, p = 0.40) asthmatics. The relationship of symptoms of depression among severe asthmatics was attenuated by disease control. Exploratory analyses identified specific disease symptom characteristics, as opposed to exacerbations, as associated with symptoms of depression. Among individuals with severe asthma, increased symptom burden is positively associated with risk for co-morbid depression. These findings point to a need for regular mood disorder screenings and treatment referrals among this group. Further research is warranted to examine whether treatment of comorbid depression improves treatment adherence and asthma-related quality of life.

  13. Correlation between CCL26 production by human bronchial epithelial cells and airway eosinophils: Involvement in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Marie-Chantal; Chakir, Jamila; Archambault, Anne-Sophie; Joubert, Philippe; Provost, Véronique; Laviolette, Michel; Flamand, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    High pulmonary eosinophil counts are associated with asthma symptoms and severity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) produce CC chemokines, notably CCL26 (eotaxin-3), which recruits and activates eosinophils from asthmatic patients. This suggests that CCL26 production by BECs might be involved in persistent eosinophilia in patients with severe asthma despite treatment with high corticosteroid doses. We sought to determine whether CCL26 levels correlate with eosinophilia and asthma severity. Human CC chemokine expression was assessed by means of quantitative PCR or a quantitative PCR array in vehicle- or IL-13-treated BECs. CCL26 was quantitated by means of ELISA. Immunohistochemistry analyses of CCL26 and major basic protein were done on bronchial biopsy specimens. IL-13 selectively induced CCL26 expression by BECs. This increase was time-dependent and more prominent in BECs from patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. CCL26 levels measured in supernatants of IL-13-stimulated BECs also increased with asthma severity as follows: patients with severe eosinophilic asthma > patients with mild asthma ≈ healthy subjects. Immunohistochemistry analyses of bronchial biopsy specimens confirmed increased levels of CCL26 in the epithelium of patients with mild and those with severe eosinophilic asthma. Tissue eosinophil counts did not correlate with CCL26 staining. However, sputum CCL26 levels significantly correlated with sputum eosinophil counts (P asthma severity. They also suggest a role for CCL26 in the sustained inflammation observed in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and reveal CCL26 as a potential target for treating patients with eosinophilic asthma that are refractory to classic therapies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term ozone exposure and asthma severity: Weight-of-evidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Zu, Ke; Loftus, Christine T; Lynch, Heather N; Prueitt, Robyn L; Mohar, Isaac; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Sax, Sonja N

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether evidence indicates that short-term exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone in the United States can affect asthma severity, we systematically reviewed published controlled human exposure, epidemiology, and animal toxicity studies. The strongest evidence for a potential causal relationship came from epidemiology studies reporting increased emergency department visits and hospital admissions for asthma following elevated ambient ozone concentrations. However, while controlled exposure studies reported lung function decrements and increased asthma symptoms following high ozone exposures 160-400 parts per billion [ppb]), epidemiology studies evaluating similar outcomes reported less consistent results. Animal studies showed changes in pulmonary function at high ozone concentrations (> 500ppb), although there is substantial uncertainty regarding the relevance of these animal models to human asthma. Taken together, the weight of evidence indicates that there is at least an equal likelihood that either explanation is true, i.e., the strength of the evidence for a causal relationship between short-term exposure to ambient ozone concentrations and asthma severity is "equipoise and above." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adding omalizumab to the therapy of adolescents with persistent uncontrolled moderate--severe allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanari, M; Milgrom, H; Pollard, S; Maykut, R J; Kianifard, Farid; Fowler-Taylor, A; Geba, G P; Zeldin, R K

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of omalizumab among adolescents with moderate-severe allergic asthma inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids. Data from patients 12 to 17 years of age were pooled from 5 placebo-controlled registration trials of omalizumab. Impact on asthma control was assessed by need for rescue bursts of oral corticosteroids, lung function, symptom scores, and unscheduled office visits. In adolescents (n = 146), addition of omalizumab decreased mean number of rescue bursts (0.3 vs 0.9) versus placebo; relative risk 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.99; P = .047). At study conclusion, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second increased 268 mL (13.8%) in omalizumab-treated subjects versus 98 mL (5.5%) for placebo (least squares mean treatment difference 146 mL [95% CI, 19.4-272.6; P = .024]). Omalizumab significantly improved asthma symptom scores and reduced unscheduled office visits. Omalizumab added to baseline therapy improves measures of asthma control in adolescents with persistent moderate-severe allergic asthma.

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Modulates Airway Inflammation and Remodelling in Severe Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Taillé

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is frequently observed in severe asthma but the causal link between the 2 diseases remains hypothetical. The role of OSA-related systemic and airway neutrophilic inflammation in asthma bronchial inflammation or remodelling has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to compare hallmarks of inflammation in induced sputum and features of airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies from adult patients with severe asthma with and without OSA.An overnight polygraphy was performed in 55 patients referred for difficult-to-treat asthma, who complained of nocturnal respiratory symptoms, poor sleep quality or fatigue. We compared sputum analysis, reticular basement membrane (RBM thickness, smooth muscle area, vascular density and inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchial biopsies.In total, 27/55 patients (49% had OSA diagnosed by overnight polygraphy. Despite a moderate increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; 14.2 ± 1.6 event/h [5-35], the proportion of sputum neutrophils was higher and that of macrophages lower in OSA than non-OSA patients, with higher levels of interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. The RBM was significantly thinner in OSA than non-OSA patients (5.8 ± 0.4 vs. 7.8 ± 0.4 μm, p<0.05. RBM thickness and OSA severity assessed by the AHI were negatively correlated (rho = -0.65, p<0.05. OSA and non-OSA patients did not differ in age, sex, BMI, lung function, asthma control findings or treatment.Mild OSA in patients with severe asthma is associated with increased proportion of neutrophils in sputum and changes in airway remodelling.

  17. Long-term effects of biofeedback-induced facial relaxation on measures of asthma severity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotses, H; Harver, A; Segreto, J; Glaus, K D; Creer, T L; Young, G A

    1991-03-01

    We studied the effects of electromyographic biofeedback on measures of asthma severity in children. Fifteen children received biofeedback training to reduce facial tension, and 14 children, who served as controls, received biofeedback training to maintain facial tension at a stable level. Assignment to experimental condition was random. As a result of training, electromyographic levels decreased in children trained in facial relaxation and remained fairly constant in children trained in facial tension stability. Biofeedback training was augmented for children in both groups by having them practice their facial exercises at home. Each child's condition was followed for a five-month period subsequent to biofeedback training. Throughout the experiment, the following measures of asthma severity were monitored: lung function, self-rated asthma severity, medication usage, and frequency of asthma attacks. In addition, standardized measures of attitudes toward asthma, self-concept, and chronic anxiety were recorded at regular intervals. As compared to the facial stability subjects, the facial relaxation subjects exhibited higher pulmonary scores, more positive attitudes toward asthma, and lower chronic anxiety during the follow-up period. Subjects in the two groups, however, did not differ on self-rated asthma severity, medication usage, frequency of asthma attacks, or self-concept. Based on the improvements we observed in pulmonary, attitude, and anxiety measures, we concluded that biofeedback training for facial relaxation contributes to the self-control of asthma and would be a valuable addition to asthma self-management programs.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral montelukast in acute asthma exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are well established in the management of outpatient asthma. However, there is very little information as to their role in acute asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that LTRAs may accelerate lung function recovery when given in an acute exacerbation. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital to assess the efficacy of oral montelukast on patients of 16 years of age and above who were hospitalized with acute asthma exacerbation. The patients were given either montelukast or placebo along with standard therapy throughout the hospital stay for acute asthma. Improvements in lung function and duration of hospital stay were monitored. Results 100 patients were randomized; their mean age was 52 years (SD +/− 18.50). The majority were females (79%) and non-smokers (89%). The mean hospital stay was 3.70 ± 1.93 days with 80% of patients discharged in 3 days. There was no significant difference in clinical symptoms, PEF over the course of hospital stay (p = 0.20 at day 2 and p = 0.47 at day 3) and discharge (p = 0.15), FEV1 at discharge (p = 0.29) or length of hospital stay (p = 0.90) between the two groups. No serious adverse effects were noted during the course of the study. Conclusion Our study suggests that there is no benefit of addition of oral montelukast over conventional treatment in the management of acute asthma attack. Trial registration Trial registration number: 375-Med/ERC-04 PMID:23537391

  19. Mannose binding lectin (MBL levels predict lung function decline in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka. H. van Veen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that activation of the complement system in asthma contributes to ongoing inflammation, tissue damage and airway remodeling. Mannose binding lectin (MBL is a pattern recognition molecule that serves as the key mediator of the lectin pathway of complement activation. MBL levels are genetically determined and vary widely amongst individuals. In the present study we hypothesized that high MBL levels in asthma are associated with increased loss of lung function over time, as a consequence of inflammatory tissue damage. We measured serum MBL levels by ELISA in 68 patients with severe asthma and prospectively determined the change in post-bronchodilator (pb FEV1 over a mean period of 5.7 years. The relationship between MBL and change in pbFEV1 (FEV1 was analysed using (multiple regression analysis and corrected for possible confounders (age, sex, age of onset, asthma duration, and pbFEV1. The median (range MBL level was 332 (10.8-3587 ng·ml–1. MBL was significantly associated with FEV1 (p<0.04. Patients with a high MBL level (332 ng·ml–1 had an increased risk of lung function decline compared to those with low MBL levels (OR (CI: 3.16 (1.14-8.79, p = 0.027; the excess decline being 42 ml·yr–1 (p = 0.01. We conclude that a high MBL level is associated with an increased decline in lung function in patients with severe asthma. MBL might provide a clue towards better understanding of the pathophysiology of ongoing inflammation and subsequent decline in lung function of patients with severe asthma.

  20. Effects of β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms on asthma severity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene have been identified. There is mounting evidence that these polymorphisms are associated with significant variability in response to bronchodilator therapy and thus in severity and duration of asthmatic symptoms. Objectives: to assess the ...

  1. Efficacy of metered-dose inhalers for children with acute asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Anne Eng Neo; Tang, Jenny Poh Lin; Ling, Ho; Hoe, Teoh Oon; Chong, Ng Kee; Moh, Chay Oh; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2011-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the administration of inhaled beta-agonists delivered via a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with spacers--as part of an evidence-based asthma pathway developed to manage acute asthma exacerbations in children at the emergency room level and in inpatient management--against administration via nebulization. Case with historical control. KK Women's and Children's Hospital (Singapore). A total of 19,951 children (infants to older children) aged 18 years and younger who attended the emergency room for asthma exacerbations. Average length of stay, proportion admitted to high dependency or intensive care, proportion readmitted for unresolved symptoms within 72 hr, cost per patient and overall. There was no increase in the mean proportion of emergency room attendances admitted to inpatient care with use of an MDI (mean difference 0.97%, 95% CI: -1.6-3.5%, P = 0.447), nor of children admitted to intensive care (0.21 vs. 0.20 pre- and post-pathway, P = 0.827) or to high dependency units (2.21 vs. 1.37 pre- and post-pathway, P = 0.200) but a significant reduction in the within 72 hr re-attendance rate (mean difference 1.4%, 95% CI: 0.78-2.0%, P < 0.001) with use of an MDI. The average length and cost per patient for an inpatient stay for acute asthma exacerbations was reduced with use of an MDI. The use of an MDI with spacer as part of an evidence-based asthma pathway was effective in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency room setting and for inpatient management. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Beneficial effect of omeprazole in a patient with severe bronchial asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depla, A. C.; Bartelsman, J. F.; Roos, C. M.; Tytgat, G. N.; Jansen, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    A 25-yr-old man suffered from severe nocturnal asthma, which was shown to be provoked by pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux. A dramatic, immediate improvement of his pulmonary condition was achieved by treatment with omeprazole after failure of other therapeutic measures, including high doses of

  3. Clinical and inflammatory characteristics of the European U-BIOPRED adult severe asthma cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Dominick E; Sousa, Ana R; Fowler, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    U-BIOPRED is a European Union consortium of 20 academic institutions, 11 pharmaceutical companies and six patient organisations with the objective of improving the understanding of asthma disease mechanisms using a systems biology approach.This cross-sectional assessment of adults with severe ast...

  4. Serum YKL-40 and assessment of severity of bronchial asthma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    bronchial asthma severity, compared to clinical assessment and the related pulmonary function tests. METHODS. This is a cross-sectional observational study. Study population: Thirty known asthmatic children were enrolled from Pulmonology Clinic of Children's Hospital,. Ain Shams University from October 2008 till May.

  5. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korang, Steven Kwasi; Feinberg, Joshua; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the interventi...... systematic searches of bibliographic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO, and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov (www...... (age titles and abstracts. We retrieved all relevant full-text study reports, independently screened the full text, identified trials for inclusion and identified and recorded...

  6. Asthma and Pneumonia among Children Less Than Five Years with Acute Respiratory Symptoms in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: Evidence of Under-Diagnosis of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K.; Ndeezi, Grace; Ostergaard, Marianne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among “under-fives” with cough and difficulty breathing, based on stringent clinical criteria. We also describe the treatment for children with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital. Methods We enrolled 614 children aged 2–59 months with cough and difficulty breathing. Interviews, physical examination, blood and radiological investigations were done. We defined asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Pneumonia was defined according to World Health Organization guidelines, which were modified by including fever and white cell count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and chest x-ray. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as “asthma syndrome” due to challenges of differentiating the two conditions in young children. Three pediatricians reviewed each participant’s case report post hoc and made a diagnosis according to the study criteria. Results Of the 614 children, 41.2% (95% CI: 37.3–45.2) had asthma syndrome, 27.2% (95% CI: 23.7–30.9) had bacterial pneumonia, 26.5% (95% CI: 23.1–30.2) had viral pneumonia, while 5.1% (95% CI: 3.5–7.1) had other diagnoses including tuberculosis. Only 9.5% of the children with asthma syndrome had been previously diagnosed as asthma. Of the 253 children with asthma syndrome, 95.3% (95% CI: 91.9–97.5) had a prescription for antibiotics, 87.7% (95% CI: 83.1–91.5) for bronchodilators and 43.1% (95% CI: 36.9–49.4) for steroids. Conclusion Although reports indicate that acute respiratory symptoms in children are predominantly due to pneumonia, asthma syndrome contributes a significant proportion. Antibiotics are used irrationally due to misdiagnosis of asthma as pneumonia. There is need for better diagnostic tools

  7. The burden of severe asthma in childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Louise; Murray, Clare; Bansal, Aruna T

    2015-01-01

    preschoolers with mild/moderate wheeze in a cross-sectional study. Despite high-dose treatment, the severe cohorts had more severe exacerbations compared with the mild/moderate ones (annual medians: school-aged 3.0 versus 1.1, preschool 3.9 versus 1.8; p... of these children, integrating clinical data with high-dimensional biomarkers, may help to improve and tailor their clinical management....

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade in severe persistent asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, Sally E.; Barnes, Peter J.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Bousquet, Jean; Busse, William; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Holgate, Stephen T.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Antczak, Adam; Baker, James; Horvath, Ildiko; Mark, Zsuzsanna; Bernstein, David; Kerwin, Edward; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Lo, Kim Hung; Watt, Rosemary; Barnathan, Elliot S.; Chanez, Pascal; Chanez, P.; Tunon-de-Lara, M.; Antczak, A.; Pierzchala, W.; Bukowczan, Z.; Trawinska, E.; Baker, J.; Wenzel, S. E.; Katial, R.; Bernstein, D.; Kerwin, E.; Bensch, G.; Castro, M.; Noonan, M.; Nayak, A.; Chupp, G.; Kline, J.; Busse, W.; Kavuru, M. S.; Lang, D.; Wolfe, R.; Baughman, R.; Korenblat, P.; Mansfield, L.; Bleecker, E.; Lisberg, E.; Liu, M.; Panettieri, R.; Spangenthal, S.; Blumberg, M.; Elkayam, D.; Noth, I.; Ramsdell, J.; Smith, C.; Horvath, I.; Mark, Z.; Bartfai, Z.; Vinkler, I.; Szima, B.; Janaskova, T.; Reiterer, P.; Kornmann, O.; Gillissen, A.; Kanniess, F.; Kunkel, G.; Zetterstrom, O.; Dahlen, B.; Howarth, P.; Thomson, N.; Fabbri, L.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Centanni, S.; Joos, G.; Rabe, K. F.; Bel, E. H.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: The treatment effect of golimumab, a human monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in severe persistent asthma is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of golimumab in a large population of patients with uncontrolled, severe persistent asthma.

  9. Prevalence, severity and determinants of asthma in Danish five-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; De Fine Olivarius, Niels; Høst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and wheeze is increasing. AIM: To study the annual and cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 5-y-old Danish children. METHODS: We obtained data on 3052 (82.0% of eligible) Danish children by a postal parental questionnaire including ISAAC questions reg....... The majority of children with current wheeze had an early onset, and severe early symptoms tended to persist. Used with consideration, the label "childhood bronchitis" seems purposeful........9% of the children. Current wheeze was associated with male gender (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35-1.96), low parental post-primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63 for or =3 y) and current maternal smoking (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.04). "Severe current wheeze" was recognized as asthma in six and childhood...... regarding respiratory symptoms and our own questions on sociodemography and tobacco exposure. RESULTS: "Wheeze ever" was reported in 38.3%, "doctor-diagnosed asthma ever" in 10.5%, "childhood bronchitis ever" in 30.0%, "current wheeze" (severe" (>3 episodes) in 3...

  10. Prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in Singapore schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, D Y; Chew, F T; Quek, S C; Lee, B W

    1996-02-01

    This study was part of an international effort to evaluate the epidemiology of asthma and allergic diseases around the world. The aim was to assess the prevalence and severity of these disorders in Singapore schoolchildren. The international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire was administered to 6238 schoolchildren. The respondents were parents of a 6-7 year cohort (n = 2030), and schoolchildren aged 12-15 years (n = 4208). The overall cumulative and 12 month prevalence of wheezing were 22% and 12%, respectively. The prevalence of doctor diagnosed asthma was 20%. Rhinitis was reported by 44% and chronic rashes by 12%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis was associated with males, and subjects of higher socioeconomic status (based on type of housing and total family income). More severe asthma related symptoms were present in Malays and Indians than in the Chinese. Allergic disorders are common in Singapore and prevalence is comparable to some populations in the West. Demographic and socioeconomic factors appear to influence the prevalence and severity of these disorders.

  11. Incidence and long-term outcome of severe asthma-COPD overlap compared to asthma and COPD alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarnes, Camilla Boslev; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Tjønneland, Anne

    2017-01-01

    in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort (1993-1997) were followed in the National Patients Registry for admissions for asthma (DJ45-46) and COPD (DJ40-44) and vital status. Asthma-COPD overlap was defined as at least one hospital admission for asthma and one for COPD (different time points), and incident...... asthma-COPD overlap as at least one of the diagnoses occurring after enrollment into the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1,845 (3.2%) and 4,037 (7.1%) participants had admissions for asthma and COPD, respectively, with 662 (1.2%) participants with asthma-COPD overlap. Incidence rate...... of asthma-COPD overlap per 1,000 person-years was higher in women (0.73) than in men (0.54) (Pperson-years) compared with COPD (23.1, P

  12. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T

    2014-01-01

    in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe...

  13. Innovative treatments for severe refractory asthma: how to choose the right option for the right patient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzella F

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Menzella,1 Carla Galeone,1 Francesca Bertolini,2 Claudia Castagnetti,1 Nicola Facciolongo1 1Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, IRCCS- Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy; 2Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: The increasing understanding of the molecular biology and the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of asthma helps in identification of numerous phenotypes and endotypes, particularly for severe refractory asthma. For a decade, the only available biologic therapy that met the unmet needs of a specific group of patients with severe uncontrolled allergic asthma has been omalizumab. Recently, new biologic therapies with different mechanisms of action and targets have been approved for marketing, such as mepolizumab. Other promising drugs will be available in the coming years, such as reslizumab, benralizumab, dupilumab and lebrikizumab. Moreover, since 2010, bronchial thermoplasty has been successfully introduced for a limited number of patients. This is a nonpharmacologic endoscopic procedure which is considered a promising therapy, even though several aspects still need to be clarified. Despite the increasing availability of new therapies, one of the major problems of each treatment is still the identification of the most suitable patients. This sudden abundance of therapeutic options, sometimes partially overlapping with each other, increases the importance to identify new biomarkers useful to guide the clinician in selecting the most appropriate patients and treatments, without forgetting the drug-economic aspects seen in elevated direct cost of new therapies. The aim of this review is, therefore, to update the clinician on the state of the art of therapies available for refractory asthma and, above all, to give useful directions that will help understand the different choices that sometimes partially overlap and to dispel the possible doubts that still exist

  14. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on moderate to severe bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Madhu; Mittal, Kundan

    2014-07-01

    To define the therapeutic role of vitamin D in children with moderate to severe bronchial asthma as an adjunct to standard treatment. Hundred asthmatic children of either sex, attending the respiratory and asthma clinic were enroled in the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and clinical examination. Randomization was done using sealed opaque envelop method. In addition to the treatment as per GINA guidelines, one group received oral vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 60,000 IU per month for 6 mo and the other group received placebo powder in the form of glucose sachet with a double blinded design. Monthly follow up of every patient was done and during every visit change in severity, level of control, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), steroid dosage, number of exacerbations and number of emergency visits were assessed. Monthly doses of 60,000 IU vitamin D significantly reduced the number of exacerbations as compared to placebo (p = 0.011). PEFR significantly increased in the treatment group (p = 0.000). Monthly doses of vitamin D significantly reduced the requirement of steroids (p = 0.013) and emergency visits (p = 0.015). Control of asthma was achieved earlier in patients who received monthly vitamin D. Vitamin D significantly reduced the level of severity of asthma patients over 6 mo of treatment (p = 0.016). Vitamin D has a definite role in the management of moderate to severe persistent bronchial asthma as an adjunct to standard treatment.

  15. Body composition in severe refractory asthma: comparison with COPD patients and healthy smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Minas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA on fat free mass (FFM has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3-18.3-19.5(18.4-21.5, p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I-III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3-18.3-18.8(17.8-20.1, p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.

  16. Relationship between serum vitamin D, disease severity, and airway remodeling in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul; Sjoukes, Alies; Richards, David; Banya, Winston; Hawrylowicz, Catherine; Bush, Andrew; Saglani, Sejal

    2011-12-15

    Little is known about vitamin D status and its effect on asthma pathophysiology in children with severe, therapy-resistant asthma (STRA). Relationships between serum vitamin D, lung function, and pathology were investigated in pediatric STRA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D(3)] was measured in 86 children (mean age, 11.7 yr): 36 with STRA, 26 with moderate asthma (MA), and 24 without asthma (control subjects). Relationships between 25(OH)D(3), the asthma control test (ACT), spirometry, corticosteroid use, and exacerbations were assessed. Twenty-two of 36 children with STRA underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and endobronchial biopsy with assessment of airway inflammation and remodeling. 25(OH)D(3) levels (median [IQR]) were significantly lower in STRA (28 [22-38] nmol/L) than in MA (42.5 [29-63] nmol/L) and control subjects (56.5 [45-67] nmol/L) (P , P , P = 0.002) in all subjects. 25(OH)D(3) levels were positively associated with ACT (r = 0.6, P , and inversely associated with exacerbations (r = -0.6, P , P = 0.001) in MA and STRA. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, but not epithelial shedding or reticular basement membrane thickness, was inversely related to 25(OH)D(3) levels (r = -0.6, P = 0.008). There was a positive correlation between ASM mass and bronchodilator reversibility (r = 0.6, P = 0.009) and an inverse correlation between ASM mass and ACT (r = -0.7, P asthma control and lung function. The link between vitamin D, airway structure, and function suggests vitamin D supplementation may be useful in pediatric STRA.

  17. [Validation of an acute bronchiolitis severity scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Fernández, J M; Cordón Martínez, A; Galindo Zavala, R; Urda Cardona, A

    2014-07-01

    Acute bronchiolitis (AB) is a very common disease, with a high rate of seasonal hospitalization. Its management requires homogeneous clinical interpretations for which there are different approaches depending on the scales, none of which are properly validated today. To create an AB severity scale (ABSS) and to validate it. The development of a parameterized construct with a gradual cumulative score of respiratory rate, heart rate, respiratory effort, auscultation of wheezing and crackles, and the inspiration/expiration ratio. Also, the validation of the ABSS performed on patients diagnosed with AB, the reliability measured by observing the behavior of internal consistency, test-retest, external validity and inter-observer agreement. From a total of 290 measurements a Cronbach's reliability alpha of 0.83 was obtained; Kappa agreement index of 0.93 in the test-retest agreement, and Kappa index of 0.682 (α<0.05) for inter-observer agreement. The ABSS can be a reliable tool for measuring the severity of AB. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventability of severe acute maternal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Beverley; MacDonald, Evelyn Jane; Brown, Selina Ann; Wilson, Leona; Stanley, James; Tait, John David; Dinsdale, Richard Alan; Coles, Carolyn Lee; Geller, Stacie E

    2014-06-01

    We sought to assess potential preventability of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) cases admitted to intensive-care units (ICUs) or high-dependency units (HDUs). Inclusion criteria were admissions to ICUs or HDUs of women who were pregnant or within 42 days of delivery in 4 District Health Board areas (accounting for a third of annual births in New Zealand) during a 17-month period. Cases were reviewed by external multidisciplinary panels using a validated model for assessing preventability. In all, 98 SAMM cases were assessed; 38 (38.8%) cases were deemed potentially preventable, 36 (36.7%) not preventable but improvement in care was needed, and 24 (24.5%) not preventable. The most frequent preventable factors were clinician related: delay or failure in diagnosis or recognition of high-risk status (51%); and delay or inappropriate treatment (70%). The most common causes of preventable severe morbidity were blood loss and septicemia. The majority of SAMM cases were potentially preventable or required improvement in care. Themes around substandard care related to delay in diagnosis and treatment for postpartum hemorrhage and septicemia. These findings can inform clinical educational programs and policies to improve maternal outcomes. This study has now been expanded to a national New Zealand audit of all SAMM cases admitted to an ICU/HDU. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of food allergy with asthma severity and atopic diseases in Jewish and Arab adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Yael; German, Larissa; Livne, Irit; Shohat, Tamy

    2012-10-01

      To investigate the prevalence of reported food allergy and its association with atopic diseases and asthma severity among Jewish and Arab adolescents.   The self-report questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was administered to adolescents aged 13-14 years from randomly selected junior high schools in Israel. Questions regarding food allergy were added.   A total of 11 171 questionnaires were available for analysis. Food allergy was reported by 3.6% of participants: 1.9% milk, 0.6% egg, 0.6% peanut and 0.4% sesame. On multivariate analysis, food allergy was strongly associated with current asthma (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.8-3.3), atopic eczema (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.4-4.3) and allergic rhinitis (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.8-3.1). Arabs were significantly more allergic to peanut (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.1), egg (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.1-5.9) and sesame (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5) than Jews, and less allergic to milk (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9). Asthmatic subjects with food allergy had significantly more parameters of severe asthma than those without food allergy (p foods differs between Jews and Arabs. Asthmatic adolescents with food allergy report more severe asthma than those without food allergy. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Asthma and pneumonia among children less than five years with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K; Ndeezi, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, bas...... on stringent clinical criteria. We also describe the treatment for children with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital....

