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Sample records for acute radiation syndrones

  1. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs

  3. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami Filho, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  5. Acute irradiation syndrome : radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Multon, E.

    1995-01-01

    It is classically assumed that the symptomatology of the acute radiation syndrome is mainly due to stem and progenitor cells death in compartimentalized tissues, particularly in bone marrow and intestine. Our observations on baboons, irradiated with a mixed neutron/gamma or a gamma radiation, showed that the whole organism response plays a major role. There is an inflammatory syndrome, not only during the prodromal phase, but also a second one, that precedes and accompanies the manifest-illness phase. This inflammatory syndrome was associated with coagulation disorders which are largely responsible for bleeding. This syndrome makes the therapeutic approach more complicated since some cytokines, which could be able to improve the hematopoietic cells recovery (e.g. IL-6), exhibit pro-inflammatory activities as well. Regarding radiobiological triage, no biological marker has a prognosis value during the first days following a radiation exposure, for those individuals exposed to around a LD50. On the contrary, some inflammation markers allow to anticipate a fatal issue, without any treatment, as early as the beginning of the manifest-illness phase. (authors). 10 refs., 11 figs

  6. Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benomar, S.; Hassam, B.; Boutayeb, S.; Errihani, H.; Lalya, I.; El Gueddari, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. (authors)

  7. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

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    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  8. Evaluation and management of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, A.; Faivre, J.C.; Granel-Brocard, F.; Tao, Y.G.; Pointreau, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis remains one of the most commonly observed side effect during radiation therapy leading to complication such as superinfection or treatment disruption. Its management is characterized by a great heterogeneity. Few strategies have demonstrated a benefit in preventing radiation dermatitis, which relies mostly on decreasing dose delivered to the skin and skin care practices. Simple emollients and use of topical steroids can be useful in early stages. The singularity of the skin toxicity seen with cetuximab and radiotherapy warrants a specific grading system and distinctive clinical treatment with use of antibiotics. (authors)

  9. Oral sucralfate in acute radiation oesophagitis

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    Sur, R.K. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Kochhar, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Singh, D.P. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1994-01-01

    Eighty patients with carcinoma in the middle third of oesophagus and with acute radiation oesophagitis following external beam and intracavitary radiotherapy were managed by two different schedules. Group 1 (n = 40) received an antacid containing sodium alginate whereas Group 2 (n = 40) were given a 10% sucralfate suspension during 4 weeks. In Group 2, 32 patients had significant relief of symptoms within 7 days of treatment and most ulcers had healed by 12 days of treatment as seen on endoscopy. Patients in Group 1, on the other hand, showed little improvement of symptoms and had persistent ulcers even after 4 weeks of therapy. We conclude that sucralfate is useful in the management of acute radiation oesophagitis. (orig.).

  10. Oral sucralfate in acute radiation oesophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, R.K.; Kochhar, R.; Singh, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty patients with carcinoma in the middle third of oesophagus and with acute radiation oesophagitis following external beam and intracavitary radiotherapy were managed by two different schedules. Group 1 (n = 40) received an antacid containing sodium alginate whereas Group 2 (n = 40) were given a 10% sucralfate suspension during 4 weeks. In Group 2, 32 patients had significant relief of symptoms within 7 days of treatment and most ulcers had healed by 12 days of treatment as seen on endoscopy. Patients in Group 1, on the other hand, showed little improvement of symptoms and had persistent ulcers even after 4 weeks of therapy. We conclude that sucralfate is useful in the management of acute radiation oesophagitis. (orig.)

  11. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shoucheng; Chen Zhijian; Chen Youxin

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60 Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  12. Suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

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    Yao, Guo; Mingyue, Zhu; Zhiqin, Zhao

    1984-08-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author).

  13. A suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yao; Zhu Mingyue; Zhao Zhiqin

    1984-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author)

  14. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

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    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  15. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) occurs after whole-body or significant partial-body irradiation (typically at a dose of >1 Gy). ARS can involve the hematopoietic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and the neurovascular organ systems either individually or in combination. There is a correlation between the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS and radiation dose. Radiation induced multi-organ failure (MOF) describes the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems over time. Radiation combined injury (RCI) is defined as radiation injury combined with blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, blast, or infection. The classic syndromes are: hematopoietic (doses >2 - 3 Gy), gastrointestinal (doses 5- 12 Gy) and cerebrovascular syndrome (doses 10 - 20 Gy). There is no possibility to survive after doses >10 - 12 Gy. The Phases of ARS are - prodromal: 0 - 2 days from exposure, latent: 2 - 20 days, and manifest illness: 21 - 60 days from exposure. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 5 micro g/kg body weight per day subcutaneously has been recommended as treatment of neutropenia, and antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents for prevention or treatment of infections. If taken within the first hours of contamination, stable iodine in the form of nonradioactive potassium iodide (KI) saturates iodine binding sites within the thyroid and inhibits incorporation of radioiodines into the gland. Finally, if severe aplasia persists under cytokines for more than 14 days, the possibility of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation should be evaluated. This review will focus on the clinical aspects of the ARS, using the European triage system (METREPOL) to evaluate the severity of radiation injury, and scoring groups of patients for the general and specific management of the syndrome. (authors)

  16. Lung pathology in case of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    Results of pathomorphological studies of 27 patients exposed to total external γ- and β-radiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident and lost due to the acute radiation disease in the first weeks following radiation exposure are discussed. Dose range is 3.7-13.7 Gy. Two groups of pathological changes in lungs are revealed, those are: infection (bacterial, viral and fungous) ones caused by acute radiation disease and signs of respiratory distress-syndrome in adults [ru

  17. Acute Radiation Syndrome. Consequences and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N.D.; Pesternikova, V.S.; Sumina, M.V.; Azizova, T.V.; Yurkov, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The consequences and outcomes of an Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), induced by external gamma radiation for 59 persons (49 men and 10 women) have been estimated. All incidents have taken place more than 40 years ago in the yearly years of adjustment of an atomic industry (1950-1953-38 persons, 1954-1958-21 persons). According to the degree of severity ARS 5 groups are selected: the severest degree - 7 individuals (average dose in group 43.8±12.8 Sv), severe - 4 individuals (9.3±1.5 Sv), medium - 14 individuals (2.2±0.8 Sv), a light degree - 15 individuals (0.93±0.13 Sv), ''erased'' from - 19 individuals (0.85±0.07 Sv). In all cases, except for lethal (the severest degree), the characteristics of morphological composition of the peripheral blood were restored in the first year after ARS and now correspond to physiological standard. In 2 cases the moderate hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis was diagnosed. A marker of the acute exposure was the chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. The frequency of chromosome aberrations correlates with severity degree of ARS (from 3-7 up to 35-50 stable aberrations per 100 cells). In cases of ARS with severe degree the early development of a cerebral atherosclerosis is detected. The radiation cataract was diagnosed in 5 patients (an exposure doses 4.0-9.8 Sv, a period of development 2-5 years). During the first years after ARS in 80% of cases the complete labour rehabilitation is reached. Of 53 patients with known vital status by 45 year of monitoring 19 persons (35.8%) have died, of these in 2 cases the causes of death are not determined. In remaining cases the causes of death were ARS of severest degree (7 persons), Ischemic Heart Disease (5 persons), malignant tumors (4 persons), accidents and traumas (2 persons). (author)

  18. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake

    1989-01-01

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52 Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  19. Pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Haen, M.; Carbonell, F.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome are discussed. Diagnosis and therapy would be impossible without detailed knowledge in these fields. The concept of acute radiation syndrome is explained, and a pathophysiological analysis of the various forms of radiation syndrome - haematological, intestinal and affecting the central nervous system is attempted. The developments in the diagnosis and therapy of acute radiation syndrome since its first description - 35 years ago - are reviewed. Today, whole-body doses of 100 rd and more can be treated by radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  1. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. ... to disrupt the myelination and integrity of white matter tracts in the brain. ... The current study focused on the assessment of memory and learning, two ...

  2. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  3. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  4. Chernobyl 1996. New materials concerning acute radiation syndrome around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupandin, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1996 we have succeeded in getting reliable data on radiation situation in the Khoiniki district. These were data of Civil Defence Headquarters of the Khoiniki district, remaining in private notes of the Chief of the Headquarters. Including the other data or materials, radiation syndromes in particular the acute are described. (J.P.N.)

  5. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age

  6. Considerations on the classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.A.; Andreev, E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation disease is a well-defined and extensively studied entity with typical signs and symptomatology. A basic point in establishing a classification is dose absorbed by the organism. The pattern of pathology displayed will vary with dose distribution in time and space. Acute radiation disease after single, overall exposure to a radiation level ranging from 100 to 1000 rem and above may be manifested in four main forms, according to the prevailing pathogenetic mechanism: cerebral, toxemic, intestinal, and a typical form dominated by injury to the hematopoietic system. In the course of the disease, three major periods may be distinguished: development, recovery, and long-term effects and outcome. These three periods will not necessarily be represented in all forms of radiation disease. As for the clinical symptomatology of acute radiation disease, its evolution allows the delineation of four phases: primary general reactions, latent period, clinical manifestation, and apparent recovery. In a typical form of acute radiation disease, severity of effects is a function of dose. Chronic radiation disease may also be of two varieties, depending on space distribution of dose. In addition, a third variety has been distinguished, namely the case of a combination of external exposure with internal contamination. Similar to the acute radiation disease, periods and degrees of severity in chronic radiation disease will vary with cumulative radiation dose. In this case, degrees of severity overlap with phases in the development of the pathological process. A category by itself in the classification is alloted to combined lesions resulting from exposure to radiological plus nonradiological factors. (A.B.)

  7. Effect of gene time on acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suyan; Gao Li; Yin Weibo; Xu Guozhen; Xiao Guangli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (Gene Time) on acute mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiation. Methods: 120 head and neck cancer patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1. Mucositis prophylactic application (MPA) group with control, 2. Mucositis therapeutic application (MTA) group with control and 3. Dermatitis therapeutic application (DTA) group with control. Prophylactic application of drug consisted of spraying the Gene Time preparation on the irradiated skin or mucous membrane as radiotherapy was being carried out. This was compared with control patients who received routine conventional skin care. Therapeutic application was started as grade I radiation mucositis or dermatitis appeared. The evaluation of acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis was done according to the systems proposed by RTOG or EORTC. Results: The results showed that in the MPA group, the rate of radiation mucositis at ≤10 Gy was 20% (4/20) as compared to the 70% (14/20) of the control (P = 0.004). During the course of radiation, the incidences of grade III, IV acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis were always lower than the control. In therapeutic application of Gene Time, the response rate of acute radiation mucositis was also better than the control (90% vs 50%) (P = 0.016) and that of acute dermatitis was similar (95% vs 50%) (P = 0.005). Moreover, the ≤3 d rate of healing of grade III dermatitis in the application group was 3/7 as compared to the 0/14 of the control. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor is able to postpone the development of radiation mucositis. This preparation is also able to lower the incidence of grade III, IV mucositis and dermatitis both by therapeutic and prophylactic application in addition to the hastened healing of grade III dermatitis

  8. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  9. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  10. Clinico-morphological characteristics of reparation of acute radiation ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, V.D.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Bardychev, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of reparative processes under the effect of various drugs was studied in experimental acute radiation ulcer of rats. It was established that at the stage of marked exudative-necrotic processes the use of antiinflammatory and antiexudative substances (bariz, dimethylsulfoxyde) led to normalization of the microcirculation that reduced the time of radiation ulcer healing. The use of anabolic steroids (retabolil) intensified metabolism that also produced a favourable effect on the reparative processes

  11. Developing diagnostic guidelines for the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kindler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic guidelines seem to be promising for improving medical care. One aspect of a diagnostic guideline for the acute radiation syndrome has been tested against an extensive case history database. Subsequently, the guideline has been optimized for a small set of case histories. The improved performance has been proven by a test against the rest of the case history database

  12. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  13. Acute radiation sickness - morphology of CNS syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarad, V.

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of supralethal doses of 60 Co gamma radiation on morphological changes in the brains of laboratory animals. For experiments, female rats irradiated with doses of 15 to 960 Gy, female mice irradiated with doses of 50 to 300 Gy and dogs irradiated with 6 to 500 Gy were used. For evaluation of the changes, light microscopy, electron microscopy and histochemistry were employed. The findings generally agreed with the results by other authors whose numerous studies are reviewed in detail. They included brain edema, alterations in enzyme activities, dystrophic changes and hemorrhages in nerve cells, marked structural changes in blood capillaries, damage of endothelial cells, etc. The observed changes in the activities of blood-brain barrier enzymes, increased pinocytotic activity and the formation of endothelial tunnels accompanied with necrosis of part of endothelial cells are clear morphological manifestations of marked alterations in the function of the blood-brain barrier that result in brain edema development. The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier significantly worsens primary changes induced by radiation, especially in nerve cels, and adversely affects possible repair processes. (L.O.). 146 figs., 8 tabs., 352 refs

  14. Medical modification of human acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, N.; Watson, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    In weighing the benefits and risks of utilizing nuclear energy, there must be a continuing reassessment as nuclear technology develops and changes. The health effects of radiation accidents, as most important part of the risk, must also be reevaluated as our medical ability grows to modify and ameliorate the consequences. The therapeutic efforts were classified as minimal, supportive or heroic. Supportive treatment included reverse isolation, detailed clinical laboratory measurements copious antibiotics, and transfusions of various blood cells, electrolytes and nutrients. Heroic treatment added bone marrow transplantation, while minimal treatment included none of these. It was concluded that while the LD 50 for man is about 340 rads with only minimal treatment, it could be increased to 510 rads with supportive therapy and to over 1,000 rads with heroic treatment. Hematopoietic injury predominated in this exposure range. Finally an estimate of the medical facilities available in the United States to meet these potential clinical needs was made. The relationship of the medical care resources to the likely needs following a serious nuclear power plant accident will be discussed

  15. Role of radiation in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, L D; Morgan, D E [Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1982-06-01

    The article deals with the radiation treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia. The contribution of radiotherapy can be considered in three parts: a) irradiation of blood packs for patient support; b) irradiation of laboratory animals in order to improve existing knowledge and techniques; c) total body irradiation of the patient on the day of the transplant using a dose large enough to destroy the bone marrow and the immune system. The radiation effects, post graft immunosuppression and the supporting of the patient after transplantation are also discussed.

  16. Hematological observations on two cases of acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Huang Shimin

    1990-01-01

    The hematological changes of two cases of acute radiation syndrome were observed. The physical doses of patients Liang and Yan were 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy respectively. According to the changes in WBC and platelet counts and the absolute count of lymphocytes and in comparison with the hematological data of the victims of Y-12 accident in USA in 1958 and those of previous accidents in China, Liang suffered from a moderate or moderate to severe degree, and Yan suffered from a moderate or moderate mild degree of hemopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. This estimation was consistent with their clinical course and physical doses. Some blood cells appeared in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in bone marrow smears of those two cases. The mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed and its clinical significance remains to be studied

  17. Ileal perforation induced by acute radiation injury under gefitinib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Takayuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Enteritis is one of the side effects of radiotherapy to the abdominal cavity. Radiation enteritis involves damage to mucous membranes in the acute phase and to stromal tissues in the late phase. Perforation of the intestine tends to occur in the late phase, and rarely in the acute phase. However, we describe here a case of intestinal perforation occurring in the acute phase after irradiation in a patient who received gefitinib treatment. Gefitinib, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), is widely used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but is simultaneously known to inhibit wound healing. We suspect that gefitinib may affect regeneration of the small intestinal mucosa injured by irradiation. A 76-year-old woman had NSCLC with metastases to the 5th lumbar, sacral, and right iliac bones. To control the pain from bone metastasis, anterior-posterior opposing portal irradiation (total 35 Gy) was started, and was completed over 22 days. On day 25 after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to take gefitinib. On day 35, she presented with acute peritonitis, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. The terminal ileum was affected by radiation enteritis and there were two pin-hole perforations. In the surgical specimen, no cancerous lesions were detected, and immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) was negative. pEGFR has an important role in mucous membrane repair after irradiation. Intestinal perforation in the acute phase of radiation enteritis may be associated with impaired mucosal repair mechanisms due to the use of an EGFR-TKI such as gefitinib, as evidenced by the absence of pEGFR. (author)

  18. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  19. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  20. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  1. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  2. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  3. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  4. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  5. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Immunoprophylaxis by Antiradiation Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: Traditionally, the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) includes supportive therapy, cytokine therapy, blood component transfusions and even stem cell transplantation. Recommendations for ARS treatment are based on clinical symptoms, laboratory results, radiation exposure doses and information received from medical examinations. However, the current medical management of ARS does not include immune prophylaxis based on antiradiation vaccines or immune therapy with hyperimmune antiradiation serum. Immuneprophylaxis of ARS could result from stimulating the immune system via immunization with small doses of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) that possess significant immuno-stimulatory properties. Methods: Principles of immuno-toxicology were used to derive this method of immune prophylaxis. An antiradiation vaccine containing a mixture of Hematotoxic, Neurotoxic and Non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, underwent modification into a toxoid forms of the original SRD radiation toxins. The vaccine was administered to animals at different times prior to irradiation. The animals were subjected to lethal doses of radiation that induced different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. Survival rates and clinical symptoms were observed in both control and vaccine-treated animals. Results: Vaccination with non-toxic doses of Radiation toxoids induced immunity from the elaborated Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD) toxins. Neutralization of radiation toxins by specific antiradiation antibodies resulted in significantly improved clinical symptoms in the severe forms of ARS and observed survival rates of 60-80% in animals subjected to lethal doses of radiation expected to induce different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. The most effective vaccination schedule for the antiradiation vaccine consisted of repeated injections 24 and 34 days before irradiation. The vaccine remained effective for the next two years, although the specific immune memory probably

  6. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  7. Classification system for acute and chronic radiation treatment sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    A classification system in German language is proposed for scoring of acute and chronic treatment sequelae after radiotherapy. It includes all important organs and organ systems. The proposed grading corresponds to the four-scale-system of the WHO and UICC. The system is also compatible to the RTOG and EORTC acute and late radiation morbidity scoring criteria. This facilitates the data transfer for retrospective and prospective analysis of monomodal and multimodal radiotherapy treatment regimes. We recommend to use this scoring system in all German speaking countries for multicentric prospective studies. It is possible, that organ-specific sophistications of the toxicity grading will be developed in the future. These additions should conform with (inter)national standards and apply the same four-scale grading of this classification system. (orig.) [de

  8. Acute radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S.; Chandra, R.; Antonovych, T.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to observe acute radiation nephritis. By light microscopy the changes were of fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles with segmental necrosis of the glomerular tufts. By electron microscopy the endocapillary cells reacted by hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increase in cytoplasmic organelles. In addition, disruption of endothelial and epithelial cells from the basement membranes were seen. It is concluded that the electron microscopic changes were unique and may be helpful in differentiating the necrotizing glomerulitis seen in other conditions, especially malignant hypertension

  9. The role of radiation therapy in childhood acute leukemia. A review from the viewpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Miwako

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been playing important roles in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia since the 1970s. The first is the preventive cranial irradiation for central nervous system therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The second is the total body irradiation as conditioning before bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission and with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. Although some late effects have been reported, a part of them could be overcome by technical improvement in radiation and salvage therapy. Radiation therapy for children might have a successful outcome on a delicate balance between efficiencies and potential late toxicities. The role of radiation therapy for childhood acute leukemia was reviewed from the standpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology in this paper. (author)

  10. Characteristics of long-term consequences of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.; Belyj, D.A.; Bebeshko, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    In persons who suffered from acute radiation sickness (ARS) as a result of the Chernobyl accident in course of time there are revealed the stochastic and non-stochastic effects of irradiation both in 'critical' and 'non-critical' organism systems. It is connected with maintenance of somatic mutation high level and steady changes in membranes subcellular structures, biomolecules as well as metabolic disturbances. Stable changes of hemopoietic and immune system indexes have to be considered as pre-pathological status with high hazard of stochastic effects development. Frequency rate of typical radiation cataracts (posterior subcapsular) is correlated with ARS severity degree; fundus oculi vessel pathology have essential weight in total eye pathology. Chronic radiation dermatitis is an important clinical problem being a long-term consequence of irradiation. It demands a constant attention in order to prevent trophic secondary skin lesions. Radiation damage of eye and skin as well as high frequency of chronic somatic diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders conditioned the high level of disablement in ARS-patients

  11. Development of a murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yigang; Tang Yamei; Liu Jun; Sun Ying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy. Methods: A total of 40 rats were subjected to local γ-irradiation to the brain with the dosage of 7 Gy/d for 6 consecutive days. The amount of food intake, hairs and skin of irradiated field, body weight, general activities, CNS symptoms and signs were examined and recorded after irradiation. On day 3, 7, 14 and 30, the brain tissue was removed to observe histopathologic changes. Results: During the first two days after irradiation, the irradiated rats were agitated, and the amount of food intake decreased from day 2 onwards. No serious skin reaction to irradiation was observed. Survived rats had normal activities without any abnormal nervous signs. Histopathologic changes showed slight neuronal degeneration, smaller cell body, red-colored cytoplasm, disappearance of Nissl body, vacuolation, typical cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear divergence. On the 14th and 30th days, hypochromatism, loose and reticular necrotic foci were found in some samples. Conclusion: The murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy is useful and practical in radiobiological studies

  12. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  13. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  14. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm 3 (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  15. Chromosomal mechanisms in murine radiation acute myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Breckon, G.; Cox, R.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome 2 abnormalities, particularly interstitial deletions, characterize murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemias (AMLs). Here, G-band analyses in CBA/H mice of early (1-6 month) post 3 Gy X-radiation events in bone marrow cells in vivo and karyotype evolution in one unusual AML are presented. The early event analysis showed that all irradiated animals carry chromosome 2 abnormalities, that chromosome 2 abnormalities are more frequent than expected and that interstitial deletions are more common in chromosome 2 than in the remainder of the genome. On presentation AML case N122 carried a t(2; 11) terminal translocation which, with passaging, evolved into a del2(C3F3). Therefore two pathways in leukaemogenesis might exist, one deletion-driven, the other terminal tranlocation-driven involving interstitial genes and terminal genes respectively of chromosome 2. As all irradiated individuals carried chromosome 2 abnormalities, the formation of these aberrations does not determine individual leukaemogenic sensitivity as only 20-25% of animals would be expected to develop AML. Similar lines of argument suggest that chromosome 2 abnormalities are necessary but not sufficient for radiation leukaemogenesis in CBA/H nor are they rate limiting in leukaemogenesis. (Author)

  16. Changes in mast cells during acute radiation sickness(a morphometric study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsenko, A.V.; Shikhodyrov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the morphometric parameters of rat mast cells during acute radiation sickness have been studied. The most significant deviation of the quantitative indices of mast cells from the control values were noted at the height of the bone-marrow, at the terminal stage of the intestinal, and during the first few hours of the cerebral forms of acute radiation sickness

  17. Psychoneurological character of persons who had acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Khalyavka, I.G.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Plachinda, Yu.I.; Yur'ev, K.L.; Loganovskaya, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    Survivors of the Chernobyl accident who had an acute radiation syndrome (ARS,110 persons) were observed for 8 years after Chernobyl accident. It has been found that the cerebrovascular pathology and vertebral osteochondrosis rate increase as well as abnormal psychoorganic changes in personality and endogenic-like psychoorganic process, their rate being in proportion to the ARS heaviness. The EEG and evoked potentials have confirmed the dyscirculatory and toxic-metabolic organic disorders of the central nervous system as a result of irradiation in the remote period of the ARS consequences. It is necessary for early and differential diagnostic of the psychoneurological disorders after ARS to carry out the neuro- and psychophysiological examination as well as computer tomography, nucleic magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography of the brain

  18. Radiation diagnosis of pelvic ring damages in acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dytalov, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on 58 victims with multifocal damages to the pelvic ring were used to examine the diagnostic potentialities of different radiation diagnostic techniques and to compare their resolving power. The later was 65.1, 83.3 and 94.7% in plain and multidimensional X-ray studies, and computed tomography, respectively. Complex of signs is described closed sacral fractures on the plain and oblique pelvic inlet (caudal) radiograms proposed, which could improve the diagnosis of fractures by 8.8 times, and an original orthopedic gauze-plate for the detection and estimation of invisible pelvic bone displacement, and an original procedure for pelvic X-ray study with target load in acute injury. This all can improve the quality of examination of casualties substantially and define indications for different treatments more precise [ru

  19. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  20. Acute myelogenous leukemia following chemotherapy and radiation for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Teijiro; Hirota, Yuichi; Kondou, Seiji; Matsumoto, Isao; Matsuzaka, Toshimitsu; Iwashita, Akinori

    1989-03-01

    In August 1982, a 44-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer, histologically diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinoma, and abdominoperineal resection and colostomy were performed. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy with mitomycin C up to a total dose of 100 mg. In September 1986, lung metastasis occurred and he was treated with a combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, pirarubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In the following year, radiation treatment (total: 6900 rad) was given for a recurrent pelvic lesion. Peripheral blood on April 30, 1988, showed anemia, thrombocytopenia and appearance of myeloblasts, and a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB: M1) was made. Combination chemotherapy (including aclarubicin, vincristine, behenoyl ara-C, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, cytarabine, etoposide and prednisolone) failed to induce remission and the patient died in June 1988. This case was thought to be one of secondary leukemia occurring after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for rectal cancer. This case clearly indicates the need for a careful follow-up of long-term survivors who have received cancer therapy. (author).

  1. The acute radiation syndrome in the miniature pig Troll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegl, R.

    1986-01-01

    8 animals at an average age of 230 days and an average body weight of 24.9 kg were whole-body gamma-irradiated from a cobalt-60 source with 3.0 Gy midline dose. 4 of the 8 pigs survived, the others died within day 14 and 17 after irradiation, mainly due to thrombopenia dependent hemorrhage. Hematologic examinations showed as well that the platelets decreased to a minimum on day 14 p.r. The granulocyte values and yet remarkable the lymphocyte values decreased at an earlier time. The absolute lymphocyte counts reached their lowest mark already on the first day after irradiation. The reticulocytes, which also decreased markedly on day 1 p.r., sank further on the following days, till after two weeks when they started to increase again. Furthermore 25 biochemical serum parameters have been investigated. The major pathological findings of the acute radiation sickness were the mostly heavy hemorrhages. Histological studies indicated primarily aplasia of bone marrow, intestinal mucosa damages and atrophy of lymphatic tissues. Signs for septicemia were rarely found. The investigations in Troll-pigs showed, their reactions to an irradiation of middle-lethal doses are similar to those of other pigs. Only the Vietnamese pot-bellied swine reacts differently: Profuse diarrheas already after low radiation-doses are reported. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to 137 Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy

  3. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Silver, A.R.J.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  4. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1990-07-01

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author) [pt

  5. Radiation therapy treatment of acute refractory renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, J.; Thisted, R.A.; Woodle, E.S.; Thistlethwaite, J.R.; Powers, C.; Haraf, D.

    1996-01-01

    radiation treatment (median 4, range 1-22), number of transplants (one transplant in 77 %), and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Independent factors by the Cox regression model were: Sex (P=0.005), Creatinine levels (P=0.000), HLA-DR (P=0.05), PRA-Max > 70% (P=0.014). Each factor was scored using the integral coefficients to generate four different groups. The overall actuarial graft survival from the initiation of RT was 83% at 1 month, 60% at 1 year and 36% at 5 years. The Kaplan-Meier survival analyzed by groups seems to produce an interpretable separation of the risk factors for graft loss. The number of rejections of pre-RT range from 1-6 (median 2) and post-RT range from 0-3 (median 0). Conclusions: Our experience indicates that radiation therapy provides effective treatment for acute refractory renal allograft rejection. The response to radiation therapy in patients treated with acute refractory renal graft rejection can be predicted by a new scoring system

  6. Clinical impact of predictive assays for acute and late radiation morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budach, W.; Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Clinically reliable predictive assays for normal tissue radiation sensitivity would help to avoid severe radiation induced morbidity and result in individualized dose prescriptions. Profound differences of individual fibroblast and lymphocyte radiation sensitivity in vitro have been documented in patients with certain genetic syndromes but also in patients without known genetic disorders. The following review evaluates whether fibroblast or lymphocyte radiation sensitivity measured in vitro correlates with the degree of acute and late radiation induced morbidity. Results: Acute radiation side effects and lymphocyte sensitivity has been investigated in 2 studies. One of them reported an insecure correlation, the other no correlation at all. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity and the extent of acute radiation induced side effects on skin and mucosal sites has been compared in a total of 5 studies. None of these studies found a consistent significant correlation. Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity and late effects have been studied by 2 institutions. Late radiation induced skin and mucosal changes did not correlate with lymphocyte sensitivity in head and neck cancer patients, whereas in breast cancer patients a weak (R 2 =0.06) correlation between the degree of late skin reactions and lymphocyte sensitivity was observed. Late skin or mucosal radiation reactions and fibroblast sensitivity were examined by 5 research groups. Data analysis revealed significant correlations or at least a trend towards a significant correlation in all studies. The quality of the reported correlations expressed as R 2 ranged from 0.13 to 0.60, indicating a low predictive value. Conclusions: Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity as measured by currently available assays does not or only poorly correlate with acute and late effects of radiation in patients, precluding predictive tests based on lymphocyte sensitivity. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity does not correlate with acute but

  7. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  9. DNA copy number analysis from mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Certain mouse strains such as CBA C3H and RFM have high incidence of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data in this series wer generated by using...

