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Sample records for acute radiation syndrones

  1. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs

  3. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Mass Casualties Screening People for External Contamination Use of Radiation Detection, Measuring, and Imaging Instruments Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC) Community Reception Center (CRC) Simulation Tools Isotopes Americium-241 (Am-241) Cesium-137 (Cs-137) ...

  4. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  5. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami Filho, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  7. Acute radiation syndrome in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskova, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of the different types of irradiation dramatically changes the clinical course of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in the case of short term exposure. The recent experience has been compared mostly with the data on the atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The comparison of the injuries from different radiation exposures resulted in the possibility to receive summarized data and the actual basis of the observed difference. The situation with total relatively uniform irradiation is observed when human position is at long distance from powerful radiation sources or when he changes his position, as seen in atomic bomb survivors, the results of nuclear weapon tests and the patients in the Chernobyl accident. This is connected with the ARS of bone, marrow and intestine. The situation characterized by the clinical signs of the large area of skin and mucosa injuries was observed in nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. In the case of the more localized and less severe beta injuries of skin and mucosa, the long term effects may be important. The majority of accidents in peaceful period are related to the uneven exposure from near sources, and the situation of the combination of external and internal irradiation is related to uneven irradiation and the predominance of internal exposure. (K.I.)

  8. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  9. Radiobiology of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M. M.; Calduch, A. L.; Lopez, E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome or acute radiation sickness is classically subdivided into three sub syndromes: the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular syndrome but many other tissues can be damaged. The time course and severity of clinical signs and symptoms are a function of the overall body volume irradiated, the inhomogeneity of dose exposure, the particle type, the absorbed dose and the dose rate. Classical pathophysiology explain the failure of each of these organs and the timing of appearance of their signs and symptoms due to radiation-induced cytocidal effects of a great number of parenchymal cells of hierarchically organized tissues. Contemporaneously, many other radiation-induced effects has been described and all of them may lead to tissue injury with their corresponding signs and symptoms that can be expressed after short or long period of time. Radiation-induced multi-organ involvement is thought to be due to radiation-induced systemic inflammatory response mediated by released pro-inflammatory cytokines. (authors)

  10. Inflammatory sequences in acute pulmonary radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slauson, D.O.; Hahn, F.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Chiffelle, T.L.; Jones, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic events in the developing acute pulmonary inflammatory reaction to inhaled particles of Yttrium 90 are detailed. In animals that died or were sacrificed during the first year after inhalation exposure, microscopic findings of acute inflammation predominated and included vascular congestion; stasis; focal hemorrhage; edema; various inflammatory cell infiltrates; cytolysis and desquamation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium followed by regeneration; vascular injury and repair; and the eventual development of pulmonary fibrosis. Accumulation of alveolar fibrin deposits was an additional characteristic, though not a constant feature of the early stages of radiation pneumonitis. In addition to the direct effects of radiation on pulmonary cell populations, the histopathologic findings were suggestive of diverse activation of various cellular and humoral mediation systems in their pathogenesis. The potential interrelationships of systems responsible for increased vascular permeability, coagulation and fibrinolysis, chemotaxis, and direct cellular injury were discussed and related to the pathogenesis of the microscopic findings characteristic of early pulmonary radiation injury

  11. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

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    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome. Consequences and outcomes

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    Okladnikova, N.D.; Pesternikova, V.S.; Sumina, M.V.; Azizova, T.V.; Yurkov, N.N. [Branch No 1 State Research Center of Russia, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The consequences and outcomes of an Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), induced by external gamma radiation for 59 persons (49 men and 10 women) have been estimated. All incidents have taken place more than 40 years ago in the yearly years of adjustment of an atomic industry (1950-1953-38 persons, 1954-1958-21 persons). According to the degree of severity ARS 5 groups are selected: the severest degree - 7 individuals (average dose in group 43.8{+-}12.8 Sv), severe - 4 individuals (9.3{+-}1.5 Sv), medium - 14 individuals (2.2{+-}0.8 Sv), a light degree - 15 individuals (0.93{+-}0.13 Sv), ''erased'' from - 19 individuals (0.85{+-}0.07 Sv). In all cases, except for lethal (the severest degree), the characteristics of morphological composition of the peripheral blood were restored in the first year after ARS and now correspond to physiological standard. In 2 cases the moderate hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis was diagnosed. A marker of the acute exposure was the chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. The frequency of chromosome aberrations correlates with severity degree of ARS (from 3-7 up to 35-50 stable aberrations per 100 cells). In cases of ARS with severe degree the early development of a cerebral atherosclerosis is detected. The radiation cataract was diagnosed in 5 patients (an exposure doses 4.0-9.8 Sv, a period of development 2-5 years). During the first years after ARS in 80% of cases the complete labour rehabilitation is reached. Of 53 patients with known vital status by 45 year of monitoring 19 persons (35.8%) have died, of these in 2 cases the causes of death are not determined. In remaining cases the causes of death were ARS of severest degree (7 persons), Ischemic Heart Disease (5 persons), malignant tumors (4 persons), accidents and traumas (2 persons). (author)

  13. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Lahutte-Auboin, M.; Bey, E.

    2012-01-01

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  14. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

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    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  15. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake

    1989-01-01

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52 Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  16. Pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Haen, M.; Carbonell, F.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome are discussed. Diagnosis and therapy would be impossible without detailed knowledge in these fields. The concept of acute radiation syndrome is explained, and a pathophysiological analysis of the various forms of radiation syndrome - haematological, intestinal and affecting the central nervous system is attempted. The developments in the diagnosis and therapy of acute radiation syndrome since its first description - 35 years ago - are reviewed. Today, whole-body doses of 100 rd and more can be treated by radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  18. [Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, D; Mahé, M-A; Servois, V; Claude, L

    2009-06-01

    Thoracic irradiation is a major weapon in the treatment of nonmetastatic primary lung cancer, in particular in patients presenting a locally advanced disease of the mediastinium. Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) is one of the main limiting toxicities. The purpose of this work is to sum up the current state of knowledge of the factors of risk of developing ARP. The incidence after conventional irradiation, in patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is about 7 to 10% in the moderate although symptomatic forms of ARP and about 1 to 3% in the severe forms. The factors related to the patient, the tumour or treatments prior to the irradiation do not determine any specific risk of ARP besides an age of over 65 years that remains debatable. The validated predictive factors of ARP are mainly related to the irradiation factors (healthy lung volumes irradiated, average dose of irradiation, etc.). Nevertheless, in spite of the adjustment of these parameters, the individual susceptibility to the toxicity of thoracic radiotherapy remains significant, directing current research to the biological markers intrinsic to the patient. In particular, the involvement of early variations of certain cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TGF-ss) in the occurrence of ARP during irradiation has been suggested and studies are under way to confirm their involvement and determine their role.

  19. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  20. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  1. Chernobyl 1996. New materials concerning acute radiation syndrome around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupandin, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1996 we have succeeded in getting reliable data on radiation situation in the Khoiniki district. These were data of Civil Defence Headquarters of the Khoiniki district, remaining in private notes of the Chief of the Headquarters. Including the other data or materials, radiation syndromes in particular the acute are described. (J.P.N.)

  2. Medical Managment of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The Clinical Care of Victim. New York: Parthenon ; 2002. 8. Fliedner TM, Meineke V, Dainiak N, Gourmelon P, Akashi M, eds. Radi- ation-Induced Multi...Clinical Care of Victims. New York: Parthenon ; 2002: 217-24. 38. Peter RU. Management of skin injuries in radiation accidents: the cutaneous radiation... Parthenon ; 2002: 225-9. 39. Fliedner, TM, Friesecke, I, Beyrer K. Medical Management of Radiation Accidents: Manual on the Acute Radiation Syndrome

  3. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  4. Clinico-morphological characteristics of reparation of acute radiation ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, V.D.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Bardychev, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of reparative processes under the effect of various drugs was studied in experimental acute radiation ulcer of rats. It was established that at the stage of marked exudative-necrotic processes the use of antiinflammatory and antiexudative substances (bariz, dimethylsulfoxyde) led to normalization of the microcirculation that reduced the time of radiation ulcer healing. The use of anabolic steroids (retabolil) intensified metabolism that also produced a favourable effect on the reparative processes

  5. Evaluation of demographic factors that influence acute radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, Daniela; Millage, Kyle

    2012-08-01

    Casualty estimation tools are critical in planning for nuclear event scenarios. Current consequence assessment models based on healthy adult males may not adequately represent the population. To develop an understanding of the impact of demographic variables on casualty estimates, human data was surveyed to identify key demographic factors that affect acute radiation response. Information on in utero exposures, gender, age, and comorbidity status was collected from atomic bomb survivors, radiation accidents, and clinical oncology. Burn and trauma studies were also examined to gain insight into the impact of demographic variables on acute injury outcomes. Fetal radiation sensitivity is well documented; increased mortality or malformations are observed depending on gestational age. A greater incidence of radiation syndrome was observed among male atomic bomb survivors. Trauma data show increased mortality in males, apparently due to immunological differences between genders. Limited data suggest vulnerability in the very young and old due to immunological status and comorbidities, respectively. Certain genetically susceptible subpopulations demonstrate marked increased sensitivity to radiation exposure. Interaction of radiation and comorbid conditions has not been well studied; however, burn and trauma data indicate that comorbidities negatively impact response to acute injury. Key factors evaluated together with their prevalence indicate the importance of modeling demographic variability in casualty estimations. Also they can help identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide insight on treatment requirements.