  1. Characteristics associated with clinical severity and inflammatory phenotype of naturally occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Poulsen, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental studies viral infections have been shown to induce type 2 inflammation in asthmatics, but whether this is a feature of naturally occurring virus-induced asthma exacerbations is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from the airway epithelium in response...... occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and whether TSLP is associated with this type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with acute asthma were examined during the exacerbation, and after 4 weeks recovery. The assessments included spirometry, FeNO and induced sputum...

  2. Measures to reduce maintenance therapy with oral corticosteroid in adults with severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Vivi Q; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    on the evidence for OCS-sparing strategies in adults with severe asthma. METHODS: A systematic literature review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies (which comprised 3060 subjects) were included. Of the nonbiologic......), masitinib (78% reduction in OCS dose), mepolizumab (50%83% reduction in OCS dose), and omalizumab (30%64% of enrolled patients achieved a reduction in OCS dose, and one study reported a dose reduction of 45%). CONCLUSIONS: In adults with severe asthma, several corticosteroid-sparing interventions were shown...... to be effective in reducing systemic steroid exposure, not least in studies of add-on biologic therapy. However, based on the available studies, ciclesonide, based on the low potential for systemic effect, especially seems to be a good candidate for reducing steroid exposure in these patients before possible...

  3. Incidence and long-term outcome of severe asthma-COPD overlap compared to asthma and COPD alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarnes, Camilla Boslev; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Tjønneland, Anne

    2017-01-01

    in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort (1993-1997) were followed in the National Patients Registry for admissions for asthma (DJ45-46) and COPD (DJ40-44) and vital status. Asthma-COPD overlap was defined as at least one hospital admission for asthma and one for COPD (different time points), and incident...... asthma-COPD overlap as at least one of the diagnoses occurring after enrollment into the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1,845 (3.2%) and 4,037 (7.1%) participants had admissions for asthma and COPD, respectively, with 662 (1.2%) participants with asthma-COPD overlap. Incidence rate...

  4. [The degree of asthma severity in children and the level of maternal anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Płusa, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    Care for sick children most often falls to mothers, which may affect their mental state, causing the states of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of asthma in children and the level of anxiety and depression in mothers, taking into account the importance of the material status of the family, the educational level of the mothers, the presence of critical events, as well as the coexistence of allergic diseases in other family members. The study included 60 mothers of children with bronchial asthma. Age of mothers in the investigated families was on average 37.28 +/- 6.24 years, and most had a high school education (55.0%) or higher (28.3%). 16.7% of mothers and 8.3% fathers suffered from asthma. 13.3% of mothers of children with asthma were brought child alone. To assess the level of anxiety the inventory for measuring state and trait anxiety (STAI - State Trait Anxiety Inventory) developed by Spielberger, Gorsuch'a and Lushene'a was applied. To determine the changes in depressive the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI - Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire) was used. The Student's t test was included for two independent populations and a comparison of the results obtained in the questionnaire for diagnosing the level of anxiety and depression. For other parameters the correlation coefficient r-Pearson rank and Kendall's tau were performed. Mothers of children with moderate asthma compared to mothers of children with mild asthma had higher levels of anxiety (both state and properties), and also a slightly higher level of depression. Maternal age was connected positively and moderately strongly with the number held by children (r = 0.380; p = 0.003) and age of a child with asthma (r = 0.613, p = 0.0005). The duration of the child's disease was associated positively and moderately strongly with the level of state anxiety mother (X-1) (r = 0.345; p = 0.007) and a bit less and also positively with the

  5. Nebulized magnesium for moderate and severe pediatric asthma: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Khalid; Ahmed, Wessam; Davidson, Bruce L; Alamri, Mohamed; Zakaria, Ibrahim; Alrifaai, Mahomud

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous magnesium sulfate, a rescue therapy added to bronchodilator and systemic steroid therapy for moderate and severe asthma, is uncommonly administered. We hypothesized that nebulized magnesium would confer benefit without undue risk. Patients aged 2 to 14 y with moderate and severe asthma (PRAM severity score ≥ 4) admitted to infirmary/observation unit care were randomized double-blind on admission to receive 800 mg nebulized magnesium or normal saline placebo after all received intensive therapy with combined nebulized albuterol-ipratropium and intravenous methylprednisolone. Time to medical readiness for discharge was the primary outcome; sample size was chosen to detect a 15% absolute improvement. Improvement over time in PRAM severity score and other secondary outcomes were compared for the overall group and severe asthma subset. One hundred and ninety-one magnesium sulfates and 174 placebo patients met criteria for analysis. The groups were similar with mean baseline PRAM scores >7. Blinded active therapy significantly increased blood magnesium level 2 hr post-treatment completion compared to placebo, 0.85 vs 0.82 mmol/L, P = 0.001. There were no important adverse effects. Accelerated failure time analysis showed a non-significantly shortened time to medical readiness for discharge of 14% favoring the magnesium sulfate group, OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.40, P = 0.20. Mean times until readiness for discharge were 14.7 hr [SD 9.7] versus 15.6 hr [SD 11.3] for the investigational and placebo groups, respectively, P = 0.41. Adding nebulized magnesium to combined nebulized bronchodilator and systemic steroid therapy failed to significantly shorten time to discharge of pediatric patients with moderate or severe asthma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of Age and Disease Severity on Systemic Corticosteroid Responses in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipatanakul, Wanda; Mauger, David T; Sorkness, Ronald L; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Holguin, Fernando; Woodruff, Prescott G; Ly, Ngoc P; Bacharier, Leonard B; Bhakta, Nirav R; Moore, Wendy C; Bleecker, Eugene R; Hastie, Annette T; Meyers, Deborah A; Castro, Mario; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaston, Benjamin M; Jarjour, Nizar N; Levy, Bruce D; Peters, Stephen P; Teague, W Gerald; Fajt, Merritt; Wenzel, Sally E; Erzurum, Serpil C; Israel, Elliot

    2017-06-01

    Phenotypic distinctions between severe asthma (SA) and nonsevere asthma (NONSA) may be confounded by differential adherence or incorrect use of corticosteroids. To determine if there are persistent phenotypic distinctions between SA (as defined by 2014 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines) and NONSA after intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and to identify predictors of a corticosteroid response in these populations. A total of 526 adults age 18 years and older (315 SA) and 188 children age 6 to less than 18 years (107 SA) in the NHLBI Severe Asthma Research Program III were characterized before and 3 weeks after TA. The primary outcome for corticosteroid response was defined as greater than or equal to 10-point improvement in percent predicted FEV1. Adult asthma groups exhibited a small but significant mean FEV1% predicted improvement after TA (SA group mean difference, 3.4%; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.7%; P = 0.001), whereas children did not. Adult SA continued to manifest lower FEV1 and worse asthma control as compared with NONSA after TA. In children, after TA only prebronchodilator FEV1 distinguished SA from NONSA. A total of 21% of adults with SA and 20% of children with SA achieved greater than or equal to 10% improvement after TA. Baseline bronchodilator response and fractional exhaled nitric oxide had good sensitivity and specificity for predicting response in all groups except children with NONSA. One in five patients with SA exhibit greater than or equal to 10% improvement in FEV1 with parenteral corticosteroid. Those likely to respond had greater bronchodilator responsiveness and fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. In adults, differences in airflow obstruction and symptoms between SA and NONSA persist after parenteral corticosteroids, suggesting a component of corticosteroid nonresponsive pathobiology in adults with SA that may differ in children. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT

  7. CYTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ESTIMATE OF THE INFLAMMATION AMONG THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM MODERATELY SEVERE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Dulina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for the new noninvasive and information methods to estimate the intensity of the inflammatory processes during the bronchial asthma is an important task for the modern medicine, pediatrics, in particular. We have examined 20 children, suffering from moderately severe bronchial asthma in remission. patients underwent the induction of the sputum by means of nail hypertonic solution, bronchoscopic examination along with the sampling of the lavage fluid and bronchial biopsy, cytometry of the induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, morphometric examination of the biopsy samples of bronchi walls, determination of the nitric oxide contents in the expired air. We revealed high self descriptiveness of the cytological characteristics of the induced sputum. High percentage of neutrophiles and eosinophiles in the induced sputum disclosed during remission of the bronchial asthma, as well as thickness increase of the basilemma, ratio distortion of the ciliated and cyathiform cells in the favor of the latter, especially along with the high nitric oxide contents in the expired air indicate the continuous persistence in the allergic respiratory inflammation.Key words: induced sputum, bronchial asthma, children.

  8. Organ failure associated with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Jun Zhu; Jing-Sen Shi; Xue-Jun Sun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and organ failure.METHODS: Clinical data of 74 cases of SAP from Jan. 1993 to Dec. 2002 were retrospectively reviewed, and the relationship between organ failure and age, gender, etiology,extent of necrosis, infection of necrosis and mortality was analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 47 patients (63.5 %) showed organ failure, 20 patients (27.0 %) multiple organ failure, whereas 27 patients (36.5 %) with dysfunction of a single organ system. Pulmonary failure was the most common organ dysfunction (23.0 %) among single organ failures. There were no significant differences in age, gender and gallstone pancreatitis among patients with or without organ failure (P>0.05). The incidence of organ failure in infected necrosis was not higher compared with sterile necrosis, and patients with increased amount of necrosis did not have an increased prevalence of organ failure (P>0.05). Patients with organ failure had a higher mortality rate compared with those without organ failure (P<0.05). The death of SAP was associated with multiple organ failure (P<0.005), pulmonary failure (P<0.005), cardiovascular dysfunction (P<0.05) and gastrointestinal dysfunction (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Organ failure is common in patients with SAP, and patients with multiple organ failure and pulmonary failure have a higher mortality rate. Prevention and active treatment of organ failure can improve the outcome of patients with SAP.

  9. Effects of procalcitonin-guided treatment on antibiotic use and need for mechanical ventilation in patients with acute asthma exacerbation: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Wanis H. Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary outcome was to determine whether serum procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy can reduce antibiotic exposure in patients with an acute exacerbation of asthma presenting to the primary care facility or emergency department, or during hospital admission. The secondary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled clinical trials (published in English that compared serum procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy versus antibiotic use according to physician’s discretion for adult participants with mild, moderate, or severe acute asthma exacerbations. Results: Four randomized controlled trials evaluating 457 patients were included in this meta-analysis, with significant homogeneity observed among these studies. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescriptions (relative risk 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.50–0.67. The conclusion regarding the difference between the two groups in the need for mechanical ventilation (relative risk 1.10, 95% confidence interval 0.62–1.94 was guarded due to inadequate power and the potential for type II error. The overall quality of evidence was also limited by the lack of double-blinding. Conclusions: These data suggest a potential benefit for the use of serum procalcitonin in guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with an acute asthma exacerbation and advocates the need for more randomized controlled trials. Keywords: Procalcitonin, Asthma, Antibiotic, Exacerbation, Guided

  10. Vitamin C and asthma in children: modification of the effect by age, exposure to dampness and the severity of asthma

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    Hemilä Harri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously found a significant benefit of vitamin C supplementation in asthmatic children. Purpose To test whether the effect of vitamin C on asthma is heterogeneous over the participant population. Methods Egyptian asthmatic children between 7 and 10 years of age (n = 60 were included in the cross-over trial. They were administered 0.2 grams per day of vitamin C and placebo for separate 6-week periods. The variation in the vitamin C effect on two clinically relevant outcomes was analyzed: the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT, which measures the severity of asthma symptoms (the scale ranges from 0 to 27 points, 1. We used linear modeling to examine the variation of the vitamin C effect in the subgroups. Results The effect of vitamin C on the C-ACT was significantly modified by age and baseline C-ACT levels. In the children aged 7.0-8.2 years with a baseline C-ACT of 18 to 19 points, vitamin C increased the C-ACT score by 4.2 points (95% CI: 3.3-5.3; whereas in the children aged 8.3-10 years who had a baseline C-ACT of 14 to 15 points, vitamin C increased the C-ACT score by only 1.3 points (95% CI: 0.1-2.5. The effect of vitamin C on the FEV1 levels was significantly modified by age and exposure to dampness. In the children aged 7.0-8.2 years with no exposure to dampness, vitamin C increased the FEV1 level by 37% (95% CI: 34-40%, whereas in the children aged 8.3-10 years with exposure to dampness or mold in their bedroom more than one year prior to the study, vitamin C increased the FEV1 level by only 21% (95% CI: 18-25%. Conclusions We found strong evidence that the effect of vitamin C on asthmatic children is heterogeneous. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and identify the groups of children who would receive the greatest benefit from vitamin C supplementation.

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies CDHR3 as a susceptibility locus for early childhood asthma with severe exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick; Nielsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are among the most frequent causes of hospitalization during childhood, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of a specific asthma phenotype characterized by recurrent, severe exacerbations occurring between 2 and 6 ...

  12. A genome-wide association study identifies CDHR3 as a susceptibility locus for early childhood asthma with severe exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick; Nielsen, Kasper; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Mercader, Josep M.; Belgrave, Danielle; den Dekker, Herman T.; Husby, Anders; Sevelsted, Astrid; Faura Tellez, Grissel; Mortensen, Li Juel; Paternoster, Lavinia; Flaaten, Richard; Molgaard, Anne; Smart, David E.; Thomsen, Philip F.; Rasmussen, Morten A.; Bonas-Guarch, Silvia; Holst, Claus; Nohr, Ellen A.; Yadav, Rachita; March, Michael E.; Blicher, Thomas; Lackie, Peter M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Simpson, Angela; Holloway, John W.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Custovic, Adnan; Davies, Donna E.; Torrents, David; Gupta, Ramneek; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Bisgaard, Hans

    Asthma exacerbations are among the most frequent causes of hospitalization during childhood, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of a specific asthma phenotype characterized by recurrent, severe exacerbations occurring between 2 and 6

  13. Characteristics and severity of asthma in children with and without atopic conditions: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; van Erp, Francine C.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland van der Zee, Anke H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood allergic diseases have a major impact on a child's quality of life, as well as that of their parents. We studied the coexistence of reported allergies in children who use asthma medication. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that asthma severity is greater among children

  14. Prevalence and severity of allergic rhinitis in house dust mite-allergic patients with bronchial asthma or atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, I.; Oosting, A. J.; Tempels-Pavlica, Z.; de Monchy, J. G. R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Hak, E.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis are closely associated. Although population-based studies report a high prevalence of rhinitis among asthma patients, less is known of the association between rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and the severity of concomitant rhinitis.

  15. Prevalence and severity of allergic rhinitis in house dust mite-allergic patients with bronchial asthma or atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, [No Value; Oosting, AJ; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; de Monchy, JGR; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, CAFM; Hak, E; van Wijk, R.

    Background Allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis are closely associated. Although population-based studies report a high prevalence of rhinitis among asthma patients, less is known of the association between rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and the severity of concomitant rhinitis.

  16. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  17. A proof-of-concept, randomized, controlled trial of omalizumab in patients with severe, difficult-to-control, nonatopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gilles; Magnan, Antoine; Chiron, Raphaël; Contin-Bordes, Cécile; Berger, Patrick; Taillé, Camille; Devouassoux, Gilles; de Blay, Frédéric; Couderc, Louis-Jean; Didier, Alain; O'Callaghan, Dermot S; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Bourdeix, Isabelle; Le Gros, Vincent; Humbert, Marc

    2013-08-01

    While up to 50% of patients with severe asthma have no evidence of allergy, IgE has been linked to asthma, irrespective of atopic status. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is reported to significantly benefit a subset of patients with severe, persistent, allergic asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether omalizumab has biologic and clinical effects in patients with refractory nonatopic asthma. Forty-one adult patients who, despite daily treatment with or without maintenance oral corticosteroids, had severe, nonatopic, refractory asthma according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) step 4, were randomized to receive omalizumab or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. The primary end point was the change in expression of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on blood basophils and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC2) after 16 weeks. The impact of omalizumab on lung function and clinical variables was also examined. Compared with placebo, omalizumab resulted in a statistically significant reduction in FcεRI expression on basophils and pDC2 (P < .001). The omalizumab group also showed an overall increase in FEV1 compared with baseline (+250 mL, P = .032; +9.9%, P = .029). A trend toward improvement in global evaluation of treatment effectiveness and asthma exacerbation rate was also observed. Omalizumab negatively regulates FcεRI expression in patients with severe nonatopic asthma, as it does in severe atopic asthma. Omalizumab may have a therapeutic role in severe nonatopic asthma. Nonetheless, our preliminary findings support further investigation to better assess the clinical efficacy of omalizumab. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01007149; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov and European Clinical Trials Database, EudraCT; No.: 2009-010937-38; URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu.

  18. Plasma antibodies against heat shock protein 70 correlate with the incidence and severity of asthma in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qingyi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heat shock proteins (Hsps are induced by stresses such as allergic factors and inflammatory responses in bronchi epithelial cells and therefore may be detectable in patients with asthma. However, the etiologic link between anti-Hsps and asthma (its severity and related inflammatory responses such as interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin E has not been established. We determined whether antibodies against Hsp60 and Hsp70 were present in patients with asthma and evaluated their associations with risk and severity of asthma. Methods We determined the levels of anti-Hsp60 and anti-Hsp70 by immunoblot and their associations with risk and symptom severity of asthma in 95 patients with asthma and 99 matched non-symptomatic controls using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the controls, asthma patients were more likely to have detectable anti-Hsp60 (17.2% vs 5.1% and anti-Hsp70 (33.7% vs 8.1% (p ≤ 0.001. In particular, the presence of anti-Hsp70 was associated with a greater than 2 fold risk for asthma (adjusted OR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.35~3.59. Furthermore, both anti-Hsp60 and anti-Hsp70 levels were positively correlated with symptom severity (p Conclusions These data suggest that anti-Hsp60 and especially anti-Hsp70 correlate with the attacks and severity of asthma. The underlying molecular mechanisms linking antibodies to heat shock proteins and asthma remain to be investigated.

  19. Low-dose budesonide treatment reduces severe asthma-related events in patients with infrequent asthma symptoms at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    symptoms, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS and safety of bronchodilator-only treatment. We investigated asthma outcomes by baseline symptom frequency in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4......-66 years with recent-onset mild asthma (11 years] or 200 mug [patients aged 2 symptom days/week; further divided into 0-1, >1-2 symptom days/week). RESULTS: Overall, 7138 patients were included (budesonide, n=3577; placebo, n=3561). At baseline, symptom frequency was 0-1 symptom days/week for 2184 (30......RATIONALE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective in low doses for reducing asthma-related exacerbation risk and mortality. Previously, ICS treatment was recommended for patients with 'persistent' asthma, defined by symptoms >2 days/week.1 However, for patients with less frequent...

  20. Survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary Y Y; Cheng, Peter K C; Lim, Wilina W L

    2005-10-01

    The primary modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) appear to be direct mucus membrane contact with infectious droplets and through exposure to formites. Knowledge of the survival characteristics of the virus is essential for formulating appropriate infection-control measures. Survival of SARS-CoV strain GVU6109 was studied in stool and respiratory specimens. Survival of the virus on different environmental surfaces, including a laboratory request form, an impervious disposable gown, and a cotton nondisposable gown, was investigated. The virucidal effects of sodium hypochlorite, house detergent, and a peroxygen compound (Virkon S; Antec International) on the virus were also studied. SARS-CoV GVU6109 can survive for 4 days in diarrheal stool samples with an alkaline pH, and it can remain infectious in respiratory specimens for >7 days at room temperature. Even at a relatively high concentration (10(4) tissue culture infective doses/mL), the virus could not be recovered after drying of a paper request form, and its infectivity was shown to last longer on the disposable gown than on the cotton gown. All disinfectants tested were shown to be able to reduce the virus load by >3 log within 5 min. Fecal and respiratory samples can remain infectious for a long period of time at room temperature. The risk of infection via contact with droplet-contaminated paper is small. Absorbent material, such as cotton, is preferred to nonabsorptive material for personal protective clothing for routine patient care where risk of large spillage is unlikely. The virus is easily inactivated by commonly used disinfectants.

  1. Decreased activation of inflammatory networks during acute asthma exacerbations is associated with chronic airflow obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Anthony; Ehteshami, Samira; Stern, Debra A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2010-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are associated with subsequent deficits in lung function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a specific pattern of inflammatory responses during acute exacerbations may be associated with chronic airway obstruction. Gene coexpression networks were characterized in induced sputum obtained during an acute exacerbation, from asthmatic children with or without chronic airflow limitation. The data showed that activation of Th1-like/cytotoxic and interferon signalling pathways during acute exacerbations was decreased in asthmatic children with deficits in baseline lung function. These associations were independent of the identification of picornaviruses in nasal secretions or the use of medications at the time of the exacerbation. Th2-related pathways were also detected in the responses, but variations in these pathways were not related to chronic airways obstruction. Our findings demonstrate that decreased activation of Th1-like/cytotoxic and interferon pathways is a hallmark of acute exacerbation responses in asthmatic children with evidence of chronic airways obstruction. PMID:20336062

  2. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause an intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, while the number of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.7 per 100,000 patients in 2009. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a healthy life without any symptoms. A partnership between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with agents and elimination of causes and risk factors are fundamental to asthma treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate mild to intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, varying from low to high doses. Long-acting β2 agonists (LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and theophylline sustained-release preparation are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-IgE antibody therapy is a new choice for the most severe and persistent asthma. Inhaled β2 agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, etc., are used as needed against acute exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, aspirin induced asthma, pregnancy, and cough variant asthma are also important factors that need to be considered.

  3. Comparison of the Maxair Autohaler to wet nebulizer in patients with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, R; Sellers, J; Greene, S; Flaster, E; Colice, G

    1998-09-01

    Patients with acute asthma often have difficulty using a conventional metered-dose inhaler. The Maxair Autohaler (3M Pharmaceuticals; St. Paul, MN) is a hand-held breath-actuated device developed to help patients coordinate drug administration. The study objective is to compare the efficacy of the Autohaler with inhaled beta-agonist administered by wet nebulizer in treating acute asthma exacerbations. Parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Emergency department (ED) of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients aged 18 to 55 years presenting to the ED with acute asthma and an FEV1 40 to 70% on hospital arrival. Patients were given either six puffs of the Maxair Autohaler (1,200 microg pirbuterol) plus saline solution by nebulizer (active Autohaler group) or six puffs placebo by Autohaler plus 2,500 microg albuterol via nebulizer (active nebulizer group). Treatment was repeated at 30 and 60 min, with clinical evaluation performed before each treatment and again at 120 min. At 120 min, the protocol was completed. Twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 5 excluded because of protocol violations. Baseline FEV1 percent predicted values for the active Autohaler group were 53% vs 51% for the active nebulizer group (p=not significant [NS]). At time 120 min, values were 66% for Autohaler and 64% for nebulizer (p=NS). The average time to administer Autohaler was 2.9 min, vs 9.1 min for nebulizer. No patient was excluded because of the inability to use the Autohaler device adequately. In patients with moderate asthma exacerbations, similar improvements in pulmonary function are obtained when beta-agonists are given by either the Maxair Autohaler or a wet nebulizer device.