  10. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  11. The acute radiation syndrome in the 137Cs Brazilian accident, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Cordeiro, J.M.; Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao Mello, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with the most severe degreed of bone marrow impairment are studied. Case descriptions are limited to manifestations and complications related to the 'Acute Radiation Syndrome' (ARS). Medical facilities, exams and therapeutic management are discussed. (MAC) [pt

  12. Scintigraphic and Endoscopic Evaluation of Radiation-induced Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Micro-pig Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jin; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Noo-Ri; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young-Hoon; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    Micro-pig model can be served as a proper substitute for humans in studying acute radiation syndrome following radiation-exposure accidents, especially showing similar clinico-pathologic response of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome to human. Among acute GI syndrome induced by radiation, GI motility disturbance has not been studied, however, it would be important in a viewpoint of affecting infectious progression from GI tract. Here, we employed scintigraphy of GI transit time and sequential endoscopic examination and tissue sampling in micropigs followed by abdominal radiation exposure. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate objective evidence of GI motility disturbance by scintigraphic evaluation and to find corresponding clinicoapthologic changes in radiation-induced acute GI syndrome

  13. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Vashchenko, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs

  14. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2014), s. 4770-4778 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : granulocyte colony-stimulating factor * radiation accident s * acute radiation syndrome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  15. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radiation-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [de

  16. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.

    1950-03-17

    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  17. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Optic Radiations after Acute Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Kolbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON. We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1. We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD, and mean diffusivity (MD] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of −2.6% per annum (control = −0.51%; p=0.006. Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R=0.450, p=0.006; RD: R=-0.428, p=0.009; MD: R=-0.365, p=0.029. In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R=0.489, p=0.039. In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  19. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindekov, Ivan; Vassilieva, Vladimir; Aljakova, Mitko; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Raynova, Yuliana; Idakieva, Krassimira; Doumanov, Lyuba

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from "1"3"7Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/ min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing 2 hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. Keywords: Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin; acute radiation syndrome; radioprotective effect; spleen colony assay; stomach ulcerations

  20. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  1. Acute and chronic radiation syndrome in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessel, M.

    1974-11-01

    The paper reports on the incidence and the clinical picture of the radiation syndrome in domestic animals, especially in pigs which are often used in animal experiments. The following parameters which influence the radiation reaction are discussed: type of irradiation (whole-body, partial-body and local irradiation), mean lethal radiation dose, radiation quality and RBE, age and individual radiosensitivity. The auther then describes the various symptoms of the radiation syndrome and the lesions which lead to death (death due to intestinal lesions, death following changes in the central nervous system). The next few chapters treat the symptoms manifested after chronic and internal irradiation. The paper closes with some remarks on the usability of irradiated animals for human consumption. (MG/AK) [de

  2. Residual insufficiency of hematopoiesis after acute or chronic exposure to gamma radiation or neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.H. v.; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of the stem cell quality is possible after acute exposure to 500 rad γ radiation up to a period of 6 months. Beyond this data, a significant residual damage remains. The same applies to quantitative stem cell recovery. Chronic γ exposure leads to less radiation damage than acute exposure. After a total accumulation of 500 rad, the proliferation factors after chronic exposure were, on an average 20% higher than after acute radiation exposure. 6 MeV neutron exposure reduced the stem cell quality and stem cell count much more efficiently than γ exposure. The relative biological effect of neutrons is at least 2.5 times as high as the γ effect, both for the stem cell count and the stem cell quality. (orig.) [de

  3. Acute cataract in the rat after exposure to radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data indicate a correlation between exposure to UV radiation and cataract morbidity. UV radiation induced cataract is thought to be evoked by photochemical mechanisms. The present investigation resolves the macroscopical events in the rat lens after a one dose exposure to spectrally and radiometrically well defined UV radiation, as revealed in light- and dark-field illumination. The macroscopic sequence of events is related to the morphology as revealed by light- and electron microscopy. The radiation was found to alter the chromation pattern and to induce morphological changes indicating a disturbance of the cellular water balance. The latter is assumed to cause the acute UV radiation induced opacification of the lens. It is suggested that future investigations of the toxic effects of UV radiation in the lens should focus on how UV radiation effects the chromatin and the cellular water balance. (author)

  4. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.; Jones, J.; Gonta, S.; Prasad, K.; Rachal, C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  5. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V. [Russian Academy of Science, Vladicaukas (Russian Federation); Jones, J.; Gonta, S. [NASA -Johnson Spa ce Center, Houston (United States); Prasad, K. [Antioxidant Research Institute, Premier Micrinutrient corporation, Novato (United States); Rachal, C. [Univercity Space Research Assotiation, Colorado (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  6. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  7. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  8. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  9. Evaluation of acute radiation optic neuropathy by B-scan ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, A.A.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the accuracy of B-scan ultrasonography to diagnose radiation-induced optic neuropathy in 15 patients with uveal melanoma. Optic neuropathy was diagnosed by an observer masked as to clinical and photographic data. We analyzed planimetry area measurements of the retrobulbar nerve before and after irradiation. The retrobulbar area of the optic nerve shadow on B-scan was quantitated with a sonic digitizer. Increased optic nerve shadow area was confirmed in 13 of 15 patients who had radiation optic neuropathy (P less than .004). The correct diagnosis was confirmed when the results of ultrasound were compared to fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. In 13 patients there was acute radiation optic neuropathy. Two patients did not show an enlarged retrobulbar optic nerve, and the clinical appearance suggested early progression to optic atrophy. Ultrasonography documents the enlargement of the optic nerve caused by acute radiation changes

  10. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens

  11. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  12. Study of radiation safety education practices in acute care Texas hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemley, A.A.; Hedl, J.J. Jr.; Griffin, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A survey study was performed to assess the extent of radiation safety education and training in acute care Texas hospitals for radiologic technologists and other hospital personnel. The findings revealed a self-perceived need by hospital administrative personnel and were interpreted to suggest a quantitative need for increased radiation safety education for several classes of hospital personnel. The findings are discussed relative to potential certification requirements for technologists and implications for the training of other personnel

  13. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  14. Acute transient radiation hepatitis following whole abdominal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T H; Panahon, A M; Friedman, M; Webster, J H [Roswell Park Memorial Inst., Buffalo, N.Y. (USA)

    1976-10-01

    Sporadic cases of radiation hepatitis have been reported following doses above 3500 rad delivered in 3 to 4 weeks to the liver. The authors report their experience of radiation hepatitis in two out of 117 consecutive lymphoma cases treated with total abdominal irradiation. These two patients developed clinically overt manifestations which lasted for a short period of time and fully recovered. The dose delivered to the whole liver was 3000 rad in six weeks, but in one an additional 1000 rad in five fractions were delivered to the left lobe in an attempt to boost the dose to the central axis lymphatic system up to 4000 rad. The low incidence of radiation hepatitis and its reversible course, when 3000 rad in six weeks are delivered to the whole liver, is emphasised.

  15. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Bo; Jiang Liping; Wu Ying; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai; Zhao Fengling; Fu Baohua; Istvan, Turai

    2008-01-01

    On 26 April 1999, three persons were accidentally exposed by high dose 60 Co irradiation. They suffered from severe (one case) or moderate (two cases) hemopoietic form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). As part of the comprehensive treatment, strict reverse isolation and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy were applied. All the patients recovered after an appropriate treatment for 83 days. In our experience, the correct diagnosis and effective treatment at an early stage proved to be helpful to the patients in pulling out from the critical stage of acute radiation sickness. To avoid menstruation by the female patient just in the critical stage, we modified her menstruation cycle by testosterone. In our view, GM-CSF should be given as early as possible with enough dosage for promoting early hematological reconstruction. The experience obtained from the medical management of these patients is valuable for the treatment of such patients in the future. (author)

  16. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Nagle, C. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas (Argentina); Dubner, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Di Rizzio, C. [Academia Nacional de Medicina (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  17. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  18. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  19. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  20. Acute myeloid leukaemia in relation to background radiation in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, O.; Flodin, U.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented on the results of several studies performed since the late 1970s to elucidate the role of background gamma radiation in houses and the incidence of cancer, especially leukemia. The influence of exposure time is discussed and the age dependence of the latency period is outlined. Estimation of dose-response relationships are presented. (MG)

  1. Mathematical Models of Human Hematopoiesis Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    response of 11 subjects from Chernobyl 1986 . . . . . . 104 B.8 Chernobyl case studies: Platelet data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 B...9 Chernobyl case studies: Granulocyte data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 B.10 Chernobyl case studies: Lymphocyte data...information for use in nuclear disaster preparedness planning. Understanding how biological systems change after radiation exposure provides insight on the

  2. Effective chemotherapy of acute myelocytic leukemia occurring after alkylating agent or radiation therapy for prior malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, W.P.; Karp, J.E.; Burke, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven consecutive patients with acute myelocytic leukemia occurring as a second malignancy were treated with high-dose, timed, sequential chemotherapy. Eight of the patients were felt to have ''secondary'' acute leukemia because they had received an alkylating agent or radiation therapy. The other three patients were considered controls. Despite a median age of 65, four of the eight secondary leukemia patients achieved complete remission with this regimen. One of the three control patients also achieved complete remission. This remission rate and duration are comparable to what was achieved with this treatment of ''primary'' acute myelocytic leukemia during the same period of time. These results suggest that patients with leukemia occurring after an alkylating agent or radiation therapy are not at especially high risk if treated aggressively

  3. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  4. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  5. Exposed persons at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station accident: acute radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.; Baranov, A.E.; Barabanova, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Observation made over 115 patients with acute radiation sickness due to exposure external γ- and β-rays confirmed high efficiency of the earlier proposed principles of prognostication of the degree of severity by clinical manifestations of the primary disease response and those of separate syndromes, using the methods of hematological and cytogenetic analyses. Out of 115 victims, 56 persons had radiation burns (RB), 17 intestinal syndrome (IS), 80 - oropharengeal syndrome (ORS), 7 - interstitial radiation pneumonitis (IRP). In thanatogenesis, of prime importance were: RB (more than 40% of the body surface) - 19 persons and IRP - 7 persons. A severe course of intestinal and oropharengeal syndromes was combined with other fatal manifestations of radiation injury. Early isolation of patients (2-4 stages), selective decontamination of the intestine, prescription of a wide spectrum antibiotics, antimycotic and antiviral drugs, as well as γ-globulin could practically remove the risk of the development of fatal infectious complications during a medullary andtransitory forms of radiation sickness

  6. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  7. Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis: randomised study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdenak, N; Sørbye, H; Dahl, O

    2005-09-01

    During pelvic radiotherapy, many patients develop radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms, which may interfere with treatment. Prophylaxis during radiotherapy should ideally prevent acute reaction and the development of delayed injury. Sucralfate, an aluminium sucrose octasulphate, has been used for acute and delayed radiation side-effects. However, conflicting results have been published. We report here a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study of prophylactic sucralfate during pelvic radiotherapy. In addition, a meta-analysis of available data from the literature has been carried out. Fifty-one patients with localised pelvic tumours scheduled for curative conformal pelvic radiotherapy (total dose 64-70 Gy over 6.5-7 weeks in 2 Gy daily fractions) were included. Peroral sucralfate 2 g three times daily, or identically appearing placebo tablets, was given during the course of radiotherapy. Symptom registration, endoscopy and biopsies were carried out immediately before radiotherapy, 2 weeks and 6 weeks into the treatment course, and 2 weeks after completing radiotherapy. Mucosal cup forceps biopsies were obtained through a rigid proctoscope. Graded endoscopic appearance and quantitative histology were registered. On the basis of previously published negative reports, an unplanned interim analysis of 44 evaluable patients showed significantly increased diarrhoea in the sucralfate group and the trial was stopped. No difference was seen in other symptoms, endoscopic appearance or histology. A meta-analysis comprising five published studies showed no statistically significant beneficial effect of sucralfate on acute symptoms. Sucralfate cannot be recommended for prophylaxis of acute radiation proctopathy and may even worsen the symptoms.

  8. Radioimmunologic analysis of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1975-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation (750 rad) and the secretory activity of the insular apparatus was studied radioimmunologically, using insulin labelled with iodine-125. The post-radiation dynamics of the insulin concentration in the blood were shown to have a phase character. The insulin level had risen after 1, 3 and 8 days. After 2 days the hormone concentration had dropped significantly and become two times lower than normal. After the other time intervals, the concentration of insulin in the blood varied within normal limits.

  9. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  10. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  11. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  12. Lithium stimulates the recovery of granulopoiesis following acute radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, V S; Chen, M G; Watts, T D; Gamba-Vitalo, C

    1983-07-01

    Lithium (Li) is a known stimulator of steady-state granulopoiesis, influencing both pluripotential (CFUS) and granulocyte-macrophage committed stem cell (CFUGM) populations. Li has therefore been suggested to be an effective agent to reduce the neutropenia that often is seen after either cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy protocols. In this report, we have examined bone marrow and spleen cells for their recovery patterns of CFUS, CFUGM, CFUE, BFUE and 59Fe-incorporation, along with the usual peripheral blood indices (packed red cell volume, WBC and differential) from mice administered Li after receiving 200 rad whole body irradiation. Li increased granulopoietic recovery as measured by significant elevations in both marrow and spleen derived CFUGM compared to those values obtained from radiation controls. Significant elevation in the WBC, consisting mainly of neutrophils, was also observed. Bone marrow and splenic derived erythroid stem cells (CFUE, BFUE) and % 59Fe-incorporation measured from peripheral blood, femur and spleen were all slightly reduced, but not to a significant degree to alter the packed red cell volume. The CFUS populations from both irradiated groups (control and Li-treated) were depressed when compared to normal non-irr controls and this degree of suppression was greater in the Li-treated group. These results document the ability of Li to stimulate the recovery of granulopoiesis after radiation-induced hematopoietic injury and suggest Li may be useful in ameliorating the neutropenia that can often develop after routine radiotherapy protocols.

  13. Lithium stimulates the recovery of granulopoiesis following acute radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.; Gamba-Vitalo, C.

    1983-07-01

    Lithium (Li) is a known stimulator of steady-state granulopoiesis, influencing both pluripotential (CFUS) and granulocyte-macrophage committed stem cell (CFUGM) populations. Li has therefore been suggested to be an effective agent to reduce the neutropenia that often is seen after either cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy protocols. In this report, bone marrow and spleen cells have been examined for their recovery patterns of CFUS, CFUGM, CFUE, BFUE and 59Fe-incorporation, along with the usual peripheral blood indices (packed red cell volume, WBC and differential) from mice administered Li after receiving 200 rad whole body irradiation. Li increased granulopoietic recovery as measured by significant elevations in both marrow and spleen derived CFUGM compared to those values obtained from radiation controls. Significant elevation in the WBC, consisting mainly of neutrophils, was also observed. Bone marrow and splenic derived erythroid stem cells (CFUE, BFUE) and % 59Fe-incorporation measured from peripheral blood, femur and spleen were all slightly reduced, but not to a significant degree to alter the packed red cell volume. The CFUS populations from both irradiated groups (control and Li-treated) were depressed when compared to normal non-irradiated controls and this degree of suppression was greater in the Li-treated group. These results document the ability of Li to stimulate the recovery of granulopoiesis after radiation-induced hematopoietic injury and suggest Li may be useful in ameliorating the neutropenia that can often develop after routine radiotherapy protocols.

  14. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, ≤ 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  15. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Fleckenstein, Katharina [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]|[Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, {<=} 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  16. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  17. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbumani, S.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  18. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author)

  19. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author).

  20. Medical Managment of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waselenka, Jamie K; MacVittie, Thomas J; Blakely, William F; Pesik, Nicki; Wiley, Albert L; Dickerson, William E; Tsu, Horace; Confer, Dennis L; Coleman, Norman; Seed, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... This consensus document was developed by the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group to provide a framework for physicians in internal medicine and the medical subspecialties to evaluate...

  1. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by enzyme immune-assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Multifactor fundamental research under experimental and industrial conditions on farm and laboratory animals and also on humans blood serum of Chernobyl NPP clean-up workers conducted within 1982 - 2002 have enabled us to establish the existence of two previously unknown phenomena: the phenomenon of reversible redistribution of cytobiochemical parameters in the blood-interstices-lymph-blood system of irradiated animals, which supports compensatory maintenance of homeostasis. The phenomenon of specific immunochemical reactions to the radiological effect, involving the formation of high molecular mass glycoprotein (molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa) - radiation antigens (SDR - specific radiation determinant) in the lymphoid system with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1) , toxic (2) gastrointestinal (3) and typical (4) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay (EIA), antiradiation vaccine, antiradiation serum, method of immune-lymph-plasmosorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (SDR) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of SDR in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of SDR -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination

  2. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  4. A mathematical model for leukemogenesis of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Ban, N.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in C3H/He mice irradiated. Our previous study indicated that the leukemogenesis of AML was associated with a deletion of chromosome 2 directly induced by acute radiation. We hypothesized that radiation-induced AML needs both inactivation of one allele of a causative gene directly induced by acute radiation and another mutational event at the other allele. We analyzed data using a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis. Model fitting was based on the maximum likelihood method. Our model analysis suggested that a single exposure might induce the long-lasting delayed cell death of radiation-induced initiated cells, and that the incidence of AML may be determined through both radiation-induced initiation and persistent increase of delayed cell death of the initiated cell induced by radiation

  5. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrence should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [de

  6. Biological effects of nuclear war: Acute effects of radiation; the LD-50 value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.; Rotblat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys carried out in Japan in connection with the reassessment of the dosimetry for long-term effects provided an opportunity for another look at the acute effects of radiation and a recalculation of the LD-50 value. The recalculation gave an LD-50 value which is two to three times lower than had been assumed before. It means that in a nuclear war the number of fatalities due to exposure to radiation would be considerably higher than thought hitherto. 11 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  7. The characters and developments of therapy and research of neutron-induced acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinru; Luo Qingliang; Wang Baoqing; Dong Shukui

    2003-01-01

    Neutron radiation will exert seriously lesions on body and lead to acute radiation sickness (ARS). Neutron induced ARS is characterized by complicated symptoms of gastrointestinal, high earlier death rate and lacking of specially therapeutic approaches. The primarily curable method is to treat patients with comprehensive means such as anti-infection, anti-bleeding and blood infusion, et. Cytokines can improve the hematopoietic functions of bone marrow. With the rapid development of the molecular biology and the emergence of cytokines such as recombinant human interleukin-11 that could help the regeneration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, neutron-induced ARS will be treated with new methods

  8. Immunological effects in acute radiation sickness reconvalescents - results of thirteen years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Belyaeva, N.V.; Azarskova, M.B.; Minchenko, Zh.N.; Pleskach, O.Ya.; Mishchenko, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    For immunological follow-up of people who had suffered from acute radiation sickness in 1986 connected with the Chernobyl NPP accident different immunological reactions were used. Both in the period of early recovery and remote reconvalescence period people had changes in expression of lymphocytes surface antigens, suggesting that even in the cases of satisfactory compensations functional reserves of immune system was narrow. Correlations with absorbed doses and somatic mutations in the locus of T-cell receptor were found. Results of the study suggested that individual characteristics of postirradiation recovery depended both on absorbed doses and genetically determined responses on the radiation hazard

  9. New scoring system identifies kidney outcome with radiation therapy in acute renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Luci M.; Godinez, Juan; Thisted, Ronald A.; Woodle, E. Steve; Thistlewaite, J. Richard; Powers, Claire; Haraf, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy for acute refractory renal rejection after failure of medical intervention, and to identify risk factors that influence graft survival following radiation therapy. Methods: Between June 1989 and December 1995, 53 renal transplant recipients (34 men and 19 women) were treated with localized radiation therapy for acute renal allograft rejection. Graft rejection was defined as an increase in serum creatinine with histologic evidence of rejection on renal biopsy. Ninety-one percent were cadaveric transplant recipients. The majority of patients who experienced acute graft rejection initially received corticosteroid therapy, except for 25% who were referred for radiation therapy and steroids for the first rejection. In more recent years, patients with moderate or severe steroid-resistant or recurrent rejection received OKT3, a polyclonal antilymphocyte antibody (ATGAM), tacrolimus (FK506), or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Patients who failed to respond to medical treatment were then referred for radiation therapy. Ultrasound was performed for kidney localization. Treatment consisted of a dose of 600 cGy given in 3 or 4 fractions using 6 MV photons, delivered AP or AP/PA. Results: The overall actuarial graft survival from the initiation of RT was 83% at 1 month, 60% at 1 year, and 36% at 5 years. The median follow-up from the date of transplant to the last follow-up was 22 months. The median time from the date of transplant to the initiation of radiotherapy was 3 months, and the median time from the initiation of radiotherapy to the last follow-up was 10 months. Variables evaluated were as follows: human leukocyte antigen matching on HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR, the transplant panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) at transplantation, number of acute rejection episodes, interval from the date of the transplant to the first rejection, serum creatinine levels at the time of the first radiation treatment, number of transplants, and

  10. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  11. On clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.I.; Ivanov, I.A.; Nikiforov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Main features of clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period are described. Search for ways of activization of recovery to improve the efficiency of treatments and to accelerate patients rehabilitation is of great interest for clinical medicine. It is outlined that correction of post-irradiation disorders of energy and plastic metabolism by means of influence on cell metabolism must begin as early as possible already at the initial period of disease

  12. The hematopoietic system of the acute radiation syndrome reconvalescents in post-accidental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, V.; Dyagil, I.; Yukhimuk, L.; Bilko, N.; Bebeshko, V.; Klimenko, S.; Oberenko, O.

    1996-01-01

    The state of hemopoietic system has been studied since 1986 up to now in 145 patients who had acute radiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. We studied clinical, morpho functional, histological, ultrastructural, biophysical, cultural, cytochemical indexes of the hematopoietic elements. The connection between hemopoietic microenvironment and hemopoiesis state was put up. The realization of the hematological disorders as myelodysplastic syndrome testified the most important problem in future

  13. Dose Response for Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius After Acute Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Safina Wan Abdul Razak; Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius is locally known as Grey oyster. The species is popular and widely cultivated throughout the world mostly in Asia Europe as their simple and low cost production technology and higher biological efficiency. Mutation induction is an alternative ways for improving available commercial strain for better quality traits. Dose response is important in evaluating effects of mutagenesis via acute gamma radiation. Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius was exposed to acute gamma radiation ranged from 0 Gy, 0.1 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, 0.8 kGy, 0.9 kGy, 1.0 kGy, 1.5 Gy, 2.0 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy at dose rate 0.013 kGy/ min. growth performance was measured at 2 days interval to get the LD_5_0. Increasing of the irradiation dose found to decrease the growth performance of the monokaryon mycelium. LD_5_0 was revealed at 1.56 kGy for mono karyon mycelium. Discoveries of the works are important for the improvement of Pleurotus species via acute gamma radiation and benefiting to growers and mushroom industries. (author)

  14. Two cases of acute leukemia developed after therapeutic radiation for malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Tsuno, Sumio; Toyoda, Shigeki

    1978-01-01

    Report was made as to two cases of acute leukemia developed after therapeutic radiation for malignant tumors. Both cases were exposed to atomic-bomb at the places 4 and 3 km far from the center of explosion, and they did not suffer from injuries and acute symptoms due to radiation. Case 1. -A 78 year old man had a mass in a right hypogastric region in April of 1975. In March of 1976, he received laparotomy and was diagnosed as malignant schwannoma. He received radiation therapy with 4,600 R and MFC therapy. In February of 1977, a clinical diagnosis of erythroleukemia was made according to the findings by bone marrow puncture, and he died in March. Postmortem examination revealed that main lesions were malignant schwannoma, its metastases, and leukemia. Case 2. -A 51 year old woman had a finger-tip sized tumor in the left breast in November of 1965, and had a radical operation on the basis of a diagnosis of comedo sarcoma. After that she received 60 Co irradiation with 18,800 R, and she was admitted in December of 1971, because she was suspected of having leukemia. She died in January of 1972. Postmortem examination revealed acute myelocytic leukemia. It is suspected that the onset of erythroleukemia within one year after irradiation would be influenced by MFC therapy in addition to radiotherapy. It was thought that leukemia in Case 2 was influenced by radiotherapy rather than atomic-bomb radioactivity. (Serizawa, K.)

  15. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  16. Topical Calendula and Betamethasone Valerate in the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy for many cancers, including breast cancer. Despite the high prevalence of acute radiation dermatitis as well as wet desquamation, only a few trials studying the prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. In spite of these studies, some controversy still exists about regarding treatments for acute radiation dermatitis, as does some concern about their long-term complications. For this reason, we conducted a clinical trial for a new treatment with the same effectiveness as corticosteroids, but fewer complications. Methods: This trial included 60 patients with pathologic diagnoses of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy had been planned. Patients were 30-73 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy over five weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy over six weeks divided in 200 cGy fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: one group received a moderately-potent glucocorticoid steroid, 0.1% betamethasone ointment (30, and the other received the new treatment, 0.1% calendula ointment (30. All patients applied their respective drugs twice daily within the tangential field from the first day of radiation treatment until one month after treatment was completed. Starting one week after radiation therapy commenced, patients were monitored weekly for symptoms of dermatitis and the degree of severity as well as possible adverse drug effects, in addition to such monitoring on the days of their appointments. Four weeks after termination of therapy, patients were again examined, at which time they completed a questionnaire about dermatologic complications. Results: The mean time to develop dermatitis was 3.7 weeks for the betamethasone group and 3.87 weeks for the calendula group. Maximal dermatitis intensity during treatment in the betamethasone group was: 0, 6.7%; I, 73.3%; II, 16

  17. Development of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The space radiation environment, particularly solar particle events (SPEs), poses the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to humans; and organ doses from SPE exposure may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or within lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUMDOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE, written in FORTRAN, are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The ARR code is written in C. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in friendly way. A GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept example for future integration of other human space applications risk projection models. The current version of the ARRBOD GUI is a new self-contained product and will have follow-on versions, as options are added: 1) human geometries of MAX/FAX in addition to CAM/CAF; 2) shielding distributions for spacecraft, Mars surface and atmosphere; 3) various space environmental and biophysical models; and 4) other response models to be connected to the BRYNTRN. The major components of the overall system, the subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces are described in this

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  19. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  20. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  1. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts, because organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and operation planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI product, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  2. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m 3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m 3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  4. Interaction of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone, and Adriamycin on the induction of acute lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    The acute lethality induced by combinations of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), and Adriamycin (ADR) was investigated in mice. Whole-body irradiation produced acute lethality, with an LD-50/30 of approximately 6.5 Gy. ADR and DHAQ produced LD-50/30's of 14 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. When 10 mg/kg doses were fractionated into 5 x 2 mg/kg daily doses, both drugs were equally or more efficient at producing mortality, 90% by day 30. When 4 Gy radiation was combined with 5 mg/kg ADR or 5 mg/kg DHAQ, a response no greater than that produced by drug alone was obtained. However, when 5 mg/kg ADR was administered concomitantly with 5 mg/kg DHAQ, there was a less-than-additive induction of lethality, resulting in only 21% mortality by day 20. ADR and DHAQ (at doses of 5 mg/kg) were combined but with a 1 day interval between drugs, the protective effect was lost and animals died earlier than after either agent alone. At present, no definite explanation is available for this unusual protective effect of ADR against acute lethality induced by DHAQ

  5. Topical betamethasone for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhan, F.; Kazemian, A.; Alagheband, H.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy in large numbers of cancers including breast cancer. Despite high prevalence rate of acute radiation dermatitis and also wet desquamation, a few trials on prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. Despite effectiveness of topical corticosteroids in treatment of acute radiation dermatitis which are focused in the literature, yet there are some controversy about their usage in this regard. For this reason we attempted to investigate this subject via conducting a clinical trial. Materials and Methods: This trial included 76 patients with pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy has been planned. Patients were 27-70 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy within 5 weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy within 6 weeks devided in 200 centigray fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups, betamethasone and placebo, 38 patients in each group. In placebo group, 3 patients did not attend for weekly assessment. Additional one patient did not refer during follow-up period. Thus, they were excluded from the study. One group was given betamethasone o.1% and other group was administered base of ointment as placebo. All patient consumed drug or placebo from the 1st day of treatment until one week after treatment completion as twice daily within tangential field. Patients were monitored for assessing dermatitis severity and its symptoms and also possible drug adverse effects one week after the therapy commenced and afterwards by one-week intervals as well as in an appointed day. Three weeks after termination of therapy, patients were also visited, and each examination provided information about dermatologic complications which were registered in the questionnaire. Results: Mean times development of dermatitis in both betamethasone and placebo groups were 3.2500 and 2.2571 (weeks

  6. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  7. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  8. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  9. A proposal for prevention of acute radiation hazard and social panic regarding orphan sources in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahash, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Kai, M. [Oita Univ., of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan); Yamazaki, K. [Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Gomi, K. [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Nakazato, K. [School of Medicine, Keio univ., Tokyo (Japan); Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    To respond to an increase of social problems concerning orphan sources in Japan, a working group was formed in the Japan Health Physics Society. In this working group, we investigated how to prevent acute radiation hazard or social panic regarding orphan sources in scrap metal and detection system for orphan sources brought into scrap yards before recycle. For detection system in a scrap yard we conducted an experiment on detectability of monitoring instrument using a radiation source mixed in scrap metal on a truck. The result showed that it was not easy to detect even a high-level source if it was shielded by scrap metal. We also estimated detection limits for radioactive materials in scrap metal by calculation that was validated with experimental data. We summarized present status about orphan sources in Japan and proposed a categorization of orphan sources according to dose rates to deal with unknown sources in a scrap yard. Our report includes some proposals to the government, industry and academic world for preventing acute radiation hazard and social panic.