  6. Developing diagnostic guidelines for the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kindler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic guidelines seem to be promising for improving medical care. One aspect of a diagnostic guideline for the acute radiation syndrome has been tested against an extensive case history database. Subsequently, the guideline has been optimized for a small set of case histories. The improved performance has been proven by a test against the rest of the case history database

  7. Acute and long term health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects are threshold effects, meaning that the dose must exceed a certain threshold before one sees these effects. Less than the threshold dose results in no observable organ or whole body effect. The severity of the effects correlate directly with the amount of cell damage or cell death that has occurred. 15 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  9. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  10. Hematological observations on two cases of acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Huang Shimin

    1990-01-01

    The hematological changes of two cases of acute radiation syndrome were observed. The physical doses of patients Liang and Yan were 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy respectively. According to the changes in WBC and platelet counts and the absolute count of lymphocytes and in comparison with the hematological data of the victims of Y-12 accident in USA in 1958 and those of previous accidents in China, Liang suffered from a moderate or moderate to severe degree, and Yan suffered from a moderate or moderate mild degree of hemopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. This estimation was consistent with their clinical course and physical doses. Some blood cells appeared in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in bone marrow smears of those two cases. The mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed and its clinical significance remains to be studied

  11. Immunotherapy of acute radiation syndromes with antiradiation gamma G globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: If an immunotherapy treatment approach to treatment of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed; consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants- SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of antiradiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-indeced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic and enterotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties that combined with the direct physiochemical direct radiation damage, induce the development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and observed that their toxic properties were neutralized by specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: Rabbits were inoculated with SRD radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum. The hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyperimmune serum revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radiation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate at 30 days, whereas all control animals expired by 30 days following exposure. These inoculated animals also exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of ARS, even those that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments demonstrate that rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against SRD toxins afford significant, albeit

  12. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  13. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  14. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  15. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  16. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  17. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Immunoprophylaxis by Antiradiation Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: Traditionally, the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) includes supportive therapy, cytokine therapy, blood component transfusions and even stem cell transplantation. Recommendations for ARS treatment are based on clinical symptoms, laboratory results, radiation exposure doses and information received from medical examinations. However, the current medical management of ARS does not include immune prophylaxis based on antiradiation vaccines or immune therapy with hyperimmune antiradiation serum. Immuneprophylaxis of ARS could result from stimulating the immune system via immunization with small doses of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) that possess significant immuno-stimulatory properties. Methods: Principles of immuno-toxicology were used to derive this method of immune prophylaxis. An antiradiation vaccine containing a mixture of Hematotoxic, Neurotoxic and Non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, underwent modification into a toxoid forms of the original SRD radiation toxins. The vaccine was administered to animals at different times prior to irradiation. The animals were subjected to lethal doses of radiation that induced different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. Survival rates and clinical symptoms were observed in both control and vaccine-treated animals. Results: Vaccination with non-toxic doses of Radiation toxoids induced immunity from the elaborated Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD) toxins. Neutralization of radiation toxins by specific antiradiation antibodies resulted in significantly improved clinical symptoms in the severe forms of ARS and observed survival rates of 60-80% in animals subjected to lethal doses of radiation expected to induce different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. The most effective vaccination schedule for the antiradiation vaccine consisted of repeated injections 24 and 34 days before irradiation. The vaccine remained effective for the next two years, although the specific immune memory probably

  18. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. The role of radiation therapy in childhood acute leukemia. A review from the viewpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Miwako

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been playing important roles in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia since the 1970s. The first is the preventive cranial irradiation for central nervous system therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The second is the total body irradiation as conditioning before bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission and with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. Although some late effects have been reported, a part of them could be overcome by technical improvement in radiation and salvage therapy. Radiation therapy for children might have a successful outcome on a delicate balance between efficiencies and potential late toxicities. The role of radiation therapy for childhood acute leukemia was reviewed from the standpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology in this paper. (author)

  20. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  1. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...subsyndromes: hematopoietic, gastrointestinal (or GI), and cardiovascular/CNS syndrome. The range for hematopoietic syndrome is considered to be 1-6 Gy, roughly

  2. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  3. The acute radiation syndrome in the miniature pig Troll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegl, R.

    1986-01-01

    8 animals at an average age of 230 days and an average body weight of 24.9 kg were whole-body gamma-irradiated from a cobalt-60 source with 3.0 Gy midline dose. 4 of the 8 pigs survived, the others died within day 14 and 17 after irradiation, mainly due to thrombopenia dependent hemorrhage. Hematologic examinations showed as well that the platelets decreased to a minimum on day 14 p.r. The granulocyte values and yet remarkable the lymphocyte values decreased at an earlier time. The absolute lymphocyte counts reached their lowest mark already on the first day after irradiation. The reticulocytes, which also decreased markedly on day 1 p.r., sank further on the following days, till after two weeks when they started to increase again. Furthermore 25 biochemical serum parameters have been investigated. The major pathological findings of the acute radiation sickness were the mostly heavy hemorrhages. Histological studies indicated primarily aplasia of bone marrow, intestinal mucosa damages and atrophy of lymphatic tissues. Signs for septicemia were rarely found. The investigations in Troll-pigs showed, their reactions to an irradiation of middle-lethal doses are similar to those of other pigs. Only the Vietnamese pot-bellied swine reacts differently: Profuse diarrheas already after low radiation-doses are reported. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Silver, A.R.J.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  5. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to 137 Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy

  6. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1990-07-01

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author) [pt

  7. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  9. Computed tomographic findings of radiation-induced acute adrenal injury with associated radiation nephropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieda, Nicola; Ramchandani, Parvati; Siegelman, Evan S

    2013-01-01

    Radiation nephropathy was first recognized in 1906. The kidney is a radiosensitive organ with a tolerance dose (5% complications in 5 years) of 20 Gray. The imaging findings of acute and chronic radiation induced renal injury are previously described. Radiation-induced adrenal injury, to our knowledge, has not been described in the literature. Unlike the kidneys and other upper abdominal organs, the adrenal glands are traditionally thought to be radio-resistant, protected from radiation-induced injury by proximity to adjacent organs and by the adrenal medulla which reportedly has increased radio-resistance. We present the computed tomographic imaging findings of a patient with acute radiation induced adrenal injury which resulted in adrenal insufficiency following radiotherapy of an adjacent thecal metastasis

  10. DNA copy number analysis from mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Certain mouse strains such as CBA C3H and RFM have high incidence of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data in this series wer generated by using...

  11. The acute radiation syndrome in the 137Cs Brazilian accident, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Cordeiro, J.M.; Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao Mello, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with the most severe degreed of bone marrow impairment are studied. Case descriptions are limited to manifestations and complications related to the 'Acute Radiation Syndrome' (ARS). Medical facilities, exams and therapeutic management are discussed. (MAC) [pt

  12. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  13. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    humans is taken into consideration together with the available experimental data in animals to provide quantitative estimates of dose modification...among experimental animals . Physical aspects of irradiation can impact the response to radiation as well. Furthermore, the quality of radiation...associated with radiation exposure, has been studied extensively in experimental animal studies and human populations exposed to radiation. From

  14. Scintigraphic and Endoscopic Evaluation of Radiation-induced Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Micro-pig Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jin; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Noo-Ri; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young-Hoon; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    Micro-pig model can be served as a proper substitute for humans in studying acute radiation syndrome following radiation-exposure accidents, especially showing similar clinico-pathologic response of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome to human. Among acute GI syndrome induced by radiation, GI motility disturbance has not been studied, however, it would be important in a viewpoint of affecting infectious progression from GI tract. Here, we employed scintigraphy of GI transit time and sequential endoscopic examination and tissue sampling in micropigs followed by abdominal radiation exposure. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate objective evidence of GI motility disturbance by scintigraphic evaluation and to find corresponding clinicoapthologic changes in radiation-induced acute GI syndrome

  15. Anti-radiation vaccine: Immunologically-based Prophylaxis of Acute Toxic Radiation Syndromes Associated with Long-term Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting crew from ionizing radiation is a key life sciences problem for long-duration space missions. The three major sources/types of radiation are found in space: galactic cosmic rays, trapped Van Allen belt radiation, and solar particle events. All present varying degrees of hazard to crews; however, exposure to high doses of any of these types of radiation ultimately induce both acute and long-term biological effects. High doses of space radiation can lead to the development of toxicity associated with the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) which could have significant mission impact, and even render the crew incapable of performing flight duties. The creation of efficient radiation protection technologies is considered an important target in space radiobiology, immunology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Two major mechanisms of cellular, organelle, and molecular destruction as a result of radiation exposure have been identified: 1) damage induced directly by incident radiation on the macromolecules they encounter and 2) radiolysis of water and generation of secondary free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce chemical bond breakage, molecular substitutions, and damage to biological molecules and membranes. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants, which neutralize the damaging activities of ROS, are effective in reducing the impact of small to moderate doses of radiation. In the case of high doses of radiation, antioxidants alone may be inadequate as a radioprotective therapy. However, it remains a valuable component of a more holistic strategy of prophylaxis and therapy. High doses of radiation directly damage biological molecules and modify chemical bond, resulting in the main pathological processes that drive the development of acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Which of two types of radiation-induced cellular lethality that ultimately develops, apoptosis or necrosis, depends on the spectrum of incident radiation, dose, dose rate, and

  16. A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    intestinal lumen Cell Migration Radiation damages proliferating crypt cells, causing mitotic arrest and delaying regeneration Burns can...04-08-2016 Technical Report A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures HDTRA1...the small intestine , reducing the density of the gut barrier. A reduced epithelial lining can result in suppressed nutrient absorption, bacterial

  17. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Vashchenko, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs

  18. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2014), s. 4770-4778 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : granulocyte colony-stimulating factor * radiation accidents * acute radiation syndrome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  19. Radiation-induced apoptosis in relation to acute impairment of rat salivary gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, GMRM; Cammelli, S; Zeilstra, LJW; Coppes, RP; Konings, AWT

    Purpose: To find an answer to the question: Are the acute radiation effects on salivary gland function, as seen in earlier studies, causally related to radiation-induced apoptosis? Materials and methods: Rat parotid and submandibular glands were X-irradiated with doses up to 25 Gy and morphological

  20. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radiation-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [de

  1. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.