  4. Azithromycin for Acute Exacerbations of Asthma : The AZALEA Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sebastian L; Szigeti, Matyas; Cross, Mary; Brightling, Christopher; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Harrison, Timothy; Mansur, Adel; Robison, Laura; Sattar, Zahid; Jackson, David; Mallia, Patrick; Wong, Ernie; Corrigan, Christopher; Higgins, Bernard; Ind, Philip; Singh, Dave; Thomson, Neil C; Ashby, Deborah; Chauhan, Anoop

    2016-11-01

    Guidelines recommend against antibiotic use to treat asthma attacks. A study with telithromycin reported benefit, but adverse reactions limit its use. To determine whether azithromycin added to standard care for asthma attacks in adults results in clinical benefit. The Azithromycin Against Placebo in Exacerbations of Asthma (AZALEA) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a United Kingdom-based multicenter study in adults requesting emergency care for acute asthma exacerbations, ran from September 2011 to April 2014. Adults with a history of asthma for more than 6 months were recruited within 48 hours of presentation to medical care with an acute deterioration in asthma control requiring a course of oral and/or systemic corticosteroids. Azithromycin 500 mg daily or matched placebo for 3 days. The primary outcome was diary card symptom score 10 days after randomization, with a hypothesized treatment effect size of -0.3. Secondary outcomes were diary card symptom score, quality-of-life questionnaires, and lung function changes, all between exacerbation and day 10, and time to a 50% reduction in symptom score. Of 4582 patients screened at 31 centers, 199 of a planned 380 were randomized within 48 hours of presentation. The major reason for nonrecruitment was receipt of antibiotics (2044 [44.6%] screened patients). Median time from presentation to drug administration was 22 hours (interquartile range, 14-28 hours). Exacerbation characteristics were well balanced across treatment arms and centers. The primary outcome asthma symptom scores were mean (SD), 4.14 (1.38) at exacerbation and 2.09 (1.71) at 10 days for the azithromycin group and 4.18 (1.48) and 2.20 (1.51) for the placebo group, respectively. Using multilevel modeling, there was no significant difference in symptom scores between azithromycin and placebo at day 10 (difference, -0.166; 95% CI, -0.670 to 0.337), nor on any day between exacerbation and day 10. No significant between

  5. "Spike" in acute asthma exacerbations during enterovirus D68 epidemic in Japan: A nation-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korematsu, Seigo; Nagashima, Kengo; Sato, Yasunori; Nagao, Mizuho; Hasegawa, Shunji; Nakamura, Haruna; Sugiura, Shiro; Miura, Katsushi; Okada, Kenji; Fujisawa, Takao

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, Japan experienced an unusual increase in acute asthma hospitalizations of children that coincided with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) epidemic. The objective of this study is to investigate whether EV-D68 had a causal relationship with the spike in asthma hospitalizations. A nation-wide retrospective survey of asthma hospitalizations of children was performed for the period from January 2010 through October 2015. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology asked its affiliated hospitals to report monthly numbers of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and mechanical ventilations due to acute asthma exacerbation. The data were retrieved from medical databases using predefined search criteria: diagnosis of asthma or asthmatic bronchitis, admission, and age asthma exacerbation. A total of 157 hospitals reported 87,189 asthma hospitalizations, including 477 ICU admissions and 1193 mechanical ventilations, during the survey period of 5 years and 10 months. The numbers of these events increased drastically in September 2015. The Granger causality test verified the association between EV-D68 and asthma hospitalizations/mechanical ventilations. The most-affected age group was 3-6 years old. The spike in pediatric asthma hospitalizations in Japan in September 2015 was found to be associated with the EV-D68 epidemic. Respiratory pathogens can cause "epidemics" of asthma exacerbation. Coordinated surveillance of infectious diseases and asthma may be beneficial for prevention and better control of both illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of relaxation-breathing training on anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with moderate-to-severe asthma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Huang, Jing-Long; Tseng, Li-Feng; Hsueh, Kai-Chung

    2009-08-01

    Emotional stress triggers and exacerbates asthma in children. Reducing anxiety in adults by relaxation-breathing techniques has been shown in clinical trials to produce good asthma outcomes. However, more evidence is needed on using this intervention with asthmatic children. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined self-management and relaxation-breathing training for children with moderate-to-severe asthma compared to self-management-only training. Two-group experimental design. Pediatric outpatient clinic of a medical center in central Taiwan. Participants were 48 children, ages 6-14 years, with moderate-to-severe asthma and their parents. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or comparison group and matched by gender, age, and asthma severity. Both groups participated in an asthma self-management program. Children in the experimental group were also given 30 min of training in a relaxation-breathing technique and a CD for home practice. Data on anxiety levels, self-perceived health status, asthma signs/symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, and medication use were collected at baseline and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Effects of group, time, and group-time interaction were analyzed using the Mixed Model in SPSS (12.0). Anxiety (especially state anxiety) was significantly lower for children in the experimental group than in the comparison group. Differences in the other four physiological variables were also noted between pre- and post-intervention, but these changes did not differ significantly between groups. A combination of self-management and relaxation-breathing training can reduce anxiety, thus improving asthmatic children's health. These results can serve as an evidence base for psychological nursing practice with asthmatic children.

  7. Effect of aging on airway remodeling and muscarinic receptors in a murine acute asthma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang JY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ji Young Kang, Sook Young Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Seung Joon Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Young Kyoon KimDepartment of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground and objectives: The influence of aging on the development of asthma has not been studied thoroughly. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related airway responses involving lung histology and expression of muscarinic receptors in a murine model of acute asthma. Methods: Female BALB/c mice at the ages of 6 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA for 1 month (n = 8–12 per group. We analyzed inflammatory cells and T-helper (Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and parameters of airway remodeling and expression of muscarinic receptors in lung tissue. Results: Among the OVA groups, total cell and eosinophil numbers in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the older (6-, 9-, and 12-month-old mice than in the young (6-week-old mice. Interleukin (IL 4 (IL-4 concentration increased, but IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations showed a decreased tendency, with age. IL-17 concentration tended to increase with age, which did not reach statistical significance. periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining area, peribronchial collagen deposition, and area of α-smooth muscle staining were significantly higher in the 6-month older OVA group than in the young OVA group. The expression of the M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors tended to increase and decrease, respectively, with age. Conclusion: The aged mice showed an active and unique pattern not only on airway inflammation, but also on airway remodeling and expression of the muscarinic receptors during the development of acute asthma compared with the young mice. These findings suggest that the aging process affects the pathogenesis of acute asthma and age-specific approach might be more appropriate for better asthma control in a clinical practice.Keywords: aging, asthma

  8. The severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants was associated with quality of life nine months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Bains, Karen Eline Stensby; Bakkeheim, Egil; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2016-07-01

    Acute bronchiolitis in infancy increases the risk of later asthma and reduced health-related quality of life (QoL). We aimed to see whether the severity of acute bronchiolitis in the first year of life was associated with QoL nine months later. The parents of 209 of 404 of children hospitalised for acute bronchiolitis in eight paediatric departments in south-east Norway at a mean four months of age (range 0-12 months) completed the Infant/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire sent by mail nine months after the acute illness. Disease severity was measured by length of stay and the need for supportive treatment. Interactions with gender, inclusion age, prematurity, maternal ethnicity and maternal education were examined. Reduced QoL in four domains was associated with increased length of stay and need for ventilatory support. Physical abilities and general health were associated with both severity markers, whereas bodily pain and discomfort and change in health were associated with length of stay. Ventilatory support was more negatively associated with QoL than atopic eczema and also associated with reduced parental emotions and parental time. The severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants was associated with reduced QoL nine months later. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Adolescent and caregivers' experiences of electronic adherence assessment in paediatric problematic severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amy C; Gannon, Kenneth N; Beresford, Fran; Fleming, Louise

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of adolescents and their caregivers regarding adherence to inhaled corticosteroids which are assessed through an electronic monitoring device (EMD). These devices are increasingly being used for assessing medication adherence, yet there is little information about patient's experience of these tools. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents with severe asthma, aged 11-15 years, who were electronically monitored as part of their care, along with their caregivers. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: 'they were trying to help me get better', 'checking up and catching out' and 'who is responsible?' The themes highlighted differences in priorities between participant groups, the impact of monitoring on the healthcare relationship and the dilemma of transferring responsibility for asthma management to adolescents. The findings suggest it is important for healthcare professionals to engage with patient's preferences and priorities when introducing EMDs.

  10. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities.

  11. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  12. Computed tomography assessment of airways throughout bronchial tree demonstrates airway narrowing in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Debray, Marie-Pierre; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Ould Hmeidi, Yahya; Fetita, Catalin; Taillé, Camille; Aubier, Michel; Grenier, Philippe A

    2015-06-01

    To analyze airway dimensions throughout the bronchial tree in severe asthmatic patients using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) focusing on airway narrowing. Thirty-two patients with severe asthma underwent automated (BronCare software) analysis of their right lung bronchi, with counts of airways >3 mm long arising from the main bronchi (airway count) and bronchial dimension quantification at segmental and subsegmental levels (lumen area [LA], wall area [WA], and WA%). Focal bronchial stenosis was defined as >50% narrowing of maximal LA on contiguous cross-sectional slices. Severe asthmatics were compared to 13 nonsevere asthmatic patients and nonasthmatic (pooled) subjects (Wilcoxon rank tests, then stepwise logistic regression). Finally, cluster analysis of severe asthmatic patients and stepwise logistic regression identified specific imaging subgroups. The most significant differences between severe asthmatic patients and the pooled subjects were bronchial stenosis (subsegmental and all bronchi: P bronchial stenosis: P = .009). Airway count was as discriminant as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (P = .01) to identify patients in each cluster, with both variables being correlated (r = 0.59, P = .005). Severe asthma-associated morphologic changes were characterized by focal bronchial stenoses and diffuse airway narrowing; the latter was associated with airflow obstruction. WA%, dependent on airway caliber, is the best parameter to identify severe asthmatic patients from pooled subjects. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the value of mepolizumab for severe eosinophilic asthma: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; McQueen, R Brett; Ollendorf, Daniel A; Tice, Jeffrey A; Chapman, Richard H; Pearson, Steven D; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    Adding mepolizumab to standard treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and controller medications could decrease asthma exacerbations and use of long-term oral steroids in patients with severe disease and increased eosinophils; however, mepolizumab is costly and its cost effectiveness is unknown. To estimate the cost effectiveness of mepolizumab. A Markov model was used to determine the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for mepolizumab plus standard of care (SoC) and for SoC alone. The population, adults with severe eosinophilic asthma, was modeled for a lifetime time horizon. A responder scenario analysis was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness for a cohort able to achieve and maintain asthma control. Over a lifetime treatment horizon, 23.96 exacerbations were averted per patient receiving mepolizumab plus SoC. Avoidance of exacerbations and decrease in long-term oral steroid use resulted in more than $18,000 in cost offsets among those receiving mepolizumab, but treatment costs increased by more than $600,000. Treatment with mepolizumab plus SoC vs SoC alone resulted in a cost-effectiveness estimate of $386,000 per QALY. To achieve cost effectiveness of approximately $150,000 per QALY, mepolizumab would require a more than 60% price discount. At current pricing, treating a responder cohort yielded cost-effectiveness estimates near $160,000 per QALY. The estimated cost effectiveness of mepolizumab exceeds value thresholds. Achieving these thresholds would require significant discounts from the current list price. Alternatively, treatment limited to responders improves the cost effectiveness toward, but remains still slightly above, these thresholds. Payers interested in improving the efficiency of health care resources should consider negotiations of the mepolizumab price and ways to predict and assess the response to mepolizumab. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. The respiratory microbiome in bronchial mucosa and secretions from severe IgE-mediated asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millares, Laura; Bermudo, Guadalupe; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Domingo, Christian; Garcia-Nuñez, Marian; Pomares, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Monsó, Eduard

    2017-01-19

    The bronchial microbiome in chronic lung diseases presents an abnormal pattern, but its microbial composition and regional differences in severe asthma have not been sufficiently addressed. The aim of the study was to describe the bacterial community in bronchial mucosa and secretions of patients with severe chronic asthma chronically treated with corticosteroids in addition to usual care according to Global Initiative for Asthma. Bacterial community composition was obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing, and functional capabilities through PICRUSt. Thirteen patients with severe asthma were included and provided 11 bronchial biopsies (BB) and 12 bronchial aspirates (BA) suitable for sequence analyses. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria showed relative abundances (RAs) over 5% in BB, a cutoff that was reached by Streptococcus and Prevotella at genus level. Legionella genus attained a median RA of 2.7 (interquartile range 1.1-4.7) in BB samples. In BA a higher RA of Fusobacteria was found, when compared with BB [8.7 (5.9-11.4) vs 4.2 (0.8-7.5), p = 0.037], while the RA of Proteobacteria was lower in BA [4.3 (3.7-6.5) vs 17.1 (11.2-33.4), p = 0.005]. RA of the Legionella genus was also significantly lower in BA [0.004 (0.001-0.02) vs. 2.7 (1.1-4.7), p = 0.005]. Beta-diversity analysis confirmed the differences between the microbial communities in BA and BB (R2 = 0.20, p = 0.001, Adonis test), and functional analysis revealed also statistically significant differences between both types of sample on Metabolism, Cellular processes, Human diseases, Organismal systems and Genetic information processing pathways. The microbiota in the bronchial mucosa of severe asthma has a specific pattern that is not accurately represented in bronchial secretions, which must be considered a different niche of bacteria growth.

  15. Impaired Nuclear Translocation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Corticosteroid-Insensitive Airway Smooth Muscle in Severe Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, P-J; Michaeloudes, C; Zhu, J; Shaikh, N.; Baker, J.; Chung, KF; Bhavsar, PK

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Patients with severe asthma (SA) are less responsive to the beneficial effects of corticosteroid (CS) therapy, and relative CS insensitivity has been shown in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from patients with SA.

  16. Prevalence of asthma and severity of allergic rhinitis comparing 2 perennial allergens: house dust mites and Parietaria judaica pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Cunill, A; Bartra, J; Dalmau, G; Tella, R; Botey, E; Raga, E; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an increasingly prevalent worldwide disease that has a considerable impact on quality of life and health care costs. Asthma and AR may be part of the same disease, with AR leading to an increased risk of asthma. To assess the prevalence of asthma in patients with AR due to house dust mites (HDMs) or Parietaria judaica and analyze the characteristics of asthma and AR in each group. Cross-sectional, multicenter study with recording of demographic and clinical characteristics. All patients had AR confirmed by symptoms and a positive skin prick test to HDMs or P judaica. They were classified according to the severity and frequency ofAR following the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and modified ARIA criteria and according to the severity of asthma following the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. We studied 395 patients (226 in the HDM group and 169 in the Pjudaica group) with a mean (SD) age of 43 (15.3) years. Using the modified ARIA criteria, we detected more severe and persistent AR in the P judaica group than in the HDM group (44.5% vs 24.8%, P < .001). Nevertheless, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the severity or prevalence (50% in HDM vs 47.9% in P judaica, P = .685) of asthma. AR due to P judaica pollen, which behaves like a perennial allergen, is associated with the same prevalence of asthma and with more severe rhinitis than AR due to HDMs.

  17. Prevalence and Severity of Asthma, Rhinitis, and Atopic Eczema in 13- to 14-Year-Old Schoolchildren from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Arnaldo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in schoolchildren from southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out with the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III written questionnaire. The questionnaire was self-applied by 2,948 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 13 to 14 years. The lifetime prevalence rates of symptoms were as follows: wheezing, 40.8%; rhinitis, 40.7%; eczema, 13.6%; self-reported asthma, 14.6%; rhinitis, 31.4%; eczema, 13.4%. Rhinitis was reported by 55% of adolescents with current asthma (60% females vs 46.9% males. Girls 13 to 14 years of age had higher prevalence rates of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema than boys had. Atopic eczema was reported by 42.7% of girls and 31.4% of boys with asthma. The prevalence rates were statistically significant for symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in females. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the sexes in regard to reported asthma and bronchospasm induced by exercise.

  18. Severe uterine hemorrhage as first manifestation of acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bodur, Serkan; Ayaz, Yurdakadim; Topallar, Faruk; Erdem, Galip; GÜN, İsmet

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common presentations in gynecology practice with too many causes. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is one of the serious causes of uterine hemorrhage. Frequency and severity of hemorrage seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia is often associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation which can be life-threatening. A 37-year-old women was admitted to the emergency room with acute severe uterine bleeding, increasing weakness and weight loss....

  19. OMALIZUMAB-BASED TREATMENT OF TEENAGERS, SUFFERING FROM SEVERE ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Omalizumab, a medicine of the recombinant humanized mono clonal antibodies to Ige, is applied in russia among teenagers throughout a year. it is prescribed to patients with severe persistent incontrolled by iks atopic bronchial asthma (BA. The article generalizes the experience of omalizumab application among teenagers and highlights the first findings in respect of its efficiency and safety. 6 month long omalizumab based treatment contributes to the reduction in the recurrence of the clinically significant BA exacerbations by 65% and the frequency of because hospitalizations by 78%. Against the background of the ongoing treatment, the indices of the bronchial passability get better; the need in the bronchial spasmolytics falls down; BA control improves. Most children have a chance to sizably reduce the dose of the inhalant glucocorticosteroids against the omalizumab based treatment. The authors pointed out to the reduced symptoms of the allergic rhinitis, grass pollen allergy, food allergy among teenagers, who have been receiving the ant Ige therapy for a long time. They also noted the satisfactory profile of omalizumab safety.Key words: omalizumab, ant Ige antibodies, bronchial asthma, treatment, children, teenagers, bronchial asthma control.

  20. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Maten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We hypothesized that breathprints obtained by electronic nose are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma. Ten patients with stable asthma underwent methacholine provocation (Visit 1 and sham challenge with isotonic saline (Visit 2. At Visit 1, exhaled air was repetitively collected pre-challenge, after reaching the provocative concentration (PC20 causing 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and after subsequent salbutamol inhalation. At Visit 2, breath was collected pre-challenge, post-saline and post-salbutamol. At each occasion, an expiratory vital capacity was collected after 5 min of tidal breathing through an inspiratory VOC-filter in a Tedlar bag and sampled by electronic nose (Cyranose 320. Breathprints were analyzed with principal component analysis and individual factors were compared with mixed model analysis followed by pairwise comparisons. Inhalation of methacholine led to a 30.8 ± 3.3% fall in FEV1 and was followed by a significant change in breathprint (p = 0.04. Saline inhalation did not induce a significant change in FEV1, but altered the breathprint (p = 0.01. However, the breathprint obtained after the methacholine provocation was not significantly different from that after saline challenge (p = 0.27. The molecular profile of exhaled air in patients with asthma is altered by nebulized aerosols, but is not affected by acute changes in airway caliber. Our data demonstrate that breathprints by electronic nose are not confounded by the level of airway obstruction.

  1. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  2. Assessment of PANC3 Score in Predicting Severity of Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is inflammatory process of the pancreas associated with local and systemic complications. At present, there are lots of scores (such as Ransons, APACHE II, bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis) that help us in predicting severity at the time of admission but these are time consuming ...

  3. Obesity as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuchova, Jana; Bober, Juraj; Harbulak, Pavol; Hudak, Alexander; Gajdzik, Tomas; Kalanin, Rastislav; Radonak, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    Obesity plays an important role in increasing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and death. Controversy persists concerning the degrees to which obesity influences mortality and morbidity in severe acute pancreatitis. Between 2008 and 2012, the findings of 384 consecutive acute pancreatitis patients were analyzed in a prospective trial. Ranson's scores, Acute Physiology And Chronic Evaluation II scores, and computed tomography severity indexes were calculated. Patients were categorized by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference for the analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity on local and systemic complications as well as on mortality in severe acute pancreatitis patients. Severe acute pancreatitis was confirmed in 91 (23.7 %) patients. Local and systemic complications were recorded in 64 (16.7 %) and 51 (13.3 %) patients, respectively. Obesity calculated by BMI was identified as a significant risk factor for local and systemic complications (p obesity was also categorized by waist circumference and was confirmed as a risk factor (p obesity can have a statistically significant influence on the mortality of severe acute pancreatitis patients. The presence of obesity has a negative impact on the survival rate of severe acute pancreatitis patients. Obese patients have higher incidence of local and systemic complications. Obesity seems to be a negative prognostic factor in severe acute pancreatitis patients.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor in Israelis with severe asthma compared to non-asthmatic Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachor, Joshua; Chana, Ziv; Varsano, Shabtai; Erlich, Tamar; Goldman, Elizabeth; Dror, Yigal; Yakovy, Ilana; Navon, Ruth

    2003-11-01

    It has been argued that arginine replacement in locus 16 (Arg16) of beta 2 adrenergic receptor with glycin (Gly16) increases asthma severity, while glutamin replacement in locus 27 (Gln27) with glutamic acid (Glu27) decreases it. In addition, ethnic dependency of these polymorphisms has been described, but few studies investigated its relation to asthma severity in a non-anglosaxic population. To investigate non-anglosaxic ethnic influences on beta 2AR polymorphisms and its correlations to asthma severity. Sixty-six Israeli Jewish and Arab asthmatics who had near-fatal asthma and/or severe nocturnal asthma and/or steroid-dependency were investigated for genetic polymorphisms of beta 2AR and compared to matched controls. The Jewish patients included both Ashkenazi (of European origin) and non-Ashkenazi (originating from the Middle East or North Africa). The results were compared with those of ethnically matched 113 non-asthmatic Israelis and non-asthmatic Anglo-Saxons described in the literature. We found no significant genetic differences between the asthmatics and their controls or between the various ethnic groups of our population. However, the prevalence of Glu27 was significantly lower in non-asthmatic Israelis compared to non-asthmatic Anglo-Saxons. The genetic distribution of beta 2AR polymorphisms in severe Israeli asthmatics is not different from that of non-asthmatic Israelis and therefore its clinical impact on asthma is probably minimal.

  5. Patient profiles and clinical utility of mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldar P

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pranabashis Haldar Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK Abstract: Mepolizumab (Nucala® is an effective and specific anti-eosinophil molecular therapy that has recently been approved as add-on therapy for the management of severe eosinophilic asthma by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, European Medicines Agency (EMA; European Union and more recently National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE; UK. It is one of several molecular therapies in development for this indication and is illustrative of the strategic trajectory for pharmaceutical drug development taken over the past decade in several disease areas. Molecular therapies offer the prospect of improved specificity and effectiveness of biological effect. However, this necessitates a clear understanding of the underlying mechanistic pathways underpinning pathological processes, to inform drug development that yields novel more efficacious treatment options with a better clinical profile than existing agents. For the first time, utilization of molecular therapies in clinical trials is providing a novel in vivo model to characterize the association between specific pathways and clinical disease expression. It is increasingly recognized that asthma exhibits both clinical and pathological heterogeneity. It follows that a one-size-fits-all approach will not be appropriate and cost-effectiveness may only be achieved by identifying responder subgroups. This so-called personalized approach to therapy is being supported by the parallel development of companion biomarkers for clinical application. In this review, the author summarizes the clinical studies, their interpretation and the lessons learnt with mepolizumab that have informed our understanding of the approach to personalized molecular therapy in asthma. Keywords: IL-5, Nucala, exacerbations 

  6. Sahaja yoga in the management of moderate to severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, R; Marks, G B; Kenchington, P; Peters, D; Salome, C M

    2002-02-01

    to establish whether elements of this intervention may be clinically valuable in patients with severe asthma.

  7. The efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan HA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Sarhan,1 Omar H EL-Garhy,1 Mohamed A Ali,2 Nouran A Youssef1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma.Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted in Chest and Emergency Departments. Thirty patients of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomized into three groups: MgSO4 nebulization (group A, salbutamol nebulization (group B, and their combination (group C. All patients were monitored before and after nebulization (each 20 minutes for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, oxygen saturation, clinical examination, and Fischl index.Results: A highly significant improvement in PEFR, PEFR percentage, and Fischl index and significant decrease in RR and HR was observed in all groups. A similar improvement in PEFR was observed in group A and group B (P=0.389. The difference in peak expiratory flow (PEF improvement was insignificant between group B and group C (P=0.101, while there was a significant differ­ence between group A and group C (P=0.014 in favor of group C.Conclusion: Nebulized MgSO4 alone or combined with salbutamol has a clinically significant bronchodilator effect in acute asthma and leads to clinical improvement, increase in PEFR, reduction in HR, and reduction in RR. The response to nebulized MgSO4 alone (PEFR improvement 54±35.6 L/min, P=0.001 is comparable (P=0.389 to that of nebulized salbutamol (PEFR improvement 67.0±41.9 L/min, P=0.001 and is significantly less than (P=0.014 that of nebulized combination (PEFR improvement 92.0±26.9 L/min, P=0.000. Keywords: nebulized magnesium sulfate, salbutamol, acute asthma, peak expiratory flow rate, Fischl index

  8. Influence of degree of specific allergic sensitivity on severity of rhinitis and asthma in Chinese allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Changqing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between sensitizations and severity of allergic diseases is controversial. Objective This study was to investigate the association between severity of asthma and rhinitis and degree of specific allergic sensitization in allergic patients in China. Method A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6304 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from 4 regions of China. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire documenting their respiratory and allergic symptoms, their impact on sleep, daily activities, school and work. They also underwent skin prick tests with 13 common aeroallergens. Among the recruited subjects, 2268 provided blood samples for serum measurement of specific IgE (sIgE against 16 common aeroallergens. Results Significantly higher percentage of patients with moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis were sensitized to outdoor allergens while percentage of patients sensitized to indoor allergens was increased with increasing severity of asthma. Moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis was associated with the skin wheal size and the level of sIgE to Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisifolia (p Dermatophagoides (D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae (p Conclusions Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisifolia sensitizations are associated with the severity of intermittent rhinitis and D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae sensitizations are associated with increasing severity of asthma in China. Increase in number of allergens the patients are sensitized to may also increase the severity of rhinitis and asthma.

  9. Effects of procalcitonin-guided treatment on antibiotic use and need for mechanical ventilation in patients with acute asthma exacerbation: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wanis H; Mushtaq, Kamran; Raza, Tasleem; Kartha, Anand; Saleh, Ahmed O; Malik, Rayaz A

    2017-12-01

    The primary outcome was to determine whether serum procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy can reduce antibiotic exposure in patients with an acute exacerbation of asthma presenting to the primary care facility or emergency department, or during hospital admission. The secondary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation. An extensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled clinical trials (published in English) that compared serum procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy versus antibiotic use according to physician's discretion for adult participants with mild, moderate, or severe acute asthma exacerbations. Four randomized controlled trials evaluating 457 patients were included in this meta-analysis, with significant homogeneity observed among these studies. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescriptions (relative risk 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.67). The conclusion regarding the difference between the two groups in the need for mechanical ventilation (relative risk 1.10, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.94) was guarded due to inadequate power and the potential for type II error. The overall quality of evidence was also limited by the lack of double-blinding. These data suggest a potential benefit for the use of serum procalcitonin in guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with an acute asthma exacerbation and advocates the need for more randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Mold-sensitivity in children with moderate-severe asthma is associated with HLA-DR and HLA-DQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, A P; Vijay, H M; Kumar, V; Kariuki, B; Santiago, L A; Graff, R; Wofford, J D; Shah, M R

    2010-11-01

    Several epidemiologic studies in the United States and Europe have linked Alternaria sensitivity to both persistence and severity of asthma. In this study, we examined T cell responses and HLA class II alleles in children with moderate-severe asthma. Ninety-six children with moderate-severe asthma were compared to 90 children with mild asthma. HLA class II genotyping was performed to determine HLA allelic frequencies. Th1/Th2 Alternaria-specific T cell cytokine responses were determined by the use of Alternaria-stimulated cultures. HLA class II restriction was examined by inhibition of Alternaria-stimulated lymphoproliferative responses with blocking anti-HLA class II monoclonal antibodies. Children with moderate-severe asthma had significantly increased sensitivities to Aspergillus fumigatus; sensitivities to Alternaria were similar in both moderate-severe and mild asthmatics. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*13 alleles were increased in mold-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatic children. HLA-DRB1*03 tended to be increased in mold-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*03 alleles was significantly decreased in mold and Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma. HLA class II blocking monoclonal antibodies demonstrated HLA-DR restriction. Alternaria-stimulated IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis was significantly increased in moderate-severe asthmatics. IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis was significantly increased in Alternaria-stimulated lymphocyte cultures of HLA-DQB1*03- asthmatics compared to HLA-DQB1*03+ asthmatics. In children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma, there was increased Th2 sensitivity to Alternaria stimulation. This was associated with HLA-DR restriction and with increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-DRB1*03. There was decreased frequency of HLA-DQB1*03 in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma, suggesting HLA-DQB1*03 may be protective of the development of Alternaria-sensitive severe asthma. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  12. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications

    OpenAIRE

    SU, MAO-SHENG; JIANG, YING; YAN, XIAO-YUAN HU; ZHAO, QING-HUA; LIU, ZHI-WEI; ZHANG, WEN-ZHI; HE, LEI

    2012-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, lab...