  10. A proposal for prevention of acute radiation hazard and social panic regarding orphan sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahash, T.; Kai, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Gomi, K.; Nakazato, K.; Iida, T.

    2002-01-01

    To respond to an increase of social problems concerning orphan sources in Japan, a working group was formed in the Japan Health Physics Society. In this working group, we investigated how to prevent acute radiation hazard or social panic regarding orphan sources in scrap metal and detection system for orphan sources brought into scrap yards before recycle. For detection system in a scrap yard we conducted an experiment on detectability of monitoring instrument using a radiation source mixed in scrap metal on a truck. The result showed that it was not easy to detect even a high-level source if it was shielded by scrap metal. We also estimated detection limits for radioactive materials in scrap metal by calculation that was validated with experimental data. We summarized present status about orphan sources in Japan and proposed a categorization of orphan sources according to dose rates to deal with unknown sources in a scrap yard. Our report includes some proposals to the government, industry and academic world for preventing acute radiation hazard and social panic

  11. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  12. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Klimakov, B.D.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Vajnson, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose [ru

  13. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  14. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Revskaya, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD 90/45 [ru

  15. Probable clonal origin of acute myeloblastic leukemia following radiation and chemotherapy of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggans, R.G.; Jacobson, R.J.; Fialkow, P.J.; Woolley, P.V. III; Macdonald, J.S.; Schein, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A 64-yr-old female developed acute myeloblastic leukemia following radiation and drug therapy for colon carcinoma. The patient was heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G-6-PD) and displayed types A and B isoenzymes in nonhematopoietic tissue. In contrast, only type B G-6-PD was observed in peripheral blood white cells. In addition, a karyotypic abnormality was found in peripheral blood and marrow cells but not in skin fibroblasts. The data are consistent with a clonal origin of this leukemia

  16. Biotelemetering study of the mobility of dogs treated with acute radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.V.; Sharonin, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    For the investigation of the motoric activity of dogs after gamma irradiation in doses of 350 and 650 R, use was made of a biotelementric (non-contact) method of registration based on the use of standing radio waves. The method permits the determination of the distance covered by the animals in the enclosure during the observation, and the speed of their movement. Using these data as a basis, an analysis is made of spontaneous motoric activity during various periods of the clinical development of acute radiation sickness. (author)

  17. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  18. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo [National Hospital Organization Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kawachinagano (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  19. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  2. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, Ruediger S., E-mail: ruediger.goertz@uk-erlangen.de; Schuderer, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna@schuderer-floss.de; Strobel, Deike, E-mail: deike.strobel@uk-erlangen.de; Pfeifer, Lukas, E-mail: Lukas.Pfeifer@uk-erlangen.de; Neurath, Markus F., E-mail: Markus.Neurath@uk-erlangen.de; Wildner, Dane, E-mail: Dane.Wildner@uk-erlangen.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  3. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, Ruediger S.; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F.; Wildner, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  4. [Use of lithium carbonate as a leukocyte stimulant in acute radiation sickness in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchalovskiĭ, M V; Shishkova, T V; Chotiĭ, V G; Baranov, A E

    1989-03-01

    A total of 50 patients, who had suffered from acute radiation sickness (I-III degree of severity) as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, were followed up for hematological changes. The absorbed dose of relatively even gamma-irradiation assessed by karyometry fluctuated from 0.5 to 5.7 Gy. In 17 of the patients the influence of lithium carbonate on the course of radiation neutropenia was evaluated. No appreciable effect of the agent administration in a dose of 900 mg/patient/day was recorder from 9 to 42 day after irradiation. The authors have also considered the correlations of the values of irradiation doses calculated by varying methods of biological dosimetry.

  5. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells leading to acute myeloid leukemia in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhiko Ban; Tomoko Kusama

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (RI-AML) in mice is charaterized by deletion and/or rearrangement of chromosome 2. While chromosome 2 has been suspected to be a target of RI-AML, radiation-sensitive site of the chromosome might be implicated in the leukemogenesis. There were few cytogenetical studies, however, focusing on chromosomal rearrangements shortly after irradiation, and little was known about the frequency and pattern of chromosome 2 aberrations during the early period. In this study, metaphase samples were prepared from whole-body irradiated mice 24 hours after irradiation, most of the cells considered to be in the first mitotic stage. Distribution of chromosomal breakpoints on the metaphase samples were analyzed to study the relationship between chromosome aberrations and RI-AML. (author)

  6. The present value of the diagnosis and therapy of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    The pathophysiological understanding of the acute radiation syndrome could be distinctly improved by the new research results in cell system physiology. It was thus possible to assign radiation-damaged persons to categories reflecting the most probable course of the disease within a few hours or days. This assignment has consequences for the therapeutical measures. Either nor measures or at least no stationary measures are necessary (recovery 'certain' or 'probable'), or the exposure was so great that death occurs within 2-3 days (recovery 'impossible'). The assigning to the category recovery 'improbable' or 'possible' leads to introducing special therapeutical measures where firstly an infection prophylaxis with antibiotics difficult to absorb in an isolation bed system ('sterile therapy') is necessary. Then, however, (in cases of certain inability to regenerate the bone marrow) a stem-call (bone marrow) transplantaion must be performed. (orig.) [de

  7. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS – treatment of the reduced host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslet L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Christiane Bay2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Gentofte; 2University of Copenhagen, Medical Faculty, Copenhagen; 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Køge University Hospital, Køge, DenmarkBackground: The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes.Methods: Review of the current literature.Results: The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage’s important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS.Recommendation: Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least ~2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250–400 µg GM-CSF/m2 or 5 µg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of

  8. Successful Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis with Aloe Vera: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Arash; Akbari, Jafar; Alipour, Abbas; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Ala, Shahram; Salehifar, Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side-effect that affects up to 50% of patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a topical preparation of Aloe vera in the treatment of ARP induced by radiotherapy of pelvic area. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 20 consecutive patients with ARP after external-beam radiation therapy (46-72 Gy) of pelvic malignancies were randomized to receive either Aloe vera 3% or placebo ointment, 1 g twice daily for 4 weeks. These patients presented with at least two of the following symptoms: rectal bleeding, abdominal/rectal pain, diarrhea, or fecal urgency. These symptoms were rated by the patients in terms of their severity (grade 0-4) for each of the symptoms mentioned earlier at baseline and then weekly for 4 weeks. A symptom index was calculated by the addition of the scores (16 most symptomatic). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria and psychosocial status of the patients were also recorded weekly. The lifestyle impact of the symptoms was assessed by questionnaire grading from 0 (no effect on daily activity) to 4 (afraid to leave home). There was a significant (p Aloe vera) for diarrhea (median score: 0.67 vs. 0.11), fecal urgency (median score: 0.89 vs. 0.11), clinical presentation total (median score: 4.33 vs. 1.22), RTOG total (median score: 2.89 vs. 0.89), and lifestyle (median score: 1.1 vs. 0.33). Hemorrhage and abdominal/rectal pain did not improve significantly. The odds ratios for advantage of Aloe vera over placebo for "clinical presentation total" and "RTOG total" were 3.97 (1.3-11.9) and 5.9 (1.6-21.6), respectively. A substantial number of patients with radiation proctitis seem to benefit from therapy with Aloe vera 3% ointment.

  9. Dynamics of ceruloplasmin amd of some blood parameters in piglets suffering from acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) were followed up after treatment with gamma rays of 60 Co with a dose of 4 Ey (dose power 0.68 Ey/min) in the blood serum of male piglets of an average life weight of 18+-3 kg. CP level from 217 E/l raised to 376 E/l on the 16th hour after radiation and on the 16th day decreased to 296 e/l. Moreover, serum copper increased from 25 μmol/l to 42.3 μmol/l on the 16th hour following irradiation but on the 14th day its level dropped to 32.5 μmol/l. Erythrocyte and leucocyte count decreased from 5.83x10 12 /l and 19.94x10 12 /l to 2.47x10 12 /l and 2.0x10 9 /l, respectively. Besides, serum albumin decreased, but α-and β-globulins increased. Examination of ailing piglets showed a paraclinical pattern of an inflammatory process by acute radiation disease. CP as an antioxidant participates in reactions with toxic radiacals on radiation. By the rising of its level on radiation it again was characterized as an acute-phase protein. Serum CP was determined according to the method of Ravin using as substrate P-phenylendiamine dihydrochloride; serum copper - by the test of Boehringer Mannheim; serum proteins were studied electrophoretically on agarose gels using veronal buffer, pH 8.6

  10. Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydont, Valerie; Gilliot, Olivier; Rivera, Sofia; Bourgier, Celine; Francois, Agnes; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible

  11. Radiation responses of hematopoietic-cells and inducing acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Mitsuaki; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia has consistently held the interest of researchers from the beginning of radiation carcinogenesis. One of the major reasons for this interest is the availability of several strains of mice that develop leukemia following radiation exposure after a short latency period that resemble those found in A-Bomb survivors. Previous studies have shown that rAML (Radiation-induced Acute Myeloid Leukemia) in mice show inactivation of Sfpi1 gene and a hemizygous deletion in chromosome 2. Leukemic stem cells in murine rAML have been reported to share some characteristics with common myeloid progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms in the development of rAML stem cells, focusing on the alterations found in the leukemic stem cells and as well as the environment in which these leukemic stem cells are developed, such cytokine expression, as Well as alterations that may be found in other cells residing in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells respond to radiation exposure both as a single cell and as a part of the differentiating hematopoietic tissue for several months prior to its transformation to a rAML stem cell. It is however unclear how these 2 responses contribute to the development of the rAML stem cell. This review covers previous reports and examines the development of the rAML stem cell in detail. (author)

  12. Special investigations of hemoglobin in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravko, B.J.; Panasyuk, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of penetrating radiation into the UV, visible and IR spectra of hemoglobin obtained from guinea-pigs being irradiated by the 300 and 600 cGy doses is studied. The change of the absorption intensity in the range of 275 nm of aqueous hemoglobin solutions depending on the stage and duration of the radiation pathology is revealed. The displacement of amide absorption bands into a shorter area of hemoglobin fluctuations frequencies of irradiated animals in the period from the 1 to 19-th day after the irradiation by the 300 cGy dose and during the whole period of the acute radiation pathology after the irradiation by the 600 cGy dose is established by the use of the IR-spectroscopy method. For the relative quantitative estimation of the denaturized hemoglobins by radiation, radiotoxins and by other physical and chemical factors, one suggests to use the formulas of the hem optical density relation coefficient to the globin optical density

  13. Degree and therapy of acute radiation syndromes. Introduction of a suggestion on acute radiation sickness therapy made by strategic national stockpile radiation working group of USA. part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Pan Zhen; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines, blood transfusion, and stem-cell transplantation in selected cases. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents. (authors)

  14. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  15. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  16. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  17. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, H.

    1981-01-01

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Clinical report of one case of intestinal form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the irradiation course, estimation of radiation dosage, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of the patient A in a 60 Co radiation accident on October 21, 2004 in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: According to the simulated test of the scene, chromosome aberration analysis, clinical course and tooth enamel ESR measurement, the total body dose of A was 20-25 Gy and diagnosed as intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. The patient was transferred to our hospital on day 3 post- irradiation, total environmental protection (TEP), antibiotics and emergency HLA-typing from his elder sister were given. On day 7 HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed. Results: On day 10 post-transplant (+ 10 d), the counts of WBC began to increase and up to 5.1 x 10 9 /L on + 12 d. Bone marrow feature showed hematopoietic recovery of the three lineage blood cells. Continuous detection of the implantation ratio of donor's cells by STR-PCR showed stable 100% donor-derived chimera. On day 13, severe acute peritonitis and intestinal obstruction occurred; imipenem was much effective to control intestinal bacteria infection. Three days later, hematopoiesis reconstructed rapidly, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction were cured. On day 19, chest X-ray picture and CT scanning suggested that pulmonary mixed infection of bacteria and fungi appeared. The most severe skin irradiation burn damage occurred on day 25 which occupied the 14% of whole body skin surface. The functions of lung, heart and kidney were deteriorated sequentially. On day 30, tracheotomy had to be conducted and respirator was used. The patient died of multiple organ failure (MOF) on day 33. Conclusions: Patient A was exposed to relative well-distributed high dose and high dose rate of irradiation up to 20-25 Gy. This is the first case report of successful HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for intestinal form of acute

  19. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  20. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  1. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  2. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrenc e should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die radiogene Oesophagitis ist eine haeufige akute Nebenwirkung bei kurativen wie palliativen Bestrahlungen thorakaler und zervikaler Tumoren. Spaete Gewebereaktionen sind selten, koennen aber schwerwiegend sein. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogen verursachten Oesophagitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Therapeutisch stehen die Sicherung der Ernaehrung und die

  3. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R 2 , 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  4. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  5. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  6. Method of inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome and also inhibiting the onset of septicemia and a composition therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribi, E E

    1986-01-14

    A method is described for inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome caused by the exposure of warm-blooded animals to a whole body dose of at least 100 rads of x-radiation. Also described is a method for inhibiting the onset of septicemia. The methods comprise administering to a warm-blooded animal an effective amount of a pharmaceutical preparation containing refined detoxified endotoxin in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

  7. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  8. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  9. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  10. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  11. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  12. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 μg/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  13. Assessment of acute and late effects to high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1994-11-01

    We have begun to reassess late tissue effects available from the Charged Particle Cancer Radiotherapy program at Berkeley. Our quantitative approach is limited in the analysis of these Phase I/II studies by not having equivalent patient numbers for each of the particle beams studied, by not having completely comparable follow-up times, by variations in the sizes of the fields compared, by variations in the skin scoring photographic documentation available from the patient charts, and by variations in the fractionation sizes, numbers and schedules. Despite these limitations, preliminary evidence demonstrates acute skin reactions with a shift to increasing lower dose per fraction per field for the maximum skin reactions of helium, carbon and neon ions compared to electrons. Comparisons with skin reactions from low-energy neutrons indicate that Bragg peak carbon ions (initial energy 308 MeV/nucleon) are slightly less effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak neon ions (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) corrected for differences in reference radiation are slightly more effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak silicon (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) result in an enhanced acute skin reaction, and a premature appearance of late effects that may indicate a significantly different mechanism of damage and/or repair

  14. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  15. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-01-01

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  16. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  17. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Liu, Yuan; Moore, Michael G.; Johnstone, Peter A. S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  18. Studies on the application of tryptophan metabolites as indicators of acute radiation damage and their modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been the aim of the investigations to continue earlier studies on the amplication of tryptophan metabolites as biochemical indicators after irradiation. These metabolites are of interest as they apparently indicate radiation effects in contrast to other metabolites like taurine and deoxycytidine in a dose range which leads to acute radiation sickness with the consequence of death. This assumption has been confirmed by the results of these studies. Measurements in the urine of rats demonstrate that the excretion of kynurenic acid and of xanthurenic acid as well as especially the ratio of kynurenic acid/anthranilic acid increases considerably in those animals which die some days later. The excretion of the surviving anilic acid increases considerably in those animals which die some days later. The excretion of the surviving animals is characteristical different. This abnormal excretion is induced by changes of specific, hepatic enzyme activities. The investigations have shown that the effects on the enzyme activities apppear not only after X-rays irradiation but also after neutrons. The studies, which have been performed with human material on the NAD-metabolism, demonstrate that with respect to the enzyme activities in the spleen as well as to the urinary excretion the same or similar effects, which have been found with animal experiments, can be expected. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CKA [de

  19. Evaluation of acute radiation damage of the human brain by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Kinosada, Yasutomi.

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen patients (17 cases) were treated with the whole brain irradiation. Physiological changes in white matter were measured by in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Phantom examination proved the accuracy of our 1 H-MRS method to be valid. The measurement was performed 2 or 3 times in each case at the radiation doses ranging from 0 to 40 Gy with 2 Gy daily fractionation. For the measurement of 1 H-MRS, 1.5 T whole body MR system was used and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse was applied. Volume of the interest (VOI) was 2.5x2.5x2.5 cm 3 , and the repetition time and echo time were 2000 ms and 272 ms, respectively. Acute radiation damage of the brain was evaluated by the change of peak area ratio (PAR) of choline, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA). 1 H-MRS spectra before irradiation were different from those observed during irradiation. There were statistically significant (p 1 H-MRS is a powerful modality, detecting the subtle physiological change which is difficult to evaluate with conventional images. (author)

  20. Intrarectal amifostine suspension may protect against acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Menard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Simone, Nicole L.; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears; Godette, Denise J.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Sciuto, Linda C.; Coleman, Jonathan; Pinto, Peter; Albert, Paul S.; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test the ability of intrarectal amifostine to limit symptoms of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: The first 18 patients received 1 g of intrarectal amifostine suspension placed 30-45 min before each radiation treatment. The following 12 patients received 2 g of amifostine. Total dose prescribed ranged from 66 to 76 Gy. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The suspension remained intrarectal during treatment and was expelled after treatment. For gastrointestinal symptoms, during treatment and follow-up, all patients had a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade recorded. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-24 months). With 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine, there was a nearly significant decrease in RTOG Grade 2 acute rectal toxicity. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18) compared with 0% (0/12) in the 2-g group (p = 0.06). No Grade 3 toxicity or greater occurred in this study. Conclusion: This trial suggests greater rectal radioprotection from acute effects with 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine suspension. Further studies should be conducted in populations at higher risk for developing symptomatic acute and late proctitis

  1. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  2. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  3. Overview of different information about acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroshinskaya, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe has divided scientists of the world, studying the consequences of its impact on the health of people, into two opposed, at times irreconcilable blocks. The first block generally comprises representatives of medical officials in the soviet and post-soviet society. They have been concealing the truth from the soviet and the world public for years. This group advocates the point of view that, except for firemen and several staff members who died at the time of the catastrophe, the Chernobyl accident has produced no practical impact on human health and will not do any such effect also in future. The second block consists basically of independent scientists. They are anxious about the facts of concealment of the truth on actual radiation doses, received by inhabitants of the areas around the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP), as well as about impacts of low radiation dose on human health. Scientists of the second block are convinced that doses received by the population in the first days and months after the catastrophe at the ChNPP have played and will play significantly negative roles in worsening of human health years after the accident. The data on these doses have been deliberately concealed by the authorities from both the sufferers and the public. This fact has been already proven (by the Procurator General of the Ukraine as well). I have official and unofficial documents in my Chernobyl archive, which are demonstrating two approaching ways to the problems of radiological consequences due to the Chernobyl catastrophe. I would like to emphasize that these documents have never been published anywhere. In searching the answer to the question about the acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants in the areas around the Chernobyl NPP in the first weeks and months after the catastrophe, we will compare positions, arguments and conclusions of two blocks based on the facts presented in these documents. (author)

  4. Clinical report of an extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jianhui; Yu Changlin; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Zhang Xigang; Li Guang; Niu Wenkai; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ge Feijiao; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To sum up the experiences from the diagnosis and treatment of patient B subjected to an accidental 60 Co exposure on October 21st, 2004, in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: Radiation dose of B was assessed by analysis of chromosome aberration and microneucleus assay, simulation test of the accident site, autopsy and electron spin resonance (ESR). The ultimate clinical diagnosis was based on analysis of irradiation dose, clinical manifestations and laboratory results. In therapeutical aspects, total environmental protection, HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), anti- infection and protection managements of organs were given. Results: Patient B was diagnosed as extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT was performed on the patient from his brother on the 7th day after the accident. The hematopoietic recovery began on the 9th day after transplantation. The patient acquired permanent full donor' engraftment without graft versus host disease (GVHD), But the radiation injury was continuing and the patient complicated with polyinfection in lung, and cardiac insufficiency. On the 45th day after the accident, patient B was performed with tracheotomy and maintained ventilation with respirator. On the 75th day after the accident, patient B died of multiple organ failure. Conclusions: Early triage diagnosis and total environmental protection should be performed as soon as possible for extremely severe bone marrow form of ARS. It is very important to perform a successful HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT, in order to extend the life time of the patient. Multiple organ injuries and infections of bacteria and fungi usually occurred on this kind of patients, so intense measures of anti-infection and protection of multiple organs should be taken. The important and difficult point in the treatment of this kind ARS might be for help the immune-reconstruction and tissue

  5. Protracted Oxidative Alterations in the Mechanism of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Gorbunov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation [(thereafter, irradiation (IR] are attributed to primary oxidative breakage of biomolecule targets, mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the dose-limiting tissues, clastogenic and epigenetic effects, and cascades of functional and reactive responses leading to radiation sickness defined as the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The range of remaining and protracted injuries at any given radiation dose as well as the dynamics of post-IR alterations is tissue-specific. Therefore, functional integrity of the homeostatic tissue barriers may decline gradually within weeks in the post-IR period culminating with sepsis and failure of organs and systems. Multiple organ failure (MOF leading to moribundity is a common sequela of the hemotapoietic form of ARS (hARS. Onset of MOF in hARS can be presented as “two-hit phenomenon” where the “first hit” is the underlying consequences of the IR-induced radiolysis in cells and biofluids, non-septic inflammation, metabolic up-regulation of pro-oxidative metabolic reactions, suppression of the radiosensitive hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues and the damage to gut mucosa and vascular endothelium. While the “second hit” derives from bacterial translocation and spread of the bacterial pathogens and inflammagens through the vascular system leading to septic inflammatory, metabolic responses and a cascade of redox pro-oxidative and adaptive reactions. This sequence of events can create a ground for development of prolonged metabolic, inflammatory, oxidative, nitrative, and carbonyl, electrophilic stress in crucial tissues and thus exacerbate the hARS outcomes. With this perspective, the redox mechanisms, which can mediate the IR-induced protracted oxidative post-translational modification of proteins, oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates and their countermeasures in hARS are subjects of the current review. Potential role of ubiquitous

  6. Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Brian L; Gao, Feng; Narayanan, Jayashree; Bergom, Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E; Orschell, Christie M; Medhora, Meetha

    2016-11-01

    The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients. In the current study, the authors have developed a rat partial-body irradiation (leg-out PBI) model with minimal bone marrow sparing (one leg shielded) that results in acute and late injuries to multiple organs. In this model, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (at ~24 mg m d started orally in the drinking water at 7 d after irradiation and continued to ≥150 d) mitigated late effects in the lungs and kidneys after 12.5-Gy leg-out PBI. Also in this model, a short course of saline hydration and antibiotics mitigated acute radiation syndrome following doses as high as 13 Gy. Combining this supportive care with the lisinopril regimen mitigated overall morbidity for up to 150 d after 13-Gy leg-out PBI. Furthermore, lisinopril was an effective mitigator in the presence of the growth factor G-CSF (100 μg kg d from days 1-14), which is FDA-approved for use in a radionuclear event. In summary, by combining lisinopril (FDA-approved for other indications) with hydration and antibiotics, acute and delayed radiation injuries in multiple organs were mitigated.

  7. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Santos, Adriana; Martins, Lidiane C; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael J; Sakuraba, Roberto; Lopes, Cleverson P; Cruz, José C

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  8. Acute radiation reactions in oral and pharyngeal mucosa: tolerable levels in altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Jack F.; Harari, Paul M.; Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H.

    2003-01-01

    by up to roughly 3-5 Gy10 in BED, with a request for further evidence. Conclusions:It is suggested that total BED should be used, as specified above. Parameters of α=0.35 Gy- 1 , α/β=10 Gy, Tk=7 days and Tp=2.5 days are suggested. The 'acute/ tolerance zone' then turns out to be 59-61 Gy10 for radiation-only treatments. Further information about the decrement caused by concurrent head-and-neck cancer chemoradiotherapy, possibly 3-5 Gy10, is required

  9. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  10. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  11. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M [Harbor Biosciences, 9171 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 180, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  12. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Heuvel, Michel van den; Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van; Belderbos, José

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m²). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D mean and D max of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade ≥2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade ≥3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade ≥2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade ≥3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade ≥2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  13. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M

    2010-01-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  14. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  15. A randomized, double-blind trial on the use of 1% hydrocortisone cream for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghrajani, Chandra F; Co, Henri S; Arcillas, Jon G; Maaño, Clarita C; Cupino, Nonette A

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the application of 1% hydrocortisone cream during radiation therapy can prevent the occurrence of moist desquamation. Fifty adult female breast carcinoma patients were randomized after modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy to receive prophylactic placebo cream (n = 27) or 1% hydrocortisone cream (n = 23) during radiation therapy. The patients, caregiver and assessor were all blinded to the treatment received. Occurrence of moist desquamation, severity of acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) and hyperpigmentation were evaluated weekly until the end of radiotherapy. Five patients in each group developed moist desquamation; however, its extent and severity were milder in the steroid group. Mean ARD scores were also lower in the steroid group (0.713 vs. 0.874, p = 0.024). A lower incidence of Grades 1 and 2 radiation dermatitis was also noted in the steroid group at weeks 2 and 4, respectively, indicating prophylactic use of steroids delayed the onset of radiodermatitis.