    1950-03-17

    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  2. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in acute radiation-induced cerebral edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoguo; Zhang Baomin; Chen Xiaohua; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between changes in expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in brain vascular endothelial cells and acute radiation-induced cerebral edema after 60 Co gamma knife irradiation with a high dose. Methods: The right caudate nucleus of rats were irradiated with 200 Gy 60 Co gamma knife. the rats were sacrificed within 14 days after irradiation. By a light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, the authors studied the formation and development of acute radiation-induced cerebral edema as well as the expression of eNOS in brain vascular endothelial cells. Results: Acute radiation-induced cerebral edema was observed morphologically 2 hours after irradiation and peaked on day 3 after irradiation. The expression of eNOS in brain vascular endothelial cells markedly increased 2 hours after irradiation, which could be consistently visualized during the acute developmental phase of radiation-induced cerebral edema. Conclusion: The increased expression of eNOS may be related to the formation and development of acute radiation-induced cerebral edema after 60 Co gamma knife irradiation with a high dose

  3. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  4. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindekov, Ivan; Vassilieva, Vladimir; Aljakova, Mitko; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Raynova, Yuliana; Idakieva, Krassimira; Doumanov, Lyuba

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from 137 Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/ min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing 2 hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. Keywords: Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin; acute radiation syndrome; radioprotective effect; spleen colony assay; stomach ulcerations

  5. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed γβ- and γη-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at γβ- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at γη-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and systems causing reduction of a level of

  6. Acute and chronic radiation syndrome in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessel, M.

    1974-11-01

    The paper reports on the incidence and the clinical picture of the radiation syndrome in domestic animals, especially in pigs which are often used in animal experiments. The following parameters which influence the radiation reaction are discussed: type of irradiation (whole-body, partial-body and local irradiation), mean lethal radiation dose, radiation quality and RBE, age and individual radiosensitivity. The auther then describes the various symptoms of the radiation syndrome and the lesions which lead to death (death due to intestinal lesions, death following changes in the central nervous system). The next few chapters treat the symptoms manifested after chronic and internal irradiation. The paper closes with some remarks on the usability of irradiated animals for human consumption. (MG/AK) [de

  7. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at the West China Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 to identify any correlation between the clinical or dosimetric parameters and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) or severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) by t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Of the 68 patients, 33 patients (48.5%) developed ARP, 13 of which (19.1%) developed SARP. Of these 33 patients, 8 (11.8%), 12 (17.6%), 11 (16.2%), and 2 (2.9%) patients were grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ARP, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lung infection during radiotherapy, use of VMAT, mean lung dose (MLD), and dosimetric parameters (e.g. V20, V30) are significantly correlated with RP. Multivariate analysis found that lung infection during radiotherapy, MLD ≥ 12 Gy, and V30 ≥ 13% are significantly correlated with an increased risk of RP. Lung infection during radiotherapy and low radiation dose volume distribution were predictive factors associated with RP and should be accounted for during radiation planning.

  8. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.; Jones, J.; Gonta, S.; Prasad, K.; Rachal, C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  9. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  10. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  11. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  12. Study of radiation safety education practices in acute care Texas hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemley, A.A.; Hedl, J.J. Jr.; Griffin, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A survey study was performed to assess the extent of radiation safety education and training in acute care Texas hospitals for radiologic technologists and other hospital personnel. The findings revealed a self-perceived need by hospital administrative personnel and were interpreted to suggest a quantitative need for increased radiation safety education for several classes of hospital personnel. The findings are discussed relative to potential certification requirements for technologists and implications for the training of other personnel

  13. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-06-20

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung.

  14. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Bo; Jiang Liping; Wu Ying; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai; Zhao Fengling; Fu Baohua; Istvan, Turai

    2008-01-01

    On 26 April 1999, three persons were accidentally exposed by high dose 60 Co irradiation. They suffered from severe (one case) or moderate (two cases) hemopoietic form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). As part of the comprehensive treatment, strict reverse isolation and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy were applied. All the patients recovered after an appropriate treatment for 83 days. In our experience, the correct diagnosis and effective treatment at an early stage proved to be helpful to the patients in pulling out from the critical stage of acute radiation sickness. To avoid menstruation by the female patient just in the critical stage, we modified her menstruation cycle by testosterone. In our view, GM-CSF should be given as early as possible with enough dosage for promoting early hematological reconstruction. The experience obtained from the medical management of these patients is valuable for the treatment of such patients in the future. (author)

  15. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  16. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  17. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because deficits in visuospatial attention and working memory were identified, qualitative analysis of the results suggested that the white matter tracts in the right frontoparietal region and prefrontal cortex may be particularly vulnerable to radiation injury. Conclusion. The study findings support vulnerability of the right ...

  18. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  19. Acute esophagus toxicity in lung cancer patients after intensity modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; de Bois, Josien; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van den Heuvel, Michel; Knegjens, Joost; van Herk, Marcel; Belderbos, José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One

  20. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  1. Effective chemotherapy of acute myelocytic leukemia occurring after alkylating agent or radiation therapy for prior malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, W.P.; Karp, J.E.; Burke, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven consecutive patients with acute myelocytic leukemia occurring as a second malignancy were treated with high-dose, timed, sequential chemotherapy. Eight of the patients were felt to have ''secondary'' acute leukemia because they had received an alkylating agent or radiation therapy. The other three patients were considered controls. Despite a median age of 65, four of the eight secondary leukemia patients achieved complete remission with this regimen. One of the three control patients also achieved complete remission. This remission rate and duration are comparable to what was achieved with this treatment of ''primary'' acute myelocytic leukemia during the same period of time. These results suggest that patients with leukemia occurring after an alkylating agent or radiation therapy are not at especially high risk if treated aggressively

  2. The Effects of Acute Mobile Phone Radiation on the Anxiety Level of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Esmaili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Despite two decades of using mobile phone, the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation remain controversial. The study was conducted to determine the effect of mobile phone waves on anxiety-like behaviors in male rats. Methods A total number of 80 male naive rats were, randomly, divided into eight groups (Control, 900, 1 800, and 2 100 MHz exposure. The acute and chronic effects of mobile phone radiation on the anxiety profile was compared considering a 45-min session and seven sessions of radiation (45 min/day using the elevated plus-maze (EPM in rats. The number of rats entering the open and closed arms and their duration of stay in each of the arms were assessed. To estimate the oxidative stress, Superoxide Dismutase level in the blood serum was evaluated. Results The results obtained in the EPM showed no significant differences among the groups after acute exposure to mobile phone radiation (P > 0.05. No significant differences were observed among the groups in terms of their serum superoxide dismutase level (P > 0.05. Conclusions Short time mobile phone radiation had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors and serum enzyme activity; this may be due to low tissue irritation during acute exposure to mobile phone waves.

  3. The effect of tetrandrine and extracts of centella asiatica on acute radiation dermatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Dai, Yu-Shiang; Chen, Be-Fong [Mackay Memorial Hospital, TW (China)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Radiation injury to the skin is one of the major limiting factors in radiotherapy. We designed this study using Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the reduction in skin injury achieved using natural products from plant extracts as protection. The acute skin reaction in tetrandrine- and Madecassol-treated animals appeared earlier, but was significantly less severe, than in the control group. The peak skin reactions in the tetrandrine group were less serious than those of the control group at three different radiation doses. At a high dose irradiation, the healing effect of tetrandrine is better than Madecassol and vaseline. The histologic findings indicate that tetrandrine and Madecassol are able to reduce acute radiation reactions by their anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  4. Vasculotide, an Angiopoietin-1 mimetic, reduces acute skin ionizing radiation damage in a preclinical mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Elina; Yohan, Darren; Chin, Lee Cl; Kim, Anthony; Huang, Xiaoyong; Sade, Shachar; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Daniel J; Liu, Stanley K

    2014-08-26

    Most cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, but the treatment can also damage the surrounding normal tissue. Acute skin damage from cancer radiotherapy diminishes patients' quality of life, yet effective biological interventions for this damage are lacking. Protecting microvascular endothelial cells from irradiation-induced perturbations is emerging as a targeted damage-reduction strategy. Since Angiopoetin-1 signaling through the Tie2 receptor on endothelial cells opposes microvascular perturbations in other disease contexts, we used a preclinical Angiopoietin-1 mimic called Vasculotide to investigate its effect on skin radiation toxicity using a preclinical model. Athymic mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or Vasculotide and their flank skin was irradiated with a single large dose of ionizing radiation. Acute cutaneous damage and wound healing were evaluated by clinical skin grading, histology and immunostaining. Diffuse reflectance optical spectroscopy, myeloperoxidase-dependent bioluminescence imaging of neutrophils and a serum cytokine array were used to assess inflammation. Microvascular endothelial cell response to radiation was tested with in vitro clonogenic and Matrigel tubule formation assays. Tumour xenograft growth delay experiments were also performed. Appreciable differences between treatment groups were assessed mainly using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests comparing areas under curves, followed by post-hoc comparisons. In vivo, different schedules of Vasculotide treatment reduced the size of the irradiation-induced wound. Although skin damage scores remained similar on individual days, Vasculotide administered post irradiation resulted in less skin damage overall. Vasculotide alleviated irradiation-induced inflammation in the form of reduced levels of oxygenated hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase bioluminescence and chemokine MIP-2. Surprisingly, Vasculotide-treated animals also had higher microvascular endothelial cell

  5. Medical Managment of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waselenka, Jamie K; MacVittie, Thomas J; Blakely, William F; Pesik, Nicki; Wiley, Albert L; Dickerson, William E; Tsu, Horace; Confer, Dennis L; Coleman, Norman; Seed, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... This consensus document was developed by the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group to provide a framework for physicians in internal medicine and the medical subspecialties to evaluate...