  13. Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Improves Health-Related Quality of Life in Moderate-to-Severe Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningqun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-severe asthma has a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL of the patients. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that is evaluated clinically for the treatment of many diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and lung fibrosis. In order to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, 120 subjects were randomized to receive Corbin capsule containing Cordyceps sinensis for 3 months (treatment group, n=60, whereas the control group (n=60 did not receive treatment with Corbin capsule. Inhaled corticosteroid and as-needed β-agonists were used in the treatment of both groups. HR-QOL was measured with the Juniper’s Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ. The incidence of asthma exacerbation, pulmonary function testing, and serum measurements of inflammatory mediators were also evaluated. The results showed that the treatment group indicated a significant increase in AQLQ scores and lung function compared with the control group. The expression levels of the inflammation markers IgE, ICAM-1, IL-4, and MMP-9 in the serum were decreased and IgG increased in the treatment group compared with the control group. Therefore, the conclusion was reached that a formulation of Cordyceps sinensis improved the HR-QOL, asthma symptoms, lung function, and inflammatory profile of the patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IPC-16008730.

  14. Leiden Mutation and the Course of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ershov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of Leiden mutation on the course of severe acute pancreatitis. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twelve people were examined. Group 1 comprised 50 patients diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis without coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation. Group 2 included 42 patients with severe acute pancreatitis who were found to have Leiden mutation. Acute pancreatitis was first diagnosed in both groups. Group 3 consisted of 20 apparently healthy individuals (a control group. The severity of the underlying disease was determined in accordance with the clinical and laboratory parameters recommended by the I. I. Dzhanelidze Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Emergence Care. Results. This investigation revealed an association of Leiden mutation with trends in the development of acute pancreatitis. Group 2 exhibited a more severe disease: large focal pancreatic necrosis was twice more common and infectious complications developed more frequently; more aggressive and radical treatments were more often used. The patients with Leiden mutation had higher mortality rates (33% in the Leiden mutation group and 24% in the non-mutation group. Conclusion. The findings should be kept in mind in elaborating new diagnostic methods and principles in the treatment of the underlying disease and in the prevention of its complications in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Key words: acute pancreatitis, Leiden mutation.

  15. Aerobic training decreases bronchial hyperresponsiveness and systemic inflammation in patients with moderate or severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Pinto, Andrezza; Mendes, Felipe A R; de Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Agondi, Rosana Câmara; Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M; Kalil, Jorge; Martins, Milton A; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Carvalho, Celso R F

    2015-08-01

    The benefits of aerobic training for the main features of asthma, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation, are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of aerobic training on BHR (primary outcome), serum inflammatory cytokines (secondary outcome), clinical control and asthma quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ)) (tertiary outcomes). Fifty-eight patients were randomly assigned to either the control group (CG) or the aerobic training group (TG). Patients in the CG (educational programme+breathing exercises (sham)) and the TG (same as the CG+aerobic training) were followed for 3 months. BHR, serum cytokine, clinical control, AQLQ, induced sputum and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were evaluated before and after the intervention. After 12 weeks, 43 patients (21 CG/22 TG) completed the study and were analysed. The TG improved in BHR by 1 doubling dose (dd) (95% CI 0.3 to 1.7 dd), and they experienced reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and improved AQLQ and asthma exacerbation (pAsthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7; p>0.05). A within-group difference was found in the ACQ-6 for patients with non-well-controlled asthma and in sputum eosinophil and FeNO in patients in the TG who had worse airway inflammation. Aerobic training reduced BHR and serum proinflammatory cytokines and improved quality of life and asthma exacerbation in patients with moderate or severe asthma. These results suggest that adding exercise as an adjunct therapy to pharmacological treatment could improve the main features of asthma. NCT02033122. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of acute cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirota, Masahiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Kawarada, Yoshifumi; Nimura, Yuji; Miura, Fumihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Strasberg, Steven; Pitt, Henry; Gadacz, Thomas R.; de Santibanes, Eduardo; Gouma, Dirk J.; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Belghiti, Jacques; Neuhaus, Horst; Buechler, Markus W.; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Padbury, Robert T.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Hilvano, Serafin C.; Belli, Giulio; Windsor, John A.; Dervenis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose new criteria for the diagnosis and severity assessment of acute cholecystitis, based on a systematic review of the literature and a consensus of experts. A working group reviewed articles with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis and

  17. Acute relief of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by inhaled formoterol in children with persistent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mette Northman; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Buchvald, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    -controlled, crossover study of the immediate effect of formoterol, 9 microg, vs terbutaline, 0.5 mg, and placebo administered as dry powder at different study days. Exercise challenge test was used as a model of acute bronchoconstriction. PATIENTS: Twenty-four 7- to 15-year-old children with persistent asthma....... INTERVENTIONS: The children performed standardized treadmill exercise tests, breathing dry air, with a submaximal workload. Study medication was administered 5 min after exercise if FEV1 dropped > or = 15% within 5 min after exercise. FEV1 and forced expiratory flows were measured repeatedly until 60 min after......% of the maximum increase for both. Median times to recovery within 5% of baseline FEV1 were 5.0 min and 7.4 min for formoterol and terbutaline, respectively (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Single-dose formoterol, 9 microg, via dry powder inhaler provided an acute bronchodilatory effect similar to terbutaline during EIB...

  18. Adiponectin in Asthma and Obesity: Protective Agent or Risk Factor for More Severe Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Azambuja, Renato; da Costa Santos Azambuja, Layla Salomao Eulalio; Costa, Cláudia; Rufino, Rogério

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between asthma and obesity is well established, although the pathophysiological mechanisms linking both diseases remain unknown. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose cells, plays a role in the modulation of inflammation and may be the key linking these two types of inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with asthma with different body mass indices (BMI); the patients were classified as eutrophic, overweight, or obese. We assessed disease control using the GINA consensus, and the levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 33 (IL-33) in each of the patients. We evaluated 75 of the 96 patients eligible for the study, including 25 in each BMI group. The CRP levels were significantly higher in the obese patients compared with both the eutrophic (p = 0.01) and the overweight (p = 0.03) patients. The mean adiponectin level was 21.82 ± 9.93 mg/L for the eutrophic asthmatics, which is a level that was significantly higher than in the overweight (15.31 ± 6.27 mg/L, p = 0.0140) and the obese (16.69 ± 11.45 mg/L, p = 0.0287) patients. The patients with higher adiponectin levels exhibited smaller FEV1 (p = 0.02) and lower FVC (p = 0.003). The IL-33 levels were not different between the groups. Adiponectin does not protect against the development of inflammation in the setting of asthma and may in fact exacerbate the disease via its anti-TH1 inflammatory effects, allowing for increased TH2 differentiation and a more severe allergic response.

  19. A phase II placebo-controlled study of tralokinumab in moderate-to-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Edward; Brightling, Christopher; Niven, Robert; Oh, Chad; Faggioni, Raffaella; Poon, Kwai; She, Dewei; Kell, Chris; May, Richard D; Geba, Gregory P; Molfino, Nestor A

    2013-02-01

    Pre-clinical data demonstrate a pivotal role for interleukin (IL)-13 in the development and maintenance of asthma. This study assessed the effects of tralokinumab, an investigational human IL-13-neutralising immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody, in adults with moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma despite controller therapies. 194 subjects were randomised to receive tralokinumab (150, 300 or 600 mg) or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Primary end-point was change from baseline in mean Asthma Control Questionnaire score (ACQ-6; ACQ mean of six individual item scores) at week 13 comparing placebo and combined tralokinumab dose groups. Secondary end-points included pre-bronchodilator lung function, rescue β(2)-agonist use and safety. Numerical end-points are reported as mean±sd. At week 13, change from baseline in ACQ-6 was -0.76±1.04 for tralokinumab versus -0.61±0.90 for placebo (p=0.375). Increases from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) were 0.21±0.38 L versus 0.06±0.48 L (p=0.072), with a dose-response observed across the tralokinumab doses tested. β(2)-agonist use (puffs per day) was decreased for tralokinumab -0.68±1.45 versus placebo -0.10±1.49 (p=0.020). The increase in FEV(1) following tralokinumab treatment remained evident 12 weeks after the final dose. Safety profile was acceptable with no serious adverse events related to tralokinumab. No improvement in ACQ-6 was observed, although tralokinumab treatment was associated with improved lung function.

  20. Association of stem cell factor gene expression with severity and atopic state in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Safaa I; El-Hefnway, Sally M; Abd El Gayed, Eman M; Abdelaal, Gehan A

    2017-01-18

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory and remodeling disorder of the airways, in which many cells, cellular elements, and cytokines play important roles. Stem cell factor (SCF) may contribute to the inflammatory changes occurring in asthma. We aimed to show the expression of SCF gene in patients with asthma as a means of diagnosis and its association with severity and atopic state in these patients. This study was carried out on 80 subjects, 50 asthmatic patients and 30 age and gender matched healthy control persons. They were subjected to full history taking, general and local chest examination, spirometric measurements (pre and post broncodilators) using a spirometer, serum IgE, and real time PCR for assessment of SCF mRNA expression. This study showed significant difference between the studied groups regarding pulmonary function tests (P bronchial asthma.

  1. Usefulness of modified Pulmonary Index Score (mPIS as a quantitative tool for the evaluation of severe acute exacerbation in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Koga

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: mPIS could be a useful tool for several aspects during acute asthma attacks, including the determination of a treatment plan, and prediction of the period of hospitalization in admitted patients, although prospective studies would be required to establish our hypothesis.

  2. Surfactant protein B polymorphisms are associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection, but not with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzmann Andrea

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant proteins (SP are important for the innate host defence and essential for a physiological lung function. Several linkage and association studies have investigated the genes coding for different surfactant proteins in the context of pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory distress syndrome of preterm infants. In this study we tested whether SP-B was in association with two further pulmonary diseases in children, i. e. severe infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus and bronchial asthma. Methods We chose to study five polymorphisms in SP-B: rs2077079 in the promoter region; rs1130866 leading to the amino acid exchange T131I; rs2040349 in intron 8; rs3024801 leading to L176F and rs3024809 resulting in R272H. Statistical analyses made use of the Armitage's trend test for single polymorphisms and FAMHAP and FASTEHPLUS for haplotype analyses. Results The polymorphisms rs3024801 and rs3024809 were not present in our study populations. The three other polymorphisms were common and in tight linkage disequilibrium with each other. They did not show association with bronchial asthma or severe RSV infection in the analyses of single polymorphisms. However, haplotypes analyses revealed association of SP-B with severe RSV infection (p = 0.034. Conclusion Thus our results indicate a possible involvement of SP-B in the genetic predisposition to severe RSV infections in the German population. In order to determine which of the three polymorphisms constituting the haplotypes is responsible for the association, further case control studies on large populations are necessary. Furthermore, functional analysis need to be conducted.

  3. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in bronchial asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Transmitral inflow velocity patterns during acute severe asthma in children are suggestive of altered LV preload due to an acute transient elevation in pulmonary artery pressure secondary to the altered lung mechanics, and are not reflective of intrinsic LV diastolic dysfunction. Keywords: Bronchial asthma, right ...

  4. Interconnection between nitric oxide formation and hypersensitivity parameters under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Parilova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An immunoregulatory role of nitric oxide (NO in the development of adaptive immune responses associated with allergic diseases is very important. The present study extended these observations by the examination of the reciprocal changes in characteristic immunologic parameters of the disease and NO level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. Development of guinea pig Th2 mediated asthma was accompanied by increasing the level of allergic markers: ovalbumin (OVA specific IgG and IL-4. We demonstrated that the infiltrate of airway cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation. The level of intracellular NO formation significantly correlated with plasma allergen specific IgG value in OVA-induced asthma. The presented data evidence that the elevated intracellular NO level in BAL fluid may reflect a nitrosative stress in respiratory tract in general, when allergic asthma exacerbation is present.

  5. ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA WITHOUT CIRCULATING BLASTS PRESENTING AS SEVERE HYPERCALCEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oloomi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia complicating malignancy is a rare complication in pediatric age group. In this article, we present a case with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as severe hypercalcemia. A 10 years old girl presented with an acute onset of fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of weight, costovertebral pain and frequency. She was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Her examination showed mild hepatosplenomegaly. In laboratory studies she had sever hypercalcemia. Despite the absence of circulating blast, bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous hydration and furosemide but the serum calcium levels normalized only after the beginning of specific chemotherapy. Hypercalcemia represents an emergency in children, and acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis even when there are no circulating blasts.

  6. Improving estimates of the burden of severe acute malnutrition and predictions of caseload for programs treating severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulti, Assaye; Briend, André; Dale, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The burden of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is estimated using unadjusted prevalence estimates. SAM is an acute condition and many children with SAM will either recover or die within a few weeks. Estimating SAM burden using unadjusted prevalence estimates results in significant...

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver and the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Stimac, D; Klanac, A; Carovic, F; Milic, S

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome on the severity of acute pancreatitis. We hypothesized that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver would have a more severe form of acute pancreatitis. We retrospectively analyzed 822 patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis. We diagnosed acute pancreatitis and determined its severity according the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. We assessed nonalcoholic fatty liver with computed tomography. There were 198 (24.1%) patients out of 822 analyzed who had nonalcoholic fatty liver. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had statistically higher incidence of moderately severe (35.4% vs. 14.6%; p=0.02) and severe acute pancreatitis (20.7% vs. 9.6%; ppancreatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.236-3.689). Compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver, patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had a higher death rate, however not statistically significant (5.6% vs. 4.3%; p=NS). Presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver at admission can indicate a higher risk for developing more severe forms of acute pancreatitis and could be used as an additional prognostic tool. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in asthmatic patients and its relation with asthma severity, lung function and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Kalmarzi, R; Ataee, P; Mansori, M; Moradi, G; Ahmadi, S; Kaviani, Z; Khalafi, B; Kooti, W

    Asthma is one of the diseases which has a high prevalence in developed and developing countries. The relationship between asthma and obesity has always been focused by researchers. In this field, adipokines, especially adiponectin and leptin have highly attended by the scientist. The aim of this study was to determine the serum level of adiponectin, leptin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio in asthmatic patients and its relationship with disease severity, lung function and BMI (body mass index). In this cross-sectional study, 90 asthmatic women admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan province - Iran, were examined. First, BMI was measured and then pulmonary function tests were performed in all asthmatics patient. Forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC, were measured. At the end, blood samples were collected and serum level of adiponectin and leptin were measured by ELISA method. Serum leptin and leptin/adiponectin levels correlated positively with asthma severity and BMI (p=0.0001), but there was no correlation between adiponectin level with asthma severity and BMI (p>0.05), also serum leptin and leptin/adiponectin levels inversely correlated with FEV1 and FVC in patient (p=0.0001). Asthma is linked with obesity, and there is an association between asthma severity and BMI with serum leptin and leptin/adiponectin levels, but our results do not support a significant role of adiponectin in obesity or asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Comorbidities in severe asthma: frequency of rhinitis, nasal polyposis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, vocal cord dysfunction and bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bisaccioni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Severe asthma is found in approximately 10% of patients with asthma. Some factors associated with worse asthma control include rhinitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, vocal cord dysfunction (VCD, nasal polyposis and bronchiectasis. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of these illnesses in patients with severe asthma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained from electronic medical records of patients with severe asthma between January 2006 and June 2008. Symptoms of rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease were evaluated as well as intolerance to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We evaluated the results of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, videolaryngoscopy and CT scans of the chest in order to confirm gastroesophageal reflux disease, nasal polyposis, vocal cord dysfunction and bronchiectasis. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients. Rhinitis symptoms were present in 224 patients (91.4%; 18 (7.3% had intolerance to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 8 (3.3% had nasal polyposis. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were reported for 173 (70.6% patients, although the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was confirmed based on esophagogastroduodenoscopy or laryngoscopy findings in just 58 (33.6% patients. Vocal cord dysfunction was suspected in 16 (6.5% and confirmed through laryngoscopy in 4 (1.6%. The patient records provided CT scans of the chest for 105 patients, and 26 (24.8% showed bronchiectasis. DISCUSSION: Rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease were the most common comorbidities observed, in addition to bronchiectasis. Therefore, in patients with severe asthma, associated diseases should be investigated as the cause of respiratory symptoms and uncontrolled asthma.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Modified CT Severity Index in Assessing Severity of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Amna; Shabbir, Zonaira; Shaukat, Asim; Riaz, Osman

    2016-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of modified CT severity index in assessing the severe acute pancreatitis keeping APACHE II as gold standard. Cross-sectional (validation) study. Department of Radiology, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, from February to August 2014. A total of 120 patients of either gender aged 20-60 years with epigastric pain radiating to back and having sonographic findings (decreased or heterogeneous pancreatic echogenicity, pancreatic enlargement, peripancreatic fluid collection), supportive of acute pancreatitis were taken. CT with intravenous contrast was performed on 128-slice scanner within 24 hours of presentation. Slice thickness was 3 mm in region of pancreas. Modified CT severity index was calculated. Score above 5 was graded as severe pancreatitis. APACHE II score of >11 considered as gold standard was also calculated within 24 hours of admission. Mean age of the patients was 39.03 ±8.71 years. Most of the patients were females 73 (60.8%). Out of 120 patients, 43 (35.83%) patients had severe acute pancreatitis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of modified CT severity index in assessing the severe acute pancreatitis were 100%, 87%, 81.13% and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was yielded as 91.67% considered APACHE II as gold standard. Modified CT severity index had high diagnostic accuracy in assessment of severe acute pancreatitis and can be used reliably in early prediction of complications of severe acute pancreatitis.

  11. Acute reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome precipitated by sudden severe anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-Francois; Borruat, Francois-Xavier

    2009-01-01

    To report the sudden onset of reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome precipitated byacute severe anemia. The charts of three patients (Usher syndrome, bilateral macular degeneration, and bilateral retinal vein occlusion) with acute Charles Bonnet syndrome in the setting of severe anemia were reviewed. Anemia resulted from bladder surgery, recto-colitis, and severe urinary tract infection. Hemoglobin ranged from 78 to 86 g/L. Decreased visual acuity and formed visual hallucinations (giants, flowers, animals) were present in all three patients. Rapid reversal of Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual acuity improvement followed blood transfusion. Acute severe anemia can precipitate Charles Bonnet syndrome, which may be reversible by blood transfusion.

  12. Nasal IL-17F is related to bronchial IL-17F/neutrophilia and exacerbations in stable atopic severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorbello, V; Ciprandi, G; Di Stefano, A; Massaglia, G M; Favatà, G; Conticello, S; Malerba, M; Folkerts, G; Profita, M; Rolla, G; Ricciardolo, F L M

    Severe asthma (SA) is associated with neutrophil recruitment and T helper (TH )17 chemokine overexpression in bronchial biopsies. We aimed to evaluate IL-17A and IL-17F expression in nasal/bronchial lamina propria of atopic mild-to-severe asthmatics and controls in relation to neutrophilia and

  13. Factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Il; Jung, Young Kul; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yeon Suk; Ku, Yang Suh; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Most patients with acute viral hepatitis A have a favorable course, but a few of them suffer from severe forms of hepatitis such as fulminant hepatitis. This study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 713 patients with acute hepatitis A, who were divided into two groups: severe hepatitis A (N=87) and non-severe hepatitis A (N=626). Severe hepatitis was defined as fulminant hepatitis or prolongation of prothrombin time (INR≥1.5). Clinical variables were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of fulminant hepatitis was 1.4% (10/713) in patients with acute hepatitis A. Thirty-three (4.6%) cases exhibited HBsAg positivity. In multivariate analyses, significant alcohol intake and the presence of HBsAg were significant predictive factors of fulminant hepatitis A, and significant alcohol intake and age were significant predictive factors of severe hepatitis A. HBeAg and HBV-DNA status did not affect the clinical course of hepatitis A in chronic hepatitis B carriers. Conclusions While most patients with acute hepatitis A have an uncomplicated clinical course, our data suggest that a more-severe clinical course is correlated with being older, significant alcohol intake, and chronic hepatitis-B-virus infection. PMID:20924212

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and severity of asthma symptoms in children of Kermanshah, IRAN: ISAAC phase I, II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobeiri, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    asthma is more common here, more prevalent in girls than boys and is higher in 13-14 years old than 6-7 years old but sever asthma is much less common. The results may be due to better diagnosis and better control of disease.

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among Children Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  16. Prevalence of Symptoms of Severe Asthma and Allergies in Irish School Children: An ISAAC Protocol Study, 1995–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Holohan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood asthma is a recurring health burden and symptoms of severe asthma in children are also emerging as a health and economic issue. This study examined changing patterns in symptoms of severe asthma and allergies (ever eczema and hay fever, using the Irish International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC protocol. ISAAC is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of randomly selected representative post-primary schools. Children aged 13–14 years were studied: 2,670 (in 1995, 2,273 (in 1998, 2,892 (in 2002–2003, and 2,805 (in 2007. Generalized linear modelling using Poisson distribution was employed to compute adjusted prevalence ratios (PR. A 39% significant increase in symptoms of severe asthma was estimated in 2007 relative to the baseline year 1995 (adjusted PR: 1.39 [95% CI: 1.14–1.69] increasing from 12% in 1995 to 15.3% in 2007. Opposite trends were observed for allergies, showing a decline in 2007, with an initial rise. The potential explanations for such a complex disease pattern whose aetiological hypothesis is still evolving are speculative. Changing environmental factors may be a factor, for instance, an improvement in both outdoor and indoor air quality further reinforcing the hygiene hypothesis but obesity as a disease modifier must also be considered.

  17. Manejo da asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: evidências atuais Management of acute asthma in adults in the emergency room: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma é uma doença com uma alta prevalência em nosso meio e ao redor do mundo. Embora novas opções terapêuticas tenham sido recentemente desenvolvidas, parece haver um aumento mundial na sua morbidade e mortalidade. Em muitas instituições, as exacerbações asmáticas ainda se constituem em uma emergência médica muito comum. As evidências têm demonstrado que o manejo da asma aguda na sala de emergência concentra decisões cruciais que podem determinar o desfecho desta situação clínica. Nesta revisão, enfocaremos a avaliação e o tratamento do paciente com asma aguda na sala de emergência, descrevendo uma estratégia apropriada para o seu manejo. Serão consideradas as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico, avaliação da gravidade, tratamento, avaliação das complicações, decisão sobre onde se realizará o tratamento adicional e orientações por ocasião da alta da emergência. Espera-se que estas recomendações contribuam para que o médico clínico tome as decisões apropriadas durante o manejo da asma aguda na sala de emergência.Asthma is a disease with high prevalence in our country and worldwide. Although new therapeutic approaches have been developed recently, there seems to be a global increase in morbidity and mortality from asthma. In many institutions, asthma exacerbation is still a common medical emergency. Clinical evidence demonstrates that management of acute asthma in the emergency room entails crucial decisions that could determine the clinical outcome. In this review, the authors focus on assessment and treatment of patients with acute asthma and outline an appropriate management strategy. Diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment, complications, decision about where additional treatment will take place and orientations on discharge from the emergency will be considered. It is expected that these recommendations will help physicians to make the appropriate decisions about care of acute asthma in the emergency

  18. Systematic review of severe acute liver injury caused by terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Shengli

    2014-08-01

    Terbinafine is an effective antimicrobial agent against dermatophytes, cryptococcus and other fungi. It is the preferred drug to treat onychomycosis. However, severe acute hepatitis from oral terbinafine administration has been recently reported. To describe a representative case, and review the literature regarding the best evidence on treatment and prognosis of severe acute hepatitis caused by oral terbinafine. The literature was searched for publications on severe hepatitis caused by terbinafine using MEDLINE, China Biology Medicine Disc, and the VIP Medical Information Resource System. Related references were searched manually. Seventeen English and three Chinese references of case reports were included after eliminating duplicate publications. No randomized control studies were found. Liver enzyme levels were found to have been increased significantly. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated cholestasis. Severe acute liver injury is a known, but unusual complication of terbinafine exposure. The prognosis is often good with appropriate treatment. Liver function assessment before treatment and periodic monitoring 4-6 weeks after initiation of treatment is recommended.

  19. Association of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) genetic variants with acute bronchodilator response in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Audrey H.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lazarus, Ross; Xu, Jingsong; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Hanrahan, John P.; Lange, Christoph; Weiss, Scott T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Corticotropin - releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) participates in smooth muscle relaxation response and may influence acute airway bronchodilator response to short – acting β2 agonist treatment of asthma. We aim to assess associations between genetic variants of CRHR2 and acute bronchodilator response in asthma. Methods We investigated 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRHR2 for associations with acute bronchodilator response to albuterol in 607 Caucasian asthmatic subjects recruited as part of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Replication was conducted in two Caucasian adult asthma cohorts – a cohort of 427 subjects enrolled in a completed clinical trial conducted by Sepracor Inc. (MA, USA) and a cohort of 152 subjects enrolled in the Clinical Trial of Low-Dose Theopylline and Montelukast (LODO) conducted by the American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers. Results Five variants were significantly associated with acute bronchodilator response in at least one cohort (p-value ≤ 0.05). Variant rs7793837 was associated in CAMP and LODO (p-value = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively) and haplotype blocks residing at the 5’ end of CRHR2 were associated with response in all three cohorts. Conclusion We report for the first time, at the gene level, replicated associations between CRHR2 and acute bronchodilator response. While no single variant was significantly associated in all three cohorts, the findings that variants at the 5’ end of CRHR2 are associated in each of three cohorts strongly suggest that the causative variants reside in this region and its genetic effect, although present, is likely to be weak. PMID:18408560

  20. Acute severe depression following peri-operative ondansetron

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the acute onset of short-lived severe depression following her third exposure to ondansetron for doxorubicin-induced nausea while concurrently taking a selective 5-HT3 or serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. The following is a report of a severe depressive incident following peri-operative ondansetron ...