  16. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial

  17. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A; Ng, Cheng E

    2005-05-01

    Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 am or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 pm or 9 HALO), early active period (9 pm or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 am or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 am demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 pm, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  18. Effects of cranial radiation on hearing in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibadoux, G.M.; Pereira, W.V.; Hodges, J.M.; Aur, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who were admitted to our Total Therapy IX study between December 1975 and July 1977 was studied. Their treatment included combined chemotherapy, 2400 rads of cranial radiation, and intrathecal methotrexate. Subjects initially received an otologic examination and middle ear function testing. Audiometric testing was not done until ears were free of outer or middle ear pathology. If the child had no outer or middle ear disease, audiometric thresholds were obtained for the test frequencies: 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Pure-tone thresholds were obtained before irradiation (61 patients) and at 6, 12, and 36 months thereafter (49, 46, and 22 patients, respectively). The median age of time of baseline testing was 10 years, 2 months. A paired sample test based on group data was used to test whether there were any significant changes from the threshold values at 6, 12, and 36 months after irradiation. Thresholds were not significantly affected for any test frequency at any test time. Assessments of individual audiograms indicated that none of the children had any significant reductions in hearing levels at the end of the third year after cranial irradiation

  19. Probable reasons for the lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness accompanied by combination of radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, R.S.; Ul'yanova, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanism underlying a lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness in the case of combined radiation and thermal injuries are studied. Experiments were carried out on mice. Animals had been subjected to either a 3B degree thermal burn covering 10% of the body surface or a single whole body gamma-irradiation of 7 Gy dose or a combined injury (radiation exposure + burn), and changes of the blood serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated by means of ELISA kits. Modifying influence of remedies for early therapy (a synthetic analogue of dicorynomycolate trehalose and a preparation based on killed Lacobacillus acidophilus) on the endogenous serum level of IL-6 and on the 30-day survival was evaluated. In accordance with the degree and duration of increased levels of IL-6 in blood serum, the investigated groups of animals were ranged as follows: combined action > burn only > irradiation only. L. acidophilus based preparation rendered a transient modifying action on the IL-6 level at the combined injury and contributed to increasing the 30-day survival. Lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness may be associated with too excessive levels of IL-6 in the blood serum [ru

  20. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  1. Radiation-induced acute dysphagia. Prospective observational study on 42 head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alterio, D.; Gerardi, M.A.; Fodor, C.; Ciardo, D.; Ferrari, A.; Colangione, S. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); Cella, L.; D' Avino, V.; Conson, M.; Palma, G. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Spoto, R.; Dicuonzo, S.; Jereczek-Fossa, B.A. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Oncology and Hemato-oncology, Milan (Italy); Zurlo, V.; Bruschini, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Milan (Italy); Sabbatini, A.; Valoriani, F. [European Institute of Oncology, Dietetic and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Milan (Italy); Pacelli, R. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Federico II University School of Medicine, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Maisonneuve, P. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Milan (Italy); Preda, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Cossu Rocca, M. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Urogenital and Head and Neck Tumors, Department of Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Rondi, E. [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Scientific Directorate, Milan (Italy); Sanguineti, G. [Istituto Tumori Regina Elena, Rome (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Acute toxicity in head and neck (H and N) cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) has a crucial role in compliance to treatments. The aim of this study was to correlate doses to swallowing-associated structures and acute dysphagia. We prospectively analyzed 42 H and N cancer patients treated with RT. Dysphagia (grade ≥ 3) and indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion were classified as acute toxicity. Ten swallowing-related structures were considered for the dosimetric analysis. The correlation between clinical information and the dose absorbed by the contoured structures was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression method using resampling methods (bootstrapping) was applied to select model order and parameters for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modelling. A strong multiple correlation between dosimetric parameters was found. A two-variable model was suggested as the optimal order by bootstrap method. The optimal model (Rs = 0.452, p < 0.001) includes V{sub 45} of the cervical esophagus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016) and D{sub mean} of the cricopharyngeal muscle (OR = 1.057). The model area under the curve was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.95). Our results suggested that the absorbed dose to the cricopharyngeal muscle and cervical esophagus might play a relevant role in the development of acute RT-related dysphagia. (orig.) [German] Bei Kopf-Hals-Tumorpatienten, die mit einer kurativen Strahlentherapie (''radiation therapy'', RT) behandelt werden, spielt die Akuttoxizitaet eine entscheidende Rolle fuer die Patientencompliance bei der Behandlung. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Dosen im Bereich des Schluckapparates mit der akuten Dysphagie zu korrelieren. Prospektiv analysiert wurden 42 mit einer RT behandelten Patienten. Eine Dysphagie III und/oder die Indikation fuer eine PEG(perkutane endoskopische Gastrostomie)-Anlage wurden als Akuttoxizitaet klassifiziert. Fuer die dosimetrische

  2. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  3. Derivation of hazardous doses for amphibians acutely exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Takata, Toshitaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of effect benchmark values for each taxonomic group, which has been difficult due to lack of experimental effects data, is required for more adequate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Estimation of effects doses from nuclear DNA mass and subsequent species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis were proposed as a method for such a derivation in acute irradiation situations for assumed nuclear accident scenarios. As a case study, 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s), at which only 5% of species are acutely affected at 50% or higher lethality, were estimated on a global scale. After nuclear DNA mass data were obtained from a database, 50% lethal doses (LD 50 s) for 4.8 and 36% of the global Anura and Caudata species, respectively, were estimated by correlative equations between nuclear DNA mass and LD 50 s. Differences between estimated and experimental LD 50 s were within a factor of three. The HD 5 s obtained by the SSD analysis of these estimated LD 50 s data were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata, respectively. This approach was also applied to the derivation of regional HD 5 s. The respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan. This HD 5 value for the Japanese Anura was significantly higher than the global value, while Caudata had no significant difference in global and Japanese HD 5 s. These results suggest that this approach is also useful for derivation of regional benchmark values, some of which are likely different from the global values. - Highlights: ► A possible method was proposed for derivation of an effect benchmark value for each taxonomic group. ► 50% lethal doses were estimated from nuclear DNA mass in amphibian species. ► 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s) were estimated by species sensitivity distribution. ► Respective HD 5 s were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata globally. ► Respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan.

  4. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  5. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  6. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  7. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, Takeshi; Ogino, Takashi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  8. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimura, Takeshi, E-mail: arimura-takeshi@medipolis.org [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ogino, Takashi [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  9. Automyelotherapy efficiency limit in treatment for acute radiation sickness as determined by experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Automyelotherapy is the most effective method for treatment of acute radiation sickness. Therapy with use of frozen long-storage hemopoietic cells owing to their complex procurement and storage may be recommended only to a limited cohort with a high risk for uncontrolled irradiation. Prognosis of substitution therapy outcome is based, firstly, on knowledge of a maximum irradiation dose at which a therapeutic effect is manifested. Such information may be obtained only in experiment. The object of research is to establish the upper limit of irradiation dose at which therapeutic results of automyelotherapy are manifested. Research was performed on guinea pigs irradiated with doses from 5 to 10 Gy. A bone marrow cell suspension was obtained from anesthetizied animals by diaphysis puncture and lavage of 2 tibial bones. An effective therapeutic dose of cells (120 mln) was transplanted which guaranteed 100% survival of animals irradiated with the dose of 8.5 Gy exceeding the minimum absolute lethal dose by 7%. As the irradiation dose was further increased up to 10, 11 and 13 Gy survival of treated animals decreased to 61, 55 and 22% respectively. Although all treated guinea pigs perished after irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, their life span increased twice as much versus control and reached 9.5 days. Experimental data have confirmed that there is a limit of automyelotherapy efficacy. In the described experiment, it amounted to 15 Gy. The analysis of dose-effect'' relationship in treated and control animals has demonstrated DRF being equal to 1.8. This index characterizes the maximum therapeutic result of automyelotherapy. (author)

  10. The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang Sheng, E-mail: lxsheng500@163.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fang, Hong, E-mail: hongfang196808@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Song, Yunlong, E-mail: yunlongsong010@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Li, Dechang, E-mail: dechangli1972@sina.com [Department of Pathology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Yingjie, E-mail: wangyj19710813@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Zhu, Hongxian, E-mail: hongxian0102@sina.cn [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Meng, Limin, E-mail: liminmeng1977@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang1978@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: dongwang1964@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fan, Hongxia, E-mail: fanhongxia1975@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I–II and grade III–IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADC{sub pre}), ADC after treatment (ADC{sub post}) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADC{sub pre}, ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade I–II group than in grade 0 group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade III–IV group than in grade I–II group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADC{sub post}, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the

  11. Radiation proctitis. Clinical and pathological manifestations, therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late injurious effects of radiation on the rectal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Feldmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Often the rectum is the dose-limiting organ in curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies. It reacts with serous, mucoid, or more rarely bloody diarrhea. Methods: A research for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced proctitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: No proven effective prophylactic local or systemic therapies of radiation proctitis exist. Also, no reasonable causal medication is known. In the treatment of late radiation sequelae no clinically tested certain effective therapy exists, too. Antiinflammatory, steroidal or non-steroidal therapeutics as well as sucralfate can be used as topical measures. They will be successful in some patients. Side effects are rare and the therapy is cost-effective. Treatment failures can be treated by hyperbaric oxygen. This will achieve good clinical results in about 50% of the cases. Single or few mucosal telangiectasias with rectal bleeding can be treated sufficiently by endoscopic cautherization. Conclusion: Besides clinical studies acute proctitis should be treated just symptomatically. Radical surgery should be performed only when all conventional treatments have been uneffective, although no certain effective therapies of radiation-induced late proctitis exist. (orig.) [de

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  13. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  14. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome; Diagnosticheskie kriterii postradiatsionnoj ehntsefalopatii v otdalennyj period ostroj luchevoj bolezni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Loganovskij, K N; Vashchenko, E A [and others

    1998-07-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs.

  15. Study of biological effects of varying mixtures of Cf-252 and gamma radiation on the acute radiation syndromes: Relevance to clinical radiotherapy of radioresistant cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J.; Feola, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Data for the 30 day bone marrow syndrome (BM-50) and the 6-10 day gastrointestinal (GI-50) syndrome for a one and two fraction schedule and acute and low dose rate irradiation using pure and mixed Cf-252 and photon radiation are presented. The radiation of Cf-252 is a mixture of neutrons and gamma rays. Balb/c mice of both sexes were total body irradiated with acute Co-60, low dose rate Cs-137 and Cf-252 using a 1 x and 2 x schedule. For low linear energy transfer radiations of Co-60 or Cs-137 there was expected to be an increase in the dose to produce the gastrointestinal and bone marrow syndromes with minimal change for Cf-252 neutrons. The proportion of photons in the Cf-252 radiation field were further altered by mixing Cs-137 with the Cf-252 sources and mice were total body irradiated with different proportions of photons to determine the effect on the radiation syndromes. The effects of mixing Cf-252 neutrons with different proportions of photons on the syndromes was determined. There was increase in BM-50 and GI-50 doses with fractionated or low dose rate photon irradiations and the dose modifying factors were 1.3-1.4 for the GI syndrome and 1.2 for the bone marrow syndrome. For Cf-252 there was minimal fractionation effect for the GI-50 syndrome, which increased by 1.1 for x 1 vs. x 2 fractions; for the BM-50 syndrome it rose by a 1.1 factor. For LDR Cs-137 the dose for the GI-50 syndrome rose 2.2-fold. For mixed neutron-photon radiation of 0%, 15%, 35%, and 65% η/γ mixtures, the dose to produce the BM-50 and GI-50 endpoints dropped sharply from 0 to 35% neutrons and remained flat thereafter. For major tissues such as the bone marrow and GI tract, Cf-252 behaved as high linear energy transfer for mixtures of neutrons and gamma rays when the radiations were delivered simultaneously at the low dose rates studied. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Duffy, Mary; Bressel, Mathias; McInnes, Belinda; Russell, Christine; Sevitt, Tim; Ball, David

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (r s = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (r s = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (r s = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, r s = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, r s = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, r s = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  17. In vitro effects of recombinant human stem cell factor on hematopoietic cells from patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuansheng; Cheng Tao; Xu Yanqun

    1994-01-01

    The effects of rhSCF, rhPIXY 321, rhGM-CSF and rhIL-3 on clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from five cases of acute radiation sickness were studied. The results showed that rhSCF could stimulate clonal proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells and the best results were obtained when the concentration of rhSCF was 5 x 10 4 ng/L. Clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from four cases of acute radiation sickness was stimulated while that from one case was inhibited. Moreover, the responsiveness of cells to rhSCF was correlated with the doses of radiation. Analysis of cell surface antigen, cell morphology and histochemistry revealed that rhSCF promoted predominantly the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage lineage. rhSCF in combination with other three factors could further enhance the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells. The effects of rhPIXY 321, a fusion protein of GM-CSF and IL-3, were also analysed and found it to be a novel valuable hematopoietic growth factor

  18. Empirical study on protective effect of dendrobium candidum wall.ex lindl drop on acute radiation-injuried mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingping; Zhang Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Lindl drop (DCWD) on acute radiation-injuried mice and the correlative mechanism. Methods: According to the body weight BALB/c mice were divided into the control group, radiation-injuried group and DCWD groups which were divided into two groups according to the dose of DCWD. Before whole-body irradiation with 4.0 Gy 6 MV X-rays, the BALB/c mice were supplied with DCWD every day. After being irradiated, these mice were continued to be given DCWD until they were killed. The DNA contents of bone marrow, the CD4 + /CD8 + ratios of peripheral blood and splenic cells, blastation of lymphocyte and the contents of IL-2 were observed. Results: DCWD hasincreased the DNA contents of bone marrow, the ability of blastation of lymphocyte and the IL-2 contents of irradiated mice. It has protected T leukomonocyte by accommodating the hyprotypes of T leukomonocyte. Conclusion: DCWD can protect the acute radiation-injuried mice which relates with protecting the hematopoiesis and the immune function etc. (authors)

  19. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  20. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  1. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 10 8 /kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  2. A phase III double-blind randomised study of rectal sucralfate suspension in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Peter C.; Franklin, C. Ian; Dear, Keith B.G.; Hamilton, Christopher C.; Poulsen, Michael; Joseph, David J.; Spry, Nigel; Denham, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: A limited number of studies have suggested that oral sucralfate reduces the acute and late gastro-intestinal side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy and sucralfate enemas ameliorate symptoms of chronic proctitis. Sucralfate may act via local bFGF at the mucosal level in promoting angiogenesis and reducing epithelial associated microvascular injury. This multi-institutional study was designed to test the hypothesis that sucralfate given as an enema would have a significant protective effect against acute radiation induced rectal injury by direct application to the mucosa. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients having radiotherapy for localised carcinoma of the prostate were randomised in a double-blind placebo-controlled study to receive either 15 ml of placebo suspension or 3 g of sucralfate in 15 ml suspension, given as a once daily enema during and for 2 weeks following radiotherapy. Assessment was based on the EORTC/RTOG acute toxicity criteria and a patient self-assessment diary. Results: There was no significant difference between placebo and sucralfate for peak incidences of EORTC/RTOG proctitis. For the placebo and sucralfate arms 95 and 88% (difference 7 ± 11%) suffered some degree of proctitis, with 71 and 61% (difference 10 ± 19%) reaching grade 2, respectively. The median period to onset of grade 2 proctitis was 33.5 and 36 days, with the median duration being 9.5 and 15 days, respectively, again these difference being non-significant. Thirty-five and 37% of patients rated the effect of radiotherapy on bowel habit as 'a lot' with a moderate or severe effect on normal daily living in 52 and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that sucralfate given as a once daily enema does not substantially reduce the incidence of symptoms associated with acute radiation proctitis and its routine clinical use cannot be recommended. This cohort of patients will be followed to determine if any difference develops in relation to late

  3. Phase II multicenter randomized study of amifostine for prevention of acute radiation rectal toxicity: Topical intrarectal versus subcutaneous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloulias, Vassilis E.; Kouvaris, John R.; Pissakas, George; Mallas, Elias; Antypas, Christos; Kokakis, John D.; Matsopoulos, George; Michopoulos, Spyros; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Vlahos, Lambros J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of subcutaneous vs. intrarectal administration of amifostine against acute radiation toxicity. Methods and materials: Patients were randomized to receive amifostine either intrarectally (Group A, n = 27) or a 500-mg flat dose subcutaneously (Group B, n = 26) before irradiation. Therapy was delivered using a four-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. In Group A, 1,500 mg of amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution in 40 mL of enema. Two different toxicity scales were used: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) rectal and urologic toxicity criteria and the Subjective-RectoSigmoid scale based on the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. Objective measurements with rectosigmoidoscopy were performed at baseline and 1-2 days after radiotherapy completion. The area under the curve for the time course of mucositis (RTOG criteria) during irradiation represented the mucositis index. Results: Intrarectal amifostine was feasible and well tolerated without any systemic or local side effects. According to the RTOG toxicity scale, Group A had superior results with a significantly lower incidence of Grades I-II rectal radiation morbidity (11% vs. 42%, p 0.04) but inferior results concerning urinary toxicity (48% vs. 15%, p 0.03). The mean rectal mucositis index and Subjective-RectoSigmoid score were significantly lower in Group A (0.44 vs. 2.45 [p = 0.015] and 3.9 vs. 6.0 [p = 0.01], respectively), and the mean urinary mucositis index was lower in Group B (2.39 vs. 0.34, p < 0.028). Conclusions: Intrarectal administration of amifostine (1,500 mg) seemed to have a cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation rectal mucositis but was inferior to subcutaneous administration in terms of urinary toxicity. Additional randomized studies are needed for definitive decisions concerning the

  4. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  5. Acute radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese breast cancer patients with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Tomo; Oguchi, Masahiko; Kumada, Madoka; Nemoto, Keiko; Iwase, Takuji; Yamashita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate acute morbidity, radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis, of Japanese patients treated with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS), compared to conventional RT. Japanese patients who received whole breast RT after BCS between October 2003 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had selected the conventional or hypofractionated schedule received whole breast irradiation of 50 Gy in 25 fractions plus boost or 40 Gy in 16 fractions plus boost. Radiation dermatitis and symptomatic pneumonitis were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Of 443 consecutive patients, 377 (85%) received the conventional schedule and 66 (15%) received the hypofractionated schedule. Of patients treated with the conventional schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation dermatitis were observed in 16 (4%), 278 (74%), 77 (20%) and 6 (2%), respectively. Of patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis were observed in 11 (17%), 49 (74%), 5 (8%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Grade 2-3 dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule (9%) was observed less frequently than that by the conventional schedule (22%) (chi-square test; P=0.016). Moreover, of patients treated with the conventional schedule, 4 (1%) had Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No patient treated with the hypofractionated schedule had symptomatic pneumonitis. Radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule is acceptable. Especially, radiation dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule is milder than that by the conventional schedule. (author)

  6. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  7. Inhibitory effect of magnesium sulfate on reaction of lipid hyperoxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Zhou Juying; Yu Zhiying; Qin Songbing; Xu Xiaoting; Li Li; Tu Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: 60 maturity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron. MgSO 4 was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental-therapeutic group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points ranging from the 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d after irradiation, the brain tissue were taken. The xanthine oxidase and colorimetric examination were used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) respectively in the rat brain respectively. Results: Compared with blank control group, the SOD in brain of experimental control group decreased significantly (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the lipid peroxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries and alleviate the damage induced by free radicals to brain tissue. (authors)

  8. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S; Suzuki, H; Ariyoshi, H [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer

    1981-07-01

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of ..beta..-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters.

  9. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen responsible for causing DNA strand breaks in all living organisms. Strand breaks thus created can be repaired by different mechanisms, including homologous recombination (HR), one of the key mechanisms maintaining genome stability [A. Britt, DNA damage and repair in plants, Annu. Rev. Plant. Phys. Plant Mol. Biol., 45 (1996) 75-100; H. Puchta, B. Hohn, From centiMorgans to basepairs: homologous recombination in plants, Trends Plant Sci., 1 (1996) 340-348.]. Acute or chronic exposure to IR may have different influences on the genome integrity. Although in a radioactively contaminated environment plants are mostly exposed to chronic pollution, evaluation of both kinds of influences is important. Estimation of the frequency of HR in the exposed plants may serve as an indication of genome stability. We used previously generated Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants, transgenic for non-active versions of the {beta}-glucoronidase gene (uidA) [P. Swoboda, S. Gal, B. Hohn, H. Puchta, Intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants, EMBO J., 13 (1994) 484-489; H. Puchta, P. Swoboda, B. Hohn, Induction of homologous DNA recombination in whole plants, Plant, 7 (1995) 203-210.] serving as a recombination substrate, to study the influence of acute and chronic exposure to IR on the level of HR as example of genome stability in plants. Exposure of seeds and seedlings to 0.1 to 10.0 Gy 60Co resulted in increased HR frequency, although the effect was more pronounced in seedlings. For the study of the influence of chronic exposure to IR, plants were grown on two chemically different types of soils, each artificially contaminated with equal amounts of 137Cs. We observed a strong and significant correlation between the frequency of HR in plants, the radioactivity of the soil samples and the doses of radiation absorbed by plants (in all cases r0.9, n=6, P<0.05). In addition, we noted that plants grown in soils with

  10. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  11. Conformal radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer: acute tolerance and early evaluation of effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierhut, D.; Flentje, M.; Sroka-Perez, G.; Rudat, V.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: In a prospective trial early effectiveness and acute toxicity of conformal 3D-planned radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer was quantified using dose-volume-histogramms and evaluated with respect of treatment technique. Results: Eleven patients (of 32) had none, 15 mild (RTOG grade 1) and 6 moderate symptoms (RTOG grade 2, mainly diarrhoea, dysuria and polyuria). Acute complications leading to treatment interruption did not occur. In 16 patients symptoms disappeared within 6 weeks after radiotherapy. Only 2 men had symptoms which lasted longer than 3 months and were endoscopically examined. Up to now no late complications were detected. Incidence and severity of toxicity was significantly (p [de

  12. Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial--Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C; Franklin, C Ian; Poulsen, Michael G; Joseph, David J; Spry, Nigel S; Denham, James W

    2002-10-01

    To assess the potential for sucralfate administered rectally to reduce the risk of late rectal morbidity in patients undergoing nonconformal radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate and to study the variables potentially contributing to late rectal morbidity and particularly to explore the relationship between acute and late toxicity. Eighty-six patients with localized prostate carcinoma were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to a daily enema of 3 g of sucralfate in a 15-mL suspension or the same suspension without sucralfate. The enema began the first day of RT and was continued for 2 weeks after treatment completion. The primary end point of the study was acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) toxicity; however, the patients were followed for an additional 5 years on a 6-month basis. The evaluation included late RTOG/EORTC toxicity and a patient self-assessment questionnaire. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the Kaplan-Meier probability of late Grade 2 RTOG/EORTC toxicity was 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-22%) for placebo and 5% (95% CI 0-12%) for sucralfate (p = 0.26). The probability of late rectal bleeding was 59% (95% CI 45-73%) for placebo and 54% (95% CI 40-68%) for sucralfate. No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment arms for the peak incidence of any of the other patient self-assessment variables. Cox proportional hazards modeling indicated acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.74 (95% CI 1.31-5.73) for the development of late toxicity of Grade 1 or greater. Substituting the patient self-assessment variables for acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity revealed that rectal pain of a moderate or severe grade during RT was the best predictor of the subsequent development of late toxicity, with a hazard ratio of 3.44 (95% CI 1.68-7). The results of this study do not support the use of

  13. Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial--Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Peter C.; Franklin, C. Ian; Poulsen, Michael G.; Joseph, David J.; Spry, Nigel S.; Denham, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the potential for sucralfate administered rectally to reduce the risk of late rectal morbidity in patients undergoing nonconformal radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate and to study the variables potentially contributing to late rectal morbidity and particularly to explore the relationship between acute and late toxicity. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with localized prostate carcinoma were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to a daily enema of 3 g of sucralfate in a 15-mL suspension or the same suspension without sucralfate. The enema began the first day of RT and was continued for 2 weeks after treatment completion. The primary end point of the study was acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) toxicity; however, the patients were followed for an additional 5 years on a 6-month basis. The evaluation included late RTOG/EORTC toxicity and a patient self-assessment questionnaire. Results: With a median follow-up of 5 years, the Kaplan-Meier probability of late Grade 2 RTOG/EORTC toxicity was 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-22%) for placebo and 5% (95% CI 0-12%) for sucralfate (p=0.26). The probability of late rectal bleeding was 59% (95% CI 45-73%) for placebo and 54% (95% CI 40-68%) for sucralfate. No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment arms for the peak incidence of any of the other patient self-assessment variables. Cox proportional hazards modeling indicated acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.74 (95% CI 1.31-5.73) for the development of late toxicity of Grade 1 or greater. Substituting the patient self-assessment variables for acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity revealed that rectal pain of a moderate or severe grade during RT was the best predictor of the subsequent development of late toxicity, with a hazard ratio of 3.44 (95% CI 1.68-7). Conclusion

  14. Acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients in Japan. Study of 31 cases at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminuma, Takuya; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Hanyu, Nahoko

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients has increased in Japan. HIV-positive patients are at a higher risk of cancer than the general population. This paper retrospectively reports the acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients who were treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious diseases Center Komagome Hospital (TMCICK). Thirty-one cases involving 24 HIV-positive cancer patients who were treated at TMCICK from January 1997 to March 2009 were included in this study. All acute adverse effects of radiation therapy were examined during, and one month after, the last radiation therapy session. Acute adverse effects were classified according to the site of radiation therapy treatment and analyzed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. Grade 3 acute adverse effects were seen in 17% of cases, and Grade 2 toxicities were found in 23% of patients. Damage to the skin and mucosa, including stomatitis or diarrhea, tended to occur after low-dose radiation therapy; however, no severe acute adverse effects were seen in other organs, such as the brain, lung, and bone. Acute adverse effects tended to occur earlier in HIV-positive patients and became severe more frequently than in the general population. In particular, disorders of the mucosa, such as those of the oral cavity, pharynx, and intestine, tended to occur rapidly. It was shown that radiation therapy is safe when treatment is performed carefully and that it is a very useful treatment for cancer in HIV-positive patients. (author)

  15. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  18. Radiation-induced acute dysphagia. Prospective observational study on 42 head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterio, D.; Gerardi, M.A.; Fodor, C.; Ciardo, D.; Ferrari, A.; Colangione, S.; Cella, L.; D'Avino, V.; Conson, M.; Palma, G.; Spoto, R.; Dicuonzo, S.; Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Zurlo, V.; Bruschini, R.; Sabbatini, A.; Valoriani, F.; Pacelli, R.; Maisonneuve, P.; Preda, L.; Cossu Rocca, M.; Rondi, E.; Orecchia, R.; Sanguineti, G.

    2017-01-01

    Acute toxicity in head and neck (H and N) cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) has a crucial role in compliance to treatments. The aim of this study was to correlate doses to swallowing-associated structures and acute dysphagia. We prospectively analyzed 42 H and N cancer patients treated with RT. Dysphagia (grade ≥ 3) and indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion were classified as acute toxicity. Ten swallowing-related structures were considered for the dosimetric analysis. The correlation between clinical information and the dose absorbed by the contoured structures was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression method using resampling methods (bootstrapping) was applied to select model order and parameters for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modelling. A strong multiple correlation between dosimetric parameters was found. A two-variable model was suggested as the optimal order by bootstrap method. The optimal model (Rs = 0.452, p < 0.001) includes V 45 of the cervical esophagus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016) and D mean of the cricopharyngeal muscle (OR = 1.057). The model area under the curve was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.95). Our results suggested that the absorbed dose to the cricopharyngeal muscle and cervical esophagus might play a relevant role in the development of acute RT-related dysphagia. (orig.) [de

  19. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part I. Results of a German multicenter questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Wilhelm, R.; Niehoff, P.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, it was to evaluate the remedies, which are used for prevention and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large bowel, rectum and vagina). A questionnaire was sent to 130 radiotherapeutic departments in Germany in Juli 1995. The questionnaire had been designed with 22 open questions concerning the preventive and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of skin and mucosal sites. From 130 questionnaires, 89 (68.4%) were sent back till August 1995. All of them were evaluable. The recommendations showed a broad spectrum for each site. Especially the oral mucositis was treated in many different ways and combinations. The prevention and therapy of complicating superinfections seem to be the joint principle of most of the recommendations. The management of the acute radiation related morbidity has a wide clinical spectrum among different radiation therapy centers. Systematic prospectively designed investigations are necessary in order to achieve a further reduction in the radiation related acute morbidity. Therefore, a multicenter collaborative working group has been founded. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, Valerji

    1998-01-01

    ...) on intestinal microflora, translocation, and mortality was studied in mice treated with 7.0 Gy radiation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, selected by in vitro and in vivo methods, increased survival parameters of the mice...

  1. Study on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in repairing of radiation induced acute liver injury of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yongxing; Lou Fan; Zhao Huarong; Zhu Huhu; Ma Yan; Wen Hao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of radiation induced liver injury. Methods: 12 female SD rats were irradiated with 20 Gy 6 MV X-rays on the right lobe of the liver, to establish the model of radiation induced liver injury. The rats were divided randomly into two groups as invention group and control group, and transplanted with 1 ml male mesenchymal suspension or 1 ml normal saline in 4 hours after radiotherapy. The morphological changes of liver were observed. The existence of sex determining gene Y(SRY) and the level of alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) were detected. Results: Some injury of right lobe liver in two groups were observed, and the injury degree of right lobe liver in intervention group were lower than that of control group. The amount of SRY positive cells in the right lobe liver of intervention group was higher than that in the left lobe liver (t = 3.77, P <0.05). The positive expression rate of a-SMA in right lobe liver of intervention group was lower than that of control group. Conclusions: Acute radiation induced liver injury could lead BMSCs' homing in order to decrease the degree of liver fibrosis. (authors)

  2. A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    intestine epithelial response is built into the Radiation- Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) model (Anno et al., 1989, Anno et al., 1991). RIPD, a...compartments, simulating dose response with a multitarget single -hit model (Joiner, 2009). This theory proposes that one hit of radiation in n different... single -hit model was implemented to represent dose response. The dose response parameters (D0 and n) were chosen to match experimental data approximated

  3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  4. Physical working ability in persons who survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident (the data of 16-year follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, O.M.; Byilij, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable reduction in physical working ability (PWA) in persons who survived acute radiation sickness in the early period is chiefly caused by negative influence of ionizing radiation and is not determined by the degree of severity of bone-marrow syndrome. Further restoration of PWA does not occur which can be explained by development of neurosomatic pathology against a background of age-related changes in the organs and systems of the victims

  5. Acute myeloid leukemia and background radiation in an expanded case-referent study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.; Axelson, O.