  6. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  7. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  8. Dissimilar genome response to acute and chronic low-dose radiation in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Olga; Ponton, Andre; Filkowski, Jody; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The long-term genetic consequences of chronic exposure to low-dose irradiation constitutes a major concern to the general public and research community, especially as chronic radiation has recently been proven to be much more mutagenic and carcinogenic than previously thought. Here we report the results of the first ever comparison of the effects of acute and chronic whole body low-dose radiation exposure on global gene expression. We found a substantial difference between males and females in the expression of genes involved in signaling, growth control, transcription and other pathways upon acute and chronic radiation exposure. Specifically, we found sex differences in the expression of genes coding for G protein-coupled receptors and nuclear receptors. We also found different induction of PKCδ, PKCβ and PKCμ, members of PKC signaling pathway as well as in TGF and WNT signaling in males and females. Very pronounced difference, that was confirmed on the level of protein, was observed in the expression of WNT5A that plays an important role in carcinogenesis and muscle regeneration. WNT5A expression was significantly elevated only in chronically exposed females. We also provide the first evidence of the effect of ionizing radiation on the estrogen receptor in females. Repetitive irradiation of muscle tissue has been linked to development of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), which, enigmatically, occurs more frequently in males. Our data may be used to study possible mechanisms of RMS development upon chronic radiation exposure. They may provide some clues about the molecular background of the sex differences of RMS occurrence and may in the future lead to the discovery of new biomarkers for RMS predisposition in the irradiated tissue. Overall, differences in male and female responses to acute and chronic low-dose radiation obtained by this study were more drastic than we could have predicted. If confirmed in other experimental systems, these findings could potentially lead

  9. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  10. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  11. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, ≤ 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  12. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbumani, S.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  13. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  14. The influence of lumenal pH on the severity of acute radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, J.P.; Kimm, G.E.; Bonsack, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The severity of acute radiation injury to small bowel mucosa in rats was studied as a function of lumenal pH at the time of irradiation. Indices of injury were surviving crypt numbers, mucosal height and mucous-containing goblet cells. Animals were sacrificed 5 days postirradiation. For all three parameters and on each day postirradiation, the pH 9 segment showed less damage than segments with lumenal pH 7 or 5. The authors conclude that lumenal pH at the time of irradiation plays a significant role in the severity of acute mucosal injury. Alkaline pH is relatively protective. (author)

  15. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by enzyme immune-assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Multifactor fundamental research under experimental and industrial conditions on farm and laboratory animals and also on humans blood serum of Chernobyl NPP clean-up workers conducted within 1982 - 2002 have enabled us to establish the existence of two previously unknown phenomena: the phenomenon of reversible redistribution of cytobiochemical parameters in the blood-interstices-lymph-blood system of irradiated animals, which supports compensatory maintenance of homeostasis. The phenomenon of specific immunochemical reactions to the radiological effect, involving the formation of high molecular mass glycoprotein (molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa) - radiation antigens (SDR - specific radiation determinant) in the lymphoid system with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1) , toxic (2) gastrointestinal (3) and typical (4) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay (EIA), antiradiation vaccine, antiradiation serum, method of immune-lymph-plasmosorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (SDR) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of SDR in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of SDR -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination

  16. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author)

  17. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author).

  18. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  19. A mathematical model for leukemogenesis of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Ban, N.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in C3H/He mice irradiated. Our previous study indicated that the leukemogenesis of AML was associated with a deletion of chromosome 2 directly induced by acute radiation. We hypothesized that radiation-induced AML needs both inactivation of one allele of a causative gene directly induced by acute radiation and another mutational event at the other allele. We analyzed data using a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis. Model fitting was based on the maximum likelihood method. Our model analysis suggested that a single exposure might induce the long-lasting delayed cell death of radiation-induced initiated cells, and that the incidence of AML may be determined through both radiation-induced initiation and persistent increase of delayed cell death of the initiated cell induced by radiation

  20. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  1. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  2. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  3. Psychological stress affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, A E; Bennett, N C; Herst, P M

    2017-11-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates many pathological conditions including inflammatory skin conditions. The effect of psychological stress on acute radiation-induced skin reactions has not been documented before. Here, we aimed to explore if psychological stress could aggravate skin reaction severity in breast cancer patients. We conducted a secondary analysis of patient data obtained during a randomised, controlled clinical trial for acute radiation-induced skin reaction severity in 78 breast cancer patients. Patients were assessed three times a week during treatment. Skin reaction severity was measured using the modified Radiation-Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale (RISRAS) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grades. Stress levels were determined using a 5-point LIKERT scale to rate physical well-being, managing stress levels, house, family, work and other commitments. A total of 20 patients (26%) of the 78-patient cohort were considered stressed. Skin reaction severity in stressed patients was twice that of non-stressed patients (p stressed patients were five times more likely to develop moist desquamation. Our results show that psychological stress aggravates skin reaction severity during radiation therapy. This research needs to be validated in a more rigorous manner by incorporating a validated scale such as the Distress Thermometer and Impact Thermometer in future skin trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis. Nine (1.4%) patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients), 78% of patients (7 patients) with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29-155; p acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-37.4); p = 0.038). Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung disease should be assessed for safer irradiation of areas involving the lung field.

  5. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  6. On clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.I.; Ivanov, I.A.; Nikiforov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Main features of clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period are described. Search for ways of activization of recovery to improve the efficiency of treatments and to accelerate patients rehabilitation is of great interest for clinical medicine. It is outlined that correction of post-irradiation disorders of energy and plastic metabolism by means of influence on cell metabolism must begin as early as possible already at the initial period of disease

  7. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  8. Dose Response for Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius After Acute Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Safina Wan Abdul Razak; Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius is locally known as Grey oyster. The species is popular and widely cultivated throughout the world mostly in Asia Europe as their simple and low cost production technology and higher biological efficiency. Mutation induction is an alternative ways for improving available commercial strain for better quality traits. Dose response is important in evaluating effects of mutagenesis via acute gamma radiation. Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius was exposed to acute gamma radiation ranged from 0 Gy, 0.1 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, 0.8 kGy, 0.9 kGy, 1.0 kGy, 1.5 Gy, 2.0 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy at dose rate 0.013 kGy/ min. growth performance was measured at 2 days interval to get the LD 50 . Increasing of the irradiation dose found to decrease the growth performance of the monokaryon mycelium. LD 50 was revealed at 1.56 kGy for mono karyon mycelium. Discoveries of the works are important for the improvement of Pleurotus species via acute gamma radiation and benefiting to growers and mushroom industries. (author)

  9. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Doppler Ultrasonography: Comprehensive Evaluation of Acute Rejection After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Zhao, Jingwen; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Hongtao; Niu, Ningning

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical application of color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) for the diagnosis of acute rejection after liver transplantation. B-Mode CDFI and ARFI assessments were performed in 76 patients who underwent biopsy after liver transplantation at our institution, between October 2011 and October 2014. The study group included 56 patients with acute rejection confirmed by biopsy, with 20 patients whose liver function recovered within 1 month of transplantation forming the control group. Anteroposterior diameter of the liver, hemodynamic index (consisting of the portal vein diameter, portal vein flow velocity, and hepatic vein flow waveform), and ARFI shear wave velocity (SWV) were measured. We used logistic regression modeling and receiver operating curve to evaluate between-group differences. Compared with the control group, patients with acute rejection exhibited increased anteroposterior diameter (P = .035) and change in hemodynamic index (P = .021), including increased portal vein diameter, decreased portal vein flow, and loss of triphasic waveform of hepatic vein flow. Acoustic radiation force impulse SWV was markedly increased in the acute rejection group (P liver transplantation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Protective effects of parmelia tinctorum preparations on acute radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Ge; Li Songnian; Liu Peixun; Sheng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiation protection effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations in dosage, drug administration time, administration methods and different preparation methods on acute radiation-injured mice, and find out the best therapeutic project. Methods: Kunming mice were injected (ip) with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations before irradiation respectively, then irradiated by 9 Gy 60 Co γ-ray. The 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. By the same method, another group of mice were injected (ip) with Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h before irradiation respectively, the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors were observed. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum preparations from intramuscular and oral routes were compared with the same method. The protective effect of Parmelia tinctorum water extract preparations and alcohol extract preparations were compared. Results: A certain dosage (20-80 mg/kg) of Parmelia tinctorum preparations could greatly improve the 30-day survival rates and the protection factors of radiation-injured mice. Parmelia tinctorum preparations had significant therapeutic effect on 60 Co γ-ray radiation-injured mice at 15 min-1 h before irradiation. Administration of Parmelia tinctorum preparations by intramuscular injection showed a little lower efficacy than by intraperitoneal injection, but administration the same dose orally had no significant radiation protective effect. Parmelia tinctorum preparations extracted by water injected (ip) before irradiation had the same radiation protective effect with those extracted by 50% alcohol. Conclusion: Parmelia tinctorum preparations have a certain protective effect on acute radiation-injured mice. The best therapeutic project is injected (ip) with 40 mg/kg of Parmelia tinctorum preparations at 30 min before irradiation. (authors)