  1. Biodanza Reduces Acute Pain Severity in Women with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Gatto-Cardia, Claudia M; Martins-Pereira, Clélia M; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana

    2017-10-01

    Biodanza is a useful therapy for the fibromyalgia management; however, there is no evidence of its effectiveness on acute pain. The objectives of the present study were: to determine the changes of a 3-month Biodanza program on acute pain severity (before vs. after session) and cumulative pain severity in women with fibromyalgia; and to check the associations of acute pain severity reduction with presession pain severity, body fat percentage, and satisfaction with the session. This was a 3-month low-moderate intensity (rate of perceived exertion around 12, based on a 6-20 point scale) Biodanza intervention study (1 session/week). Twenty-seven women with fibromyalgia (54.2 ± 6.2 years) participated. Pain severity was assessed before and after each single session with a visual analog scale. There were immediate changes in all sessions (p = .001-.028), except in the first, second, and fourth sessions. An overall 16% decrease of acute pain severity before and after each session was noted (mean presession pain vs. postsession pain, 5.8 ± 2.1 vs. 4.9 ± 2.4; respectively). There was an independent association of pain severity reduction (presession-postsession) with presession pain severity (unstandardized coefficient B = .21 ± .05; standardized coefficient β = .25; p  .05). In conclusion, Biodanza is an alternative therapy that reduced acute pain severity in women with fibromyalgia. The intervention also yielded cumulative pain severity reduction, which were higher in those women with fibromyalgia presenting higher presession pain severity and lower body fat percentage. The satisfaction with the session was also a key factor positively associated with pain reduction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of PANC3 Score in Predicting Severity of Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... Robles‑Díaz G, Pérez‑Mateo M. Is obesity a risk factor in acute pancreatitis? A meta‑analysis. Pancreatology 2004;4:42‑8. 15. Heller SJ, Noordhoek E, Tenner SM, Ramagopal V,. Abramowitz M, Hughes M, et al. Pleural effusion as a predictor of severity in acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 1997;15:222‑5. 16.

  3. Severe eczema in infancy can predict asthma development. A prospective study to the age of 10 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ekbäck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children with atopic eczema in infancy often develop allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, but the term "atopic march" has been questioned as the relations between atopic disorders seem more complicated than one condition progressing into another. OBJECTIVE: In this prospective multicenter study we followed children with eczema from infancy to the age of 10 years focusing on sensitization to allergens, severity of eczema and development of allergic airway symptoms at 4.5 and 10 years of age. METHODS: On inclusion, 123 children were examined. Hanifin-Rajka criteria and SCORAD index were used to describe the eczema. Episodes of wheezing were registered, skin prick tests and IgE tests were conducted and questionnaires were filled out. Procedures were repeated at 4.5 and 10 years of age with additional examinations for ARC and asthma. RESULTS: 94 out of 123 completed the entire study. High SCORAD points on inclusion were correlated with the risk of developing ARC, (B = 9.86, P = 0.01 and asthma, (B = 10.17, P = 0.01. For infants with eczema and wheezing at the first visit, the OR for developing asthma was 4.05(P = 0.01. ARC at 4.5 years of age resulted in an OR of 11.28(P = 0.00 for asthma development at 10 years. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that infant eczema with high SCORAD points is associated with an increased risk of asthma at 10 years of age. Children with eczema and wheezing episodes during infancy are more likely to develop asthma than are infants with eczema alone. Eczema in infancy combined with early onset of ARC seems to indicate a more severe allergic disease, which often leads to asthma development. The progression from eczema in infancy to ARC at an early age and asthma later in childhood shown in this study supports the relevance of the term "atopic march", at least in more severe allergic disease.

  4. Features of Severe Bronchial Asthma Phenotypes in School-Age Children Predisposed to Overweigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Ivanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects of inadequate control of severe bronchial asthma (BA is its phenotypic heterogeneity. Although the relationship between obesity and BA is certain, the mechanism of this phenotype of the disease is poorly understood. The objective of the study was to improve the efficiency of basic treatment for severe BA in school-age children predisposed to overweight based on an analysis of indicators of control, inflammatometry and spirometric characteristics. In a pulmonary department of regional clinical hospital (Chernivtsi, there were examined 18 children predisposed to overweight, whose body mass index exceeded the limits of 95% confidence interval (21.7 kg/m2 (I clinical group. Control group consisted of 39 patients with severe BA, who are not predisposed to overweight. It is proved that a predisposition to overweight in children with severe persistent BA adversely affect the indicators of achieving disease control. The lower efficacy of basic treatment in children predisposed to overweight is established that is due to a significantly greater share of school-age children with neutrophilic nature of bronchia inflammation in this group and airway hypersensitivity to histamine.

  5. Clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendonça Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: To describe the clinical characteristics, lung function, radiological findings, and the inflammatory cell profile in induced sputum in children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA treated at a referral center in southern Brazil.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children and adolescents (3-18 years of age with uncontrolled STRA treated with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists. We prospectively collected data on disease control, lung function, skin test reactivity to allergens, the inflammatory cell profile in induced sputum, chest CT findings, and esophageal pH monitoring results.Results: We analyzed 21 patients (mean age, 9.2 ± 2.98 years. Of those, 18 (86% were atopic. Most had uncontrolled asthma and near-normal baseline lung function. In 4 and 7, induced sputum was found to be eosinophilic and neutrophilic, respectively; the inflammatory cell profile in induced sputum having changed in 67% of those in whom induced sputum analysis was repeated. Of the 8 patients receiving treatment with omalizumab (an anti-IgE antibody, 7 (87.5% showed significant improvement in quality of life, as well as significant reductions in the numbers of exacerbations and hospitalizations.Conclusions: Children with STRA present with near-normal lung function and a variable airway inflammatory pattern during clinical follow-up, showing a significant clinical response to omalizumab. In children, STRA differs from that seen in adults, further studies being required in order to gain a better understanding of the disease mechanisms.

  6. Missed opportunities to transition from nebulizers to inhalers during hospitalization for acute asthma: A multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Valerie G; Hasegawa, Kohei; Heidt, Jonathan; Bittner, Jane C; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    Hospitalizations for acute asthma are thought to be highly preventable through the use of efficacious medications, though many patients have poor metered-dose inhaler (MDI) techniques, thus lessening these medications' real-world effectiveness. Teaching MDI techniques during hospitalization may therefore lead to improved outcomes. However, MDIs may be underutilized to deliver short-acting β-agonists (SABAs) in the inpatient setting, despite equivalent efficacy to nebulizer delivery. We sought to characterize delivery methods of SABAs among hospitalized patients with acute asthma to understand if there are missed opportunities for self-management education. In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional 25-center chart review study of children and adults (ages 2-54 years) hospitalized for acute asthma across 18 states (2012-2013), we studied SABA therapy delivery methods during hospitalization and receipt of action plans and follow-up visits. Unadjusted associations were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Of 987 patients, 44% received only nebulizer-SABA (children 32% vs. adults 53%; p vs. adults 47%; p nebulizer- vs. MDI-SABA were significantly less likely to receive individualized action plans (p vs. 78%, p vs. 59%, p < 0.001) at discharge. Opportunities exist to increase the delivery of MDI-SABA during hospitalization, particularly for adult inpatients with asthma. Further studies are needed to determine if increased use of MDI-delivered therapies improves patient education and outcomes.

  7. Roflumilast combined with montelukast versus montelukast alone as add-on treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Eric D; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Richard, Frank; Watz, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Roflumilast, a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, has been shown to provide modest improvements in lung function in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, but its efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma has not been assessed. We hypothesized that this drug might provide benefit if combined with montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in patients whose symptoms are uncontrolled by inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists. We sought to examine the efficacy, safety, and mode of action of the addition of roflumilast and montelukast versus montelukast alone in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. In a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, 2-sequence, crossover study, 64 patients were randomized to receive 500 μg of roflumilast plus montelukast followed by placebo plus 10 mg of montelukast (sequence AB) or placebo plus 10 mg of montelukast followed by 500 μg of roflumilast plus 10 mg of montelukast (sequence BA). All patients had a diagnosis of bronchial asthma inadequately controlled by at least a medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid plus a long-acting β-agonist. The analysis of FEV1 change from baseline to week 4 showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful treatment difference of 100 mL for roflumilast plus montelukast versus placebo plus montelukast. Also, improvements in patient-reported outcomes and a reduction in urinary leukotriene E4 levels were observed during roflumilast plus montelukast treatment compared with placebo plus montelukast treatment. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of roflumilast. The combination of roflumilast with montelukast compared with montelukast alone improved lung function and asthma control in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma and deserves further study for this indication. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on severity, quality of life, sleep quality and inflammatory markers in patients of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Gupta, Nitesh; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the effect of obesity with and without metabolic syndrome on asthma severity, quality of life, sleep quality, sleep disordered breathing and inflammatory markers as compared to non-obese asthma patients. 60 asthma patients recruited for the study were divided equally into non-obese (NOA), obese without metabolic syndrome (OANMS) and obese with metabolic syndrome (OAMS) groups. Study cohorts were assessed for severity of asthma, quality of life and quality of sleep using questionnaires and inflammatory markers (FENO, hs-CRP, IL-5, IL-6 and leptin). Institutional ethical committee approved the study. The results suggests OAMS patients may be a subtype of asthmatics having significantly severe asthma (p obese asthmatics especially with metabolic syndrome represent a subtype of asthmatic population. Hence, the treatment of metabolic syndrome may be necessary in addition to asthma to achieve optimal control.

  9. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20-35 ...

  10. Relationship between Vitamin D, Inflammation and Lung Function In Patients with Severe Uncontrolled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Janeva-Jovanovska

    2017-11-01

    CONCLUSION: Because there are little studies about the link between vitamin D and asthma, further research to clarify the mechanism how vitamin D control the activity of CD4+ T cells and the related Th2-type cytokines in the parthenogenesis of asthma.

  11. Self-hypnosis for anxiety associated with severe asthma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of asthma can be complicated by both medical and psychiatric conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux, chronic sinusitis, and anxiety. When symptoms of asthma are interpreted without regard to such conditions treatment may yield a suboptimal outcome. For example, anxiety-associated dyspnea, tachypnea, and chest tightness can be mistakenly interpreted as resulting from an exacerbation of asthma. Medical treatment directed only for asthma may thus lead to overuse of asthma medications and increased hospitalizations. Case Presentation The described case illustrates how a systemic steroid-dependent patient with asthma benefited from receiving care from a pediatric pulmonologist who also was well versed in the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety. By using self-hypnosis, the patient was able to reduce her dependence on bronchodilators. Following modification of her medical therapy under supervision of the pulmonologist, and regular use of hypnosis, the patient ultimately was weaned off her systemic steroid therapy. Conclusions This report emphasizes that anxiety must be considered as a comorbid condition in the treatment of asthma. Self-hypnosis can be a useful skill in the treatment of a patient with anxiety and asthma.

  12. Pancreatic encephalopathy- a rare complication of severe acute biliary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Denis Constantin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pancreatic encephalopathy is a rare complication of severe acute pancreatitis, with high mortality, being difficult to diagnose and treat, thus requiring continuous research regarding its management. Materials and Methods. Of 20 patients diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis on admission at Department of Emergency and Admission (DEA, from January 1st 2010 to March 31st 2014, 5 cases complicated by pancreatic encephalopathy were analyzed using a descriptive observational, retrospective, single-center study. Results. The study shows different types of diagnostic algorithm and therapeutical approaches, in correlation with morbidity and mortality rates. Conclusions. Our study highlighted the fact that speed is critical, early management being the key to outcome.

  13. Use of medicinal herbs by patients with severe asthma managed at a Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacila Pires Mega

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that may lead to limitations in regular activities, to hospitalizations and a decrease in quality of life. Adherence to drug treatment is crucial for control of the disease. The use of medicinal herbs can reduce adherence to prescriptions, as the medication may be replaced by infusions or herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of use of traditional herbal medicine among severe asthmatics in Salvador. Information on use of homemade remedies was obtained through application of a questionnaire during patient visits to a referral center. We also collected data on economic and social aspects as well as disease control. One hundred and forty-four (91,1% out of one hundred and fifty-eight patients evaluated used herbal medicines, but only 26.5% attributed improvement of asthma symptoms to this alternative treatment and only 8 had substituted a prescribed medication by herbal medicines. There was a trend towards lower adherence to prescription drug treatment in this group of patients. Despite the high frequency of use of medicinal herbs in our sample, there was no improvement in the asthma treatment in this population compared to non-users. Adherence to conventional drug treatment was satisfactory and there was neither reduction in asthma control nor increase in hospitalizations among the users of medicinal plants.A asma é uma enfermidade inflamatória crônica das vias aéreas que pode resultar em limitações nas atividades diárias, internações e prejuízo da qualidade de vida. A adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso é fundamental para o controle da doença. O uso de plantas medicinais pode reduzir a adesão ao tratamento prescrito, à medida que os medicamentos são substituídos por chás ou ervas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de uso de plantas medicinais entre asmáticos graves em Salvador. As informações sobre uso de rem

  14. Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Redondo-Pachon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diag-nosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously.

  15. Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Pachon, Maria Dolores; Enriquez, Ricardo; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Millan, Isabel; Romero, Alberto; Amorós, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diagnosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously.

  16. Changes in rates and severity of compensation claims for asthma due to diisocyanates: a possible effect of medical surveillance measures

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S; Liss, G.; Yeung, K.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A medical surveillance programme was introduced into Ontario for workers exposed to diisocyanates in 1983, but no mandated surveillance programme is in effect in this province for other occupational respiratory sensitisers. This study assesses changes in incidence and severity of compensated claims for occupational asthma (OA) due to diisocyanates compared with other causes, which have occurred since the introduction of this surveillance programme.

  17. Identifying patients at risk for severe exacerbations of asthma: development and external validation of a multivariable prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loymans, Rik J. B.; Honkoop, Persijn J.; Termeer, Evelien H.; Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Schermer, Tjard R. J.; Chung, Kian Fan; Sousa, Ana R.; Sterk, Peter J.; Reddel, Helen K.; Sont, Jacob K.; ter Riet, Gerben

    2016-01-01

    Preventing exacerbations of asthma is a major goal in current guidelines. We aimed to develop a prediction model enabling practitioners to identify patients at risk of severe exacerbations who could potentially benefit from a change in management. We used data from a 12-month primary care pragmatic

  18. Identifying patients at risk for severe exacerbations of asthma: development and external validation of a multivariable prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loymans, R.J.; Honkoop, P.J.; Termeer, E.H.; Snoeck-Stroband, J.B.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Chung, K.F.; Sousa, A.R.; Sterk, P.J.; Reddel, H.K.; Sont, J.K.; Riet, G. Ter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preventing exacerbations of asthma is a major goal in current guidelines. We aimed to develop a prediction model enabling practitioners to identify patients at risk of severe exacerbations who could potentially benefit from a change in management. METHODS: We used data from a 12-month

  19. Evaluation of the Correlation Between Body Mass Index and the Severity of Asthma in Recently Diagnosed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma and obesity are among diseases that cause several problems and impair quality of life.  The concurrence of these diseases, changes in the respiratory physiology, changes associated with obesity and limited activity associated with asthma may cause an interaction between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: We studied the epidemiologic characteristics of all recently diagnosed cases of asthma with no previous treatment who visited the Respiratory Diseases Clinic of the Ghaem Hospital from 2004 to 2007, their Body Mass Indexes (BMI were calculated and then spirometry was performed in all cases. Results: We studied 232 cases with the mean age of 38.96±12.94 years and the mean BMI of 27.05±4.92. Cough and exertional dyspnea were the most common clinical symptoms. In spirometric evaluations, the mean maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF increased with weight, which was not, however, insignificant. FVC in obese patients was significantly less than in normal weight cases. A significant correlation was not also seen between BMI and FEV1 (r=-0.023, P=0.729. Conclusion: Except for FVC which had a significant correlation with BMI, other studied indices yielded no significant results, which calls for more extensive studies with larger populations. Considering the fact that mild asthma is less common in obese patients, better weight control in asthmatic patients can promote their quality of life and make asthma management more effective.

  20. Asthma management in New York City schools: A classroom teacher perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Agnieszka; Reznik, Marina

    2016-09-01

    Classroom teachers play an important role in facilitating asthma management in school but little is known about their perspectives around asthma management. We examined the perspectives of classroom teachers around barriers to school asthma management. We conducted key informant interviews with 21 inner-city classroom teachers from 3rd to 5th grades in 10 Bronx, New York elementary schools. Sampling continued until thematic saturation was reached. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and independently coded for common themes. We used thematic and content review to analyze interview data. Seven themes representing teachers' perspectives on in-school asthma management emerged: (1) the problematic process of identifying students with asthma; (2) poor familiarity with the city health department's asthma initiative and poor general knowledge of school policies on asthma management; (3) lack of competency in managing an acute asthma attack in the classroom and poor recognition of symptoms of an asthma attack; (4) lack of confidence in dealing with a hypothetical asthma attack in the classroom; (5) lack of quick access to asthma medication in school; (6) limited communication between school staff; and (7) enthusiasm about learning more about asthma management. Our results revealed several barriers contributing to suboptimal in-school asthma management: ineffective ways of identifying students with asthma, lack of teacher knowledge of guidelines on asthma management, lack of comfort in managing students' asthma, inadequate access to asthma medication in school, and limited communication between school staff. These issues should be considered in the design of interventions to improve in-school asthma management.

  1. Influence of chronic azithromycin treatment on the composition of the oropharyngeal microbial community in patients with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Dos Santos Santiago, Guido; Brusselle, Guy; Dauwe, Kenny; Deschaght, Pieter; Verhofstede, Chris; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Deschepper, Ellen; Jordens, Paul; Joos, Guy; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2017-05-10

    This study of the oropharyngeal microbiome complements the previously published AZIthromycin in Severe ASThma (AZISAST) clinical trial, where the use of azithromycin was assessed in subjects with exacerbation-prone severe asthma. Here, we determined the composition of the oropharyngeal microbial community by means of deep sequencing of the amplified 16S rRNA gene in oropharyngeal swabs from patients with exacerbation-prone severe asthma, at baseline and during and after 6 months treatment with azithromycin or placebo. A total of 1429 OTUs were observed, of which only 59 were represented by more than 0.02% of the reads. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla and Streptococcus and Prevotella were the most abundant genera in all the samples. Thirteen species only accounted for two thirds of the reads and two species only, i.e. Prevotella melaninogenica and Streptococcus mitis/pneumoniae, accounted for one fourth of the reads. We found that the overall composition of the oropharyngeal microbiome in patients with severe asthma is comparable to that of the healthy population, confirming the results of previous studies. Long term treatment (6 months) with azithromycin increased the species Streptococcus salivarius approximately 5-fold and decreased the species Leptotrichia wadei approximately 5-fold. This was confirmed by Boruta feature selection, which also indicated a significant decrease of L. buccalis/L. hofstadtii and of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Four of the 8 treated patients regained their initial microbial composition within one month after cessation of treatment. Despite large diversity of the oropharyngeal microbiome, only a few species predominate. We confirm the absence of significant differences between the oropharyngeal microbiomes of people with and without severe asthma. Possibly, long term azithromycin treatment may have long term effects on the composition of the oropharygeal microbiome in

  2. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  3. Impact of an integrated disease management program in reducing exacerbations in patients with severe asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vipul V; Allison, Richard; Beck, Sandra J; Jain, Ratnali; Mills, Paul K; McCurley, James W; Van Gundy, Karl P; Peterson, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting data exists on the effectiveness of integrated programs in reducing recurrent exacerbations and hospitalizations in patients with Asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). We developed a Pulmonologist-led Chronic Lung Disease Program (CLDP) for patients with severe asthma and COPD and analyzed its impact on healthcare utilization and predictors of its effectiveness. CLDP elements included clinical evaluation, onsite pulmonary function testing, health education, and self-management action plan along with close scheduled and on-demand follow-up. Patients with ≥2 asthma or COPD exacerbations requiring emergency room visit or hospitalization within the prior year were enrolled, and followed for respiratory related ER visits (RER) and hospitalizations (RHA) over the year (357 ± 43 days) after CLDP interventions. A total of 106 patients were enrolled, and 104 patients were subject to analyses. During the year of follow-up after CLDP enrollment, there was a significant decrease in mean RER (0.56 ± 1.48 versus 2.62 ± 2.81, p logistic regression analysis revealed lack of spirometry utilization as an independent risk factor for severe exacerbations. A Pulmonologist-led disease management program integrating key elements of care is cost effective and significantly decreases severe exacerbations. Integrated programs should be encouraged for care of frequent exacerbators of asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of the Microbiome on Early-Life Severe Viral Lower Respiratory Infections and Asthma-Food for Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jason P; Sikder, Md Al Amin; Curren, Bodie F; Werder, Rhiannon B; Simpson, Jennifer; Cuív, Páraic Ó; Dennis, Paul G; Everard, Mark L; Phipps, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Severe viral lower respiratory infections are a major cause of infant morbidity. In developing countries, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis induces significant mortality, whereas in developed nations the disease represents a major risk factor for subsequent asthma. Susceptibility to severe RSV-bronchiolitis is governed by gene-environmental interactions that affect the host response to RSV infection. Emerging evidence suggests that the excessive inflammatory response and ensuing immunopathology, typically as a consequence of insufficient immunoregulation, leads to long-term changes in immune cells and structural cells that render the host susceptible to subsequent environmental incursions. Thus, the initial host response to RSV may represent a tipping point in the balance between long-term respiratory health or chronic disease (e.g., asthma). The composition and diversity of the microbiota, which in humans stabilizes in the first year of life, critically affects the development and function of the immune system. Hence, perturbations to the maternal and/or infant microbiota are likely to have a profound impact on the host response to RSV and susceptibility to childhood asthma. Here, we review recent insights describing the effects of the microbiota on immune system homeostasis and respiratory disease and discuss the environmental factors that promote microbial dysbiosis in infancy. Ultimately, this knowledge will be harnessed for the prevention and treatment of severe viral bronchiolitis as a strategy to prevent the onset and development of asthma.

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  6. Fenótipos clínicos de asma grave Clinical phenotypes of severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseliane de Souza Araújo Alves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer os fenótipos clínicos em portadores de asma grave. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 111 pacientes em um ambulatório especializado. Os pacientes foram avaliados e acompanhados de maneira sistemática, estabelecendo-se ao final do acompanhamento a adesão e o controle ou não da doença por dados clínicos e funcionais. A resistência ao tratamento foi definida como o não preenchimento, ao final do acompanhamento, por pelo menos seis meses, dos critérios de controle de asma, apesar do uso correto e adesão à medicação. Os fenótipos foram determinados por análise fatorial e comparados por testes diversos. RESULTADOS: Ao final, 88 pacientes foram considerados aderentes e 23 não aderentes. Por análise fatorial do grupo aderente, quatro fenótipos foram determinados: o fenótipo 1 (28 pacientes, formado pelos pacientes resistentes ao tratamento, com maior freqüência de sintomas noturnos, maior número de exacerbações e uso mais freqüente de broncodilatador de resgate; o fenótipo 2 (48 pacientes, formado pelos pacientes com obstrução persistente, com menores valores de relação volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo/capacidade vital forçada na avaliação inicial, idade mais avançada e maior tempo de doença; o fenótipo 3 (42 pacientes, representa os pacientes com rinossinusite alérgica, sendo constituído de não fumantes com obstrução predominantemente reversível; e o fenótipo 4 (15 pacientes, formado por casos com história de intolerância à aspirina associado à asma quase fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Um número significativo de portadores de ama grave não adere ao tratamento. Muitos pacientes com asma grave têm obstrução irreversível, mas o fenótipo clínico mais relevante é constituído pelos pacientes resistentes ao tratamento habitual.OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical phenotypes of severe asthma. METHODS: A total of 111 patients were retrospectively evaluated at a

  7. DOES VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY CONTRIBUTE TO THE SEVERITY OF ASTHMA IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Zaryab; Jaleel, Anila; Hameed, Kamran; Qazi, Salman; Suleman, Ahsan

    2015-01-01

    Role of vitamin D in the health of bones has been well established for over decades; It was known that its deficiency caused rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Later it was discovered that these can be corrected by giving vitamin D. Researchers discovered that vitamin D can be synthesized by exposure to sun. Hence it was also named "the sunshine vitamin". As time passed it was observed that low levels of vitamin D were associated with multiple diseases. This sparked the interest of the scientific community to further the research on vitamin D which led to the studies that started associating vitamin D with various diseases like cancers (prostate, colon and breast), autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis), infectious diseases (tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV), cardiovascular diseases, mental illnesses (schizophrenia), diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 and gestational) and allergic conditions like asthma. With time, more studies were carried out relating levels of vitamin D to development of asthma, asthma exacerbations and risk factors leading to development of asthma like respiratory tract infections with positive associations. A number of studies were carried out which tried to explain the possible molecular mechanisms relating deficiency of vitamin D in pathogenesis of asthma. This review summarizes the role of vitamin D in development of asthma and probable mechanisms relating vitamin D to the pathogenesis of asthma.

  8. Features associated with underlying HIV infection in severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to half of all children presenting to Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many ... A history of recurrent respiratory infection (OR 9.6, 4.8-18.6), persistent fever, recent outpatient attendance, or hospital admission were also associated with HIV.

  9. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus jumping into a new host or a new creation? M S Shaila. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 359-360. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. In-Patient Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov

    during their in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition at Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit in Kampala, Uganda. We assessed how malnutrition affected the children’s immune system, by measuring the size of their thymus gland with ultrasound. We examined characteristics of children with the serious form...