    1990-01-01

    A case-referent study that investigated possible associations between environmental and occupational exposures and acute myeloid leukemia was performed on 86 cases and 172 referents, all of whom were living. Exposure information was obtained through a questionnaire mailed to each subject. An association was found between time spent in concrete buildings at home and work and leukemia morbidity. In addition, extensive x-ray examinations that occurred more than 5 y prior to diagnosis were more common among cases than referents

  6. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  7. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Caloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6, Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8, Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8, and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8. The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg or amifostine (200 mg/kg was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009 compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003 and LC+RT group (P = 0.029 compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009. There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.

  9. Therapeutic effect of rhIL-11 administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Luo Qingliang; Xiong Guolin; Liu Xiaolan; Qiu Liling; Chen Guozhi; Huang Ying; Ge Ping; Geng Yu; Sun Liansheng; Dong Bo; Li Yuanmin; Chen Wangqiu; Shen Chun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The author describes the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in monkeys. Methods: Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 3.0 Gy 60 Co γ rays were divided into 3 groups. One group was the control administered with vehicle, the second one was subjected to administer rhIL-11 on days 0-13 after TBI (60 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 , sc) and the third one to administer rhIL-11 on days 13-26 after TBI at the same doses. Results: The early treated group had higher platelet nadirs compared with that of the other two. The duration of platelet and leukocyte numbers below 50% of their baseline values shortened significantly in animals treated with rhIL-11, especially in the early treated group. During the first week after irradiation, the early treated group had lower erythrocyte count compared with the control, but it began to rise at day 19 after irradiation. Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture demonstrated that rhIL-11 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-MK, CFU-Mix, CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM in vitro. The authors also got the same results in histopathological observation. Conclusion: rhIL-11 administered at different times can not only accelerate the haematopoietic recovery of acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys, but also result in better therapeutic effect when administered earlier

  10. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-05-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated at 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned.

  11. Estimation of remote effects in blood animals after combination action of external acute gamma-radiation and EHF-range radiowave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakova, O.V.; Nikolaevich, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    In work the experimental data on study of influence combination action of external acute gamma-radiation and EMR SHF-range on hematological status of animals. It is revealed the stimulating effect of action of EMR on irradiated organism. (Authors)

  12. Prophylactic vesical instillations with 0.2% chondroitin sulfate may reduce symptoms of acute radiation cystitis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for gynecological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, M.H.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Roovers, J.P.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical instillations with 40 ml chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution to prevent or reduce acute radiation cystitis in women undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. In a comparative pilot study in 20 patients, half of the patients received instillations.

  13. Acute care of radioactively contaminated or externally radiated personnel at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Practical advice is given concerning the treatment of persons injure at nuclear power plant accidents, in particular accidents resulting in contamination or external radiation of man. The folder is primarily directed to persons responsible for the local plannning and supervision of emergency care at the power plant. (L.E.)

  14. Preventive and therapeutic effects of lithium carbonate on acute radiation injury of hemopoietic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, X Y; Wang, Y F; Jia, T Z

    1991-01-01

    The administration of Li2CO3 to female LACA mice for three consecutive days before or after 4Gy whole body gamma-irradiation appeared to have both preventive and therapeutic effects on radiation-induced leucopenia, especially on the depression of CFU-GM. It is effective in small dosage, short course, and even when given 24 hours after irradiation.

  15. Effects of acute gamma radiation on the reproductive ability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowmithra, K.; Shetty, N.J.; Harini, B.P.; Jha, S.K.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are the parts of nutritional webs, and are present in relatively high numbers. Four months old Eisenia fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, namely 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy to study the effects of radiation on different reproductive parameters. The number of cocoons laid and the hatchlings emerged were recorded for all the selected doses. There was no reduction in cocoon production, however; decreasing size and weight of the cocoons was observed from the samples exposed to 20 Gy and above doses. Significant reductions in the hatchlings were recorded in earthworms exposed to 10 Gy and above doses. The dose response curves for a percentage reduction in hatchlings were constructed. Exposure to radiation dose of 1 and 2 Gy did not show any reduction, however, there was ≈10%, ≈50% and ≈90% decrease in the hatchlings in samples exposed to 3, 15 and 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses respectively. Delayed hatchability was also reported at al exposure level. Histology of irradiated earthworms revealed that the structural damage in the seminal vesicles was prominent at the exposed dose of 3 Gy onwards with complete degeneration on exposure to 60 Gy of gamma radiation. - Highlights: • Eisenia fetida exposed to several doses of gamma-radiation to study the impact on reproduction. • There was no reduction in the cocoon production however. • There was reduction in size, weight and change in shape of the cocoons observed. • Reduction in number of hatchlings and degradation of seminal vesicles was pragmatic

  16. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  17. A clinical and pathological study of acute rectal injury by the radiation therapy of uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo; Katayama, Hiroshi; Haruma, Ken; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Suenaga, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features, magnifying colonoscopic findings and pathological findings of acute radiation proctitis were investigated in 40 cases of uterine cervix cancer and the following results were obtained. 1)As a clinical simptom, diarrhea was observed in about half of all cases. 2)The value of serum total protein and number of leukocyte decreased until the dose of 30 Gy (3000 rads) and no remarkable change of them were observed afterwards. Hemoglobin value did not change throughout the whole clinical course. 3)Magnifying colonoscopic findings showed remarkable change with increase of the dose and especially irregularity of pit was observed in all cases. 4)In pathological findings, edema, degenerative change of epitherial cells and decreased number of goblet cells were observed from the beginning. In cases that received more than 50 Gy (5000 rads), fibrosis developed and the epithelium showed strong regeneration. Also Paneth cells were observed in 5 out of 40 cases. 5)Remarkable change was not observed before or after the radiation by barium enema. (author)

  18. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yasuhiro [National Hiroshima Hospital, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  19. Feasibility of using optical coherence tomography to detect acute radiation-induced esophageal damage in small animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; de Bruin, Daniel Martijn; Salguero, F. Javier; Borst, Gerben Roelof; Song, Ji-Ying; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Alderliesten, Tanja; van Herk, Marcel

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer survival is poor, and radiation therapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to acute radiation-induced esophageal damage (ARIED). We investigated the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for minimally invasive imaging of the esophagus with high resolution (10 μm) to detect ARIED in mice. Thirty mice underwent cone-beam computed tomography imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by a single-dose delivery of 4.0, 10.0, 16.0, and 20.0 Gy on 5.0-mm spots, spaced 10.0 mm apart in the esophagus. They were repeatedly imaged using OCT up to three months postirradiation. We compared OCT findings with histopathology obtained three months postirradiation qualitatively and quantitatively using the contrast-to-background-noise ratio (CNR). Histopathology mostly showed inflammatory infiltration and edema at higher doses; OCT findings were in agreement with most of the histopathological reports. We were able to identify the ARIED on OCT as a change in tissue scattering and layer thickness. Our statistical analysis showed significant difference between the CNR values of healthy tissue, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. Overall, the average CNR for inflammatory infiltration and edema damages was 1.6-fold higher and 1.6-fold lower than for the healthy esophageal wall, respectively. Our results showed the potential role of OCT to detect and monitor the ARIED in mice, which may translate to humans.

  20. Aloe vera oral administration accelerates acute radiation-delayed wound healing by stimulating transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiba, Ayman; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Goryo, Masanobu; Shimada, Yoshiya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    Delayed wound healing is a significant clinical problem in patients who have had previous irradiation. This study investigated the effectiveness of Aloe vera (Av) on acute radiation-delayed wound healing. The effect of Av was studied in radiation-exposed rats compared with radiation-only and control rats. Skin wounds were excised on the back of rats after 3 days of local radiation. Wound size was measured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after wounding. Wound tissues were examined histologically and the expressions of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Wound contraction was accelerated significantly by Av on days 6 and 12 after wounding. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and the expression levels of TGF-β-1 and bFGF were significantly higher in the radiation plus Av group compared with the radiation-only group. These data showed the potential application of Av to improve the acute radiation-delayed wound healing by increasing TGF-β-1 and bFGF production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parenteral nutrition in experimental acute radiation injury of the abdominal cavity organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdov, S.P.; Moroz, B.B.; Fedorovskij, L.L.; Kendysh, I.N.; Vasilevskaya, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities of metabolism in rats after partial body irradiation of the abdomen in a high dose and the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) with various compositions of diagrams on metabolic indexes with the aim of explaining diagram under conditions of intensive radiation injury of gastrointestinal tract, are investigated. Experiments have been carried out on male rats of the Vistar line, subjected to partial-body X-ray irradiation of the abdomen with the dose of 1400 R. It is shown that under conditions of radiation effect with predominnt unjury of the abdomen, considerable suppression of oxidation processes limits metabolism of nutritious substances. A decrease of glucose and amino acid content in PN produces a pronounced therapeutic effect under these conditions. The increase of lipid component in the PN composition and retabolile introduction increases PN therapeutic effect [ru

  2. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  3. Mapping of murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia susceptibility loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darakhshan, F.

    2001-01-01

    Studies on radiation-induced AML have shown characteristic phenotypic variation in susceptibility amongst inbred mouse strains, suggesting the involvement of genetic factors in determining the development of AML post-irradiation exposure. The main objective of the present study therefore was to identify and map markers in linkage disequilibrium with gene variants associated with influencing susceptibility to radiation induced AML in mice. Given Chr 2 abnormalities are characteristic of AML in mice, this feature was exploited in an effort to overcome the long latency for AML development. Analysis of Chr 2 aberrations at 24 and 48 h following irradiation established a positive correlation between Chr 2 radiosensitivity and radiation-AML susceptibility thus validating the choice of substitute assay. The analysis also resulted in the identification of a further trait, additional to Chr 2 radiosensitivity, termed overall chromosome radiosensitivity. Genetic mapping of Chr 2 radiosensitivity using public domain microsatellite database information resulted in the definition of cluster regions on 7 different chromosomes. Further genotyping reduced the candidate regions to 3 specific regions of interest. A test of allelic association could not ascertain a conclusive link between markers at these regions and the Chr 2 radiosensitivity/radiation-AML susceptibility phenotype. However, a region on Chr 4 around D4Mit221 appears to be most strongly associated. Similar studies identified three chromosomal regions of interest (on Chrs 4, 8 and 16) associated with overall chromosome radiosensitivity trait. An independent mapping strategy using F3 RCS confirmed the likely involvement of two of the candidate Chr 2 radiosensitivity regions identified by the inbred analysis including that on Chr 4 and also highlighted phenotypic heterogeneity amongst resistant RC strains, suggesting the influence of multiple alleles in specific phenotypes. RFLP analysis of candidate genes, localised on

  4. Remote effects in treated dogs survived acute radiation sickness. Hemodynamics at various times after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.; Lopukhova, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Dogs were exposed to X-radiation at a dose of 15 Gy; part of them received a complex treatment. The morphological of internal organs of control dogs were made before death (on days 4 to 15 after irradiation). The treated dogs were killed 0.5-2 years following irradiation. Hemodynamics normalization was noted in 1.5-2 years in the liver, brain cortex, adrenals, insular tissue of the pancreas, and lymph nodes

  5. Radiation damage, treatment of tumor and acute benzene toxicosis effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiagui; Lin Xingcheng; Zhu Yuyu

    1987-09-01

    The protective effects of SOD on irradiated-mice were studied by white cell counts, determination of taurine in urine, and survival of irradiated-animals. The enzyme was protective against radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. The protective effect of SOD on patients suffered from cancer was also studied by white cell counts. The effect of SOD on white cell counts in mice of benzene toxicosis was also discussed

  6. Some physico-chemical characteristics of a modified histone H2b on acute radiation affection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapunov, S.N.; Mel'nik, G.G.; Blyum, Ya.B.; Tsudzevich, B.A.; Kucherenko, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of optical characteristics of histone H2b isolated from liver nuclei 12 h following irradiation in a dose of 0.21 C/kg. It was demonstrated that under similar conditions, the control and exposed histones H2b have different steric organization which correlates with radiation-induced modifications of lateral radicals in H2b histone molecules

  7. Non-linear dose response of a few plant taxa to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.T.; Patel, B.B.; Pius, J.; Narula, B.; Shankhadarwar, S.; Rane, V.A.; Venu-Babu, P.; Eapen, S.; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Micronuclei induction serves as an essential biomarker of radiation stress in a living system, and the simplicity of its detection technique has made it a widely used indicator of radiation damage. The present study was conducted to reveal the cytological dose-response of a few plant taxa, viz., Allium cepa var. aggregatum Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, to low LET gamma radiation with special emphasis on the pattern of micronuclei induced across low and high dose regimes. A tri-phasic non-linear dose-response pattern was observed in the four taxa studied, characterized by a low dose linear segment, a plateau and a high dose linear segment. Despite a similar response trend, the critical doses where the phase transitions occurred varied amongst the plant taxa, giving an indication to their relative radiosensitivities. E. crassipes and A. sativum, with their lower critical doses for slope modifications of phase transitions, were concluded as being more radiosensitive as compared to C. comosum and A. cepa, which had relatively higher critical doses. (author)

  8. Evidence for a decreased susceptibility to acute radiation lethality in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P B [Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt (New Zealand). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Pfeffer, A T [Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Upper Hutt (New Zealand). Wallaceville Animal Research Centre

    1980-08-01

    The survival of 2- to 4-day old Romney-lambs was studied following bilateral /sup 60/Co irradiation at about 3.5 R/min (the exposure rate in air at the mid-line of the animal). Probit analysis of the data yielded an LDsub(50/60) of 900 R with 95% confidence limits of 700-1150 R. Mature sheep irradiated under similar conditions are known to have an LDsub(50/60) in the region of 250-350 R. These data indicate that very young lambs were less susceptible to radiation-induced hemopoietic failure than adults. Dorset Horn lambs and Romneys born by caesarian section also exhibited low susceptibility when irradiated at 2-4 days of age. There are few data available on LD/sub 50/ values for very young, large mammals (as opposed to rodents). Consideration must be given to the possibility that large mammals may be less sensitive to radiation-induced lethality shortly after birth than they are at maturity. Further work on the radiation response as a function of age after birth seems warranted and suggestions for some of the parameters which require investigation are made.

  9. Deficient innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and gene expression response to radiation in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wing; Neale, Geoffrey; Behm, Fred; Iyengar, Rekha; Finkelstein, David; Kastan, Michael B; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2010-06-01

    Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at an increased risk of developing secondary malignant neoplasms. Radiation and chemotherapy can cause mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities and induce genomic instability. Host immunity and appropriate DNA damage responses are critical inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine the long-term effects of ALL treatment on immune function and response to DNA damage. Comparative studies on 14 survivors in first complete remission and 16 siblings were conducted. In comparison to siblings on the cells that were involved in adaptive immunity, the patients had either higher numbers (CD19+ B cells and CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells) or similar numbers (alphabetaT cells and CD45RO+/RA- memory T cells) in the blood. In contrast, patients had lower numbers of all lymphocyte subsets involved in innate immunity (gammadeltaT cells and all NK subsets, including KIR2DL1+ cells, KIR2DL2/L3+ cells, and CD16+ cells), and lower natural cytotoxicity against K562 leukemia cells. Thymopoiesis was lower in patients, as demonstrated by less CD45RO-/RA+ naïve T cell and less SjTREC levels in the blood, whereas the Vbeta spectratype complexity score was similar. Array of gene expression response to low-dose radiation showed that about 70% of the probesets had a reduced response in patients. One of these genes, SCHIP-1, was also among the top-ranked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) during the whole-genome scanning by SNP microarray analysis. ALL survivors were deficient in innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and DNA damage responses to radiation. These defects may contribute to their increased likelihood of second malignancy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of adult and embryonic calanoid copepods to acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrs, C.W.; Trabalka, J.R.; Bardill, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of 60 Co γ-rays on adult and embryonic calanoid copepods (Diaptomus clavipes Schact) were determined following acute doses of 0, 1, 10, and 100 krads. Mean survivorship of adults ranged from 3.1 to 45.2 days (100 krad and controls, respectively) and decreased significantly at each increase in dose. The 100-krad dose effected 100 percent mortality to all embryos. Whereas all clutches in the controls had some hatching success, a progressive increase in percentage of clutches in which no hatching took place was seen over the dose range used. Nearly twice as many clutches were dropped in the irradiated group as in the controls. While a significant decrease in hatching success with increasing dose was observed when all clutches were compared, this was not the case at the lowest dose for carried clutches. Possibly the females are able to assess the physiological state of the embryos carried and eject clutches containing damaged eggs. (U.S.)

  11. Rationale treatment and preventive measures for correction of bone structure in children with acute leukemia, exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Bruslova, K.M.; Tsvjetkova, N.M.; Kopilova, O.V.; Belyingyio, T.O.; Berezovs'kij, S.Ya.; Petrun'ko, M.P.; Boyars'kij, V.G.; Polyans'ka, V.M.; Pushkar'ova, T.Yi.; Myishchenko, L.P.; Volodyina, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of bone densitometry, calcium and cortisol levels and increase of serum alkaline phosphatase and urine oxyproline were found in children with acute leukemia in acute I phase and during the chemotherapy. In the period of remission the majority of patients did not differ from the comparison group. The signs of osteopenic syndrome that require monitoring of the bone structure status were revealed in 10.0 % of children of the comparison group. Radiation doses of leukemia patients were 3.66 ± 0.11 mSv. No relationship between radiation dose and indicators that reflect the state of the bone tissue structures has been established. The use of complex health care measures in children with acute leukemia in remission, contributed to the positive effect of 62.0 %. Worser effect was observed in patients with an unfavorable course of the disease. Results of the study of bone tissue metabolism prove fore a change in the organic and mineral matrix in patients with acute leukemia exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chornobyl NPP accident, and persons without hematologic diseases, and the need for treatment and prevention

  12. The effect of non-steroid antiphlogistics on the course of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchelkova, L.; Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.

    1998-01-01

    A number of new non-steroid antiphlogistics have been synthesized recently with a view to reducing their side effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Among them is a derivative of one of conventional antiphlogistics, flurbiprofen 4-nitroxybutyl ester, from which nitrogen oxide (NO) is released in the gastrointestinal tract. NO has a protective effect on the mucous membrane. Experiments gave evidence that this modification of the flurbiprofen molecule does not bring about reduction of the stimulating effect on the post-irradiation recovery of blood formation. Owing to its low toxicity towards the gastrointestinal tract, flurbiprofen 4-nitroxybutyl ester appears to be a promising drug for protection against radiation-induced myelosuppression

  13. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year.

  14. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year

  15. Expression of MDM2 in an acute lymphocytic leukemia mice model induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuecheng; Cai Jianming; Han Ling; Gao Fu; Cui Jianguo; Gao Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the MDM 2 in the process of carcinogenesis induced by γ-rays and its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Animal model of radiation-induced leukemia was established by γ-irradiation. According to the histological and morphological results, mice tissues were divided into three groups: cancerization group, incancerization group and control group. Expression of MDM 2 protein and mRNA in thymus/bone marrow was detected with Western blot and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. The authors also examined the protein phosphorylation level of MDM 2 protein by immunoprecipitation (IP). PCR-SSCP was performed to detect gene mutation. Results: A mice leukemia model was successfully established as verified by pathological findings and confirmed by transplantation test in nude mice. The protein expression in thymus/bone marrow in irradiation groups was significantly higher than that in controls (P 2 was found to be hyper-phosphorylated in the cancerization group as compared with other groups. No gene mutation was detected by SSCP/silver-staining assay in the tumor samples. Conclusion: MDM 2 may be involved in the development and progression of leukemia induced by γ-irradiation. The over-expression but not gene mutation may be responsible for malignant transformation induced by radiation. Phosphorylation is at least partly attributed to activation of MDM 2

  16. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z M; Zhong, H Q; Zhai, J; Wang, C X; Xiong, H L; Guo, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo. (paper)

  17. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ahmed E.; Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  18. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F 0 and F 1 Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F 0 Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F 2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F 2 progeny of irradiated F 0 Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F 2 progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F 2 progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  19. The importance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the diagnosis and clinical course of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Muhsin; Değirmenci, Serdar; Göya, Cemil; Tuncel, Elif Tuba; Uçmak, Feyzullah; Kaplan, Mehmet Ali

    2018-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by acute inflammation of the pancreas and it has a highly variable clinical course. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the diagnosis and clinical course of AP. Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of AP (patients group) and healthy subject (control group) were prospectively enrolled to the study. Demographic features and clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were recorded. Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) was used to implement ARFI elastography. The tissue elasticity is proportional to the square of the wave velocity (SWV). A total of 108 patients (age, 57±1.8 y) and 79 healthy subjects (age, 53.6±1.81 y) were included in the study. There were 100 (92.5%) edematous and 8 (7.4%) necrotizing AP. The mean SWV was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (2.43±0.08 vs. 1.27±0.025 m/s, p < 0.001). There was not significant difference between patient and control group regarding age and gender. SWV cutoff value of 1.63 m/s was associated with 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for the diagnosis of AP. There was not significant difference between patients with and without complications and patients with edematous and necrotizing AP regarding mean SWV value. There was also not significant correlation between mean SWV value and age, mean length of hospital stay, and mean amylase level. ARFI elastography may be a feasible method for the diagnosis of AP, but it has no value for the prediction of clinical course of AP.

  20. The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm 3 , respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm 3 ) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm 3 increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

  1. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  2. Role of central nervous system in acute radiation syndrome functional metabolic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Fatome, M.; Gueneau, J.; Rouif, G.; Pasquier, C.; Bassant, M.H.; Dufour, R.

    In adult rabbit, the effect on the brain of a whole-body or encephalic gamma irradiation is a function of the absorbed dose and begins after 25 rads. Three phases are described in the mechanism of radiation effect. In the initial phase, irradiation acts as a direct stimulus of cerebral structures. The second phase is a response towards aggression which includes: the effect of stimulation of various cerebral structures; their response and the induced feed-back mechanism; the release of metabolites inducing a functional metabolic encephalopathy in which occur: modification of blood pressure; modification of pulmonary ventilation; modification of acido-basic blood equilibrium. The third phase consists of functional recovery [fr

  3. Brainstem dose is associated with patient-reported acute fatigue in head and neck cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Matthew J; Zhong, Jim; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Higgins, Kristin A; Cassidy, Richard J; McDonald, Mark W; Eaton, Bree R; Patel, Kirtesh R; Steuer, Conor E; Baddour, H Michael; Miller, Andrew H; Bruner, Deborah W; Xiao, Canhua; Beitler, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Radiation (RT) dose to the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated as a contributor to treatment-related fatigue in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). This study evaluates the association of RT dose to CNS structures with patient-reported (PRO) fatigue scores in a population of HNC patients. At pre-RT (baseline), 6th week of RT, and 1-month post-RT time points, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) scores were prospectively obtained from 124 patients undergoing definitive treatment for HNC. Medulla, pons, midbrain, total brainstem, cerebellum, posterior fossa, and pituitary dosimetry were evaluated using summary statistics and dose-volume histograms, and associations with MFI-20 scores were analyzed. Maximum dose (Dmax) to the brainstem and medulla was significantly associated with MFI-20 scores at 6th week of RT and 1-month post-RT time points, after controlling for baseline scores (p<0.05). Each 1Gy increase in medulla Dmax resulted in an increase in total MFI-20 score over baseline of 0.30 (p=0.026), and 0.25 (p=0.037), at the 6th week of RT and 1-month post-RT, respectively. Each 1Gy increase in brainstem Dmax resulted in an increase in total MFI-20 score over baseline of 0.30 (p=0.027), and 0.25 (p=0.037) at the 6th week of RT, 1-month post-RT, respectively. Statistically significant associations were not found between dosimetry for the other CNS structures and MFI-20 scores. In this analysis of PRO fatigue scores from a population of patients undergoing definitive RT for HNC, maximum dose to the brainstem and medulla was associated with a significantly increased risk of acute patient fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Pseudomonas contamination or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on acute radiation lethality after neutron or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of antibiotic decontamination of Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract prior to whole-body neutron or gamma irradiation was studied. It was observed that for fission neutron doses greater than 5.5 Gy, cyclotron-produced neutron doses greater than 6.7 Gy, and 137Cs gamma-ray doses greater than 14.4 Gy, the median survival time of untreated rats was relatively constant at 4.2 to 4.5 days, indicating death was due to intestinal injury. Within the dose range of 3.5 to 5.5 Gy of fission neutrons, 4.9 to 6.7 Gy of cyclotron-produced neutrons, and 9.6 to 14.4 Gy of gamma rays, median survival time of these animals was inversely related to dose and varied from 12 to 4.6 days. This change in survival time with dose reflects a transition in the mechanisms of acute radiation death from pure hematopoietic, to a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic, to pure intestinal death. Decontamination of the GI tract with antibiotics prior to irradiation increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this transitional dose range. Contamination of the intestinal flora with Pseudomonas aeruginosa prior to irradiation reduced median survival time 1 to 5 days in the same radiation dose range. Pseudomonas-contaminated animals irradiated within this transitional dose range had maximum concentrations of total bacteria and Pseudomonas in their livers at the time of death. However, liver bacteria concentration was usually higher in gamma-irradiated animals, due to a smaller contribution of hematopoietic injury in neutron-irradiated animals. The effects of both decontamination of the GI tract and Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract were negligible in the range of doses in which median survival time was dose independent, i.e., in the pure intestinal death dose range

  5. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: jhuang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  6. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  7. Combination therapeutics of Nilotinib and radiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia as an effective method against drug-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Kaveh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is characterized by a very poor prognosis and a high likelihood of acquired chemo-resistance. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy has improved clinical outcome, most ALL patients relapse following treatment with TKI due to the development of resistance. We developed an in vitro model of Nilotinib-resistant Ph+ leukemia cells to investigate whether low dose radiation (LDR in combination with TKI therapy overcome chemo-resistance. Additionally, we developed a mathematical model, parameterized by cell viability experiments under Nilotinib treatment and LDR, to explain the cellular response to combination therapy. The addition of LDR significantly reduced drug resistance both in vitro and in computational model. Decreased expression level of phosphorylated AKT suggests that the combination treatment plays an important role in overcoming resistance through the AKT pathway. Model-predicted cellular responses to the combined therapy provide good agreement with experimental results. Augmentation of LDR and Nilotinib therapy seems to be beneficial to control Ph+ leukemia resistance and the quantitative model can determine optimal dosing schedule to enhance the effectiveness of the combination therapy.

  8. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with acute haemorrhage. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.-M.; Chiu, H.-M.; Chan, C.-M.; Cheung, Y.-L.; Tang, K.-W.; Law, C.-K.