  11. Topical Calendula and Betamethasone Valerate in the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy for many cancers, including breast cancer. Despite the high prevalence of acute radiation dermatitis as well as wet desquamation, only a few trials studying the prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. In spite of these studies, some controversy still exists about regarding treatments for acute radiation dermatitis, as does some concern about their long-term complications. For this reason, we conducted a clinical trial for a new treatment with the same effectiveness as corticosteroids, but fewer complications. Methods: This trial included 60 patients with pathologic diagnoses of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy had been planned. Patients were 30-73 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy over five weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy over six weeks divided in 200 cGy fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: one group received a moderately-potent glucocorticoid steroid, 0.1% betamethasone ointment (30, and the other received the new treatment, 0.1% calendula ointment (30. All patients applied their respective drugs twice daily within the tangential field from the first day of radiation treatment until one month after treatment was completed. Starting one week after radiation therapy commenced, patients were monitored weekly for symptoms of dermatitis and the degree of severity as well as possible adverse drug effects, in addition to such monitoring on the days of their appointments. Four weeks after termination of therapy, patients were again examined, at which time they completed a questionnaire about dermatologic complications. Results: The mean time to develop dermatitis was 3.7 weeks for the betamethasone group and 3.87 weeks for the calendula group. Maximal dermatitis intensity during treatment in the betamethasone group was: 0, 6.7%; I, 73.3%; II, 16

  12. Development of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The space radiation environment, particularly solar particle events (SPEs), poses the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to humans; and organ doses from SPE exposure may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or within lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUMDOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE, written in FORTRAN, are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The ARR code is written in C. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in friendly way. A GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept example for future integration of other human space applications risk projection models. The current version of the ARRBOD GUI is a new self-contained product and will have follow-on versions, as options are added: 1) human geometries of MAX/FAX in addition to CAM/CAF; 2) shielding distributions for spacecraft, Mars surface and atmosphere; 3) various space environmental and biophysical models; and 4) other response models to be connected to the BRYNTRN. The major components of the overall system, the subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces are described in this

  13. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Kim, Myung-Hee; Norman, Ryan; Patel, Zarana; Simonsen, Lisa; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Crew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.

  14. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radition-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die vorliegende Arbeit soll tierexperimentelle Ergebnisse zur Pathogenese akuter Funktionsstoerungen der Harnblase nach Bestrahlung zusammenfassen. Material und Methoden: Transurethrale zystometrische Messungen dienen zur longitudinalen Erfassung der Harnblasenfunktion bei der Maus. Mit dieser Methode koennen strahlenbedingte Stoerungen der Speicherkapazitaet quantifiziert werden. In histologischen Untersuchungen wurden Veraenderungen in der

  15. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  16. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts be-cause organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user-friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations direc-torate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts' organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and opera-tion planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI prod-uct, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  17. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts, because organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and operation planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI product, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  18. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Dosimetric predictors of radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in IMRT for nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor H F; Ng, Sherry C Y; Leung, T W; Au, Gordon K H; Kwong, Dora L W

    2012-09-01

    We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs, and weightings should be considered for dose sparing

  20. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting in IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victor H.F., E-mail: vhflee@hku.hk [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Ng, Sherry C.Y.; Leung, T.W.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Kwong, Dora L.W. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Methods and Materials: Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs

  1. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  2. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  3. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  4. Histopathological investigation of differences between female and male rats on radiation-induced acute lung toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal BU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced acute and chronic lung toxicity is one of the important adverse events that has a negative influence on quality of life. It is widely accepted today that there are important factors such as personal sensibility and genetic differences between patients which effect both treatment response and treatment toxicity. In this study, the influence of gender differences on acute lung toxicity due to radiotherapy is investigated. Accordingly, it is examined if there is a relation between gender and histopathologically proven vasculitis and pneumonia in the lung tissues of male and female rats that are sacrificed 6 weeks after radiotherapy. It is concluded that the gender differences in rats have no effect on lung toxicity.

  5. Clinical study on the effect of Yangyinjiandu decoction on acute radiation esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ping; Wang Fawei; Cui Shuxiang; Jiao Shunchang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Yangyinjiandu decoction for acute radiation esophagitis. Methods: Lung cancer and mediastinal tumor treated by radiotherapy(portals including oesophagus to a radical tumoricidal dose≥40 Gy, with≥10 cm oesophagus include in radiotherapy). Patients were randomly divided according to the time of acceptance into the treatment group and the control group. All parameters of the two groups were basically similar and comparable. The treatment group was given Yangyinjiandu decoction (one dose daily, water decoction, 200 ml, twice a day) taken in the morning and in the evening before the end of radiotherapy. The control group was given oral vitamin C tablet 100 mg once a day before the end of radiotherapy. Five days after radio-therapy, the control group took oral prednisone 5 mg three times a day and amoxicillin 5g three times a day. All the above medicines were continued for 7 days. Results: The commencement of complication was 14.86 ± 0.34 days in the treatment group and 13.55 ± 0.26 days in the control group (P<0.01). The degree of complication was significant]y less mild in the treated group than the control group. Complication of acute group II and III radiation esophagitis rates were 5 and 0 in the treatment group and 16 and 6 in the control group (P<0.05). The overall effective rate were 95.2% and marked effective rate 12.0% of the treated group but were statistically higher than those of the control group. Conclusions: Yangyinjiandu decoction is effective and better reliable in treating acute radiation esophagitis. (authors)

  6. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  8. Biotelemetering study of the mobility of dogs treated with acute radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.V.; Sharonin, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    For the investigation of the motoric activity of dogs after gamma irradiation in doses of 350 and 650 R, use was made of a biotelementric (non-contact) method of registration based on the use of standing radio waves. The method permits the determination of the distance covered by the animals in the enclosure during the observation, and the speed of their movement. Using these data as a basis, an analysis is made of spontaneous motoric activity during various periods of the clinical development of acute radiation sickness. (author)

  9. The progress in treatment of severe hematopoietic and intestinal form of acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Kaixun; Ai Huisheng

    2006-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is hard to be overcome as the hot medical problem. This article presents the recent advances in the treatment: (1) The amifostin (WR-2721) be mechanism and earlier periods of the cell protection to apply may interrupt organize harm. (2) New directions for therapy are stressed, using cytokines to enhance recovery of hematopoiesis and immune reconstitution. (3) The article presents guidelines for the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the importance treatment meaning to the ARS. (4) Indications of preemptive therapy of fungal infection in patients are described. (authors)

  10. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells leading to acute myeloid leukemia in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhiko Ban; Tomoko Kusama

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (RI-AML) in mice is charaterized by deletion and/or rearrangement of chromosome 2. While chromosome 2 has been suspected to be a target of RI-AML, radiation-sensitive site of the chromosome might be implicated in the leukemogenesis. There were few cytogenetical studies, however, focusing on chromosomal rearrangements shortly after irradiation, and little was known about the frequency and pattern of chromosome 2 aberrations during the early period. In this study, metaphase samples were prepared from whole-body irradiated mice 24 hours after irradiation, most of the cells considered to be in the first mitotic stage. Distribution of chromosomal breakpoints on the metaphase samples were analyzed to study the relationship between chromosome aberrations and RI-AML. (author)

  11. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS – treatment of the reduced host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslet L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Christiane Bay2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Gentofte; 2University of Copenhagen, Medical Faculty, Copenhagen; 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Køge University Hospital, Køge, DenmarkBackground: The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes.Methods: Review of the current literature.Results: The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage’s important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS.Recommendation: Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least ~2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250–400 µg GM-CSF/m2 or 5 µg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of

  12. Degree and therapy of acute radiation syndromes. Introduction of a suggestion on acute radiation sickness therapy made by strategic national stockpile radiation working group of USA. part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Pan Zhen; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines, blood transfusion, and stem-cell transplantation in selected cases. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents. (authors)

  13. Successful Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis with Aloe Vera: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Arash; Akbari, Jafar; Alipour, Abbas; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Ala, Shahram; Salehifar, Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side-effect that affects up to 50% of patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a topical preparation of Aloe vera in the treatment of ARP induced by radiotherapy of pelvic area. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 20 consecutive patients with ARP after external-beam radiation therapy (46-72 Gy) of pelvic malignancies were randomized to receive either Aloe vera 3% or placebo ointment, 1 g twice daily for 4 weeks. These patients presented with at least two of the following symptoms: rectal bleeding, abdominal/rectal pain, diarrhea, or fecal urgency. These symptoms were rated by the patients in terms of their severity (grade 0-4) for each of the symptoms mentioned earlier at baseline and then weekly for 4 weeks. A symptom index was calculated by the addition of the scores (16 most symptomatic). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria and psychosocial status of the patients were also recorded weekly. The lifestyle impact of the symptoms was assessed by questionnaire grading from 0 (no effect on daily activity) to 4 (afraid to leave home). There was a significant (p Aloe vera) for diarrhea (median score: 0.67 vs. 0.11), fecal urgency (median score: 0.89 vs. 0.11), clinical presentation total (median score: 4.33 vs. 1.22), RTOG total (median score: 2.89 vs. 0.89), and lifestyle (median score: 1.1 vs. 0.33). Hemorrhage and abdominal/rectal pain did not improve significantly. The odds ratios for advantage of Aloe vera over placebo for "clinical presentation total" and "RTOG total" were 3.97 (1.3-11.9) and 5.9 (1.6-21.6), respectively. A substantial number of patients with radiation proctitis seem to benefit from therapy with Aloe vera 3% ointment.