  11. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  12. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...

  13. Features associated with underlying HIV infection in severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction. Up to half of all children presenting to Nutrition. Rehabilitation Units (NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many similarities in the clinical presentation of SAM and HIV. It is important to identify HIV infected children, in order to improve case management ...

  14. Ulinastatin Reduces T Cell Apoptosis in Rats with Severe Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the immunoregulative effects of ulinastatin (UTI) on T lymphocytes apoptosis in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Thirty six Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =12): sham, SAP model and UTI-treated group.

  15. Predicting Acute Pancreatitis Severity: Comparison of Prognostic Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Simoes, Marco; Alves, Patricia; Esperto, Helder; Canha, Catarina; Meira, Elisa; Ferreira, Erica; Gomes, Manuel; Fonseca, Isabel; Barbosa, Benilde; Costa, Jose Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis has a broad clinical spectrum, from mild illness to multiple organ failure and death. Prognostic scores have been developed or adapted to predict disease severity. This study aimed to compare the prognostic scores according to sensitivity and specificity, receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve. Statistical correlation with disease severity, length of hospital stay, mortality and complication rates. Methods Retrospective analysis of the ...

  16. Smoking, longer disease duration and absence of rhinosinusitis are related to fixed airway obstruction in Koreans with severe asthma: findings from the COREA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Hee-Bom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical manifestations of severe asthma are heterogeneous. Some individuals with severe asthma develop irreversible fixed airway obstruction, which is associated with poor outcomes. We therefore investigated the factors associated with fixed airway obstruction in Korean patients with severe asthma. Methods Severe asthma patients from a Korean adult asthma cohort were divided into two groups according to the results of serial pulmonary function tests. One group had fixed airway obstruction (FAO [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio Results Multivariate analysis showed that longer duration of disease, greater amount of cigarette smoking and absence of rhinosinusitis were significantly related to the development of FAO in severe asthmatics. Other parameters, including atopic status, pattern of airway inflammatory cells in induced sputum, and frequency of asthma exacerbations did not differ between the FAO and RAO groups. Conclusion Severe asthma patients with longer disease duration and the absence of rhinosinusitis are more likely to develop FAO. This study also demonstrates the importance of quitting smoking in order to prevent irreversible airway obstruction. Further investigation is required to determine the mechanism by which these factors can modify the disease course in Korean patients with severe asthma.

  17. Presence of atopy increases the risk of asthma relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Laurel; Mackay, Ian M; Van Asperen, Peter P; Acworth, Jason P; Hurwitz, Mark; Upham, John W; Siew, Weng Hou; Wang, Claire Y T; Sloots, Theo P; Neeman, Teresa; Chang, Anne B

    2017-10-11

    To describe the point prevalence of respiratory viruses/atypical bacteria using PCR and evaluate the impact of respiratory viruses/atypical bacteria and atopy on acute severity and clinical recovery in children with hospitalised and non-hospitalised asthma exacerbations. This was a prospective study performed during 2009-2011. The study was performed in the emergency departments of two hospitals. 244 children aged 2-16 years presenting with acute asthma to the emergency departments were recruited. A nasopharyngeal aspirate and allergen skin prick test were performed. The outcomes were divided into (1) acute severity outcomes (Australian National Asthma Council assessment, hospitalisation, Functional Severity Scale, Acute Asthma Score, asthma quality of life questionnaires for parents (PACQLQ) on presentation, asthma diary scores (ADS) on presentation and length of hospitalisation) and (2) recovery outcomes (PACQLQ for 21 days, ADS for 14 days and representation for asthma for 21 days). PCR for viruses/atypical bacteria was positive in 81.7% of children (75.1% human rhinovirus, codetection in 14.2%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae were rarely detected. The presence of micro-organisms had little impact on acute asthma or recovery outcomes. Children with atopy were significantly more likely to relapse and represent for medical care by day 14 (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23). The presence of any viruses is associated with asthma exacerbations but does not appear to influence asthma recovery. In contrast, atopy is associated with asthma relapse. M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae are rare triggers of acute asthma in young children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Rhinovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis and its impact on subsequent wheezing or asthma: a comparison of etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeratakulpisarn, Jamaree; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Ruangsiripiyakul, Hunsa; Uppala, Rattapon

    2014-09-01

    Children who suffer a viral lower respiratory infection early in life are prone to subsequent wheezing and asthma: RSV and rhinovirus are thought to be the primary causative pathogens. Epidemiologic and long-term data on these pathogens in Thailand are limited. To detect the causative pathogens in children hospitalized with a first episode of acute wheezing and to compare the respective impact on the recurrence of wheezing and development of asthma. We conducted a 5-year cohort study of children under 2 hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis at two tertiary hospitals. Nasopharyngeal secretions were collected at admission to determine the causative pathogens by RT-PCR. 145/170 samples (85%) were positive for pathogens. RSV, rhinovirus, influenza, bacteria and hMPV was found in 64.7%, 18.2%, 17.6%, 12.9% and 3.5% of children respectively. The majority (94/152; 62%) of participants reported having recurrent wheezing within the first year of follow-up (mean duration 5.5 ± 7.2 months). Only 16% still had wheezing episodes after 5 years. Asthma was diagnosed in 41 children (45%), most of whom were treated with inhaled corticosteroid. There were no statistically significant differences among the various etiologies. Rhinovirus ranked second after RSV as the cause of hospitalizations of children with acute bronchiolitis. More than half of these children had recurrent wheezing which mostly disappeared before the age of 6. Nearly half were subsequently diagnosed with asthma at the 5th year of follow-up. The specific pathogens did not account for a statistically significant difference in subsequent wheezing or asthma development.

  19. The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D with asthma and its symptom severity: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Zamani, A; Fathallahpour, A; Ghaderi, E; Rahehagh, Ramesh; Kooti, W

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterised by chronic inflammatory airways, and is affected by several immunological factors. One of the most discussed and researched hypotheses is the relationship between vitamin D serum levels with asthma. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D serum levels with asthma and pulmonary functions in children in Kurdistan province, Iran. In this case-control study, 120 children ranging from 6 to 18 years were referred in summer for investigation. Participants were divided into two groups: asthma group, N=60; and control group, N=60. After serum separation, samples were analysed using vitamin D ELISA kit. Additionally, pulmonary function test and serum IgE levels were measured in both groups. Data were analysed using Chi-square test and multiple regression analysis in SPSS15. No difference was shown between the groups in terms of gender composition (male: 57.5; female: 42.5) (P>0.05). Average Vitamin D serum level in the case group (17.98±8.68) was less than in control group (22.35±6.26) (Pasthma (17.77±6.41) and the control group (24.9±3.18) was statistically significant (P, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. Multiple regression analysis showed a reverse relationship between vitamin D levels with IgE serum levels; this remained after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. age, sex, BMI, FEV1, and FVC). The results showed that serum levels of vitamin D in asthma patients were less than in healthy people, and also reduced lung function in these patients. So, the serum levels of vitamin D in asthma patients must be checked continuously. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Nasal IL-17F is related to bronchial IL-17F/neutrophilia and exacerbations in stable atopic severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, V; Ciprandi, G; Di Stefano, A; Massaglia, G M; Favatà, G; Conticello, S; Malerba, M; Folkerts, G; Profita, M; Rolla, G; Ricciardolo, F L M

    2015-02-01

    Severe asthma (SA) is associated with neutrophil recruitment and T helper (TH )17 chemokine overexpression in bronchial biopsies. We aimed to evaluate IL-17A and IL-17F expression in nasal/bronchial lamina propria of atopic mild-to-severe asthmatics and controls in relation to neutrophilia and asthma exacerbations. Cryostat sections of nasal/bronchial biopsies obtained from 14 SA and 14 mild asthma (MA) stable atopic patients with rhinitis, and seven healthy controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for neutrophils, IL-17A and IL-17F expression. Atopic SA showed an increase in asthma exacerbations number, IL-17F and IL-17A expression in nasal/bronchial lamina propria compared to MA and controls, and a higher expression of bronchial neutrophils in SA compared to MA and controls. In all asthmatics, significant relationships were found between bronchial IL-17F and neutrophils/FEV1 , nasal IL-17F and bronchial neutrophil/IL-17 markers and between the latter and exacerbations, suggesting that nasal IL-17F might be informative on bronchial IL17-driven neutrophilia in atopic SA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Water permeability is a measure of severity in acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Nicola; Pfeifle, Viktoria A; Kym, Urs; Keck, Simone; Galati, Virginie; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Gros, Stephanie J

    2017-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common indication for pediatric abdominal emergency surgery. Determination of the severity of appendicitis on clinical grounds is challenging. Complicated appendicitis presenting with perforation, abscess or diffuse peritonitis is not uncommon. The question remains why and when acute appendicitis progresses to perforation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of water permeability on the severity of appendicitis. We show that AQP1 expression and water permeability in appendicitis correlate with the stage of inflammation and systemic infection parameters, leading eventually to perforation of the appendix. AQP1 is also expressed within the ganglia of the enteric nervous system and ganglia count increases with inflammation. Severity of appendicitis can be correlated with water permeability measured by AQP1 protein expression and increase of ganglia count in a progressive manner. This introduces the question if regulation of water permeability can present novel curative or ameliorating therapeutic options.

  2. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mao-Sheng; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Yuan Hu; Zhao, Qing-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; He, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, diagnosis and treatment procedure of each patient were recorded, and the association with rhabdomyolysis was analyzed. Alcohol consumption was the most predominant cause of SAP and rhabdomyolysis in these patients. SAP-related rhabdomyolysis was primarily induced by the toxicity associated with pancreatic necrosis. The laboratory tests revealed that the concentration of serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin increased and acute renal failure symptoms were present, which provided an exact diagnosis for SAP-induced rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis and subsequent hypermyoglobinuria severely impaired kidney function and aggravated hypocalcemia. The therapy of early stage SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis involved liquid resuscitation support. When first stage treatment fails, blood purification should be performed immediately. Both patients developed multiple organ failure (MOF) and succumbed to the disease. Considering the two cases presented, we conclude that alcohol-related SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis may have a poor clinical prognosis.

  3. Neuroanatomical correlates of severe cardiac arrhythmias in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Frank; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Gutjahr, Isabell; Breuer, Lorenz; Winder, Klemens; Kaschka, Iris; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd; Hilz, Max-Josef; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Neurocardiological interactions can cause severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The relationship between the lesion location in the brain and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardiac arrhythmias were systematically assessed in patients with acute ischemic stroke during the first 72 h after admission to a monitored stroke unit. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of clinically relevant severe arrhythmias. Overall 150 patients, 56 with right-hemispheric and 94 patients with a left-hemispheric lesion, were eligible to be included in the VLSM study. Severe cardiac arrhythmias were present in 49 of these 150 patients (32.7%). We found a significant association (FDR correction, q cardiac arrhythmias. Because left- and right-hemispheric lesions were analyzed separately, the significant findings rely on the 56 patients with right-hemispheric lesions. The data indicate that these areas are involved in central autonomic processing and that right-hemispheric lesions located to these areas are associated with an elevated risk for severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  4. Oral health and habits in children with asthma related to severity and duration of condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloot, A K; Vanobbergen, J N; De Baets, F; Martens, L C

    2004-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the oral health status of asthmatic children and to compare the oral health condition and habits of different groups of asthmatic children. 140 asthmatic children were involved in the present study. Of those, 30 were younger than 7 years of age, 73 were between 7 and 12, 37 were older than 12. Dental caries was scored according to the guidelines of the BASCD. No radiographs were taken. The gingival health and the amount of plaque were assessed using the bleeding index described by Mühleman and Son [1971] and the plaque index of Silness and Löe [1964] respectively. To differentiate between the asthmatic children three explanatory variables were used: the time the asthmatic symptoms had lasted, the exposure time to the medication and the severity of the asthmatic condition. Finally the parents and children were asked to fill in a questionnaire referring to oral health habits. The mean dmft was 1.99 (SD+/-2.74) and the mean DMFT was 1.10 (SD+/-1.98). Non-parametric correlation and multiple logistic regression analyses showed no significant difference between the caries (dmft/s, DMFT/S), the gingival health (bleeding index) and plaque indices and the three explanatory variables. The impact of possible compensatory factors as oral hygiene and dietary habits was of no significant importance. This analysis revealed that neither the period (of the disease and the medication) nor the severity of the asthma had a significant influence on the risk of caries and gingivitis in asthmatic children. No reported oral health and dietary habits could explain this lack of correlation.

  5. SEVERE CHRONIC ALLERGIC (AND RELATED DISEASES: A UNIFORM APPROACH — A MEDALL-GA2LEN-ARIA POSITION PAPER IN COLLABORATION WITH THE WHO COLLABORATING CENTER FOR ASTHMA AND RHINITIS (ENGLISH & RUSSIAN VARIANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bousquet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of disease severity, activity, control and responsiveness to treatment are linked but different. Severity refers to the loss of function of the organs induced by the disease process or to the occurrence of severe acute exacerbations. Severity may vary over time and needs regular follow up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria, atopic dermatitis in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness and associated factors such as co-morbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology, public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies.Key words: IgE, allergy, severity, control, risk, asthma, rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis.

  6. Sitaxsentan-Induced Acute Severe Hepatitis Treated with Glucocorticoid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus W Chin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelin receptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Sitaxsentan, a selective endothelin A receptor blocker, induces a mild transaminitis in approximately 3% to 5% of patients, but rarely an acute severe hepatitis. A case involving a 61-year-old female with sitaxsentan-induced acute severe liver failure is presented. Depite withdrawal of therapy, her liver tests failed to improve. After six weeks of monitoring, the patient was administered high-dose corticosteroids, with a good clinical and biochemical response. While endothelin receptor antagonists are postulated to cause hepatitis by inhibition of a bile salt transporter pump, an immune-mediated or idiosyncratic mechanism should be considered.

  7. Acute Severe Chromium Poisoning After Dermal Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute chromium poisoning related to dermal involvement has rarely been reported in the literature. We report a case of acute severe chromium poisoning through skin exposure as a result of a chemical burn of 15% of the body surface area and multiple organ failure after short-term exposure. Medical interventions, including mechanical ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and plasmapheresis were performed. In addition, a chelating agent, dimercapto-propane sulfonic acid, was infused intravenously, combined with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid as adjuvant therapy. The patient was discharged on day 33 without long-term sequelae. The consequence of transdermal exposure of hexavalent chromium should not be overlooked.

  8. Defective Resensitization in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Evokes β-Adrenergic Receptor Dysfunction in Severe Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manveen K Gupta

    Full Text Available β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR agonists (β2-agonist are the most commonly used therapy for acute relief in asthma, but chronic use of these bronchodilators paradoxically exacerbates airway hyper-responsiveness. Activation of βARs by β-agonist leads to desensitization (inactivation by phosphorylation through G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs which mediate β-arrestin binding and βAR internalization. Resensitization occurs by dephosphorylation of the endosomal βARs which recycle back to the plasma membrane as agonist-ready receptors. To determine whether the loss in β-agonist response in asthma is due to altered βAR desensitization and/or resensitization, we used primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs isolated from the lungs of non-asthmatic and fatal-asthmatic subjects. Asthmatic HASMCs have diminished adenylyl cyclase activity and cAMP response to β-agonist as compared to non-asthmatic HASMCs. Confocal microscopy showed significant accumulation of phosphorylated β2ARs in asthmatic HASMCs. Systematic analysis of desensitization components including GRKs and β-arrestin showed no appreciable differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic HASMCs. However, asthmatic HASMC showed significant increase in PI3Kγ activity and was associated with reduction in PP2A activity. Since reduction in PP2A activity could alter receptor resensitization, endosomal fractions were isolated to assess the agonist ready β2ARs as a measure of resensitization. Despite significant accumulation of β2ARs in the endosomes of asthmatic HASMCs, endosomal β2ARs cannot robustly activate adenylyl cyclase. Furthermore, endosomes from asthmatic HASMCs are associated with significant increase in PI3Kγ and reduced PP2A activity that inhibits β2AR resensitization. Our study shows that resensitization, a process considered to be a homeostasis maintaining passive process is inhibited in asthmatic HASMCs contributing to β2AR dysfunction which may underlie

  9. Routine Amoxicillin for Uncomplicated Severe Acute Malnutrition in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanaka, Sheila; Langendorf, Céline; Berthé, Fatou; Gnegne, Smaila; Li, Nan; Ousmane, Nassirou; Harouna, Souley; Hassane, Hamidine; Schaefer, Myrto; Adehossi, Eric; Grais, Rebecca F

    2016-02-04

    High-quality evidence supporting a community-based treatment protocol for children with severe acute malnutrition, including routine antibiotic use at admission to a nutritional treatment program, remains limited. In view of the costs and consequences of emerging resistance associated with routine antibiotic use, more evidence is required to support this practice. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Niger, we randomly assigned children who were 6 to 59 months of age and had uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin or placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome was nutritional recovery at or before week 8. A total of 2412 children underwent randomization, and 2399 children were included in the analysis. Nutritional recovery occurred in 65.9% of children in the amoxicillin group (790 of 1199) and in 62.7% of children in the placebo group (752 of 1200). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of nutritional recovery (risk ratio for amoxicillin vs. placebo, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 to 1.12; P=0.10). In secondary analyses, amoxicillin decreased the risk of transfer to inpatient care by 14% (26.4% in the amoxicillin group vs. 30.7% in the placebo group; risk ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.98; P=0.02). We found no benefit of routine antibiotic use with respect to nutritional recovery from uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in Niger. In regions with adequate infrastructure for surveillance and management of complications, health care facilities could consider eliminating the routine use of antibiotics in protocols for the treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. (Funded by Médecins sans Frontières Operational Center Paris; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01613547.).

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and its lesions in digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious atypical pneumonia that has recently been recognized in the patients in 32 countries and regions. This brief review summarizes some of the initial etiologic findings,pathological description, and its lesions of digestive system caused by SARS virus. It is an attempt to draw gastroenterologists and hepatologists' attention to this fatal illness, especially when it manifests itself initially as digestive symptoms.

  11. Severe acute pancreatitis: advances and insights in assessment of severity and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisinda, Giuseppe; Vanella, Serafino; Crocco, Anna; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina; Santullo, Francesco; Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    The patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Often, there is no correlation between the degree of structural damage to pancreas and clinical manifestation of the disease. The effectiveness of any treatment is related to the ability to predict severity accurately, but there is no ideal predictive system or biochemical marker. Severity assessment is indispensable to the selection of proper initial treatment in the management of acute pancreatitis. The use of multiparametric criteria and the evaluation of severity index permit us to select high-risk patients. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning and contrast-enhanced MRI play an important role in severity assessment. The adoption of multiparametric criteria proposed together with morphological evaluation consents the formulation of a discreetly reliable prognosis on the evolution of the disease a few days from onset.

  12. Anxiety as a marker of severity in acute mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, A; Galán, J; Martín-Carrasco, M; Ballesteros, J; Maurino, J; Vieta, E

    2012-11-01

    Anxiety has scarcely been studied in acute mania. The aim of this study was to assess anxiety symptoms during manic episodes and their impact on clinical outcomes. Observational, cross-sectional multicentre study. Anxiety was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed using the HARS score as the dependent variable. Two hundred and forty-two patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute manic episode according to DSM-IV TR criteria and a Young Mania Rating Scale>20 were analysed. Mean age was 43 years (SD=11.9) and 57% were women. Forty-six per cent of patients (n=104) presented moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (HARS score>14). Anxiety was significantly associated with severity of manic symptoms (Panxiety had 20% longer hospitalizations (mean 21 days, CI95% 19.7-23.7). An association of anxiety symptoms with greater severity in acute mania was demonstrated. The close relationship between anxiety and manic symptoms highlights the need for greater clinical attention to anxiety in this population. Further studies are necessary to determine whether effective treatment of anxiety symptoms could improve clinical and care outcomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Japanese guidelines for adult asthma 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Ichinose

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, and presents clinically with variable airway narrowing (wheezes and dyspnea and cough. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling, leading to intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased; however, the number of patients who die of asthma has decreased (1.2 per 100,000 patients in 2015. The goal of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to attain normal pulmonary function and lead a normal life, without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management by therapeutic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high levels. Long-acting β2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, sustained-release theophylline, and long-acting muscarinic antagonist are recommended as add-on drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody and oral steroids are considered for the most severe and persistent asthma related to allergic reactions. Bronchial thermoplasty has recently been developed for severe, persistent asthma, but its long-term efficacy is not known. Inhaled β2-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and other approaches are used as needed during acute exacerbations, by choosing treatment steps for asthma in accordance with the severity of exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophilic otitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, and pregnancy are also important issues that need to be considered in asthma therapy.

  14. Fibromyalgia as a cause of uncontrolled asthma: a case-control multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Moragon, Eva; Plaza, Vicente; Torres, Isabel; Rosado, Ana; Urrutia, Isabel; Casas, Xavier; Hinojosa, Belen; Blanco-Aparicio, Marina; Delgado, Julio; Quirce, Santiago; Sabadell, Carles; Cebollero, Pilar; Muñoz-Fernández, Ana

    2017-12-01

    Fibromyalgia can affect the control of asthma when both diseases are present in a single patient. To characterize asthma in patients with concomitant fibromyalgia to assess whether fibromyalgia is an independent factor of asthma severity that influences poor asthma control. We also evaluated how dyspnea is perceived by patients in order to demonstrate that alterations in the perception of airway obstruction may be responsible for poor asthma control. This was a cross-sectional case-control multicenter study, in which 56 patients in the asthma and fibromyalgia group were matched to 36 asthmatics by sex, approximate age, and asthma severity level. All patients were women. Study variables included the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ), the Nijmegen hyperventilation syndrome questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perception of dyspnea after acute bronchoconstriction. Although patients in both study groups showed similar asthma severity and use of anti-asthmatic drugs, patients in the asthma and fibromyalgia group showed lower scores on the ACT and MiniAQLQ questionnaires, and higher scores of anxiety and depression as well as hyperventilation compared to asthma patients without fibromyalgia. All these differences were statistically significant. Fibromyalgia in patients with asthma influences poor control of the respiratory disease and is associated with altered perception of dyspnea, hyperventilation syndrome, high prevalence of depression and anxiety, and impaired quality of life. Fibromyalgia may be considered a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in patients suffering from asthma and fibromyalgia concomitantly.

  15. Diagnosis and definition of severe refractory asthma: an international consensus statement from the Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, E. H.; Sousa, A; Fleming, L.; Bush, A; Chung, K F; Versnel, J; Wagener, A.H.; S.S. Wagers; P. J. Sterk; Compton, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with severe refractory asthma pose a major healthcare problem. Over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that, for the development of new targeted therapies, there is an urgent need for further characterisation and classification of these patients. The Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) consortium is a pan-European public-private collaboration funded by the European Commission Innovative Medicines Initiative of the European ...

  16. Comparison of nebulized terbutaline and subcutaneous epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, D L; Goetz, D R; Kohen, D P; Fifield, G C

    1985-03-01

    Nineteen children who presented for treatment of acute asthma symptoms were studied. They were randomized to receive either subcutaneous epinephrine 0.01 mg/kg (0.3 mg maximum) or nebulized terbutaline 1 mg in 2 mL normal saline. The drugs were administered using the double-blind method. Each patient received either subcutaneous epinephrine with concurrent nebulized normal saline or nebulized terbutaline with a concurrent subcutaneous injection of normal saline. Depending on the patient's clinical status, up to three doses of the same drug and placebo were administered. Pulmonary functions (FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75), heart rate, respiratory rate, and pulmonary index were obtained before treatment, at 20 minutes, and at one hour after the final treatment. Except for the baseline respiratory rate, the mean number of treatments, pulmonary index, heart rate, and respiratory rate (at 20 minutes and one hour) were not statistically different. Pulmonary functions were not significantly different at any time. The one-hour post-treatment pulmonary functions (percentage of predicted normal) for terbutaline and epinephrine were FEV1, 49.2 +/- 18.4% and 49.4 +/- 16.9%; FVC, 72.7 +/- 23.4% and 62.7 +/- 21.6%; and FEF25-75, 31.8 +/- 18.6% and 39.0 +/- 12.2%, respectively. The data presented support our hypothesis that terbutaline by nebulization is at least as effective as epinephrine in the management of children with similar degrees of pulmonary obstruction.

  17. Salbutamol via metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus nebulization for acute treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Fernández, Javier; González-Balenciaga, María; Capapé-Zache, Susana; Vázquez-Ronco, Miguel A; Mintegi-Raso, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of salbutamol delivered via a metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus a nebulizer for acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department. All consecutive children younger than 14 years old who required treatment of acute asthma exacerbation in the emergency department during May 2002 (prospective cohort, n = 321) and May 2001(retrospective cohort, n = 259) were included. Inhaled salbutamol was administered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer (and a face mask in children younger than 2 years old) in the prospective cohort and by nebulizer in the retrospective cohort. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts in the mean (+/-SD) age (44.50 +/- 38.64 vs. 48.37 +/- 43.55 months) and asthma treatment, arterial oxygen saturation (96.34 +/- 2.12% vs. 96.19 +/- 6.32%), and heart rate (123.71 +/- 23.63 vs. 129.41 +/- 34.55 beats/min) before emergency department consultation. The number of doses of inhaled bronchodilators was also similar (1.42 +/- 1.01 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.98) as well as the number of children that required a stay in the observation unit, admission to the hospital, or returned for medical care. The overall mean length of stay in the emergency department was slightly shorter in the prospective cohort (82 +/- 48 vs. 89 +/- 52 minutes). The administration of bronchodilators using a metered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department.

  18. Approach to asthma in adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During an acute asthma attack, patients can experience anxiety, severe dyspnoea, tightness of the chest, or a burning ... Nutritional and exercise-related factors. • Obesity. • Vitamin D insufficiency in children ... breathing, recurrent chest tightness, symptoms occurring or worsening at night or with exercise, a viral infection, ...