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhage from rupture of petrous ICA aneurysm can be life threatening and emergency treatment is required. We report 2 cases of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm presenting with acute hemorrhage (epistaxis and otorrhagia) after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both patients had a history of RT treatment for NPC. The first patient, a 54-year-old man, presented with sudden severe epistaxis and hemorrhagic shock. The second patient, a 35-year-old man, presented with episodes of severe otorrhagia. The first patient was immediately resuscitated. Obliteration of the aneurysm was performed by endovascular occlusion of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils and fibered platinum coils. For the second patient, the aneurysm was treated by deploying a self-expandable stent across the aneurysm neck. In an emergency situation, ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm can be treated with endovascular occlusion of the ICA with micro-coils if there is a good collateral blood flow. Alternatively, the aneurysm can be treated by deployment of a stent, which can induce stasis and eventual thrombosis of the aneurysm. (author)

  9. The protective effects of resveratral on acute radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Wang Hui; Zhang Heng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective function of resveratrol on radiation-induced small intestine injury and lethal effect in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into three groups: irradiation (IR) control, IR only, and IR+ resveratrol. 15 mice each group were irradiated on abdomen with 7.2 Gy γ-rays for cell lethal assay and 8 mice each group were irradiated with 6.5 Gy for small intestine injury assay. For the IR+ resveratrol group, the mouse was given resveratrol by intragastric administration 24 h before irradiation and then was fed with resveratrol daily for 5 days. The control and IR alone groups were fed with placebo. After 30 days of IR, mouse survival rate was detected. For small intestine injury experiments, 24 h after IR, the mice were terminated and the small intestines were treated with HE and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Compared with the irradiation group, resveratrol increased mouse survival by 33.3%, decreased apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells (t = 17.35, P < 0.05), and increased Ki67 expression (t = 13.62, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Resveratrol could protect small intestine injury from ionizing irradiation. (authors)

  10. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  11. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2013-12-01

    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  12. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Jamie A.; Wong, Kee H.; Gay, Hiram; Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya; Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Nutting, Christopher M.; Gulliford, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  13. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Jamie A., E-mail: jamie.dean@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Wong, Kee H. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nutting, Christopher M. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Gulliford, Sarah L. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  14. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I. [Department of Biology, Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI, Studgorodok,1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249040 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina Str. 3, 11933 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F{sub 0} and F{sub 1}Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F{sub 0}Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F{sub 2} total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F{sub 2} progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F{sub 2} progeny of irradiated F{sub 0}Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F{sub 1} progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F{sub 2} progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F{sub 1} progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F{sub 2} progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F{sub 2} progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  15. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jamie A; Wong, Kee H; Gay, Hiram; Welsh, Liam C; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya; Newbold, Kate L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Harrington, Kevin J; Deasy, Joseph O; Nutting, Christopher M; Gulliford, Sarah L

    2016-11-15

    Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue-sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares-logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component-logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate-response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/-0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/-0.96, 0.79/-0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe toxicity in the PLR models. Dose levels greater than

  16. Updated assessment of the six-minute walk test as predictor of acute radiation-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Jingfang; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Das, Shiva; Hollis, Donna R.; Folz, Rodney J.; Wong, Terence Z.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a predictor of symptomatic radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). Methods: As part of a prospective trial to study radiation-induced lung injury, 53 patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy (RT) underwent a pre-RT 6MWT, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and had ≥3-month follow-up for prospective assessment of Grade 2 or worse RP (requiring medications or worse). Dosimetric parameters (e.g., the percentage of lung receiving ≥30 Gy) were extracted from the lung dose-volume histogram. The correlations between the 6MWT and PFT results were assessed using Pearson's correlation. The receiver operating characteristic technique was used in patient subgroups to evaluate the predictive capacities for RP of the dosimetric parameters, 6MWT results, and PFT results, or the combination (using discriminant analysis) of all three metrics. ROCKIT software was used to compare the receiver operating characteristic areas between each predictive model. The association of the decline in 6MWT with the development of RP was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Results: The pre-RT PFT and 6MWT results correlated weakly (r = 0.44-0.57, p ≤ 0.001), suggesting that they measure somewhat different physiologic functions. Of the 53 patients, 9 (17%) developed RP. The dose-volume histogram-based dosimetric parameters were the best single-metric model for predicting RP (e.g., percentage of lung receiving ≥30 Gy, receiver operating characteristic area 0.73, p = 0.03). Including the PFT or 6MWT results with the percentage of lung receiving ≥30 Gy did not improve the predictions. The predictive abilities of dosimetric-based models improved when the analysis was restricted to those patients whose tumors were not causing regional lung dysfunction. No correlation was found between the decline in the 6MWT result and the RP rate (p = 0.6). Conclusion: Although the PFTs and 6MWT are related to each other, the correlation coefficients

  17. The efficacy of octreotide in the therapy of acute radiation-induced diarrhea: a randomized controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Melek N.; Yavuz, A. Aydin; Aydin, Fazil; Can, Gamze; Kavgaci, Halil

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although the somatostatin analog octreotide is currently used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and secretory diarrhea associated with various disorders, its role in the management of radiation enteritis is not well defined. We performed a randomized study that compared octreotide acetate with diphenoxylate hydrochloride plus atropine sulfate, the drug commonly used as therapy for acute radiation-induced diarrhea (ARID). Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with Grade 2 (four to six stools per day) or Grade 3 (≥ seven stools per day, National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) diarrhea associated with pelvic radiotherapy were assigned randomly to receive octreotide s.c., 100 μg three times daily (n=33) or diphenoxylate and atropine orally, 2.5 mg four times daily (n = 28). Radiotherapy was delivered to all patients in a conventional manner, with high-energy photons in a total dose ≥45 Gy, which exceeds the tolerance of intestine. Overall, there was no significant difference in patient characteristics or radiotherapy applied between the two arms. Patients were evaluated daily for the primary study end point, resolution of diarrhea, as well as for interruption of pelvic radiotherapy. Results: Within 3 days, ARID completely resolved in 20 patients in the octreotide arm (2 within the first day, 11 within the second day, and 7 within the third day) vs. only 4 (all within the second day of therapy) in the diphenoxylate arm (p=0.002). On the diphenoxylate arm, 15/28 patients were required to discontinue pelvic radiotherapy; on the octreotide arm, 6/33 patients were required to discontinue pelvic radiotherapy for an average of 1.89±0.5 and 0.45±0.2 days, respectively (p=0.003). No side effects were observed in either arm. Three patients on the diphenoxylate arm and only 1 on the octreotide arm required further treatment for parenteral replenishment of fluids and electrolytes or other antidiarrheal treatments. Conclusion

  18. Identification of biomarkers for radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) in cervical cancer patients by serum protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yanlan; Wang Juan; Gao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most frequent complication of radiotherapy that causes great pain and limits the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify serum biomarkers of RIAISs in cervical cancer patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples were collected from 66 cervical cancer patients prior to pelvic radiotherapy. In our study, RIAISs occurred in 11 patients. An additional 11 patients without RIAISs were selected as controls, whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods were matched to RIAISs patients. The 22 sera were subsequently analyzed by SELDI-TOF MS, and the resulting protein profiles were evaluated to identify biomarkers using appropriate bioinformatics tools. Comparing the protein profiles of serum samples from the RIAIS group and the control group, it was found that 22 protein peaks were significantly different (P < 0.05), and six of these peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 7514.9, 4603.94, 6887.41, 2769.21, 3839.72 and 4215.7 were successfully identified. A decision tree model of biomarkers was constructed based on three biomarkers (m/z 1270.88, 1503.23 and 7514.90), which separated RIAIS-affected patients from the control group with an accuracy of 81%. This study suggests that serum proteomic analysis by SELDI-TOF MS can identify cervical cancer patients that are susceptible to RIAISs prior to pelvic radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Acute toxicity profile of craniospinal irradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in children with medulloblastoma: A prospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Maurice C.; Kusters, Johannes M.; Gidding, Corrie E.; Schieving, Jolanda H.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.; Janssens, Geert O.

    2015-01-01

    To report on the acute toxicity in children with medulloblastoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with daily intrafractionally modulated junctions. Newly diagnosed patients, aged 3–21, with standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) medulloblastoma were eligible. A dose of 23.4 or 36.0Gy in daily fractions of 1.8Gy was prescribed to the craniospinal axis, followed by a boost to the primary tumor bed (54 or 55.8Gy) and metastases (39.6–55.8Gy), when indicated. Weekly, an intravenous bolus of vincristine was combined for patients with SR medulloblastoma and patients participating in the COG-ACNS-0332 study. Common toxicity criteria (CTC, version 2.0) focusing on skin, alopecia, voice changes, conjunctivitis, anorexia, dysphagia, gastro-intestinal symptoms, headache, fatigue and hematological changes were scored weekly during radiotherapy. From 2010 to 2014, data from 15 consecutive patients (SR, n = 7; HR, n = 8) were collected. Within 72 h from onset of treatment, vomiting (66 %) and headache (46 %) occurred. During week 3 of treatment, a peak incidence in constipation (33 %) and abdominal pain/cramping (40 %) was observed, but only in the subgroup of patients (n = 9) receiving vincristine (constipation: 56 vs 0 %, P = .04; pain/cramping: 67 vs 0 %, P = .03). At week 6, 73 % of the patients developed faint erythema of the cranial skin with dry desquamation (40 %) or moist desquamation confined to the skin folds of the auricle (33 %). No reaction of the skin overlying the spinal target volume was observed. Headache at onset and gastro-intestinal toxicity, especially in patients receiving weekly vincristine, were the major complaints of patients with medulloblastoma undergoing craniospinal irradiation with IMRT

  20. A prospective phase II trial of EGCG in treatment of acute radiation-induced esophagitis for stage III lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hanxi; Xie, Peng; Li, Xiaolin; Zhu, Wanqi; Sun, Xindong; Sun, Xiaorong; Chen, Xiaoting; Xing, Ligang; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation-induced esophagitis (ARIE) is one of main toxicities complicated by thoracic radiotherapy, influencing patients’ quality of life and radiotherapy proceeding seriously. It is difficult to be cured rapidly so far. Our phase I trial preliminarily showed that EGCG may be a promising strategy in the treatment of ARIE. Materials and methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with stage III lung cancer from the Shandong Tumor Hospital & Institute in China from January 2013 to September 2014. All patients received concurrent or sequential chemo-radiotherapy, or radiotherapy only. EGCG was administrated once ARIE appeared. EGCG was given with the concentration of 440 μmol/L during radiotherapy and additionally two weeks after radiotherapy. RTOG score, dysphagia and pain related to esophagitis were recorded every week. Results: Thirty-seven patients with stage IIIA and IIIB lung cancer were enrolled in this trial. In comparison to the original, the RTOG score in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th week after EGCG prescription and the 1st, 2nd week after radiotherapy decreased significantly (P = 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.001, 0.102, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). The pain score of each week was significantly lower than the baseline (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.006, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: This trial confirmed that the oral administration of EGCG is an effective and safe method to deal with ARIE. A phase III randomized controlled trial is expected to further corroborate the consequence of EGCG in ARIE treatment

  1. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with(60)Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy).

  2. The effect of Mepitel Film on acute radiation-induced skin reactions in head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Hayley; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ling; Chyou, Te-Yu; Gao, Shanbao; Ward, Iain; Herst, Patries M

    2018-01-01

    Mepitel Film significantly decreases acute radiation-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Here we investigated the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients (ACTRN12614000932662). Out of a total of 36 head and neck cancer patients from New Zealand (NZ) (n = 24) and China (n = 12) recruited between June 2015 and December 2016, 33 patients complied with protocol. Of these, 11 NZ patients followed a management protocol; 11 NZ patients and 11 Chinese patients followed a prophylactic protocol. An area of the neck receiving a homogenous radiation dose of > 35 Gy was divided into two equal halves; one half was randomized to Film and the other to either Sorbolene cream (NZ) or Biafine cream (China). Skin reaction severity was measured by Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale and expanded Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters or gafchromic film. Film decreased overall skin reaction severity (combined Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale score) by 29% and moist desquamation rates by 37% in the Chinese cohort and by 27 and 28%, respectively in the NZ cohort. Mepitel Film did not affect head movements but did not adhere well to the skin, particularly in males with heavy beard stubble, and caused itchiness, particularly in Chinese patients. Mepitel Film reduced acute radiation-induced skin reactions in our head and neck cancer patients, particularly in patients without heavy stubble. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to confirm the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients.

  3. Radiation sensitivity and the acute and chronical radiation injury of the liver. Strahlenempfindlichkeit und die akute und chronische Strahlenschaedigung der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, R [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Experimentelle Pathologie

    1976-01-01

    The extended German version of the contribution 'Radiation-induced injury of the liver' from the manual of experimental pharmacology, volume XVI, part 5 (p. 227-304), Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1976, is dealt with here. Following a brief presentation of the radiation-induced change of the human liver by external and internal radiation source, experimental results in the latter case of the radiation effect on the regeneration behaviour of the liver particularly regarding the nucleic acid synthesis are indicated especially using findings after thorotrast application. Furthermore, effects on the metabolic activities and on the liver function with combined radiation drug application on test animals is shown.

  4. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Kazuto; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Noda, Shin-ei; Harashima, Koichi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Yuko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Takashi; Niibe, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Several investigations have revealed that the α/β ratio for prostate cancer is atypically low, and that hypofractionation or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens using appropriate radiation doses may be expected to yield tumor control and late sequelae rates that are better or at least as favorable as those achieved with conventional radiation therapy. In this setting, we attempted treating localized prostate cancer patients with HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using this approach, with special emphasis on the relationship between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral dose calculated from the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2003, 70 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated by iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at the Gunma University Hospital. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered in fraction doses of 3 Gy, three times per week; a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided HDR brachytherapy. The fraction size and the number of fractions in HDR brachytherapy were prospectively changed, whereas the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The fractionation in HDR brachytherapy was as follows: 5 Gy x 5, 7 Gy x 3, 9 Gy x 2, administered twice per day, although the biologic effective dose (BED) for HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT, assuming that the α/β ratio is 3, was almost equal to 138 in each fractionation group. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on

  5. In vitro radiosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts. Lack of correlation with acute radiation toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, Volker; Dietz, Andreas; Conradt, Christian; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Flentje, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a considerable hope among clinicians and radiobiologists to detect genetically radiosensitive patients prior to radiotherapy. A predictive assay would enable adjustment of the total irradiation dose to the individual at a constant risk of normal tissue complications. In this prospective study, the clonogenic survival assay for primary human fibroblasts to determine radiosensitivity in vitro was evaluated and then correlated with clinically observed acute radiation reactions. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-five independent survival experiments with primary fibroblasts derived from 63 biopsies from 55 cancer and non-cancer patients were performed. Results: A wide variation of cell survival between biopsies was detected. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significantly larger interindividual than intraindividual variation of SF2 values. However, a considerable scatter of SF2 values in repeated experiments was observed in individual cases. Age, gender, disease status (cancer patient, non-cancer patient) and origin of fibroblasts (skin, periodontal tissue) were demonstrated not to be statistically significant confounding factors on the intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro. In a prospective study, no correlation of the SF2 and acute reactions in 25 patients with head and neck cancer treated with a primary accelerated radiochemotherapy was detected. Conclusion: Our data show that the clonogenic assay is able to distinguish between intrinsic radiosensitivities of primary human fibroblasts if a statistical approach is used but does not predict acute radiation toxicity

  6. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  7. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: ... for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: ...

  8. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  9. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.Z.; Maling, T.M.J.; Glocer, J.; Mark, S.; Abbott, C.

    2001-01-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$ 136; CTU A$ 173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119(53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P< 0.43). Mean radiation dose to diagnosis was 5.00 mSv (NCCT) versus 3.50 mSv (IVU) (P < 0.001). Mean imaging time was 30 min (NCCT) versus 75 min (IVU) (P < 0.001). Diagnostic imaging costs were remarkably similar. Although NCCT involves a higher radiation dose than IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10 8  colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer

  11. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  12. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  13. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A₂ in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-04-30

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A₂ (bvPLA₂) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA₂ six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA₂ treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA₂ treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes' mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA₂ on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA₂ are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA₂ in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments.

  14. Comparisons of changes in the duration of hexenal dream induced by the effect of acute radiation and a mixture of radiation and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseeva, L.A.; Budagov, R.S.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    In experiments with Wistar rats it was found that the increase in the length of the hexenal dream during the first week after the effect of a mixture of radiation and heat is much more pronounced than that observed after exposure to radiation alone and independent of the severity of a radiation component (gamma-radiation, 4, 6 and 7.5 Gy). The peculiarities revealed in the hypnotic effect of hexenal develop against the background of the postirradiation aggravation of hypoalbuminemia and decrease in the lever ATP

  15. A randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study of mesalazine for the prevention of acute radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resbeut, Michel; Marteau, Philippe; Cowen, Didier; Richaud, Pierre; Bourdin, Sylvain; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Mere, Pascale; N'Guyen, Tan D.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Symptoms of acute radiation enteritis (ARE), dominated by diarrhea, occur in more than 70% of patients receiving pelvic irradiation. Eicosanoids and free radicals release have been implicated in the pathogenesis. Mesalazine (5-ASA) is a potent inhibitor of their synthesis in the mucosa and could therefore be of some interest in preventing ARE. Patients and methods: The study was performed in six radiotherapy units in France who agreed on standardized irradiation procedures. One hundred and fifty-three patients planned for external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis ≥45 Gy for prostate (n = 97) or uterus (n = 54) cancer were randomized on a double blind basis to receive prophylactic 5-ASA (4 g/day Pentasa[reg]) or placebo. Patients with concomitant chemotherapy were excluded. Prostate and uterus cancers were chosen since these centropelvic tumors require a similar radiotherapy protocol during the first step of treatment and involve a comparable volume of small intestine. The symptoms of ARE and their severity were assessed every week during irradiation, and 1 and 3 months after its end. All patients followed a low fiber and low lactose diet. End points were diarrhea, use of antidiarrheal agents, abdominal pain, and body weight. Efficacy was evaluated using intention to treat. Results: (means ± SD) Groups did not differ for age (mean 64 ± 9 years), sex, tumor site, or irradiation procedure. During irradiation, diarrhea occurred in 69% and 66% of the 5-ASA and placebo groups, respectively (χ 2 , P = 0.22). Curves of survival without diarrhea did not differ between groups (logrank P = 0.09). Severity of diarrhea did not differ between groups except at d15 where it was significantly more severe in the 5-ASA group (ANOVA P = 0.006). Duration of diarrhea did not differ (22 ± 15 days in both groups, P = 0.88). Abdominal pain was less frequently reported in the 5-ASA group at d28 (34% vs. 51%, P 0.048). Use of antidiarrheal agents and body weight

  16. Evaluation of late radiation-induced changes of the superficial microcirculation after acute β-irradiation. II. prognostic importance of the cutaneous doppler laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaix, J.L.; Delanian, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. -The changes that occur in the tissular microcirculation after accidental acute irradiation account for some of the early effects of such irradiation, especially at the cutaneous level. The prognostic importance of the cutaneous laser doppler was tested in an experimental model of acute β-irradiation. Methods.-Ten pigs were given β-irradiation with a high single localized dose of 90 Sr/ 90 Y (32 or 64 Gy, 7 mg/cm 2 ) delivered to the flank, and were evaluated 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days thereafter. Each individual was its own control. The local microcirculation was measured in the resting state and during thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C, using a Periflux cutaneous Doppler laser with p413 probes. Three periods of six minutes each were continuously recorded: period 1 (P1) represented basal resting cutaneous perfusion, with the slope p corresponding to the increase in perfusion when two minutes of thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C began; P2 to plateau perfusion during this stimulation; and P3 to perfusion on the return to equilibrium. Results. -After acute β-irradiation in the pig, all the cutaneous microcirculation parameters measured (P1, p, P2 and P3) had risen at day 2 in the irradiated area by a factor of 2 to 4, depending on the dose (p < 0.001), compared to the adjacent control area. On the other hand, as from day 7, the resting and the stimulated microcirculation varied little, except for a reduction of the slope p by a factor of 2 (p < 0.05) after the strongest radiation dose. Conclusion. -After acute irradiation, the increase in the resting cutaneous microcirculation may correspond to immediate but transitory capillary vasodilatation that accompanies the initial erythema in accidental irradiation. The absence of vascular response to thermal stimulation seems to be a good means of reaching an early diagnosis of delayed cutaneous radiation necrosis. (authors)

  17. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

  18. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-02-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the "Fukushima Accident." In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care. This

  19. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  20. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  1. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V 45 ) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V 45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V 45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V 45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V 45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V 45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V 45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V 45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  2. Successful Teaching of Radiobiology Students in the Medical Management of Acute Radiation Effects From Real Case Histories Using Clinical Signs and Symptoms and Taking Advantage of Recently Developed Software Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Matthäus; Combs, Stephanie E; Trott, Klaus-Rüdiger; Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2018-07-01

    In 2015, the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology organized a North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercise to examine the significance of clinical signs and symptoms for the prediction of late-occurring acute radiation syndrome. Cases were generated using either the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims (METREPOL, n = 167) system or using real-case descriptions extracted from a database system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH, n = 24). The cases ranged from unexposed [response category 0 (RC 0, n = 89)] to mild (RC 1, n = 45), moderate (RC 2, n = 19), severe (RC 3, n = 20), and lethal (RC 4, n = 18) acute radiation syndrome. During the previous exercise, expert teams successfully predicted hematological acute radiation syndrome severity, determined whether hospitalization was required, and gave treatment recommendations, taking advantage of different software tools developed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization teams. The authors provided the same data set to radiobiology students who were introduced to the medical management of acute effects after radiation exposure and the software tools during a class lasting 15 h. Corresponding to the previous results, difficulties in the discrimination between RC 0/RC 1 and RC 3/RC 4, as well as a systematic underestimation of RC 1 and RC 2, were observed. Nevertheless, after merging reported response categories into clinically relevant groups (RC 0-1, RC 2-3, and RC 3-4), it was found that the majority of cases (95.2% ± 2.2 standard deviations) were correctly identified and that 94.7% (±2.6 standard deviations) developing acute radiation syndrome and z96.4% (±1.6 standard deviations) requiring hospitalization were identified correctly. Two out of three student teams also provided a dose estimate. These results are comparable to the best-performing team of the 2015 North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercise (response category: 92.5%; acute

  3. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S; Sykes, J; Butler, J; Wisenberg, G; Prato, F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  4. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Sykes, J; Butler, J [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom); Wisenberg, G; Prato, F [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  5. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  6. The effects of acute joint exposure to radiation and certain pesticides on the peripheric blood in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of joint external γ-radiation and some pesticides on the peripheric blood is studied. Lindane, trichlorfon and tetramethylthiuram disulfide are used as toxic chemicals. It is shown that the combined effect has caused, like radiation, stable leukopenia, but less expressed than the effect of gamma radiation. It is especially obvious in the case of combining ionizing radiation and TMTD when the number of leukocytes averaged by 25% more than in the case of injury by radiation alone. Lymphocytes are most sensitive blood cell elements earily responsing to radiation and chemical organism injuries, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of analyzing the dynamics of the most qualitative and quantitative paramaters of leukocytes permit to state the summation of mutual effects of factors of radiation and chemical nature

  7. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  8. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  9. Evaluation of mid- and long-term consequences, clinical and social performance in Chernobyl acute radiation syndrome patients in a multi-centre clinical follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.; Fischer, B.; Fliedner, T.M.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Belyi, D.A.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Nadejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 nearly all survivors (n=199) of 237 patients with suspected acute radiation syndrome (ARS) underwent regular follow-up investigations in the scientific centres in Kiev and in Moscow. In a close collaboration with these centres we investigate the health status of this population in a five step approach. An integral part of this approach to patient evaluation and analysis of the mid- and long-term consequences of the Chernobyl accident is a 'Questionnaire for clinical, laboratory and functional follow-up of radiation-exposed persons', developed with these centres. Beyond this project we report as an interim some results of analyses performed by the scientific centers in Kiev and in Moscow about disorders of the cardiovascular system and the digestive tract, formation of cataract, generalized and local skin injuries and/or disorders as well as for a subpopulation (n=89) the Karnofsky performance score and working ability

  10. Preclinical acute toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and microPET imaging studies of ["1"8F]fluorocholine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya M.Z.M.D.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C.; Costa, Flávia M.; Mendes, Bruno M.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B.; Mamede, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    ["1"8F]Fluorocholine (["1"8F]FCH) has been proven to be effective in prostate cancer. Since ["1"8F]FCH is classified as a new radiopharmaceutical in Brazil, preclinical safety and efficacy data are required to support clinical trials and to obtain its approval. The aim of this work was to perform acute toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and microPET imaging studies of ["1"8F]FCH. The results could support its use in nuclear medicine as an important piece of work for regulatory in Brazil. - Highlights: • Data demonstrated the high quality, safety and effectiveness of ["1"8F]FCH. • ["1"8F]FCH preclinical profile is in accordance with previously published. • Toxicity, distribution, kinetics and radiation dosimetry were well characterized. • The results are important for regulatory issues in Brazil and other countries.

  11. Pathological characteristics of extremely severe acute radiation injury in a patient's legs and hands after a very uneven accidental exposure to an extremely high dose of 192Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Li Guomin; Liu Shujun; Yang Yijing; Li Fumeng; Yang Junhua

    1997-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of an extremely high dose radiation in the legs and hands of a patient is reported. the patient was exposed to 192 Ir γ-rays for 9 hours and 20 minutes, the activity of which was 2.76 TBq. The amputations of the right thigh and left forearm had to be performed 8 days after the irradiation and the debridements and skin graftings were performed on the right hand and the inner side of left knee 55 days after the radiation. Microscopically, massive necrosis of cells of the epidermis, cutaneous appendages, hypodermics and skeletal muscles, and hemorrhage in the dermis, hypodermics and skeletal muscles were seen in the local irradiated parts of the right shank. But the arrector pili muscles in the dermis of the right shank remained. On the fingers and the palm of the left hand, vacuolar degeneration and massive necrosis of the cells of epidermis were present with extensive neutrophil infiltration. Cysts of large or small size were formed from the necrotic cells, separating epidermis from dermis. There were degeneration and necrosis of glandular epithelium cells of sweat glands. Hemorrhage was present in dermis and hypodermics. All the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow in the upper ends of the tibia and fibula and in the lower ends of the femur, the radius and the ulna disappeared. Acute radiation ulcers were present on the skin of the left knee and on the skin of the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand. The extremely severe acute radiation injury caused by extremely high dose of 192 Ir led to the necrosis of the extensive soft tissues deep to skeletal muscles and the disappearance of the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow

  12. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute radiation oesophagitis associated with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography/CT during chemo-radiation therapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Callahan, Jason; Obeid, Eman; Hicks, Rodney J.; MacManus, Michael; Ball, David

    2017-01-01

    Acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) is frequently experienced by patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (cCRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated ARO symptoms (CTCAE v3.0), radiation dose and oesophageal FDG PET/CT uptake. Candidates received cCRT (60 Gy, 2 Gy/fx) and sequential FDG PET/CT (baseline FDG 0 , FDG wk2 and FDG wk4 ). Mean and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV mean and SUV max ) and radiation dose (O mean and O max ) were calculated within the whole oesophagus and seven sub-regions (5–60 Gy). Forty-four patients underwent FDG 0 and FDG wk2 , and 41 (93%) received FDG wk4 , resulting in 129 PET/CT scans for analysis. Of 29 (66%) patients with ≥ grade 2 ARO, SUVmax (mean ± SD) increased from FDG 0 to FDG wk4 (3.06 ± 0.69 to 3.83 ± 1.27, P = 0.0019) and FDG wk2 to FDG wk4 (3.10 ± 0.75 to 3.83 ± 1.27, P = 0.0046). Radiation dose (mean ± SD) was higher in grade ≥2 patients; O mean (47.5 ± 20 vs 53.9 ± 10.2, P = 0.0061), O max (13.7 ± 9.6 vs 20.1 ± 10.6, P = 0.0009) and V40 Gy (8.0 ± 8.2 vs 11.9 ± 7.3, P = 0.0185). FDG wk4 SUVmax and radiation dose were associated with ≥ grade 2 ARO. Compared to subjective assessments, future interim FDG PET/CT acquired for disease response assessment may also be utilized to objectively characterize ARO severity and image-guided oesophageal dose constraints.

  14. Prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis in relation to the acute radiation syndrome. A retrospective analysis based on the data base SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebbel, Mathias Niklaus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The following thesis explores the prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnoses in relation to acute radiation syndrome. This is a retrospective analysis based on the SEARCH (System of Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database, which was created by a team of researchers in Ulm in 1998. The SEARCH database compiled health status data of individuals involved in a total of 78 ionized radiation accidents between 1945 and 2003. In the past changes in bloodbuilding systems were considered the defining factor in determining a prognosis regarding survival times. Treatment decisions were made in line with these findings, including stem-cell transplants. In recent history, especially after the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl in 1986, the focus shifted onto other organ systems. As a result it has been proven that significant cutaneous damages present an important influence on survival regardless of haematopoiesis. Several researchers have looked at changes in the gastrointestinal tract and possible correlations with radiation induced multiple organ failure. In this paper, all of the data recorded in SEARCH in regards to gastrointestinal symptoms have been analyzed. These include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and changes in bowel movement as well as their onset and severity. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was also further investigated. Despite the occasional gaps in data in SEARCH, results from the analysis proved that the occurrence of certain symptoms, their severity and their onset were directly correlated to life expectancy, regardless of the dose estimation, and the pending blood test results. An immediate triage of these patients by skilled medical professionals is imperative to accurate categorization.