  14. Dynamics of ceruloplasmin amd of some blood parameters in piglets suffering from acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) were followed up after treatment with gamma rays of 60 Co with a dose of 4 Ey (dose power 0.68 Ey/min) in the blood serum of male piglets of an average life weight of 18+-3 kg. CP level from 217 E/l raised to 376 E/l on the 16th hour after radiation and on the 16th day decreased to 296 e/l. Moreover, serum copper increased from 25 μmol/l to 42.3 μmol/l on the 16th hour following irradiation but on the 14th day its level dropped to 32.5 μmol/l. Erythrocyte and leucocyte count decreased from 5.83x10 12 /l and 19.94x10 12 /l to 2.47x10 12 /l and 2.0x10 9 /l, respectively. Besides, serum albumin decreased, but α-and β-globulins increased. Examination of ailing piglets showed a paraclinical pattern of an inflammatory process by acute radiation disease. CP as an antioxidant participates in reactions with toxic radiacals on radiation. By the rising of its level on radiation it again was characterized as an acute-phase protein. Serum CP was determined according to the method of Ravin using as substrate P-phenylendiamine dihydrochloride; serum copper - by the test of Boehringer Mannheim; serum proteins were studied electrophoretically on agarose gels using veronal buffer, pH 8.6

  15. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Giuseppe; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight.

  16. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pani

    Full Text Available During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays or during chronic (Californium-252 exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight.

  17. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ozawa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease.Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis.Nine (1.4% patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients, 78% of patients (7 patients with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29-155; p < 0.001 and performance status (≥2; odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-20.8; p = 0.049 were significant predictive factors. Further analysis of the 84 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease revealed that involvement of more than 10% of the lung field was the only independent predictive factor associated with the risk of acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-37.4; p = 0.038.Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, Ruediger S., E-mail: ruediger.goertz@uk-erlangen.de; Schuderer, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna@schuderer-floss.de; Strobel, Deike, E-mail: deike.strobel@uk-erlangen.de; Pfeifer, Lukas, E-mail: Lukas.Pfeifer@uk-erlangen.de; Neurath, Markus F., E-mail: Markus.Neurath@uk-erlangen.de; Wildner, Dane, E-mail: Dane.Wildner@uk-erlangen.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  19. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  2. Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisdorf, Daniel; Chao, Nelson; Waselenko, Jamie K; Dainiak, Nicholas; Armitage, James O; McNiece, Ian; Confer, Dennis

    2006-06-01

    Evaluation and management of victims of exposure to myelosuppressive radiation in a military, terrorist, or accidental event is challenging. The hematopoietic syndrome with marrow suppression and pancytopenia follows intermediate intensity radiation exposure and as such produces a clinical syndrome similar to that after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Therefore, hematologists, oncologists, and transplantation physicians have the opportunity and challenge to plan for care of irradiation victims. Management of the hematopoietic syndrome, as a component of acute radiation sickness, requires understanding its manifestations and implementation of clinical biodosimetry to provide appropriate therapeutic support. Hematopoietic growth factors may be of value if administered early as a component of supportive care. Planning for urgent stem cell transplantation for those with intermediate- to high-dose radiation (4-10 Gy) may be required. Establishing contingency plans for triage, assessment, supportive care, and treatment resembles the development of phase II trials, with defined eligibilities, treatment plans, and incorporated data collection to assess results and plan further improvements in care. The hematology/oncology community is most suited to participate in such contingency planning, and the necessary elements for its success are reviewed.

  3. Acutely exacerbated hypertension and increased inflammatory signs due to radiation treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teno, Shinichi; Tanabe, Akiyo; Nomura, Kaoru; Demura, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Hypertension and norepinephrine hypersecretion in a 59-year-old woman suffering from malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple metastases were appropriately controlled with α- and β- blockers, and α-methyltyrosine (α-MT), a catecholamine-synthesis inhibitor. Metastasized vertebrae were treated with external radiation to relieve pain, but this treatment had to be interrupted at a total dose of 20 Gy because the patient suffered acutely exacerbated hypertension (200/110 mmHg), tachycardia (160 beats/min) and a low-grade fever. Simultaneously her serum levels of LDH, potassium, urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell count, CRP and norepinephrine were significantly increased, suggesting that this episode was due to radiation-induced tissue destruction and the leakage of catecholamines and possibly interleukin-6, a cytokine mediating inflammation which is reportedly present in pheochromocytoma. The marked hypertension was controlled by continuous iv administration of phentolamine and propranolol. Although radiation therapy effectively relieves pain due to neoplasmic metastasis to the bone, physicians should be aware that life-threatening complications such as the above occur in malignant pheochromocytoma. Sufficient pretreatment with adrenergic blocking agents and/or α-MT and careful monitoring of the patient's general condition during radiation therapy, even at a low dose, are highly recommended. (author)

  4. Special investigations of hemoglobin in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravko, B.J.; Panasyuk, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of penetrating radiation into the UV, visible and IR spectra of hemoglobin obtained from guinea-pigs being irradiated by the 300 and 600 cGy doses is studied. The change of the absorption intensity in the range of 275 nm of aqueous hemoglobin solutions depending on the stage and duration of the radiation pathology is revealed. The displacement of amide absorption bands into a shorter area of hemoglobin fluctuations frequencies of irradiated animals in the period from the 1 to 19-th day after the irradiation by the 300 cGy dose and during the whole period of the acute radiation pathology after the irradiation by the 600 cGy dose is established by the use of the IR-spectroscopy method. For the relative quantitative estimation of the denaturized hemoglobins by radiation, radiotoxins and by other physical and chemical factors, one suggests to use the formulas of the hem optical density relation coefficient to the globin optical density

  5. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  6. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-02-20

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10-23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R=-0.80, p=0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R=0.81, p=0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  8. Countermeasure development : Specific Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy of Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes (CARS) are extremely severe injuries. Combination of Radiation and Thermal factors induce development of the acute pathologi-cal processes in irradiated mammals: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMOD), toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). Also, high doses of Radiation and Thermal injury induce for-mation of following Toxin groups: A. Specific Radiation Toxins; B. Specific Thermal Toxins; C. Nonspecific Histiogenic Pro-inflammatory and Inflammatory Toxins (NHIT). Specific Radi-ation Toxins (SRT) include four major group of Toxins: Cerebrovascular Radiation Toxins (Cv RT), Cardiovascular Radiation Toxins (Cr RT), Gastrointestinal Radiation Toxins (Gi RT), and Hematopoietic Radiation Toxins (Hp RT). CvRT, Cr RT, Gi RT groups of toxins are defined as Neurotoxins and Hp RT group is defined as Hematotoxins. Specific Thermal Toxins (STT) were isolated from the burned skin (Voul S., Colker I. 1972). The group of Nonspecific Histio-genic Inflammatory Toxins (NHIT) includes high amount of tissue toxins which are peptides with medium molecular weight. This group of polypeptides can be a significant factor as a part of developing of the general inflammation reaction. However, NHIT toxins can't induce many reactions and changes which are specific for radiation. Specific Radiation Toxins (SRT) can induce specific processes and reactions such as clonogenic cell death -programmed apoptotic necrosis. Although besides high doses of radiation, other forms of cell death such as Pyroptosis or Oncosis should be considered. We postulate that NHIT toxins are similar for high doses of radiation and thermal injury. Specific Radiation Toxins (SRT) are induced by high doses of radiation. Specific Thermal Toxins (STT) toxins which formation is induced by a Thermal Factor are different from SRT. Administration of STT toxins or NHIT toxins (IV or IM) to

  9. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  10. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  11. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, H.

    1981-01-01

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG) [de

  12. The acute effects of postoperative radiation therapy on the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap used in immediate breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Shelli Hood; Lyons, Janice A.; Crowe, Joseph; Lucas, Armand; Yetman, Randall J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the acute effects of postoperative radiation therapy on the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction following modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five consecutive patients were treated with postoperative radiation therapy after TRAM flap reconstruction between 1985 and 1999. The radiation records for these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Information regarding treatment techniques, timing, and dose was obtained and correlated with the extent of erythema, desquamation, and the need for treatment break. Results: The median age was 48 years. The median dose of chest wall radiation was 5040 cGy. Additional boost doses were delivered in 13 patients. Twelve patients (48%) developed mild erythema in the treatment field during the course of treatment and 13 patients (52%) developed moderate (40%) or brisk (12%) erythema. Only 10 patients (40%) developed any kind of desquamation; 5 patients (20%) developed dry desquamation and another 5 patients (20%) developed moist desquamation. No patients required a break in the course of treatment because of acute side effects. None of the parameters evaluated (the use of chemotherapy prior to radiation, the interval between surgery and radiation, smoking, prior incidence of fat necrosis, the use of bolus during radiation, and the use of a boost) were predictive of an increased incidence of either the extent of erythema or the development of desquamation in the treatment field. Conclusion: Postmastectomy radiation for TRAM flap reconstruction is well tolerated and is not associated with an increased incidence of acute side effects. Radiation technique and the use of preradiation chemotherapy do not appear to be correlated with an increased incidence of acute side effects

  13. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F; Wildner, Dane

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n=21) and lipomatosis (n=30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n=35), chronic pancreatitis (n=53) and adenocarcinoma (n=52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n=4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  15. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrenc e should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die radiogene Oesophagitis ist eine haeufige akute Nebenwirkung bei kurativen wie palliativen Bestrahlungen thorakaler und zervikaler Tumoren. Spaete Gewebereaktionen sind selten, koennen aber schwerwiegend sein. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogen verursachten Oesophagitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Therapeutisch stehen die Sicherung der Ernaehrung und die