  19. A phase III randomized controlled trial of tiotropium add-on therapy in children with severe symptomatic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J; Murphy, Kevin; Harper, Thomas; Boner, Attilio; Laki, István; Engel, Michael; El Azzi, Georges; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Finnigan, Helen; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2017-11-01

    Studies in adults and adolescents have demonstrated that tiotropium is efficacious as an add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) with or without other maintenance therapies in patients with moderate or severe symptomatic asthma. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of once-daily tiotropium Respimat add-on therapy to high-dose ICS with 1 or more controller medications, or medium-dose ICS with 2 or more controller medications, in the first phase III trial of tiotropium in children with severe symptomatic asthma. In this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, 401 participants aged 6 to 11 years were randomized to receive once-daily tiotropium 5 μg (2 puffs of 2.5 μg) or 2.5 μg (2 puffs of 1.25 μg), or placebo (2 puffs), administered through the Respimat device as add-on to background therapy. Compared with placebo, tiotropium 5 μg, but not 2.5 μg, add-on therapy improved the primary end point, peak FEV 1 within 3 hours after dosing (5 μg, 139 mL [95% CI, 75-203; P add-on therapy to ICS with other maintenance therapies in children with severe symptomatic asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Astragalus polysaccharide modulates ER stress response in an OVA-LPS induced murine model of severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Xing, Qiong-Qiong; Xu, Jian-Ya; Ding, Dou; Zhao, Xia

    2016-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been recently revealed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), a major bioactive component from Astragalus membranaceus, exerts immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to suppress ER stress in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes. However, the pharmaceutical application of APS in the treatment of severe asthma is unknown. The results obtained here indicate that APS significantly attenuates eosinophils and neutrophil-dominant airway inflammation by reducing the mRNA levels of Cxcl5, Il8, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20) and the protein levels of IL13RA and IL17RA. APS also inhibits the activation of unfolded protein response by decreasing the levels of ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which was associated with a reduction of PERK phosphorylation. Moreover, APS substantially blocks the nuclear translocation of ATF6 and NF-κB p65. Interestingly, we observed that APS markedly suppresses mucus hypersecretion by decreasing the levels of mucin (MUC) 5AC and MUC5B, which might be due to inhibition of goblet cells differentiation by suppressing the expression of IRE1β-correlated genes. In summary, APS can have potential pharmaceutical application in treatment of severe asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of acute bacterial rhino sinusitis in asthma patients based on clinical parameters and imaging studies, together with ear, nose and throat examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Alecsandra Calil Moises; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine from Sao Paulo. Dept. of Internal Medicine]. E-mail: analgf@terra.com.br; analuisa@pneumo.epm.br; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine from Sao Paulo. Otorhinolaryngology; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine from Sao Paulo. Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging

    2008-06-15

    Objective: To evaluate paranasal sinuses in patients with stable or acute asthma in order to determine the prevalence of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 30 patients with acute asthma (73% females) treated in the emergency room and 30 patients with stable asthma (80% females) regularly monitored as outpatients. All patients completed a questionnaire on respiratory signs and symptoms and were submitted to ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, as well as to X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the sinuses. Results: Based on the clinical diagnosis, the prevalence of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis was 40% in the patients with acute asthma and 3% in those with stable asthma. The ENT examination findings and the imaging findings in isolation were not useful to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusions: In themselves, ENT examination findings, X-ray findings and CT findings were not useful for the diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Our results provide further evidence that a clinical diagnosis of bacterial rhinosinusitis should be made with caution. (author)

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and acute myocardial infarction severity: ischemic preconditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neomi; Redline, Susan; Yaggi, H Klar; Wu, Richard; Zhao, C George; Ostfeld, Robert; Menegus, Mark; Tracy, Daniel; Brush, Elizabeth; Appel, W David; Kaplan, Robert C

    2013-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH). In animal models, IH has been shown to protect the myocardium during periods of ischemia by reducing infarct size. However, this phenomenon of "ischemic preconditioning" has not been investigated among OSA patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigates the role of OSA on MI severity as measured by cardiac enzymes, specifically troponin-T, among patients with an acute MI. This is an observational cohort study of patients ≥18 years of age who were hospitalized with an acute MI. Each participant underwent portable sleep monitoring (Apnea Link Plus); OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥5/h. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between OSA and highly sensitive troponin-T levels. In our entire cohort of acute MI patients (n = 136), 77 % of the sample had evidence of sleep disordered breathing, with 35 % of the sample having OSA (i.e., an AHI >5). Higher AHI was associated with lower peak troponin-T levels in partially adjusted models (β = -0.0320, p = 0.0074, adjusted for age, gender, and race) and fully adjusted models (β = -0.0322, p = 0.0085) (additionally adjusted for smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, history of prior cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and baseline admission creatinine levels). The mean value of the log-transformed peak troponin-T variable was used to dichotomize the outcome variable. In both partially (OR 0.949, CI 0.905-0.995, p = 0.03) and fully adjusted (OR 0.918, CI 0.856-0.984, p = 0.0151) logistic regression models, the OR for AHI suggests a protective effect on high troponin-T level. Our study demonstrates that patients with OSA have less severe cardiac injury during an acute non-fatal MI when compared to patients without OSA. This may suggest a cardioprotective role of sleep apnea during acute MI via ischemic preconditioning.

  3. Sahaja yoga in the management of moderate to severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Manocha, R; Marks, G; Kenchington, P; Peters, D.; Salome, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Sahaja Yoga is a traditional system of meditation based on yogic principles which may be used for therapeutic purposes. A study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of this therapy as an adjunctive tool in the management of asthma in adult patients who remained symptomatic on moderate to high doses of inhaled steroids.

  4. Serum YKL-40 and assessment of severity of bronchial asthma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Serum and lung tissue levels of a chitinase-like protein YKL-40 have recently been found to be increased in patients with bronchial asthma. Furthermore, serum YKL-40 levels correlated positively with thickening of the lung sub-epithelial basement membrane, frequency of rescue inhaler use, and deterioration ...

  5. Experience from a group of adolescents with severe allergy asthma treatment with omalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofbauer, Anne Marie Bro; Agertoft, Lone

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Theme: Complex health care and chronic disease management. BACKGROUND: Evidence supports that group educational interventions improve self-perception, self-confidence and attack management in asthma care. AIM: To evaluate education and structured dialogue in enhancing knowledge and in...

  6. Interleukin-33 Drives Activation of Alveolar Macrophages and Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bunting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of interleukin-33 (IL-33 in airway inflammation in an experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, which reproduces many of the features of the human disease. Systemically sensitized female BALB/c mice were challenged with a low mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks to induce chronic asthmatic inflammation and then received a single moderate-level challenge to trigger acute airway inflammation simulating an asthmatic exacerbation. The inflammatory response and expression of cytokines and activation markers by alveolar macrophages (AM were assessed, as was the effect of pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody to IL-33. Compared to chronically challenged mice, AM from an acute exacerbation exhibited significantly enhanced expression of markers of alternative activation, together with enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and of cell surface proteins associated with antigen presentation. In parallel, there was markedly increased expression of both mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-33 in the airways. Neutralization of IL-33 significantly decreased both airway inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by AM. Collectively, these data indicate that in this model of an acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, IL-33 drives activation of AM and has an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation.

  7. Efficacy and side effects of intravenous theophylline in acute asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahemuti G

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gulixian Mahemuti, Hui Zhang, Jing Li, Nueramina Tieliwaerdi, Lili Ren Respiratory Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background and objective: Theophylline has been used for decades to treat both acute and chronic asthma. Despite its longevity in the practitioner’s formulary, no detailed meta-analysis has been performed to determine the conditions, including concomitant medications, under which theophylline should be used for acute exacerbations of asthma. We aimed to quantify the usefulness and side effects of theophylline with or without ethylene diamine (aminophylline in acute asthma, with particular emphasis on patient subgroups, such as children, adults, and concomitant medications.Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry for randomized, controlled clinical trials. We planned a priori subgroup analyses by time post-medication, concomitant medication, control type, and age.Results: We included 52 study arms from 42 individual trials. Of these, 29 study arms included an active control, such as adrenaline, beta-2 agonists, or leukotriene receptor antagonists, and 23 study arms compared theophylline (with or without ethylene diamine with placebo or no drug. Theophylline significantly reduced heart rate when compared with active control (p=0.01 and overall duration of stay (p=0.002, but beta-2 agonists were superior to theophylline at improving forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (p=0.002. Theophylline was not significantly different from other drugs in its effects on respiratory rate, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow rate, admission rate, use of rescue medication, oxygen saturation, or symptom score. Closer examination of the data revealed that the medications given in addition to theophylline or control significantly changed the effectiveness of

  8. Practice development plans to improve the primary care management of acute asthma: randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price David

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our professional development plan aimed to improve the primary care management of acute asthma, which is known to be suboptimal. Methods We invited 59 general practices in Grampian, Scotland to participate. Consenting practices were randomised to early and delayed intervention groups. Practices undertook audits of their management of all acute attacks (excluding children under 5 years occurring in the 3 months preceding baseline, 6-months and 12-months study time-points. The educational programme [including feedback of audit results, attendance at a multidisciplinary interactive workshop, and formulation of development plan by practice teams] was delivered to the early group at baseline and to the delayed group at 6 months. Primary outcome measure was recording of peak flow compared to best/predicted at 6 months. Analyses are presented both with, and without adjustment for clustering. Results 23 consenting practices were randomised: 11 to early intervention. Baseline practice demography was similar. Six early intervention practices withdraw before completing the baseline audit. There was no significant improvement in our primary outcome measure (the proportion with peak flow compared to best/predicted at either the 6 or 12 month time points after adjustment for baseline and practice effects. However, the between group difference in the adjusted combined assessment score, whilst non-significant at 6 months (Early: 2.48 (SE 0.43 vs. Delayed 2.26 (SE 0.33 p = 0.69 reached significance at 12 m (Early:3.60 (SE 0.35 vs. Delayed 2.30 (SE 0.28 p = 0.02. Conclusion We demonstrated no significant benefit at the a priori 6-month assessment point, though improvement in the objective assessment of attacks was shown after 12 months. Our practice development programme, incorporating audit, feedback and a workshop, successfully engaged the healthcare team of participating practices, though future randomised trials of educational

  9. Detection of pathogens by real-time PCR in adult patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yutaka; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Morozumi, Miyuki; Chiba, Naoko; Ubukata, Kimiko; Uruga, Hironori; Hanada, Shigeo; Wakui, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Hara, Hiromichi; Numata, Takanori; Saito, Keisuke; Araya, Jun; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kishi, Kazuma; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2017-11-22

    Respiratory tract infection is a major cause of acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA). Although recent findings suggest that common bacteria are causally associated with AEBA, a comprehensive epidemiologic analysis of infectious pathogens including common/atypical bacteria and viruses in AEBA has not been performed. Accordingly, we attempted to detect pathogens during AEBA by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in comparison to conventional methods. We prospectively enroled adult patients with AEBA from August 2012 to March 2014. Infectious pathogens collected in nasopharyngeal swab and sputum samples were examined in each patient by conventional methods and real-time PCR, which can detect 6 bacterial and 11 viral pathogens. The causal association of these pathogens with AEBA severity and their frequency of monthly distribution were also examined. Among the 64 enroled patients, infectious pathogens were detected in 49 patients (76.6%) using real-time PCR and in 14 patients (21.9%) using conventional methods (p Real-time PCR detected bacteria in 29 patients (45.3%) and respiratory viruses in 28 patients (43.8%). Haemophilus influenzae was the most frequently detected microorganism (26.6%), followed by rhinovirus (15.6%). Influenza virus was the significant pathogen associated with severe AEBA. Moreover, AEBA occurred most frequently during November to January. Real-time PCR was more useful than conventional methods to detect infectious pathogens in patients with AEBA. Accurate detection of pathogens with real-time PCR may enable the selection of appropriate anti-bacterial/viral agents as a part of the treatment for AEBA.

  10. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zarqa Ali, Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy.Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the PubMed database.Results: During pregnancy, up to 6% of women with asthma are hospitalized for an acute exacerbation. The maternal immune system is characterized by a very high T-helper-2:T-helper-1 cytokine ratio during pregnancy and thereby provides an environment essential for fetal survival but one that may aggravate asthma. Cells of the innate immune system such as monocytes and neutrophils are also increased during pregnancy, and this too can exacerbate maternal asthma. Severe or difficult-to-control asthma appears to be the major risk factor for exacerbations during pregnancy, but studies also suggest that nonadherence with controller medication and viral infections are important triggers of exacerbations during pregnancy. So far, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the effect of fetal sex on exacerbations during pregnancy. Other risk factors for exacerbation during pregnancy include obesity, ethnicity, and reflux, whereas atopy does not appear to be a risk factor.Discussion: The incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is disturbingly high. Severe asthma – better described as difficult-to-control asthma – nonadherence with controller therapy, viral infections, obesity, and ethnicity are likely to be important risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy, whereas inconsistent findings have been reported with regard to the importance of sex of the fetus.Keywords: acute exacerbations

  11. Changes in rates and severity of compensation claims for asthma due to diisocyanates: a possible effect of medical surveillance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlo, S M; Liss, G M; Yeung, K S

    2002-01-01

    A medical surveillance programme was introduced into Ontario for workers exposed to diisocyanates in 1983, but no mandated surveillance programme is in effect in this province for other occupational respiratory sensitisers. This study assesses changes in incidence and severity of compensated claims for occupational asthma (OA) due to diisocyanates compared with other causes, which have occurred since the introduction of this surveillance programme. New claims for OA compensated by the Ontario Workers' Compensation Board (WCB) between 1980 and 1993 were retrospectively reviewed. Linkage was made between these data and an Ontario Ministry of Health database to assess hospital admissions for asthma from the date of onset of OA until the end of 1996. Numbers of claims for OA induced by diisocyanates ranged from 9-15/year in 1980-83, increased up to 55-58 claims/year in 1988-90, then fell to 19-20 claims/year by 1992-93. By contrast yearly numbers of claims for OA due to other causes increased up to 1985-87 then remained relatively stable. Duration of symptoms for OA induced by diisocyanates was shorter than for other claims and there were fewer hospital admissions among those with OA induced by diisocyanates than among those with OA induced by other causes. Occupational asthma from all causes was diagnosed earlier in claims for 1987-93 compared with 1980-86, and indicators of severity of asthma were also milder in accepted claims during 1987-93 than in earlier claims. Although engineering and industrial hygiene measures may have contributed to these changes, our findings are also consistent with a beneficial contribution from the medical surveillance programme for workers exposed to diisocyanates.

  12. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  13. Distribuição da gravidade da asma na infância Distribution of severity of asthma in childhood

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    Silvia de Magalhães Simões

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a distribuição dos padrões de gravidade da asma em uma amostra populacional de crianças em Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Questionário epidemiológico (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood - ISAAC foi aplicado juntamente com questionário elaborado com base em critérios de gravidade adotados na prática clínica (Global Initiative for Asthma - GINA em 417 crianças de 5 a 12 anos com sintomas de asma nos últimos 12 meses. Com base nas questões do ISAAC, as crianças foram classificadas em asma grave e não grave. De acordo com os critérios clínicos da GINA, quatro categorias de gravidade foram criadas: intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada e grave. RESULTADOS: Noventa crianças (22,3% apresentaram indicadores de gravidade segundo o ISAAC. Com base nos critérios da GINA, havia 143 crianças com asma intermitente, 160 com asma leve persistente, 51 com asma moderada e 43 com asma grave. A concordância entre os dois questionários foi de 81,3%, com índice kappa de 0,5. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria das crianças asmáticas em Salvador possui asma persistente. Há bom nível de concordância na identificação da asma grave, entre a classificação epidemiológica e a clínica.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the distribution of asthma severity in a population-based sample of children from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiologically oriented questionnaire (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC and a questionnaire based on criteria used in clinical practice (The Global Initiative for Asthma, GINA were administered simultaneously to 417 children aged 5 to 12 years who reported symptoms of asthma in the past 12 months. According to the ISAAC instrument, children were classified into severe and non-severe asthma, whereas GINA clinical criteria produced four categories of severity: intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe asthma. RESULTS: Ninety children reported

  14. Predictors of acute diverticulitis severity: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James P L; Barazanchi, Ahmed W H; Singh, Primal P; Hill, Andrew G; Maccormick, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    Diverticulitis is a common condition with a broad spectrum of disease severity. A scoring system has been proposed for diagnosing diverticulitis, and a number of scoring systems exist for predicting prognosis associated with severe complications of diverticulitis such as peritonitis. However, predicting disease severity has not received as much attention. Therefore, the aim of this review was to identify the factors that are predictive of severe acute diverticulitis. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify papers that evaluated factors predictive of severe diverticulitis. Severe diverticulitis was defined as complicated diverticulitis (associated with haemorrhage, abscess, phlegmon, perforation, purulent/faecal peritonitis, stricture, fistula, or small-bowel obstruction) or diverticulitis that resulted in prolonged hospital admission, surgical intervention or death. Twenty one articles were included. Studies were categorised into those that identified patient characteristics (n = 12), medications (n = 5), biochemical markers (n = 8) or imaging (n = 3) as predictors. Predictors for severe diverticulitis included first episode of diverticulitis, co-morbidities (Charlson score ≥ 3), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, steroid use, a high CRP on admission and severe disease on radiological imaging. Age and gender were not associated with disease severity. A number of predictors exist for identifying severe diverticulitis, and CT remains the gold standard for diagnosing complicated disease. Patients who present with identified risk factors for severe disease warrant early imaging, closer in-patient observation and a lower threshold for early surgical intervention. Patients without these factors may be suitable for outpatient-based treatment. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transmission Dynamics and Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitch, Marc; Cohen, Ted; Cooper, Ben; Robins, James M.; Ma, Stefan; James, Lyn; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Chew, Suok Kai; Tan, Chorh Chuan; Samore, Matthew H.; Fisman, David; Murray, Megan

    2003-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently described illness of humans that has spread widely over the past 6 months. With the use of detailed epidemiologic data from Singapore and epidemic curves from other settings, we estimated the reproductive number for SARS in the absence of interventions and in the presence of control efforts. We estimate that a single infectious case of SARS will infect about three secondary cases in a population that has not yet instituted control measures. Public-health efforts to reduce transmission are expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the size of the epidemic.

  16. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations: a meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 100 000 European men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T; Fransson, E I; Westerlund, H; Westerholm, P J M; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J; Väänänen, A; Theorell, T; Suominen, S B; Shipley, M J; Salo, P; Rugulies, R; Pentti, J; Pejtersen, J H; Oksanen, T; Nordin, M; Nielsen, M L; Kouvonen, A; Koskinen, A; Koskenvuo, M; Knutsson, A; Ferrie, J E; Dragano, N; Burr, H; Borritz, M; Bjorner, J B; Alfredsson, L; Batty, G D; Singh-Manoux, A; Kivimäki, M

    2014-06-01

    Many patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations in working-age European men and women. We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. During a median follow-up of 10 years, 1 109 individuals experienced a severe asthma exacerbation (430 with asthma as the primary diagnostic code). In the age- and sex-adjusted analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations defined using the primary diagnostic code (hazard ratio, HR: 1.27, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.00, 1.61). This association attenuated towards the null after adjustment for potential confounders (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.55). No association was observed in the analyses with asthma defined using any diagnostic code (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.19). Our findings suggest that job strain is probably not an important risk factor for severe asthma exacerbations leading to hospitalization or death. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Role of heart rate variability in predicting the severity of severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Jing; Ke, Lu; Nie, Yao; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2014-10-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) are major complications of acute pancreatitis which determine disease severity and outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of admission heart rate variability as a marker of IPN or MODS in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients. Forty-one SAP patients within 72 h of symptoms onset were included in this prospective observational study. General demographics, laboratory data and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores were recorded at admission. 5-minute ECG signals were obtained at the same time for heart rate variability analyses to assess SAP severity. The baseline heart rate variability measurements, levels of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) were significantly lower whereas high frequency norm (nHF) levels were significantly higher in patients who present with IPN and MODS or died (P procalcitonin. nHF and LF/HF were better than APACHE II in predicting IPN and LF/HF showed superiority over APACHE II in the prediction of MODS. Admission heart rate variability is a good marker of IPN and MODS in SAP patients.

  18. A Comparison of a Budesonide-Based and a Beclomethasone/Prednisolone-Based Management Strategy for the Treatment of Severe Asthma in General Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Govindaraj Mohan; Kevin A. MacLusky; Clifford C. Godley; Pamela L. Todd

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Patients with severe asthma often require short courses of oral corticosteroids in addition to their daily inhaled steroid to maintain adequate lung function. The objective of this study was to compare two management strategies for the treatment of severe asthma. A budesonide-based management strategy and a beclomethasone/prednisolone-based management strategy were compared for efficacy and tolerability. Design and Setting: 50 patients were randomised into this 24-week, open, paral...

  19. Comparison of oral montelukast with oral zileuton in acute asthma: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Rahul Magazine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukotriene modifiers have an established role in the management of chronic asthma but their role in acute asthma is still under evaluation. Objective: To study and compare the effects of oral montelukast with oral zileuton in acute asthma. Materials and Methods: This study included 120 asthmatics and was conducted from September 2012 to March 2014. Patients were randomized into three different groups to receive montelukast or zileuton or placebo in addition to standard treatment for asthma exacerbation. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR values, details of rescue medication and vital signs were recorded at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h of drug or placebo administration and at discharge. Additional recording was done in the morning (8-10 am following admission. The primary endpoint was the mean PEFR of each group at these time points; the secondary end point being the need for rescue medications. Results: The mean PEFR recordings of the three study groups - placebo, montelukast, and zileuton - respectively, at various time points were as follows: at 6 h (223.25 ± 90.40, 199.00 ± 82.52, 233.75 ± 84.05; P = 0.240; at 12 h (271.00 ± 109.38, 251.50 ± 101.44, 309.50 ± 129.63; P = 0.048; at 24 h (288.25 ± 114.26, 269.00 ± 107.51, 324.50 ± 127.88; P = 0.080; and at 48 h (295.00 ± 114.80, 293.50 ± 113.24, 344.75 ± 119.91; P = 0.015; discharge (305.00 ± 118.56, 305.25 ± 119.51, 361.25 ± 119.70; P = 0.010. The mean PEFR for the three study groups at 8-10 am on the morning following admission was 268.75 ± 111.43, 252.50 ± 99.99, 306.75 ± 114.44; P = 0.047. Total rescue doses needed were 10, 1, and 0, respectively (P = 0.049. Conclusion: Zileuton is better than montelukast as an additional drug in acute asthma and results in significant improvement in lung function, and reduction in the need for rescue medications.

  20. Effect of outdoor fungus concentrations on symptom severity of children with asthma and/or rhinitis monosensitized to molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Ayfer; Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Pinar, Munevver; Ceter, Talip; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kendirli, Seval Guneser

    2008-03-01

    Although the relationship between asthma severity and exposure to airborne fungi has been well studied, little is known about the contribution of outdoor molds to the symptoms of children monosensitized to molds. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor mold spore concentrations on daily asthma and/or rhinitis scores in children monosensitized to molds. Nineteen children with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized only to molds recorded their daily symptoms and PEF values to the diaries, from February 2005 to January 2006. Additionally, mold spores were measured daily using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in city atmosphere and compared with meteorological data. Total number of mold spores in atmosphere was found to be 352,867 spore/m3 during the study period. Cladosporium (53%) was the most common encountered outdoor fungi, followed by Altemaria (29%) and 1-septate Ascospore (3%). Outdoor fungi concentrations were significantly correlated with mean monthly rhinitis score (r = 0.877, p molds.

  1. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

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    Saxena Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.

  2. The Effect of Combined Therapy ICS/LABA and ICS/LABA plus Montelukast in Patients with Uncontrolled Severe Persistent Asthma Based on the Serum IL-13 and FEV1

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    Elena Jovanovska Janeva

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Treatment with ICS/LABA plus Montelukast proved superior compared to therapy of ICS/LABA in patients with uncontrolled severe persistent asthma and allows achievement of well controlled of asthma with subjective clinical improvement.

  3. A Pharmaco-Economic Analyzis of Treating Severe Uncontrolled Child Asthma with Omalizumab — Actual Russian Clinical Practice Data

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    A. S. Kolbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omalizumab is the first and yet the only biopreparation for asthma which combines high efficiency and high cost. The clinical-economic expediency of using omalizumab in asthmatic children has not been previously studied in Russia.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and economic expediency of using omalizumab as additive treatment (to basic or supporting therapy in children with severe uncontrolled atopic asthma under the Russian economic conditions.Methods: We conducted a mathematical simulation of asthma treatment in children with an increased frequency of hospitalization (9 times per year with an average monthly omalizumab requirement of 558 mg. The model is based on the Markov chain. The model includes direct and non-direct costs. The planning horizons were 2 and 5 years. We analyzed the efficiency and utility of the costs and their influence on the budget. The stability of received data is proven by sensitivity analyzis.Results: Over a 5-year planning horizon the cost of an additional year of quality life (due to using omalizumab was 1,259,185 roubles, while the “society’s solvency” is 1 341 308 roubles (cost utility analizis. It takes 39,820 rubles to prevent one hospitalization with omalizumab over a 5-year planning horizon (cost efficiency analizis, which is comparable to the cost of hospitalization (43,141 rubles. Total costs for treating 100 children with asthma, 7 of which would be treated with omalizumab, were equal to the amount of money which is enough to treat 105 children without omalizumab (analysis of budgetary influence.Conclusion: The analyses of cost efficiency and utility have shown that the strategy of using omalizumab together with standard treatment is economically expedient. Budgetary influence analysis has not detected a significant burden on the budget.

  4. Local adverse effects associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with moderate or severe asthma

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    Charleston Ribeiro Pinto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterize local adverse effects (in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs in patients with moderate or severe asthma. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 200 asthma patients followed in the Department of Pharmaceutical Care of the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Referral Center, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had been using ICSs regularly for at least 6 months. Local adverse effects (irritation, pain, dry throat, throat clearing, hoarseness, reduced vocal intensity, loss of voice, sensation of thirst, cough during ICS use, altered sense of taste, and presence of oral candidiasis were assessed using a 30-day recall questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients studied, 159 (79.5% were women. The mean age was 50.7 ± 14.4 years. In this sample, 55 patients (27.5% were using high doses of ICS, with a median treatment duration of 38 months. Regarding the symptoms, 163 patients (81.5% reported at least one adverse effect, and 131 (65.5% had a daily perception of at least one symptom. Vocal and pharyngeal symptoms were identified in 57 (28.5% and 154 (77.0% of the patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dry throat, throat clearing, sensation of thirst, and hoarseness. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported adverse effects related to ICS use were common among the asthma patients evaluated here.