  15. Functional state of pancreatic b-cells during drug-induced hypothyroidism and acute gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatsko, G.G.; Klimenko, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    The combined effect of hypothyroidism caused by mecarzole incorporation and acute g-irradiation in a 1 Gy dose was studied. It was established that the gamma-irradiation on the background of hypothyroidism causes earlier, longer and more expressed activation of b-cells of the pancreas (authors)

  16. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices

  17. Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, E.I.; Misharina, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

  18. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; van der Heide, Uulke A.; van Herk, Marcel; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions

  19. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  20. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  1. The use of human recombinant interleukins 1α- and 1β as an early therapy for the cases of an acute radiation-induced disease (experimental)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogacheva, S.A.; Simbirtsev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Paper presents publications devoted to investigation: therapeutic efficiency of IL-1α interleukins during radio biologic experiment conducted using mice, as well as, IL-1α and IL-1β ones in experiments conducted on dogs. Mice were irradiated using 8.7, 9.0, 9.3 and 9.6 Gy doses, while dogs-using 3.15 Gy dose. Power of the absorbed dose constituted 158 c Gy/min. Recombinant IL-1α and IL-1β are shown to affect therapeutically at acute radiation. The optimal therapeutic dose of IL-1 for mice was a dose equal to 100.0 μgxkg -1 (rise of survival rate at CD 70 by 50%, while at CD 100 by 17%); for dogs - 1.0 μgxkg -1 (rise of survival rate at CD 100 at the background of antibacterial therapy up to 80%)

  2. Use of helium-neon laser for the prevention of acute radiation reaction of the skin in neutron-beam therapy of head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.I.; Musabaeva, L.I.; Kitsmanyuk, Z.D.; Lavrenkov, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary data on helium-neon laser usage to prevent acute radiation skinresponse in patients with head and neck neoplasm were presented in case of fast neutrons therapy with average energy of ≅ 6.3 MeV. Irradiation was performed by 2 fractions a week with single absorbed focal dose of 1.2-1.4 Gy and the dose for the skin was 2-2.2 Gy. RBE of the fast neutrons comprised ∼ 3. Some patients were subjected to neutron therapy in combination with helium-neon laser treatment, the others underwent only neutron therapy. Combination of neutron and helium-neon laser therapy increased skin resistance to neutron irradiation. Combined treatment with neutrons and helium-neon laser decreased development of humid epidermitis by half than in case of neutron treatment alone

  3. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  4. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-15

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  5. Association of TGF-β1 and XPD polymorphisms with severe acute radiation-induced esophageal toxicity in locally advanced lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Yang Ming; Bi Nan; Ji Wei; Wu Chen; Tan Wen; Zhao Lujun; Yu Dianke; Lin Dongxin; Wang Luhua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity (RIET) is a dose-limiting toxicity in lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair and the cytokine pathways play essential roles in radiation-induced diseases. Genetic polymorphisms of genes in these pathways may affect gene function and/or gene expression and lead to different treatment-related esophageal toxicity. Materials and methods: This study investigated the association of 21 polymorphisms in 14 genes, with the occurrence of ≥grade 2 acute RIET. Genotypes were analyzed among 213 stage III lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Results: We used Cox proportional hazard model to examine the effects of genotypes on ≥grade 2 acute RIET risk and Kaplan-Meier estimator to compare effects of different genotypes on such risk. Multivariate analysis showed that CT or TT genotype of TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism was associated with a significantly higher RIET risk (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-5.24; P = 0.018, or HR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.50-9.92; P = 0.005), respectively, compared with the CC genotype. Moreover, Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln genotypes of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism were also associated with a significantly decreased RIET risk (adjusted HR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.96; P = 0.030). Conclusions: This report, for the first time, examined the influence of inherited variation in the DNA repair and the cytokine pathways on RIET.

  6. A phase II randomized study of topical intrarectal administration of amifostine for the prevention of acute radiation-induced rectal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloulias, V.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Aretaieion Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Center of Radiation Oncology, YGEIA Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Athens (Greece); Kouvaris, J.R.; Kokakis, J.D.; Antypas, C.; Mallas, E.; Vosdoganis, S.P.; Vlahos, L.J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Aretaieion Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Pissakas, G. [Radiotherapy Dept., Agios Savvas Anticancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Matsopoulos, G. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Michopoulos, S. [Gastroenterology Unit, Alexandra General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kostakopoulos, A. [Urology Dept., Sismanoglio Hospital, Univ. of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: to investigate the cytoprotective effect of intrarectal amifostine administration on acute radiation-induced rectal toxicity. Patients and methods: 67 patients with T1b-2 NO MO prostate cancer were randomized to receive amifostine intrarectally (group A, n - 33) or not (group B, n = 34) before irradiation. Therapy was delivered using a four-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. In group A, 1,500 mg amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution in a 40-ml enema. Two different toxicity scales were used: EORTC/RTOG rectal and urologic toxicity criteria along with a Subjective-RectoSigmoid (S-RS) scale based on the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. Objective measurements with rectosigmoidoscopy were performed at baseline and 1-2 days after the completion of radiotherapy. The area under curve for the time course of mucositis (RTOG criteria) during irradiation represented the mucositis index (MI). Results: intrarectal amifostine was feasible and well tolerated without any systemic or local side effects. According to the RTOG toxicity scale, five out of 33 patients showed grade 1 mucositis in group A versus 15 out of 34 patients with grade 1/2 in group B (p = 0.026). Mean rectal MI was 0.3 {+-} 0.1 in group A versus 2.2 {+-} 0.4 in group B (p < 0.001), while S-RS score was 3.9 {+-} 0.5 in group A versus 6.3 {+-} 0.7 in group B (p < 0.001). The incidence of urinary toxicity was the same in both groups. Conclusion: intrarectal administration of amifostine seems to have a cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation-induced rectal mucositis. Further randomized studies are needed for definitive therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  7. Acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a daily water-filled endorectal balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Curtiland; Both, Stefan; Bui, Viet; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Kay-See; Schaer, Mattia; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERB H2O ), and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERB H2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Mean age was 68 (range 51–88). Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV) rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps < 0.05). Maximum acute GU toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 for 17%, 41%, and 42% of patients, respectively. Infield bladder V20 (P = 0.03) and pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) (P = 0.003) were associated with grade 2 GU toxicity. Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERB H2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities

  8. Acute postirradiation nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojanowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The pathogenesis, morphological and clinical signs of acute postirradiation nephropathy are described with particular attention paid to the relationship between the clinical signs of renal involvement and the dose of radiation. (author)

  9. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Henry G; Malmgren, Judith A; Atwood, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  10. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.A.; Tapic, R.T.; Aurigue, F.B.

    2008-01-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S.kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S.tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effect of dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also, it sought to determine the lethal dose and optimum dose of gamma radiation on the three species. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose level of gamma radiation. The three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. Results showed that as the dose level and ministered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases whereas, the seedlings height, number of roots and root length decreased. However, there was an increase in the number of leaves at 10 and 20 Gy dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreased the number of leaves. Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma irradiation

  11. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  12. Radiation treatment of acute lymphoid leukemia in children at the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, from 1975 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, Bela; Horvath, Akos; Varjas, Geza; Kardos, Gabriella; Csete, Ferencne

    1987-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1980 the authors performed prophylactic irradiation of the central nervous system of patients younger than 16 years with acute lymphoid leukemia. The theoretic and practical basis of prophylactic irradiation is overviewed. For mean and high level of malignity 24 Gy/g, for low level 18 Gy/g total dose is indicated. Irradiation technique involves the use of cobalt or 3-10 MV bremmstrahlung. The data of 178 patients including the duration of remission, the site of first occurrence and their frequency are presented. The 5-year survival of their patients was found to be 51,7%. (author)

  13. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part II. Recommendations from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Niehoff, P.; Wilhelm, R.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the recommendations from the literature are compared to the results of the questionnaire. An extensive research on common data information systems (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI and others) was performed. The criteria included the organ related morbidity and therapeutic strategies for its reduction. The obtained data were compared to the results from the questionnaire. The study data found by the research often demonstrate small patient numbers and little convincing results. However, as in the questionnaire, the joint principle seems to be the reduction of acute inflammatory tissue reaction by evasion of bacterial and mycotic overgrowth and reduction of exo- and endogenous toxins. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on the hematopoietic niche and treatment of acute radiation syndrome by gene therapy in highly-irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrigou, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The hematopoietic stem cell niche represents a complex radiosensitive compartment whose protection is required for recovery from radiation-induced myelosuppression. We initially studied RI effects on endothelial and mesenchymal progenitors by an evaluating radiosensitivity and cell death. Then, we have proposed a new gene therapy strategy based on local and short term secretion of Sonic hedgehog morphogen to favour vascular niche repair and to stimulate residual hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We investigated the hematopoietic response of 8-Gy gamma irradiated monkeys to a single intra-osseous injection of xenogeneic multipotent mesenchymal stem cells transduced with a Shh pIRES2 plasmid. Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia duration were significantly reduced in grafted animals and clonogenics normalized from day 42. Areas under the curve of PLTs and ANCs between day 0 and day 30 were significantly higher in treated animals than in controls. Grafting Matrigel TM colonized or not with ASC in immunocompromised mice demonstrated a notable pro-angiogenic activity for Shh-ASC. Long term follow up (180-300 days) confirmed a durable recovery in the four grafted monkeys. Globally this study suggests that grafting Shh-multipotent stem cells may represent a new strategy to cure radiation-induced niche damage. (author)

  15. DNA Double-Strand Break Analysis by {gamma}-H2AX Foci: A Useful Method for Determining the Overreactors to Radiation-Induced Acute Reactions Among Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiridi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kanive Parashiva, Guruprasad; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy [Division of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Interindividual variability in normal tissue toxicity during radiation therapy is a limiting factor for successful treatment. Predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before initiation of radiation therapy may have the benefit of opting for altered radiation therapy regimens to achieve minimal adverse effects with improved tumor cure. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and its repair kinetics in lymphocytes of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy was analyzed by counting {gamma}-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay, and a modified version of neutral filter elution assay. Acute normal tissue reactions were assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The correlation between residual DSBs and the severity of acute reactions demonstrated that residual {gamma}-H2AX foci in head-and-neck cancer patients increased with the severity of oral mucositis and skin reaction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that {gamma}-H2AX analysis may have predictive implications for identifying the overreactors to mucositis and skin reactions among head-and-neck cancer patients prior to initiation of radiation therapy.

  16. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Saibaba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Department of Radiation Oncology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka (India); Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu, E-mail: ksatyamoorthy@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  17. Effects of acute sublethal gamma radiation exposure on aggressive behavior in male mice: A dose-response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, D.M.; Landauer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The resident-intruder paradigm was used to assess the effects of gamma radiation (0, 3, 5, 7 Gray [Gy] cobalt-60) on aggressive offensive behavior in resident male mice over a 3-month period. The defensive behavior of nonirradiated intruder mice was also monitored. A dose of 3 Gy had no effect on either the residents' offensive behavior or the defensive behavior of the intruders paired with them. Doses of 5 and 7 Gy produced decreases in offensive behavior of irradiated residents during the second week postirradiation. The nonirradiated intruders paired with these animals displayed decreases in defensive behavior during this time period, indicating a sensitivity to changes in the residents' behavior. After the third week postirradiation, offensive and defensive behavior did not differ significantly between irradiated mice and sham-irradiated controls. This study suggests that sublethal doses of radiation can temporarily suppress aggressive behavior but have no apparent permanent effect on that behavior

  18. The acute effects of ionizing radiation on DNA synthesis and the development of antibody-producing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Olsen, I.; Cramp, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ionizing radiation inhibited the development of specific haemolysin-producing cells (PFC) and depressed the incorporation of ( 3 H) thymidine by rabbit spleen explants responding to SRC in the culture medium. In contrast to these effects, the rates of incorporation of precursors for protein and RNA synthesis were much less affected. The depression of ( 3 H) thymidine incorporation was found to result from a quantitative reduction of new DNA synthesis, without any change in the proportion of labelled cells, at any time after irradiation. The DNA synthesis occurring in these cells preparing to develop antibody-producing capacity was thus radio-sensitive, but the exact nature of the defect resulting from exposure to radiation requires further study. (orig.)

  19. Disturbance of binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins during acute radiation sickness of different experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Omel'chuk, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments on different animals a study was made of the effect of total-body γ-irradiation on binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins. It was demonstrated that the increase in the number of physiologically active corticosteroids at the peak of radiation sickness is due to diminution of linking ability of corticosteroid-binding globulin of blood plasma and independent ot the total concentration of hormones in blood which is, evidently, a general radiobiological law

  20. Use of trolamine to prevent and treat acute radiation dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gomes de Menêses

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effects of trolamine in the prevention or treatment of radiation dermatitis. Method: systematic review and meta-analysis. Detailed individual search strategies for Cinahl, Cochrane Library Central, LILACS, PubMed, and Web of Science were developed in January 2016. A manual search was also performed to find additional references. A grey literature search was executed by using Google Scholar. Two researchers independently read the titles and abstracts from every cross-reference. The risk of bias of the included studies was analyzed by the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. The quality of evidence and grading of strength of recommendations was assessed using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE. Results: seven controlled clinical trials were identified. The controls used were calendula, placebo, institutional preference / usual care, Aquaphor®, RadiaCare™, and Lipiderm™. The studies were pooled using frequency of events and risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals, in subgroups according to radiation dermatitis graduation. Conclusion: based on the studies included in this review, trolamine cannot be considered as a standardized product to prevent or treat radiation dermatitis in patients with breast and head and neck cancer.

  1. Correlation of the acute oxidative stress markers with radiation induced late lung disease response of pneumonitis and/or fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers which predict for the occurrence of radiation-induced lung responses of pneumonitis and/or fibrosis are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated whether markers of oxidative stress and intracellular antioxidants, measured within days of radiation exposure, correlated with the lung tissue injury response occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J, CBA/J, NZW/LacJ) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10-23 weeks) were studied. Mice were unirradiated (controls) or received whole thorax irradiation (18 Gy) and were euthanized at 6h, 1d, 7d, 8w and upon presentation of respiratory distress. Pulmonary levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione, and of oxidative damage (reactive oxygen species (ROS), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and numbers of γH2AX foci), were assessed

  2. Clinical Indicators of Psychosocial Distress Predict for Acute Radiation-Induced Fatigue in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: An Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishan, Amar U.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sharif, Jamal; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Steinberg, Michael L.; McCloskey, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the magnitude and predictors of patient-reported fatigue among breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Patients receiving breast RT completed a survey querying fatigue at each weekly on-treatment visit. Patient-reported fatigue severity and interference was assessed on an ordinal scale of 0 to 4, using a validated scoring system. Baseline anxiety and depression scores were also obtained. The kinetics of mean fatigue scores per week and the maximum fatigue scores over the course of the entire treatment were assessed, and clinical predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate regression. Results: The average fatigue severity and interference scores were 0.6 and 0.46. The average fatigue scores increased to an equivalent extent from week to week, with expected increases of 0.99 in fatigue severity and 0.85 in interference over 7 weeks. Patients treated with hypofractionated RT (HF-RT) versus conventionally fractionated RT (CF-RT) had significantly fewer maximum fatigue severity or interference scores that were >2 (ie, severe or very severe; 29% vs 10% for severity, and 26% vs 8% for interference, P<.01). Age ≤45 years, presence of psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities, and baseline sadness and anxiety severity were predictive of average and maximum fatigue scores (P<.05), but variables related to treatment intensity (eg, mastectomy vs lumpectomy, chemotherapy use, radiation target volumes) and other host factors (working, children, marital status, proximity to RT facility) were not. Conclusion: Patient-reported fatigue modestly increases over RT courses, with less maximum fatigue reported with HF-RT. Younger age and baseline sadness, anxiety, and psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities are powerful predictors of fatigue, whereas other factors, such as treatment intensity, are not. Future studies will investigate interventions for patients at high risk for fatigue.

  3. Clinical Indicators of Psychosocial Distress Predict for Acute Radiation-Induced Fatigue in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: An Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sharif, Jamal; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Steinberg, Michael L.; McCloskey, Susan A., E-mail: smccloskey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the magnitude and predictors of patient-reported fatigue among breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Patients receiving breast RT completed a survey querying fatigue at each weekly on-treatment visit. Patient-reported fatigue severity and interference was assessed on an ordinal scale of 0 to 4, using a validated scoring system. Baseline anxiety and depression scores were also obtained. The kinetics of mean fatigue scores per week and the maximum fatigue scores over the course of the entire treatment were assessed, and clinical predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate regression. Results: The average fatigue severity and interference scores were 0.6 and 0.46. The average fatigue scores increased to an equivalent extent from week to week, with expected increases of 0.99 in fatigue severity and 0.85 in interference over 7 weeks. Patients treated with hypofractionated RT (HF-RT) versus conventionally fractionated RT (CF-RT) had significantly fewer maximum fatigue severity or interference scores that were >2 (ie, severe or very severe; 29% vs 10% for severity, and 26% vs 8% for interference, P<.01). Age ≤45 years, presence of psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities, and baseline sadness and anxiety severity were predictive of average and maximum fatigue scores (P<.05), but variables related to treatment intensity (eg, mastectomy vs lumpectomy, chemotherapy use, radiation target volumes) and other host factors (working, children, marital status, proximity to RT facility) were not. Conclusion: Patient-reported fatigue modestly increases over RT courses, with less maximum fatigue reported with HF-RT. Younger age and baseline sadness, anxiety, and psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities are powerful predictors of fatigue, whereas other factors, such as treatment intensity, are not. Future studies will investigate interventions for patients at high risk for fatigue.

  4. Analysis of cellular response by exposure to acute or chronic radiation in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

    To clarify the biological effects of low-dose rate radiation on human health for long-term stay in space, we analyzed the induction of apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression after irradiation with different dose-rate in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells harboring wild-type p53 gene. We irradiated TK-6 cells by X-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 Gy/min) and then sampled at 25 hr after culturing. We also irradiated by gamma-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 mGy/min) and then sampled immediately or 25 hr after irradiation. For DNA ladder analysis, we extracted DNA from these samples and electrophoresed with 2% agarose gel. In addition, we extracted mRNA from these samples for DNA-array analysis. mRNA from non-irradiated cells was used as a control. After labeling the cDNA against mRNA with [α -33P]-dCTP and hybridizing onto DNA array (Human Apoptosis Expression Array, R&D Systems), we scanned the profiles of the spots by a phosphorimager (BAS5000, FUJI FILM) and calculated using a NIH Image program. The data of each DNA-array were normalized with eight kinds of house keeping genes. We analyzed the expression level of apoptosis-related genes such as p53-related, Bcl-2 family, Caspase family and Fas-related genes. DNA ladders were obviously detected in the cells exposed to a high dose-rate radiation. We detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-promotive genes. In contrast, almost no apoptosis was observed in the cells exposed to the chronic radiation at a low dose-rate. In addition, we detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-suppressive genes as compared with apoptosis promotive-genes immediately after chronic irradiation. These results lead the importance of biological meaning of exposure to radiation at low dose-rate from an aspect of carcinogenesis. Finally, the effects of chronic irradiation become a highly important issue in space radiation biology for human health.

  5. Changes in acute response to radiation after implementation of new national guidelines for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. R.; Bertelsen, Anders; Zukauskaite, R.

    2015-01-01

    of volume of CTV1 for most institutions which previously used different margins. Change in CTV1 volume definition could influence the risk and time evolution of adverse effects e.g. mucositis. This study investigates change in acute response during RT in a centre where GTV to CTV1 margin was increased from......Purpose/Objective: New national guidelines (GL) for radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck cancer (HNC) were implemented at the beginning of 2013. One purpose of the new GL was to nationally standardise the expansion from GTV to high risk CTV (CTV1). This standardisation has resulted in change...... endpoints were dichotomized, grade 0- 1 vs 2+ or 0-2 vs 3+. Potential change in actuarial cumulative incidence (One minus the Kaplan Meier estimator) of mucositis was tested using the log-rank test. To stratify for the potential effect between non-accelerated (5 fx/w) and accelerated (6/10 fx/w) treatments...

  6. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Brittany A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ly, David; Savage, Jason E. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Hewitt, Stephen M. [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dan, Tu D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ylaya, Kris [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Shankavaram, Uma [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Simone, Nicole L., E-mail: nicole.simone@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  7. Pathobiochemical, hematological and immunological findings in pigs with an acute radiation syndrome showing only a few clinical symptoms. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Arndt, A.; Wolf, G.; Neumeister, K.; Riessbeck, K.H.; Gold, F.; Barth, J.; Baumann, H.; Niemiec, C.; Soelter, B.; Schwedt, P.

    1978-01-01

    Depending on time after irradiation, T lymphocytes and the immunological response of lymphocytes was estimated in store pigs after whole-body irradiation (2 Gy). Using the rosette technique a significant decrease of the T-lymphocytes was found from the second to the sixth day after irradiation. Both the leukocyte-migration test (LMT) and the leukocyte-adherence-inhibition test (LAI) led to a diminished immunological response of the lymphocytes up to 9 days after irradiation. It is concluded that the resistance is diminished in the first week after irradiation, even when only a few clinical symptoms of radiation syndrome are present. (author)

  8. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  9. Acute radiation effects on the content and release of plasminogen activator activity in cultured aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ts'ao, C.H.; Ward, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Confluent monolayers from three lines of bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to a single dose of 10 Gy of 60 Co γ rays. Seventy-two hours later, the morphology of the irradiated and sham-irradiated monolayers was examined, and cellular DNA and protein contents were determined. In addition, the release of plasminogen activator (PA) activity into the culture media and PA activity in the cell lysates were assayed. DNA and protein contents in the irradiated monolayers were reduced to 43-50% and 72-95% of the control levels, respectively. These data indicate that radiation induced cell loss (detachment and/or lysis) from the monolayer, with hypertrophy of surviving (attached) cells to preserve the continuity of the monolayer surface. Total PA activity (lysate plus medium) in the irradiated dishes was reduced to 50-75% of the control level. However, when endothelial PA activity was expressed on the basis of DNA content, the irradiated monolayers from two of the three cell lines contained significantly more PA activity than did sham-irradiated monolayers. These data suggest that fibrinolytic defects observed in irradiated tissues in situ may be attributable at least in part to a radiation-induced inhibition of PA release by vascular endothelial cells

  10. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and dermatological toxicity during dose-escalated 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) using an intrarectal balloon for prostate gland localization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woel, Rosemonde; Beard, Clair; Chen, Ming-Hui; Hurwitz, Mark; Loffredo, Marian; McMahon, Elizabeth; Ching, Jane; Lopes, Lynn; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the acute gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary (GU), and dermatologic (D) toxicity during dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). A modified intrarectal balloon (Medrad) was used for prostate gland localization and immobilization. Methods: Forty-six men with clinical category T1c to T3a, and at least one high-risk feature (PSA >10, Gleason ≥7, or MRI evidence of extracapsular extension or seminal vesical invasion) comprised the study cohort. Treatment consisted of hormonal therapy and 4-field 3DCRT using an intrarectal balloon for the initial 15 of 40 treatments. Planning treatment volume dose was 72 Gy (95% normalization). A Mantel-Haenzel Chi-square test compared the distribution of GU, GI, and D symptoms at baseline and at end of treatment (EOT). Results: There was no significant difference between the 2 time points in the proportion of patients with bowel symptoms (p = 0.73), tenesmus (p = 0.27), nocturia (p = 1.00), or GU urgency (p = 0.40). However, there was a significant decrease in GU frequency (70% vs. 50%, p = 0.46) as a result of medical interventions and a significant increase in hemorrhoidal irritation (4% vs. 20%, p = 0.02) and anal cutaneous skin reaction (0% vs. 70%, p < 0.001). By 3 months after EOT compared to baseline, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing hemorrhoidal bleeding (4% vs. 8%, p = 0.52), requiring intervention for hemorrhoidal symptoms (7% vs. 5%, p = 0.8), or experiencing persistent anal cutaneous skin reaction (0% vs. 3%, p = 0.31). Conclusion: Dose-escalated 3DCRT using an intrarectal balloon for prostate localization and immobilization was well tolerated. Acute GU, GI, and D symptoms resolved with standard dietary or medical interventions by the EOT or shortly thereafter

  11. Acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a daily water-filled endorectal balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deville Curtiland

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERBH2O, and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. Methods The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERBH2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0 were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Results Mean age was 68 (range 51–88. Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps  Conclusion Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERBH2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities.

  12. Sequence analysis of the ATM gene in 20 patients with RTOG grade 3 or 4 acute and/or late tissue radiation side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppitz, Ulrich; Bernthaler, Ulrike; Schindler, Detlev; Sobeck, Alexandra; Hoehn, Holger; Platzer, Matthias; Rosenthal, Andre; Flentje, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) show greatly increased radiation sensitivity and cancer predisposition. Family studies imply that the otherwise clinically silent heterozygotes of this autosomal recessive disease run a 3.5 to 3.8 higher risk of developing cancer. In vitro studies suggest moderately increased cellular radiation sensitivity of A-T carriers. They may also show elevated clinical radiosensitivity. We retrospectively examined patients who presented with severe adverse reactions during or after standard radiation treatment for mutations in the gene responsible for A-T, ATM, considering a potential means of future identification of radiosensitive individuals prospectively to adjust dosage schedules. Material and Methods: We selected 20 cancer patients (breast, 11; rectum, 2; ENT, 2; bladder, 1; prostate, 1; anus, 1; astrocytoma, 1; Hodgkins lymphoma, 1) with Grade 3 to 4 (RTOG) acute and/or late tissue radiation side effects by reaction severity. DNA from the peripheral blood of patients was isolated. All 66 exons and adjacent intron regions of the ATM gene were PCR-amplified and examined for mutations by a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and exon-scanning direct sequencing. Results: Only 2 of the patients revealed altogether four heteroallelic sequence variants. The latter included two single-base deletions in different introns, a single-base change causing an amino acid substitution in an exon, and a large insertion in another intron. Both the single-base deletions and the single-base change represent known polymorphisms. The large insertion was an Alu repeat, shown not to give rise to altered gene product. Conclusions: Despite high technical efforts, no unequivocal ATM mutation was detected. Nevertheless, extension of similar studies to larger and differently composed cohorts of patients suffering severe adverse effects of radiotherapy, and application of new

  13. A multi-centre clinical follow-up database as a systematic approach to the evaluation of mid- and long-term health consequences in Chernobyl acute radiation syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, B.; Weiss, M.; Fliedner, T.M.; Belyi, D.A.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Nadejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes scope, design and first results of a multi-centre follow-up database that has been established for the evaluation of mid- and long-term health consequences of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors. After the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, 237 cases with suspected acute radiation syndrome have been reported. For 134 of these cases the diagnosis of ARS was confirmed in a consensus conference three years after the accident. Nearly all survivors underwent regular follow-up examinations in two specialized centres in Kiev and in Moscow. In collaboration with these centres we established a multi-centre clinical follow-up database that records the results of the follow-up examinations in a standardized schema. This database is an integral part of a five step approach to patient evaluation and aims at a comprehensive base for scientific analysis of the mid- and long-term consequences of accidental ionizing radiation. It will allow for a dynamic view on the development of the health status of individuals and groups of patients as well as the identification of critical organ systems that need early support, and an improvement of acute and follow-up treatment protocols for radiation accident victims

  14. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  15. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  16. Brief note and evaluation of acute-radiation syndrome and treatment of a Tokai-mura criticality accident patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takeshi; Futami, Satoru; Nishida, Masamichi; Suzuki, Toru; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Norio; Maekawa, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Patient A who was exposed to a critical dose of radiation developed skin lesions throughout the body surface, gastrointestinal disorder with massive diarrhea and prominent bleeding, which caused severe loss in body fluids. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to the deteriorated intestinal mucosa was considered to be one of the major causes of death, although infection did not develop, possibly because of SDD and aseptic intensive care, until terminal stages. Patient A ultimately developed respiratory and renal failure in addition to skin exudate and gastrointestinal bleeding, and died of multiple organ failure on the 83rd day after exposure. The extreme unevenness of the dose distribution and the neutron versus {gamma}-ray component made the clinical manifestation very complicated. Initially, the mean absorbed dose was calculated as 16-20 GyEq for Patient A, mainly based on neutron-activated {sup 24}Na in the blood. However, a very recent calculation showed that the absorbed skin dose was highest at the upper-right abdomen reaching 61.8 Gy (27.0 as neutron plus 34.8 Gy as {gamma}-ray). The dorsal side was calculated to have received one eighth of the value of the abdominal side, and much smaller neutron component. His absorbed-dose distribution throughout the body was very inhomogeneous because of the closeness of the standing point to the mixing tank. Despite prolonged survival because of intensive care with massive fluids and blood transfusion, peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, cultured skin-cell grafts, and the administration of cytokines for marrow, the patient was not saved. Restoration of the bone marrow function, prevention of skin fibrosis, radiation lung damage, and repair of gastrointestinal mucosa, and final recovery of the patient were elusive. Abundant personnel and resources were also a prerequisite to allow for the comprehensive and collective intensive care. A further understanding of the effects of high-dose radiation as well as the basic and

  17. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W.; Sause, William T.; Graham, Mary V.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose–volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior–inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 ∗ MED+1.50 ∗ ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts acute esophagitis

  18. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Phelps County Regional Hospital, Rolla, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: deasyj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 Asterisk-Operator MED+1.50 Asterisk-Operator ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts

  19. Modeling the risk of radiation-induced acute esophagitis for combined Washington University and RTOG trial 93-11 lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ellen X; Bradley, Jeffrey D; El Naqa, Issam; Hope, Andrew J; Lindsay, Patricia E; Bosch, Walter R; Matthews, John W; Sause, William T; Graham, Mary V; Deasy, Joseph O

    2012-04-01

    To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 MED+1.50 ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts acute esophagitis risk in combined-data WUSTL and RTOG 93-11 trial datasets. Copyright

  20. Primary and secondary antibody reaction to acute radiation syndrome of calves after parenteral and oral immunization with Salmonella antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Mehlhorn, G.; Johannsen, U.; Panndorf, H.