  16. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R 2 , 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  17. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  18. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  19. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  20. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  1. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Liu, Yuan; Moore, Michael G.; Johnstone, Peter A. S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  2. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  3. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  4. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, pbone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, pmarrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, pbone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure to high dose whole body γ-radiation on bone turnover. PMID:23954507

  5. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  6. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  7. Absence of ATM truncations in patients with severe acute radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Raymond A.; Goozee, Gary R.; Birrell, Geoff; Zhi Ming Fang; Hasnain, Homa; Lavin, Martin; Kearsley, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Severe acute toxicity limits the effective use of radiotherapy in patients who are radiosensitive, and it is not usually possible to identify these radiohypersensitive (R-H) individuals before treatment commences. Five such R-H patients were detected over a 3-year period. We undertook this study to determine whether the severe acute radiohypersensitivity of these five individuals showed any correlation with cellular and molecular parameters known to be abnormal in radiosensitivity-related syndromes such as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Methods and Materials: Lymphoblastoid cells were isolated from fresh blood from the 5 R-H individuals who had previously demonstrated clinical R-H at least 9 months prior to sampling. Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were established to determine the extent of postradiation chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle delay, cell proliferation, and tumor suppressor p53 protein stabilization. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and protein truncation (PTT) assays were used to test for the possibility of mutations in the gene mutated in A-T, termed ATM. Results: LCLs derived from R-H subjects retained a significantly higher degree of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations when compared to normal control LCLs. p53 stabilization by ionizing radiation appeared normal in all but one R-H subject. There was no evidence of A-T gene truncation mutations in any of the R-H subjects tested. Conclusions: All R-H subjects in this study had their cellular radiosensitivity confirmed by the chromosomal aberration assay. Delayed p53 stabilization at 4 hours postirradiation in one R-H subject suggested that different etiologies may apply in the radiohypersensitivity investigated in this study

  8. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  9. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 μg/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  10. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  11. Assessment of acute and late effects to high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1994-11-01

    We have begun to reassess late tissue effects available from the Charged Particle Cancer Radiotherapy program at Berkeley. Our quantitative approach is limited in the analysis of these Phase I/II studies by not having equivalent patient numbers for each of the particle beams studied, by not having completely comparable follow-up times, by variations in the sizes of the fields compared, by variations in the skin scoring photographic documentation available from the patient charts, and by variations in the fractionation sizes, numbers and schedules. Despite these limitations, preliminary evidence demonstrates acute skin reactions with a shift to increasing lower dose per fraction per field for the maximum skin reactions of helium, carbon and neon ions compared to electrons. Comparisons with skin reactions from low-energy neutrons indicate that Bragg peak carbon ions (initial energy 308 MeV/nucleon) are slightly less effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak neon ions (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) corrected for differences in reference radiation are slightly more effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak silicon (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) result in an enhanced acute skin reaction, and a premature appearance of late effects that may indicate a significantly different mechanism of damage and/or repair

  12. Intrarectal amifostine suspension may protect against acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Menard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Simone, Nicole L.; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears; Godette, Denise J.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Sciuto, Linda C.; Coleman, Jonathan; Pinto, Peter; Albert, Paul S.; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test the ability of intrarectal amifostine to limit symptoms of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: The first 18 patients received 1 g of intrarectal amifostine suspension placed 30-45 min before each radiation treatment. The following 12 patients received 2 g of amifostine. Total dose prescribed ranged from 66 to 76 Gy. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The suspension remained intrarectal during treatment and was expelled after treatment. For gastrointestinal symptoms, during treatment and follow-up, all patients had a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade recorded. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-24 months). With 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine, there was a nearly significant decrease in RTOG Grade 2 acute rectal toxicity. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18) compared with 0% (0/12) in the 2-g group (p = 0.06). No Grade 3 toxicity or greater occurred in this study. Conclusion: This trial suggests greater rectal radioprotection from acute effects with 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine suspension. Further studies should be conducted in populations at higher risk for developing symptomatic acute and late proctitis

  13. Effect of bra use during radiation therapy for large-breasted women: Acute toxicity and treated heart and lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lanea M M; Cohen, Randi; Sopka, Dennis M; Li, Tianyu; Li, Linna; Anderson, Penny R; Fowble, Barbara L; Freedman, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Large breast size presents special problems during radiation simulation, planning, and patient treatment, including increased skin toxicity, in women undergoing breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy (BCT). We report our experience using a bra during radiation in large-breasted women and its effect on acute toxicity and heart and lung dosimetry. From 2001 to 2006, 246 consecutive large-breasted women (bra size ≥38 or ≥D cup) were treated with BCT using either 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In 58 cases, at the physicians' discretion, a custom-fit bra was used during simulation and treatment. Endpoints were acute radiation dermatitis and dosimetric comparison of heart and lung volumes in a subgroup of 12 left-sided breast cancer patients planned with and without a bra. The majority of acute skin toxicities were grade 2 and were experienced by 90% of patients in a bra compared with 70% of patients not in a bra (P = .003). On multivariate analysis significant predictors of grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity included the use of 3DCRT instead of IMRT (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-8.5) and the use of a bra (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.8). For left-sided patients, the use of a bra was associated with a volume of heart in the treatment fields decreased by 63.4% (P = .002), a volume of left lung decreased by 18.5% (P = .25), and chest wall separation decreased by a mean of 1 cm (P = .03). The use of a bra to augment breast shape and position in large-breasted women is an alternative to prone positioning and associated with reduced chest wall separation and reduced heart volume within the treatment field. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Literature review and global consensus on management of acute radiation syndrome affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Gent, Robert Nicolas; Carr, Zhanat; Schneider, Rita; Bader, Judith; Buglova, Elena; Chao, Nelson; Coleman, C Norman; Ganser, Arnold; Gorin, Claude; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Huff, L Andrew; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Powles, Ray; Schünemann, Holger; Shapiro, Alla; Stenke, Leif; Valverde, Nelson; Weinstock, David; White, Douglas; Albanese, Joseph; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-10-01

    The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature. English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/or shock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak recommendation is made for the use

  15. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  16. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Santos, Adriana; Martins, Lidiane C; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael J; Sakuraba, Roberto; Lopes, Cleverson P; Cruz, José C

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  17. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  18. Acute radiation reactions in oral and pharyngeal mucosa: tolerable levels in altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Jack F.; Harari, Paul M.; Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H.

    2003-01-01

    by up to roughly 3-5 Gy10 in BED, with a request for further evidence. Conclusions:It is suggested that total BED should be used, as specified above. Parameters of α=0.35 Gy- 1 , α/β=10 Gy, Tk=7 days and Tp=2.5 days are suggested. The 'acute/ tolerance zone' then turns out to be 59-61 Gy10 for radiation-only treatments. Further information about the decrement caused by concurrent head-and-neck cancer chemoradiotherapy, possibly 3-5 Gy10, is required

  19. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M [Harbor Biosciences, 9171 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 180, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  20. Effects of cranial radiation on hearing in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibadoux, G.M.; Pereira, W.V.; Hodges, J.M.; Aur, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who were admitted to our Total Therapy IX study between December 1975 and July 1977 was studied. Their treatment included combined chemotherapy, 2400 rads of cranial radiation, and intrathecal methotrexate. Subjects initially received an otologic examination and middle ear function testing. Audiometric testing was not done until ears were free of outer or middle ear pathology. If the child had no outer or middle ear disease, audiometric thresholds were obtained for the test frequencies: 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Pure-tone thresholds were obtained before irradiation (61 patients) and at 6, 12, and 36 months thereafter (49, 46, and 22 patients, respectively). The median age of time of baseline testing was 10 years, 2 months. A paired sample test based on group data was used to test whether there were any significant changes from the threshold values at 6, 12, and 36 months after irradiation. Thresholds were not significantly affected for any test frequency at any test time. Assessments of individual audiograms indicated that none of the children had any significant reductions in hearing levels at the end of the third year after cranial irradiation

  1. Acute-phase response reactants as objective biomarkers of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fazilat F; Poon, Ian; Zhang, Liying; Elliott, Liz; Hodson, Ian D; Sagar, Stephen M; Wright, James

    2012-07-01

    Current evaluation of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer relies on subjective scoring with interrater variability. We evaluated serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as objective markers of radiation-induced mucositis. Weekly serum CRP and ESR levels were measured in patients treated for head and neck cancer with radiation ± chemotherapy. Acute radiation toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute of Canada-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCIC-CTC) version 2.0 and the Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ). ESR and CRP levels were significantly elevated by 3 weeks (p = .01) and 6 weeks (p = .0002), respectively, and independent of age or pretreatment surgery. ESR was significantly dependent on radiation dose (p = .0004) and significantly higher with chemoradiation (p = .03). Serum ESR and CRP rise reliably in a radiation dose-dependent manner. ESR correlated with clinical symptoms and distinguished patients receiving chemoradiation. ESR and CRP may be an objective and sensitive marker of radiation-induced mucositis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  3. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Methods Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease...