  5. Severe Aplastic Anemia following Parvovirus B19-Associated Acute Hepatitis

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    Masanori Furukawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus (HPV B19 is linked to a variety of clinical manifestations, such as erythema infectiosum, nonimmune hydrops fetalis, and transient aplastic anemia. Although a few cases have shown HPVB19 infection as a possible causative agent for hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA in immunocompetent patients, most reported cases of HAAA following transient hepatitis did not have delayed remission. Here we report a rare case of severe aplastic anemia following acute hepatitis with prolonged jaundice due to HPVB19 infection in a previously healthy young male. Clinical laboratory examination assessed marked liver injury and jaundice as well as peripheral pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy revealed severe hypoplasia and fatty replacement. HPVB19 infection was diagnosed by enzyme immunoassay with high titer of anti-HPVB19 immunoglobulin M antibodies. Immunosuppressive therapy was initiated 2 months after the onset of acute hepatitis when liver injury and jaundice were improved. Cyclosporine provided partial remission after 2 months of medication without bone marrow transplantation. Our case suggests that HPVB19 should be considered as a hepatotropic virus and a cause of acquired aplastic anemia, including HAAA.

  6. Home-based respiratory rehabilitation in adult patients with moderate or severe persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renolleau-Courtois, Delphine; Lamouroux-Delay, Aurore; Delpierre, Stéphane; Badier, Monique; Lagier-Tessonnier, Françoise; Palot, Alain; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Céline; Charpin, Denis; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    We assessed retrospectively the feasibility of a home-based respiratory rehabilitation (RR) program for asthmatics under optimal pharmacological treatment, as this type of care can reduce costs and offer a more patient-friendly approach for subjects with persistent asthma. Fifty-two patients with persistent asthma were recruited to the RR program (20 males, 32 females, 54 ± 11 (SD) years, forced expiratory volume in one second 71 ± 33% of predicted mean value, BMI 29.9 ± 7.9 kg/m(2)). This two-month protocol comprised education sessions, respiratory physiotherapy and an exercise training program at home and in groups supervised by an adapted physical activity instructor. Thirty-nine patients completed the whole RR program, i.e. 25% dropout. The dropout rate was significantly higher with respect to younger patients in employment. The number of exacerbations decreased significantly during the year following the program, regardless of whether the patients had dropped out (p asthma. Both functional and physiologic indices improved during the follow-up period.

  7. Association of IL-4RA single nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma

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    Santiago Luis A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma afflicts 6% to 8% of the United States population, and severe asthma represents approximately 10% of asthmatic patients. Several epidemiologic studies in the United States and Europe have linked Alternaria sensitivity to both persistence and severity of asthma. In order to begin to understand genetic risk factors underlying Alternaria sensitivity and asthma, in these studies we examined T cell responses to Alternaria antigens, HLA Class II restriction and HLA-DQ protection in children with severe asthma. Methods Sixty children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma were compared to 49 children with Alternaria-sensitive mild asthma. We examined HLA-DR and HLA-DQ frequencies in Alternaria-sensitive asthmatic by HLA typing. To determine ratios of Th1/Th2 Alternaria-specific T-cells, cultures were stimulated in media alone, Alternaria alternata extract and Alt a1. Sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation was measured by up-regulation of CD23 on B cells. Results Children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma trended to have increased sensitivities to Cladosporium (46% versus 35%, to Aspergillus (43% versus 28%, and significantly increased sensitivities to trees (78% versus 57% and to weeds (68% versus 48%. The IL-4RA ile75val polymorphism was significantly increased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics, 83% (0.627 allele frequency compared to Alternaria-sensitive mild asthmatics, 57% (0.388 allele frequency. This was associated with increased sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation measured by significantly increased IL-4 stimulated CD23 expression on CD19+ and CD86+CD19+ B cells of Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics. IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis was significantly increased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics compared to mild asthmatics to Alternaria extract and Alt a1 stimulation. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*03 allele was significantly decreased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe

  8. Treatment and evaluation of patients with acute exacerbation of asthma before and during a visit to the ER in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, V.; Harving, H.; Soes-Petersen, U.

    2008-01-01

    leading to admission. Material and methods: In a retrospective design, we audited the hospital records of all patients aged 18-40 years admitted to five Danish university hospitals with an acute exacerbation of asthma in 2004. Results: We found records covering 323 asthmatic patients (186 women). Before...... admission, the mean (standard deviation) duration of the exacerbation was 5.2 (7.5) days. Of those admitted, 14% did not use any medication, 39% used inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) either with a beta(2)-agonist or alone, systemic steroids, and 34% used a beta(2)-agonist alone. Lung function (peak flow...

  9. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels in patients with severe allergic asthma are reduced by omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Ismet; Ozseker, Zeynep F; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim

    2017-12-06

    Remodeling is a crucial feature of severe asthma and may be associated with activation of the allergic cascade by immunoglobulin E (IgE). Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, effectively targets the severe allergic asthma phenotype. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) protease, increasing local insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations, which in turn initiating a cascade involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation in various tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of omalizumab on serum PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, and IGF-1 levels in subjects with severe allergic asthma. We studied 36 asthmatic subjects and 36 healthy controls. An ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used to measure serum PAPP-A levels, and routine commercial ELISA kits were employed to assess serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-4 in control subjects and asthmatic subjects before therapy (baseline) and after six months of omalizumab therapy in patients with severe asthma. Compared to control subjects, serum PAPP-A and IGFB-4 levels were significantly higher in asthmatic subjects (both p values 0.05). In asthma subjects, 6-month omalizumab treatment significantly decreased the serum PAPP-A (p PAPP-A level may be a useful biomarker for predicting airway remodeling in patients with severe asthma receiving omalizumab, and may also reflect the response to treatment.

  10. Evaluation of serum l-carnitine level in children with acute bronchial asthma

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    Eman Ramadan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: According to our study, it could be concluded that l-carnitine decrease is linked to the occurrence of attack of bronchial asthma. Accordingly, it is recommended to make further studies to find out if there is a beneficial role of carnitine intake in the prophylaxis & treatment of attacks of bronchial asthma. The recommended studies should search for the most suitable dose & side effects of carnitine as a potential pharmaceutical agent.

  11. Japanese guidelines for childhood asthma 2017

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    Hirokazu Arakawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017 includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012 by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0–15 years of age. It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. This guideline will be of interest to non-specialist physicians involved in the care of children with asthma. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline in that JAGL emphasizes diagnosis and early intervention of children with asthma at <2 years or 2–5 years of age. The first choice of treatment depends on the severity and frequency of symptoms. Pharmacological management, including step-up or step-down of drugs used for long-term management based on the status of asthma control levels, is easy to understand; thus, this guideline is suitable for the routine medical care of children with asthma. JAGL also recommends using a control test in children, so that the physician aims for complete control by avoiding exacerbating factors and appropriately using anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists.

  12. Accounts of severe acute obstetric complications in Rural Bangladesh

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    Sikder Shegufta S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As maternal deaths have decreased worldwide, increasing attention has been placed on the study of severe obstetric complications, such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, and obstructed labor, to identify where improvements can be made in maternal health. Though access to medical care is considered to be life-saving during obstetric emergencies, data on the factors associated with health care decision-making during obstetric emergencies are lacking. We aim to describe the health care decision-making process during severe acute obstetric complications among women and their families in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using the pregnancy surveillance infrastructure from a large community trial in northwest rural Bangladesh, we nested a qualitative study to document barriers to timely receipt of medical care for severe obstetric complications. We conducted 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women reporting severe acute obstetric complications and purposively selected for conditions representing the top five most common obstetric complications. The interviews were transcribed and coded to highlight common themes and to develop an overall conceptual model. Results Women attributed their life-threatening experiences to societal and socioeconomic factors that led to delays in seeking timely medical care by decision makers, usually husbands or other male relatives. Despite the dominance of male relatives and husbands in the decision-making process, women who underwent induced abortions made their own decisions about their health care and relied on female relatives for advice. The study shows that non-certified providers such as village doctors and untrained birth attendants were the first-line providers for women in all categories of severe complications. Coordination of transportation and finances was often arranged through mobile phones, and referrals were likely to be provided by village doctors. Conclusions Strategies to increase timely

  13. Role of leukotrienes in asthma pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of asthma pathophysiology. While beta(2)-agonists are often used for short-term relief of acute bronchospasm, anti-inflammatory agents are required for the long-term management of chronic inflammation in this disease. Corticosteroids have emerged as the first......-line anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma management. However, in some patients, especially children, the high doses of corticosteroids that may be required to control features of hyperresponsiveness, including exercise-induced asthma, raise safety concerns. Thus, there is a need for complementary anti......-inflammatory, steroid-sparing agents in asthma therapy. Several inflammatory mediators have been targeted in an attempt to thwart this inflammatory process, but so far with little success. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), have been shown to be essential mediators in asthma, making them...

  14. Acetaminophen use and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulchit, Teeranai; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-03-01

    Question A child with a history of asthma came to my clinic with acute fever. I have heard that acetaminophen might be associated with exacerbation of asthma. Is it safe if I recommend acetaminophen for this child? Answer Most studies suggest an association between acetaminophen use in children and development of asthma later in childhood. However, several confounding factors in study design might contribute to this positive correlation, and without a prospective controlled trial, confirming this finding is challenging. If children have a known history of asthma, it is likely safe to administer a single dose of acetaminophen without concern of precipitating adverse respiratory symptoms. Regular use of acetaminophen to relieve fever or pain does not seem to exacerbate asthma in children more than ibuprofen does. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. "Dangerous relationships": asthma and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Alamo, Angela; Campagna, Davide; Demma, Shirin; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Commonly abused drug are cocaine, marijuana, cigarettes, heroin, and alcohol. The review emphasizes the importance for clinicians to be alert to the possibility of this substance as a precipitating factor for acute asthma. Substance use disorders to characterize illnesses associated with drug use. The use of drugs of abuse increases risk of developing more severe symptoms, higher frequency of exacerbations and having and significant effect on care resources due to clinicians visits and frequent hospital admissions. Abused drug has been shown to accelerate the decline in lung function and to increase numbers of life-threatening asthma attacks, and greater asthma mortality.

  16. Severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation using helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, D.; Paramelle, P.J.; Calaque, O. [Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Bosson, J.L. [Department of Statistics and Vascular diseases, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Vanzetto, G. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Barnoud, D. [Department of Medical Intensive Care, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pison, C. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.

    2003-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the helical CT (HCT) criteria that could indicate severe pulmonary embolism (PE). In a retrospective study, 81 patients (mean age 62 years) with clinical suspicion of PE explored by HCT were studied. The patients were separated into three different groups according to clinical severity and treatment decisions: group SPE included patients with severe PE based on clinical data who were treated by fibrinolysis or embolectomy (n=20); group NSPE included patients with non-severe PE who received heparin (n=30); and group WPE included patients without PE (n=31). For each patient we calculated a vascular obstruction index based on the site of obstruction and the degree of occlusion in the pulmonary artery. We noted the HCT signs, i.e., cardiac and pulmonary artery dimensions, that could indicate acute cor pulmonale. According to multivariate analysis, factors significantly correlated with the severity of PE were: the vascular obstruction index (group SPE: 54%; group NSPE: 24%; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the left ventricle (group SPE: 30.2 mm; group NSPE: 40.4 mm; p<0.001); the diameter of the central pulmonary artery (group SPE: 32.4 mm; group NSPE: 28.3 mm; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the right ventricle (group SPE: 47.5 mm; group NSPE: 42.7 mm; p=0.029); the right ventricle/left ventricle minor axis ratio (group SPE: 1.63; group NSPE: 1.09; p<0.0001). Our data suggest that hemodynamic severity of PE can be assessed on HCT scans by measuring four main criteria: the vascular obstruction index; the minimum diameter of the left ventricle; the RV:LV ratio; and the diameter of the central pulmonary artery. (orig.)

  17. Challenges of estimating the annual caseload of severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deconinck, Hedwig; Pesonen, Anaïs; Hallarou, Mahaman

    2016-01-01

    caseloads of children 6-59 months of age in Niger estimated from prevalence at the start of the year and counted from incidence at the end of the year.  Methods: Secondary data from two health districts for 2012 and the country overall for 2013 were used to calculate annual caseload of SAM. Prevalence......Introduction: Reliable prospective estimates of annual severe acute malnutrition (SAM) caseloads for treatment are needed for policy decisions and planning of quality services in the context of competing public health priorities and limited resources. This paper compares the reliability of SAM...... and coverage were extracted from survey reports, and incidence from weekly surveillance systems.  Results: The prospective caseload estimate derived from prevalence and duration of illness underestimated the true burden. Similar incidence was derived from two weekly surveillance systems, but differed from...

  18. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Presenting with Severe Marrow Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presenting with severely fibrotic marrow. There are four other reports of similar cases in the literature. Our patient was treated with All-Transretinoic Acid- (ATRA- containing induction chemotherapy, followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. He achieved a complete morphologic remission with adequate count recovery in a timely fashion, and later a molecular remission was documented. The patient remains in molecular remission and demonstrates normal blood counts now more than 4 years after induction. Since the morphological appearance may not be typical and the bone marrow may not yield an aspirate for cytogenetic analysis, awareness of such entity is important to make a correct diagnosis of this potentially curable disease.

  19. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Presenting with Severe Marrow Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Harsh; Bradford, Carol; Sayar, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) presenting with severely fibrotic marrow. There are four other reports of similar cases in the literature. Our patient was treated with All-Transretinoic Acid- (ATRA-) containing induction chemotherapy, followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. He achieved a complete morphologic remission with adequate count recovery in a timely fashion, and later a molecular remission was documented. The patient remains in molecular remission and demonstrates normal blood counts now more than 4 years after induction. Since the morphological appearance may not be typical and the bone marrow may not yield an aspirate for cytogenetic analysis, awareness of such entity is important to make a correct diagnosis of this potentially curable disease.

  20. Severe acute haemorrhagic gastritis controlled by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Kountouras, Jannis; Paroutoglou, George; Beltsis, Athanasios; Mimidis, Kostas; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Zavos, Christos

    2006-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented with severe acute haemorrhagic gastritis due to abuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). She was treated with instillation of 150 ml 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) every 2 h via a nasogastric tube. The copious amount of bright red blood through the nasogastric tube started to decline substantially after the first administration of H2O2 and continued to reveal clear material during the second and third instillation of H2O2. The total amount of H2O2 administered was 600 ml. No rebleeding and only a few flame-shaped intramucosal haemorrhages were observed on the following four consecutive daily endoscopic evaluations. These are promising observations which will have to be confirmed with respect to the safety and efficacy of H2O2 treatment by further controlled studies.

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors ... CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  3. Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie S Thompson

    Full Text Available Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic.We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013 in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS. Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year.375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1-45 months and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001, but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006-1.014; P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition.Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home.

  4. Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbie S; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Boyne, Michael S; Forrester, Terrence E

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year. 375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1-45 months) and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001), but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006-1.014); P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition. Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home.

  5. Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbie S.; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Boyne, Michael S.; Forrester, Terrence E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. Methods We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000–2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year. Results 375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1–45 months) and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001), but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006–1.014); P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition. Conclusion Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home. PMID:28291805

  6. Use of heliox delivered via high-flow nasal cannula to treat an infant with coronavirus-related respiratory infection and severe acute air-flow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherwin E; Vukin, Kirissa; Mosakowski, Steve; Solano, Patti; Stanton, Lolita; Lester, Lucille; Lavani, Romeen; Hall, Jesse B; Tung, Avery

    2014-11-01

    Heliox, a helium-oxygen gas mixture, has been used for many decades to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. The lower density and higher viscosity of heliox relative to nitrogen-oxygen mixtures can significantly reduce airway resistance when an anatomic upper air-flow obstruction is present and gas flow is turbulent. Clinically, heliox can decrease airway resistance in acute asthma in adults and children and in COPD. Heliox may also enhance the bronchodilating effects of β-agonist administration for acute asthma. Respiratory syndromes caused by coronavirus infections in humans range in severity from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with human coronavirus OC43 and other viral strains. In infants, coronavirus infection can cause bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia in variable combinations and can produce enough air-flow obstruction to cause respiratory failure. We describe a case of coronavirus OC43 infection in an infant with severe acute respiratory distress treated with heliox inhalation to avoid intubation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. MicroRNA-21 drives severe, steroid-insensitive experimental asthma by amplifying phosphoinositide 3-kinase?mediated suppression of histone deacetylase 2

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, RY; Horvat, JC; Pinkerton, JW; Starkey, MR; Essilfie, AT; Mayall, JR; Nair, PM; Hansbro, NG; Jones, B; Haw, TJ; Sunkara, KP; Nguyen, TH; Jarnicki, AG; Keely, S; Mattes, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe steroid-insensitive asthma is a substantial clinical problem. Effective treatments are urgently required, however, their development is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Steroid-insensitive asthma is associated with respiratory tract infections and noneosinophilic endotypes, including neutrophilic forms of disease. However, steroid-insensitive patients with eosinophil-enriched inflammation have also been described. The?mechanisms...

  8. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA? Dry Powder Inhaler

    OpenAIRE

    Prime, David; de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n?=?15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n?=?45), and patients with ...

  9. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: 40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051. CONCLUSIONS: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  10. Rational use of antimicrobials in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2011-04-01

    Infectious complications in severe acute pancreatitis are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The course of the disease is often protracted, and patients often stay in the hospital for several weeks. Diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis is difficult, and the treatment consists of source control and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic use should be rational in terms of a rational indication, a rational spectrum, and a rational duration. Prophylactic antibiotics are not effective in reducing the incidence of (peri)-pancreatic infection in patients with severe disease (or even documented necrotizing pancreatitis). The only rational indication for antibiotics is documented infection. The spectrum of empirical antibiotics should include both aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Also, fungal infections are often present in these patients, and antifungal coverage or even prophylaxis should be considered, especially if multiple risk factors for invasive candidiasis are present. Although initiation of antibiotics may be a difficult decision, stopping antibiotic therapy often proves to be even more difficult. Currently, no tools are available to guide antimicrobial treatment. Antibiotic use is only effective if proper source control has been established. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  11. Chronic Hepatitis B with Spontaneous Severe Acute Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Tsai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major global health problem with an estimated 400 million HBV carriers worldwide. In the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, spontaneous acute exacerbation (AE is not uncommon, with a cumulative incidence of 10%–30% every year. While exacerbations can be mild, some patients may develop hepatic decompensation and even die. The underlying pathogenesis is possibly related to the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune response against HBV. An upsurge of serum HBV DNA usually precedes the rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and bilirubin. Whether antiviral treatment can benefit CHB with severe AE remains controversial, but early nucleos(tide analogues treatment seemed to be associated with an improved outcome. There has been no randomized study that compared the effects of different nucleos(tide analogues (NA in the setting of CHB with severe AE. However, potent NAs with good resistance profiles are recommended. In this review, we summarized current knowledge regarding the natural history, pathogenetic mechanisms, and therapeutic options of CHB with severe AE.

  12. Acute arterial infarcts in patients with severe head injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the incidence, demographic profile, and outcome of patients with severe closed head injuries who develop acute arterial infarcts. Materials and Methods: Patients with severe head injury (Glasgow coma score (GCS ≤8 presenting within 8 h of injury in the Department of Neurosurgery over a period of 5 months were enrolled in the study. Patients with penetrating head injury, infarct due to herniation and iatrogenic arterial injuries were excluded from the study. Only arterial infarcts developing within 8 h of injury were included in the study. A computed tomography (CT head was done on all patients within 8 h of injury and repeated if necessary. Arterial infarct was defined as well-demarcated wedge-shaped hypodensity corresponding to an arterial territory on plain CT of the head. Outcome was assessed using Glasgow outcome score (GOS at 1 month post-injury or at death (whichever came earlier. Results: Forty-four patients of severe head injury were included in the study during the above period. Of these, four patients (9.1% had arterial infarcts on the initial CT scan. The male:female ratio was 1:3. The mean age was 54 years (range 3-85 years. Two patients had infarcts in the middle cerebral artery distribution and two in the superior cerebellar artery distribution. Poor outcome (GOS 1-3 was seen in 100% of the patients with arterial infarct compared to 52.5% (n=21 in patients with severe head injury without arterial infarct. Conclusions: A significant percentage of patients with severe head injury have arterial infarcts on admission, which may imply arterial injury. Our study shows that these patients have a poorer prognosis vis-a-vis patient without these findings.

  13. The relationship between the quality of prescribing and practice appointment rates with asthma management data in those admitted to hospital due to an acute exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamzadeh, J; Wong, I C K; Hosker, H S R; Patel, M G; Chrystyn, H

    2005-06-01

    Specific targeting of patients with a previous asthma hospitalisation could be more focused if predictors could be identified. This study was an observational retrospective analysis using ridge and linear multivariate regression analysis. Patient asthma management data were extracted from the hospital and general practice notes of those that had been admitted with an acute exacerbation of their asthma over a 5-year period. From the prescribing data, the annual doses of preventer (P) and reliever (R) medication were converted to defined daily doses then divided to give a P:R ratio. Preliminary statistical analysis was used to identify any association between either the P:R ratio or for the number of general practitioner (GP) practice appointments (PA) and their asthma management data. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to the P:R ratio and to PA to determine a model between each of these and asthma management data/events. GPs gave consent to access the data of 115 (out of 440) asthmatics, age >5 years, admitted to a district general hospital for asthma exacerbations between 1994 and 1998. The multivariate analysis revealed that PA was associated with oral prednisolone rescue courses (PRCs) and age whilst the P:R ratio was associated to PRCs and more reliever usage but not preventers. Patients with low preventer usage with respect to their reliever medication should be targeted for medication review as these were the patients prescribed more prednisolone courses and their increased PAs reflect this. This could decrease visits to the doctor and acute exacerbations.

  14. Nasal disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  15. MicroRNA-19a enhances proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells by targeting TGFβR2 gene in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Salem, I; Fakhfakh, R; Bérubé, J-C; Jacques, E; Plante, S; Simard, M J; Bossé, Y; Chakir, J

    2015-02-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchial epithelium is considered a key player in coordinating airway wall remodeling. In mild asthma, the epithelium is damaged and fails to proliferate and to repair, whereas in severe asthma, the epithelium is highly proliferative and thicker. This may be due to different regulatory mechanisms. The purpose of our study was to determine the role of miRNAs in regulating proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells obtained from severe asthmatic subjects in comparison with cells obtained from mild asthmatics and healthy controls. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) were isolated by bronchoscopy from bronchial biopsies of healthy donors and patients with mild and severe asthma. MiRNA expression was evaluated using the TaqMan low-density arrays and qRT-PCR. Transfection studies of bronchial epithelial cells were performed to determine the target genes. Cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation test. MiR-19a was upregulated in epithelia of severe asthmatic subjects compared with cells from mild asthmatics and healthy controls. Functional studies based on luciferase reporter and Western blot assays suggest that miR-19a enhances cell proliferation of BEC in severe asthma through targeting TGF-β receptor 2 mRNA. Moreover, repressed expression of miR-19a increased SMAD3 phosphorylation through TGF-β receptor 2 signaling and abrogated BEC proliferation. Our study uncovers a new regulatory pathway involving miR-19a that is critical to the severe phenotype of asthma and indicates that downregulating miR-19a expression could be explored as a potential new therapy to modulate epithelium repair in asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em

  17. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerem, Enver

    2014-10-14

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder.

  18. Management of severe acute pancreatitis: a surgical odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Edward L; Dexter, Nadine D

    2010-01-01

    Throughout much of history, surgery of the pancreas was restricted to drainage of abscesses and treatment of traumatic wounds. At the turn of the 20th century under the impetus of anesthesia, such surgical stalwarts as Mayo Robson, Mickulicz, and Moynihan began to deploy laparotomy and gauze drainage in an effort to salvage patients afflicted with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Over the next thirty years, surgical intervention in SAP became the therapy for choice, despite surgical mortality rates that often exceeded 50%.When the discovery of the serum test for amylase revealed that clinically milder forms of acute pancreatitis existed that could respond to nonoperative therapy, a wave of conservatism emerged, and, for the next quarter century, surgical intervention for SAP was rarely practiced. However, by the 1960s, conservative mortality rates for SAP were reported to be as high as 60% to 80%, leading surgeons to not only refine the indications for surgery in SAP, but also to consider new approaches. Extensive pancreatic resections for SAP became the vogue in continental surgical centers in the 1960s and 1970s, but often resulted in high mortality rates and inadvertent removal of viable tissue.Accurate diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis by dynamic CT led to new approaches for management. Some surgeons recommended restricting intervention to those with documented infected necrosis, and proposed delayed exploration employing sequestrectomy and open-packing. Others advocated debridement early in the course of the disease for all patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, regardless of the status of infection. In the 1990s, however, a series of prospective studies emerged proving that nonoperative management of patients with sterile pancreatic necrosis was superior to surgical intervention, and that delayed intervention provided improved surgical mortality rates.The surgical odyssey in managing the necrotizing form of SAP, from simple drainage, to resection, to

  19. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Kong; Nn Santiago; Tian-Quan Han; Sheng-Dao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of a consecutive series of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).METHODS: Clinical data of SAP patients admitted to our hospital from January 2003 to January 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Collected data included the age, gender, etiology,length of hospitalization, APACHE Ⅱ score at admission,local and organ/systemic complications of the patients.RESULTS: Of the 268 acute pancreatitis patients, 94 developed SAP. The mean age of SAP patients was 52 years, the commonest etiology was cholelithiasis (45.7%), the mean length of hospitalization was 70 d, the mean score of APACHE Ⅱ was 7.7. Fifty-four percent of the patients developed necrosis, 25% abscess, 58% organ/systemic failure. A total of 23.4% (22/94) of the SAP patients died. Respiratory