    1984-01-01

    After active immunization against Salmonella dublin 25 calves (2.5 to 4 weeks old) were whole-body irradiated with sublethal to medium lethal X-ray doses, with 5 sham-irradiated control animals in each group. Sublethal and medium lethal doses failed in affecting the antibody titers in general, though short-time effects were observed temporarily. These depressive effects correlated with clinical responses, especially with reduced food intake probably caused by nutritive disorders. Higher antibody levels in the recovery period following sublethal and medium lethal doses indicate an antigenic stimulation released by the radiation syndrome. The depressive action of medium lethal doses on the booster response on the 30th postirradiation day refers to damage of the memory cell pool

  1. Treatment of acute radiodermatitis with an oil-in-water emulsion following radiation therapy for breast cancer. A controlled, randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Jens-Michael; Gau, Tanja; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Proksch, Ehrhardt; May, Theodor

    2011-01-01

    A side effect of radiotherapy for breast cancer is acute radiodermatitis. It is a common practice to keep irradiated skin dry on account of data from the 1950s that suggested this regimen limits dermatitis. However, severe dryness of the skin induced by irradiation results in itching and discomfort. Dry skin is characterized by scaliness, epidermal barrier dysfunction, and reduced stratum corneum hydration, and these signs and symptoms are reduced by treatment with an emulsion. We performed a randomized, controlled, open-label study with 66 patients (ITT population), treating the irradiated skin in one group (n = 34) with an oil-in-water emulsion (WO1932), while leaving the other group untreated (n = 32). Clinical scoring (ONS radiation skin reaction scoring, pruritus) and biophysical measurements (stratum corneum hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), as a marker of skin barrier function) were determined at day 1 (directly after termination of the radiation therapy), day 8, and day 47 (± 7). Irradiation increased the ONS score and pruritus, whereas skin hydration and TEWL were reduced. The primary hypothesis that the increase in skin hydration was significantly greater in the emulsion-treated compared to the untreated group as early as after 8 days of treatment could not be confirmed. At the end of the study (day 47 ± 7), however, normalization of stratum corneum hydration was more advanced in the treatment group compared to the untreated group and nearly reached the values of the contralateral healthy breast skin. ONS score and pruritus also revealed an advantage for the emulsion-treated group. TEWL did not show significant changes during emulsion treatment. No adverse events were caused by the treatment regimens. Treatment of radiodermatitis with an oil-in-water emulsion was well tolerated, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, improved clinical indicators, and provided relief from itching. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation

  3. Diagnostic value of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan assay and galactomannan test for invasive fungal infection in patients of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Jiang Hongmei; Wang Jijun; Liu Yan; Zhao Wei; Ning Yongzhong; Zhang Jie; Ke Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic values of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan (G) and galactomannan (GM) for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients of acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: Samples of periogeral blood, pharyngeal secretion, urine, and feces were collected from 316 patients with ARS and suspected to suffer from IFI, 192 males and 124 females, aged 60.50 (1-96), with the underlying diseases of blood or respiration systems. Platelia Aspergillus EIA kit was used to detect the plasma BG (G test), and ELISA was used to detect the serum GM (GM test). Fungal culture and bacterial culture were performed. Results: The positive rates of G test, GM test, and fungal culture were 36.33%, 35.84%, and 34.18% respectively, but the positive rate of fungal culture of blood sample was 1-316 only. Pearson correlation analysis showed that G test, GM test and fungal culture test were positively correlated with IFI clinical diagnosis respectively (χ 2 =0.564, 0.357, 0.727, P<0.05). Conclusions: Easy to operate, rapid, and highly sencitive, G test and GM test can be used as adjunctive methods for early IFI diagnosis in ARS patients. (authors)

  4. Mean esophageal radiation dose is predictive of the grade of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgen, A.; Hayran, M.; Kahraman, F.

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this research was to define the predictive factors for acute esophagitis (AE) in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The data for 72 lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between 2008 and 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Mean lung dose, mean dose of esophagus, volume of esophagus irradiated and percentage of esophagus volume treated were analysed according to esophagitis grades. The mean esophageal dose was associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.001). However, the mean lung dose and the volume of esophagus irradiated were not associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.50 and P=0.41, respectively). The mean radiation dose received by the esophagus was found to be highly correlated with the duration of Grade 2 esophagitis (Spearman test, r=0.82, P<0.001). The mean dose of esophagus ≥28 Gy showed statistical significance with respect to AE Grade 2 or worse (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.929-1.014). In conclusion, the mean esophageal dose was significantly associated with a risk of esophageal toxicity in patients with lung cancer treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (author)

  5. Effect of neonatal administration of mono-sodium glutamate in rats on adult body weight and some blood lipids during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moneim, A.E.; Shousha, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    When a single dose of 4.0 mg MSG/g body weight was administered subcutaneously in new rats, they showed increased body weight (P< 0.01) than vehicle-injected control animals of the same strain at 1,2 and 3 months post-natal. This syndrome was most remarkable during the suckling period. At various time intervals of the trial, a marked sex difference (P< 0.01) was also observed. Experimental males were greater in weight than females. Two days following irradiation of one half the treated animals, serum triglycerides (T G) and total. cholesterol (Ch) in MSG-irradiated rats were significantly (P 0.01)) higher by comparison with MSG-treated and saline injected groups of their own sex. Although, sex has no significant effect on serum T G and Ch, MSG-irradiated males (the heavier in body weight) showed lower levels of these lipid fractions than females during the period of acute radiation sickness. 2 tabs

  6. HemaMax™, a recombinant human interleukin-12, is a potent mitigator of acute radiation injury in mice and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena A Basile

    Full Text Available HemaMax, a recombinant human interleukin-12 (IL-12, is under development to address an unmet medical need for effective treatments against acute radiation syndrome due to radiological terrorism or accident when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure. This study investigated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of m-HemaMax (recombinant murine IL-12, and HemaMax to increase survival after total body irradiation (TBI in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, with no supportive care. In mice, m-HemaMax at an optimal 20 ng/mouse dose significantly increased percent survival and survival time when administered 24 hours after TBI between 8-9 Gy (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by increases in plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ and erythropoietin levels, recovery of femoral bone hematopoiesis characterized with the presence of IL-12 receptor β2 subunit-expressing myeloid progenitors, megakaryocytes, and osteoblasts. Mitigation of jejunal radiation damage was also examined. At allometrically equivalent doses, HemaMax showed similar pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys compared to m-HemaMax in mice, but more robustly increased plasma IFN-γ levels. HemaMax also increased plasma erythropoietin, IL-15, IL-18, and neopterin levels. At non-human primate doses pharmacologically equivalent to murine doses, HemaMax (100 ng/Kg and 250 ng/Kg administered at 24 hours after TBI (6.7 Gy/LD(50/30 significantly increased percent survival of HemaMax groups compared to vehicle (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by a significantly higher leukocyte (neutrophils and lymphocytes, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte counts during nadir (days 12-14 and significantly less weight loss at day 12 compared to vehicle. These findings indicate successful interspecies dose conversion and provide proof of concept that HemaMax increases survival in irradiated rhesus monkeys by promoting

  7. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.; Eppinger-Helft, M.; Braier, J.; Vergara, B.; Garay, G.; Kvicala, R.; Divito, J.M.; Failace, R.

    1983-08-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count < 50,000 and in the untreated group was 11%. In patients with a WBC count > 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count < 50,000 was 20% in the irradiated group and 32% in the group with i.t. MTX-DMT alone. The relapse-free survival at 60 mo was 26% and 41%, respectively, (p < 0.0005). The incidence in patients with a WBC count > 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation.

  8. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  9. Development of the drug for acute treatment of emergent exposure to radiation by nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Described is a flow of authors' studies on the drug development in the title, aiming to save the life after the emergent exposure to peri-lethal dose. Medicals with radioprotective properties have been essentially those to be given before the exposure. Authors have studied the mechanism of bystander effect of non-exposed cells where they, localizing around the directly radiation-exposed cells, acquire the radioresistance; have found that nitrogen oxide (NO) is one of mediators for the effect; and have thought to apply the NO generating agents for the drug already clinically available, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), isosorbide nitrate (ISDN), nicolandil (NC), nitroglycerin (NG), and nipradilol (NP). ISDN, NC, NG and NP exhibited no in vitro-toxicity in colony formation of human fibroblast AG1522 cells up to 30 micro-M whereas SNP was toxic at the level >3 micro-M due to the formation of cyanide which could be detoxicated in vivo. Actually, the 5 agents were not toxic in vivo. When male jcl/ICR mice were irradiated with lethal dose of 7.5 Gy X-ray and the 5 agents were given to make their level 30 micro-M immediately, 1, 2 and 7 days after the exposure, 3/5 animals given SNP survived. With the half lethal dose of 6.5 Gy X-ray and 50 animals, SNP was further examined in details: survival was found to be 75-85% in mice given SNP in contrast to 30-40% in the control and the life-saving effect was suggested to be due to suppression of intestinal and marrow death with the improved feature of peripheral platelet and leukocyte. Thus SNP, a drug for angina pectoris, is found radioprotective even post exposure. (T.T.)

  10. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  11. Diseases induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The instruction sheet for medical examinations presents information on clinical symptoms and diagnostic procedures relating to the following cases: 1. Acute radiation injury due to whole-body exposure; 2. acute, local radiation injury due to partial body exposure; 3. chronic general affections due to whole-body exposure; 4. chronic, local affections due to partial body exposure; 5. delayed radiation effects. (HP) [de

  12. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  13. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0

  14. Prevention of acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis by balsalazide: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahraus, Christopher D.; Bettenhausen, Doug Phar; Malik, Uzma M.B.B.S.; Sellitti, Marguerite; St Clair, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A common complication of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis (RIPS), for which a multitude of therapies have been tried. The 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), which are traditionally used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, have been tested; however, all but one prior randomized attempt to limit or prevent RIPS with 5-ASA-type agents have failed. We sought to evaluate balsalazide, a new 5-ASA drug, for its potential to prevent or limit RIPS in patients undergoing RT for carcinoma of the prostate, as a representative sample of pelvic RT patients. Balsalazide has a unique delivery system in that 99% of ingested drug is delivered to and activated in the colon, a higher yield than all other oral agents currently available in this class. Furthermore, it lacks the antigenic sulfa moiety present in sulfasalazine, the only other 5-ASA with demonstrated benefit in this setting. Thus, it was deemed an ideal candidate for preventing or limiting RIPS. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included prostate cancer patients, American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage T1-3, M0 being treated with external beam radiotherapy in University of Kentucky Department of Radiation Medicine. Between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2004, 27 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were administered 2250 mg of balsalazide or an identical-appearing placebo twice daily beginning 5 days before RT and continuing for 2 weeks after completion. Toxicities were graded weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria v. 2.0 for each of the following: proctitis, diarrhea, dysuria, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A symptom index was formulated for each toxicity consisting of the toxicity's numeric grade multiplied by the number of days it was experienced, and summed for each grade experienced throughout the course of RT. Results: With the exception of nausea or vomiting, seen in 3 patients on balsalazide and 2 on placebo

  15. Acute mucosal radiation reactions in patients with head and neck cancer. Patterns of mucosal healing on the basis of daily examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wygoda, A.; Skladowski, K.; Rutkowski, T.; Hutnik, M.; Golen, M.; Pilecki, B.; Przeorek, W.; Lukaszczyk-Widel, B. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland). 1st Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to evaluate the healing processes of acute mucosal radiation reactions (AMRR) in patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: In 46 patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients irradiated with conventional (n = 25) and accelerated (n = 21) dose fractionation AMRR was evaluated daily during and after radiotherapy. Complex of morphological and functional symptoms according to the Dische score were collected daily until complete healing. Results: Duration of healing after the end of radiotherapy ranged widely (12-70 days). It was on the average 8 days longer for accelerated than for conventional radiotherapy (p = 0.016). Duration of dysphagia was also longer for accelerated irradiation (11 days, p = 0.027). Three types of morphological symptoms were observed as the last symptom at the end of AMRR healing: spotted and confluent mucositis, erythema, and edema. Only a slight correlation between healing duration and area of irradiation fields (r = 0.23) was noted. In patients with confluent mucositis, two morphological forms of mucosal healing were observed, i.e., marginal and spotted. The spotted form was noted in 71% of patients undergoing conventional radiotherapy and in 38% of patients undergoing accelerated radiotherapy. The symptoms of mucosal healing were observed in 40% patients during radiotherapy. Conclusion: The wide range of AMRR healing reflects individual potential of mucosa recovery with longer duration for accelerated radiotherapy. Two morphological forms of confluent mucositis healing were present: marginal and spotted. Healing of AMRR during radiotherapy can be observed in a significant proportion of patients. (orig.)

  16. Application of 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomics to feces of cervical cancer patients with radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yanlan; Wang, Juan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Yunyi; Su, Jin; Shi, Fan; Wang, Jiquan; Zhou, Xi; He, Bin; Ma, Hailin; Liu, Zi

    2015-11-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are a common complication of radiotherapy for cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to use (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) combined with chemometric analysis to develop a metabolic profile of patients with RIAISs. Fecal samples were collected from 66 patients with cervical cancer before and after pelvic radiotherapy. After radiotherapy, RIAISs occurred in eleven patients. We selected another 11 patients from participants without RIAISs whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods are matched with RIAIS patients as the control group. (1)H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate pattern recognition analysis was used to generate metabolic profile data, as well as to establish a RIAIS-specific metabolic phenotype. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis was used to distinguish samples between the pre- and post-radiotherapy RIAIS patients and between RIAIS patients and controls. Fecal samples from RIAIS patients after pelvic radiotherapy were characterized by increased concentrations of α-ketobutyrate, valine, uracil, tyrosine, trimethylamine N-oxide, phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glutamine, creatinine, creatine, bile acids, aminohippurate, and alanine, accompanied by reduced concentrations of α-glucose, n-butyrate, methylamine, and ethanol relative to samples from RIAIS patients before pelvic radiotherapy, while in RIAIS patients relative to controls, trimethylamine, n-butyrate, fumarate and acetate were down-regulated and valine, TMAO, taurine, phenylalanine, lactate, isoleucine and creatinine were up-regulated. We obtained the metabolic profile of RIAIS patients from fecal samples using NMR-based metabonomics. This profile has the potential to be developed into a novel clinical tool for RIAIS diagnosis or therapeutic monitoring, and could contribute to an improved understanding of the disease mechanism. However, because of the limitations of methods, technique

  17. The Value of Botox-A in Acute Radiation Proctitis: Results From a Phase I/II Study Using a Three-Dimensional Scoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Te; Waschke, Kevin; Niazi, Tamim; Richard, Carole; Parent, Josee; Liberman, Sender; Mayrand, Serge; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side effect of pelvic radiotherapy, and its management is challenging in daily practice. The present phase I/II study evaluates the safety and efficacy of the botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in ARP treatment for rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients, treated with neoadjuvant HDREBT, 26-Gy in 4 fractions, received the study treatment that consisted of a single injection of BTX-A into the rectal wall. The injection was performed post-HDREBT and prior to the development of ARP. The control group, 20 such patients, did not receive the BTX-A injection. Both groups had access to standard treatment with hydrocortisone rectal aerosol foam (Cortifoam) and anti-inflammatory and narcotic medication. The ARP was clinically evaluated by self-administered daily questionnaires using visual analog scores to document frequency and urgency of bowel movements, rectal burning/tenesmus, and pain symptoms before and after HDREBT. Results: At the time of this analysis, there was no observed systemic toxicity. Patient compliance with the self-administered questionnaire was 100% from week 1 to 4, 70% during week 5, and 40% during week 6. The maximum tolerated dose was established at the 100-U dose level, and noticeable mean differences were observed in bowel frequency (p = 0.016), urgency (p = 0.007), and pain (p = 0.078). Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility and efficacy of BTX-A intervention at 100-U dose level for study patients compared to control patients. A phase III study with this dose level is planned to validate these results.

  18. RTOG 0529: A Phase 2 Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, Lisa A., E-mail: lisa.kachnic@bmc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Winter, Kathryn [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Goodyear, Michael D. [Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Willins, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Esthappan, Jacqueline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Rotman, Marvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York—Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Parikh, Parag J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Safran, Howard [Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A multi-institutional phase 2 trial assessed the utility of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) in reducing grade 2+ combined acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events (AEs) of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) chemoradiation for anal cancer by at least 15% compared with the conventional radiation/5FU/MMC arm from RTOG 9811. Methods and Materials: T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancer patients received 5FU and MMC on days 1 and 29 of DP-IMRT, prescribed per stage: T2N0, 42 Gy elective nodal and 50.4 Gy anal tumor planning target volumes (PTVs) in 28 fractions; T3-4N0-3, 45 Gy elective nodal, 50.4 Gy ≤3 cm or 54 Gy >3 cm metastatic nodal and 54 Gy anal tumor PTVs in 30 fractions. The primary endpoint is described above. Planned secondary endpoints assessed all AEs and the investigator’s ability to perform DP-IMRT. Results: Of 63 accrued patients, 52 were evaluable. Tumor stage included 54% II, 25% IIIA, and 21% IIIB. In primary endpoint analysis, 77% experienced grade 2+ gastrointestinal/genitourinary acute AEs (9811 77%). There was, however, a significant reduction in acute grade 2+ hematologic, 73% (9811 85%, P=.032), grade 3+ gastrointestinal, 21% (9811 36%, P=.0082), and grade 3+ dermatologic AEs 23% (9811 49%, P<.0001) with DP-IMRT. On initial pretreatment review, 81% required DP-IMRT replanning, and final review revealed only 3 cases with normal tissue major deviations. Conclusions: Although the primary endpoint was not met, DP-IMRT was associated with significant sparing of acute grade 2+ hematologic and grade 3+ dermatologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Although DP-IMRT proved feasible, the high pretreatment planning revision rate emphasizes the importance of real-time radiation quality assurance for IMRT trials.

  19. Dose-dependent analysis of acute medical effects of mixed neutron-gamma radiation from selected severe 235U or 239Pu criticality accidents in USSR, United States, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanova, Tatyana; Wiley, Albert L; Bushmanov, Andrey

    2012-04-01

    Eight of the most severe cases of acute radiation disease (ARS) known to have occurred in humans (as the result of criticality accidents) had survival times less than 120 h (herein defined as "early death"). These accidents were analyzed and are discussed with respect to the specific accident scenarios and the resulting accident-specific, mixed neutron-gamma radiation clinical dose distributions. This analysis concludes that the cardiovascular system appears to be the most critical organ system failure for causing "early death" following approximate total body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation doses greater than 40-50 Gy. The clinical data also suggest that there was definite chest dose dependence in the resulting survival times for these eight workers, who unfortunately suffered profound radiation injury and unusual clinical effects from such high dose radiation exposures. In addition, "toxemic syndrome" is correlated with the irradiation of large volumes of soft tissues. Doses to the hands or legs greater than 80-100 Gy or radiation lung injury also play significant but secondary roles in causing "early death" in accidents delivering chest doses greater than 50 Gy.

  20. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility

  1. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: amacann@adhb.govt.nz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  2. Phase 3 trial of domiciliary humidification to mitigate acute mucosal toxicity during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: first report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G; Porceddu, Sandro V; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I; Morton, Randall P; Hay, K David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L; King, Madeleine T; Fraser-Browne, Carol L; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H&N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ito, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Nakano, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization

  4. Evaluation of median survival patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia exposed ionizing radiation by the Chornobyl accident, depending on the aminoacid composition of stromal fibroblasts bone marrow and indicators of myelogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Bruslova, K.M.; Tsvjetkova, N.M.; Pushkar'ova, T.Yi.; Panchenko, L.M.; Yatsemirs'kij, S.N.; Volodyina, T.T.; Lyashenko, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    The aminoacid composition in the stromal fibroblasts of bone marrow and indexes of hemogram in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemias, which exposed to radiation from the Chornobyl accident, for evaluation of the median survival was investigated. In the study 54 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, residents of Kyiv, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv regions of Ukraine were involved. Effectiveness of stromal fibroblasts colony forming units of bone marrow and aminoacid composition of fibroblasts were studied. Bone marrow examination was conducted on day 33 and after stop of chemotherapy, the median survival of patients and exposure dose were evaluated. In children with acute leukemias effectiveness of stromal fibroblasts of bone marrow was 2-2.3 times lower than normative. Correlation (r_s = +0.83) between the number of erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and proline content in stromal fibroblasts established . The correlation between patients median survival and number of granulocytes in myelogram (r_s = + 0.82) was proven. Mean exposure doses in patients was (5.86 ±1.11) mSv and it did not correlate with myelogram results, effectiveness of stromal fibroblasts of bone marrow and median survival. The median survival of patients with acute leukemias depends on the content of amino acids in stromal fibroblasts of bone marrow and recover of hematopoiesis after chemotherapy

  5. Acute Radiation Sickness Amelioration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Emetic Drugs 16. PRICE CODE Antagonists 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19, SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF...102 UNCLASSIFIED mcuIw IA IIIcaIIin or Isis PAW CLASSFIED BY: N/A since Unclassified. DECLASSIFY ON: N/A since Unclassified. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Approximately 2000 documents relevant to the development of the candidate anti-emetic drugs ondansetron (Zofran, Glaxo Pharmaceuticals) and granisetron

  6. Conformal radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer: acute tolerance and early evaluation of effectiveness; Konformierende Strahlentherapie des lokalisierten Prostatakarzinoms: Akute Toleranz und fruehe Wirksamkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierhut, D. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Flentje, M. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Sroka-Perez, G. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Rudat, V. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, M. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Aim: In a prospective trial early effectiveness and acute toxicity of conformal 3D-planned radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer was quantified using dose-volume-histogramms and evaluated with respect of treatment technique. Results: Eleven patients (of 32) had none, 15 mild (RTOG grade 1) and 6 moderate symptoms (RTOG grade 2, mainly diarrhoea, dysuria and polyuria). Acute complications leading to treatment interruption did not occur. In 16 patients symptoms disappeared within 6 weeks after radiotherapy. Only 2 men had symptoms which lasted longer than 3 months and were endoscopically examined. Up to now no late complications were detected. Incidence and severity of toxicity was significantly (p<0,05) related to the size of treatment volume. Akute toxicity was found to depend statistically significant (p<0,05) on the proportional volume of bladder and rectum, irradiated with more than 35 Gy. In 81% of the patients with pretherapeutic elevated PSA levels normalisation of PSA was observed. Overall mean PSA levels of 15.7{+-}22.6 {mu}g/l at the beginning of radiotherapy fell to 2.1{+-}3.7 {mu}g/l 6 weeks after irradiation. Only 1 Patient relapsed locally 22 months after radiation therapy. Conclusion: We conclude that due to modern 3D-planned conformal techniques with optimization of treatment dose and improved protection of critical organs such as urinary bladder and rectum, radiotherapy allows an effective and well tolerated therapy of localized prostatic carcinoma. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Ziel: Quantifizierung der fruehen Wirksamkeit und akuten Toxizitaet der 3D-geplanten und konformierenden Strahlentherapie des lokalisierten Prostatakarzinoms mittels Dosis-Volumen-Histogramm sowie Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit von der Bestrahlungstechnik in einer prospektiven Studie. Ergebnisse: Elf Patienten hatten keine, 15 leichte (RTOG Grad I) und sechs maessiggradige Nebenwirkungen (RTOG Grad II, meist Diarrhoe, Dysurie und Polyurie). Bei keinem Patienten musste die

  7. Phase II study assessing the effectiveness of Biafine cream as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced acute skin toxicity to the breast in women undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant CMF chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumacher, Ewa; Wighton, Anne; Franssen, Edmee; Chow, Edward; Tsao, May; Ackerman, Ida; Andersson, Lourdes; Kim, John; Wojcicka, Anna; Ung, Yee; Sixel, Katharina; Hayter, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Biafine cream in preventing Grade 2 acute radiation dermatitis, according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada skin radiation toxicity criteria in patients undergoing concomitant adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the breast. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients participated in this study. Patients were treated with a lumpectomy followed by concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the breast. Biafine cream was applied daily, starting on the first day and ending 2 weeks post-radiotherapy. Patients underwent weekly skin assessments throughout radiotherapy and at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. Outcome measures were assessed using a Skin Assessment Questionnaire that was scored according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada skin radiation toxicity criteria and a self-administered questionnaire that evaluated skin symptoms. Results: The maximum skin toxicity observed during the course of treatment was as follows: less than Grade 2 toxicity, 15% (9 patients); Grade 2, 83% (50 patients); Grade 3, 2% (1 patient); Grade 4, 0% (0 patients). The majority of the radiation dermatitis was observed after 3 weeks of radiotherapy. Conclusion: The majority of patients who underwent concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy for breast cancer developed Grade 2 radiation dermatitis with the use of Biafine cream. However, no treatment delays or interruptions were observed because of skin toxicity

  8. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  10. The problem of the recuperative capacity of mammals after acute sublethal whole-body exposure to high-energy radiation, with special regard to the juvenile organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, B.

    1978-01-01

    After a single acute whole-body irradiation with 200 kV x-rays (1.5 mm Cu, dose rate 45 min -1 ), radiosensitivitis (LD 50/30d) have been determined in 9 age groups of lactating mice and compared with those of adult mice. In split-dose experiments (Dc = 300 R) recovery rates after 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 100 days of recovery have been determined in animals 1, 6, 12, 16, and 80 days old; further examinations have been carried out after 3 days of recovery in 6 day-old animals. The findings are compared with earlier investigations in the same strain of animals and with literature on comparable investigations in mice and other mammals. During infancy, there is a slight, age-dependent increase in radiation resistance after a single exposure, and adult mice are about 10% more radiosensitive than juveniles. The recovery rate of lactating mice increases until 2 hours after irradiation, as in adult animals. In contrast to the values measured in adults, however, the recovery rate of animals 1 and 6 days old then drops to values of -27% resp. -63% of Dc = 300 R after 1 resp. 3 days: Sensitization. In animals 12 and 16 days old, too there is a decrease in recovery after 2 hours, but no marked sensitization. In all animals pre-irradiated in infancy, the recovery rate after 10 days is not higher than 45%, and even after 100 days there is a clear residual damage. In animals 6 days old, which are particularly radiosensitive, the highest sensitization was found 3 days after a pre-irradiation dose of 150 to 200 R, and a saturation of the sensitization mechanism was derived for higher doses. Biological causes of sensitization are still unknown. According to the author's literature studies, other species of mammals, too do not always follow the assumptions on the recuperative capacity of mammal organisms which have been derived from studies in adult mice. (orig.) [de

  11. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E. [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Lialiaris, Theodoros S. [Department of Medical Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Dimitriou, Thespis [Department of Anatomy, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Papazoglou, Dimitrios [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pappa, Aglaia [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pistevou, Kyriaki [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Aristotle University of Thessalonica, Thessalonica (Greece); Kalamida, Dimitra [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2{sub [4h]}) and 24 hours (SF2{sub [24h]}) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2{sub (4h)} was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)} (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio{sub (4h)}/γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)}) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with

  12. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E.; Lialiaris, Theodoros S.; Dimitriou, Thespis; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Papazoglou, Dimitrios; Pappa, Aglaia; Pistevou, Kyriaki; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2 [4h] ) and 24 hours (SF2 [24h] ) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2 (4h) was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio (30min) (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio (4h) /γH2AX-ratio (30min) ) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with efficient DSB repair ability

  13. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1983-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  14. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  15. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  16. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  18. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (AR