  4. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  5. Radiation-induced acute dysphagia. Prospective observational study on 42 head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alterio, D.; Gerardi, M.A.; Fodor, C.; Ciardo, D.; Ferrari, A.; Colangione, S. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); Cella, L.; D' Avino, V.; Conson, M.; Palma, G. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Spoto, R.; Dicuonzo, S.; Jereczek-Fossa, B.A. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Oncology and Hemato-oncology, Milan (Italy); Zurlo, V.; Bruschini, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Milan (Italy); Sabbatini, A.; Valoriani, F. [European Institute of Oncology, Dietetic and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Milan (Italy); Pacelli, R. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Federico II University School of Medicine, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Maisonneuve, P. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Milan (Italy); Preda, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Cossu Rocca, M. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Urogenital and Head and Neck Tumors, Department of Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Rondi, E. [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Scientific Directorate, Milan (Italy); Sanguineti, G. [Istituto Tumori Regina Elena, Rome (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Acute toxicity in head and neck (H and N) cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) has a crucial role in compliance to treatments. The aim of this study was to correlate doses to swallowing-associated structures and acute dysphagia. We prospectively analyzed 42 H and N cancer patients treated with RT. Dysphagia (grade ≥ 3) and indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion were classified as acute toxicity. Ten swallowing-related structures were considered for the dosimetric analysis. The correlation between clinical information and the dose absorbed by the contoured structures was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression method using resampling methods (bootstrapping) was applied to select model order and parameters for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modelling. A strong multiple correlation between dosimetric parameters was found. A two-variable model was suggested as the optimal order by bootstrap method. The optimal model (Rs = 0.452, p < 0.001) includes V{sub 45} of the cervical esophagus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016) and D{sub mean} of the cricopharyngeal muscle (OR = 1.057). The model area under the curve was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.95). Our results suggested that the absorbed dose to the cricopharyngeal muscle and cervical esophagus might play a relevant role in the development of acute RT-related dysphagia. (orig.) [German] Bei Kopf-Hals-Tumorpatienten, die mit einer kurativen Strahlentherapie (''radiation therapy'', RT) behandelt werden, spielt die Akuttoxizitaet eine entscheidende Rolle fuer die Patientencompliance bei der Behandlung. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Dosen im Bereich des Schluckapparates mit der akuten Dysphagie zu korrelieren. Prospektiv analysiert wurden 42 mit einer RT behandelten Patienten. Eine Dysphagie III und/oder die Indikation fuer eine PEG(perkutane endoskopische Gastrostomie)-Anlage wurden als Akuttoxizitaet klassifiziert. Fuer die dosimetrische

  6. The analysis of prognostic factors affecting post-radiation acute reaction after conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spych, Michał; Gottwald, Leszek; Klonowicz, Małgorzata; Biegała, Michał; Bibik, Robert; Fijuth, Jacek

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the risk of acute side effects in the lung after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An attempt was made to single out clinical factors and factors related to treatment technique which may induce acute post-radiation pneumonitis. The analysis concerned 34 consecutive patients who underwent radical radiation therapy for NSCLC. Intensity of early toxicity was evaluated using modified RTOG/EORTC toxicity score. The endpoint for this analysis was the occurrence of radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or higher. Factors related to treatment techniques were included in the statistical analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients included in the study suffered from acute post-radiation pneumonitis. The results of the study revealed the existence of lung tissue sensitivity to low doses of ionizing radiation. The multivariate analysis showed that total lung volume receiving a low dose of 10 Gy increased the risk of post-radiation pneumonitis (p = 0.01). Acute post-radiation pneumonitis was a relevant clinical problem in patients who underwent radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The lung volume receiving a dose of 10 Gy was the most important dosimetric factor which influenced the post-radiation acute pneumonitis.

  7. The analysis of prognostic factors affecting post-radiation acute reaction after conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Spych, Michał; Gottwald, Leszek; Klonowicz, Małgorzata; Biegała, Michał; Bibik, Robert; Fijuth, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to evaluate the risk of acute side effects in the lung after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An attempt was made to single out clinical factors and factors related to treatment technique which may induce acute post-radiation pneumonitis. Material and methods The analysis concerned 34 consecutive patients who underwent radical radiation therapy for NSCLC. Intensity of early toxicity was evaluated...

  8. Derivation of hazardous doses for amphibians acutely exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Takata, Toshitaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of effect benchmark values for each taxonomic group, which has been difficult due to lack of experimental effects data, is required for more adequate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Estimation of effects doses from nuclear DNA mass and subsequent species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis were proposed as a method for such a derivation in acute irradiation situations for assumed nuclear accident scenarios. As a case study, 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s), at which only 5% of species are acutely affected at 50% or higher lethality, were estimated on a global scale. After nuclear DNA mass data were obtained from a database, 50% lethal doses (LD 50 s) for 4.8 and 36% of the global Anura and Caudata species, respectively, were estimated by correlative equations between nuclear DNA mass and LD 50 s. Differences between estimated and experimental LD 50 s were within a factor of three. The HD 5 s obtained by the SSD analysis of these estimated LD 50 s data were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata, respectively. This approach was also applied to the derivation of regional HD 5 s. The respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan. This HD 5 value for the Japanese Anura was significantly higher than the global value, while Caudata had no significant difference in global and Japanese HD 5 s. These results suggest that this approach is also useful for derivation of regional benchmark values, some of which are likely different from the global values. - Highlights: ► A possible method was proposed for derivation of an effect benchmark value for each taxonomic group. ► 50% lethal doses were estimated from nuclear DNA mass in amphibian species. ► 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s) were estimated by species sensitivity distribution. ► Respective HD 5 s were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata globally. ► Respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan.

  9. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  10. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  11. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  12. [Correlation study of physical and biologic parameters to acute radiation pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-hai; Li, Zhi-ping; Chen, Xiao-mei; Liu, Xiao-jing; Wu, Wen-chao; Xu, Yong; Li, Ping; Zhang, Jin-tao; Zeng, Hui

    2008-09-01

    To study the relationship between the level of plasma transform growth factor-betal (TGF-betal), interleukin-6 (IL-6), thrombomodulin (TM) dose-volume factors and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP). Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy and chemotherapy were applied to 27 lung cancer patients, 15 esophageal carcinoma, and 1 thymoma patients. 19 patients received adjuvant radiochemotherapy, and 25 patients received concurrent radio-chemotherapy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the serum IL-6, TGF-betal and TM levels of patients before radiotherapy (B-RT) and at 30 Gy(M-RT). ARP was graded according to NCI common toxicity criteria (CTCAE v 3.0), Grade 2 or more ARP was taken as the main end point. The relationship between the levels of serum TGF-betal, IL-6, TM, parameters of lung function and dose-volume factors, and the incidence rate of ARP were analyzed. Mean lung dose (MLD) and the Vx were considered as the dose-volume factors. Among 44 patients, 15 of them had ARP. 9 got grade 2 ARP and 6 had grade 3. After received a dose of 30 Gy, TGF-betal value in M-RT was (396 +/- 338) and (866 +/- 270) pg/mL in non-ARP and ARP group (P = 0.000). The ARP incidence rate in or =60 age group were 46.15% (12/26) and 16.67% (3/18) (P = 0.042), and 45.45% (15/33), 0% (0/11) (P = 0.017) in had smoking history and nonsmoking history group, respectively. 1 out of 13 patients (7.69%) who had increased M-RT TM value suffered of ARP, while 14 out of 31 patients (45.16%) whose M-RT TM value lower than pr-RT suffered of ARP (P = 0.044). The results of multivariate analysis implied that the MLD and the value of TGF-betal in M-RT were associated with severe ARP. TGF-beta1 and MLD are significant indicators of ARP. FEV1 actual value/predicted value% might have predicting effect for the severity of ARP.

  13. Acute radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese breast cancer patients with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Tomo; Oguchi, Masahiko; Kumada, Madoka; Nemoto, Keiko; Iwase, Takuji; Yamashita, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate acute morbidity, radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis, of Japanese patients treated with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS), compared to conventional RT. Japanese patients who received whole breast RT after BCS between October 2003 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had selected the conventional or hypofractionated schedule received whole breast irradiation of 50 Gy in 25 fractions plus boost or 40 Gy in 16 fractions plus boost. Radiation dermatitis and symptomatic pneumonitis were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Of 443 consecutive patients, 377 (85%) received the conventional schedule and 66 (15%) received the hypofractionated schedule. Of patients treated with the conventional schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation dermatitis were observed in 16 (4%), 278 (74%), 77 (20%) and 6 (2%), respectively. Of patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis were observed in 11 (17%), 49 (74%), 5 (8%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Grade 2-3 dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule (9%) was observed less frequently than that by the conventional schedule (22%) (chi-square test; P = 0.016). Moreover, of patients treated with the conventional schedule, 4 (1%) had Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No patient treated with the hypofractionated schedule had symptomatic pneumonitis. Radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule is acceptable. Especially, radiation dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule is milder than that by the conventional schedule.

  14. The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang Sheng; Fang, Hong; Song, Yunlong; Li, Dechang; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Hongxian; Meng, Limin; Wang, Ping; Wang, Dong; Fan, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I–II and grade III–IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADC_p_r_e), ADC after treatment (ADC_p_o_s_t) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADC_p_r_e, ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were higher in grade I–II group than in grade 0 group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADC_p_o_s_t, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were higher in grade III–IV group than in grade I–II group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADC_p_o_s_t, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC_p_o_s_t and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADC_p_o_s_t, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the radiation injury of rectum.

  15. The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang Sheng, E-mail: lxsheng500@163.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fang, Hong, E-mail: hongfang196808@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Song, Yunlong, E-mail: yunlongsong010@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Li, Dechang, E-mail: dechangli1972@sina.com [Department of Pathology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Yingjie, E-mail: wangyj19710813@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Zhu, Hongxian, E-mail: hongxian0102@sina.cn [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Meng, Limin, E-mail: liminmeng1977@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang1978@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: dongwang1964@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fan, Hongxia, E-mail: fanhongxia1975@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I–II and grade III–IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADC{sub pre}), ADC after treatment (ADC{sub post}) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADC{sub pre}, ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade I–II group than in grade 0 group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade III–IV group than in grade I–II group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADC{sub post}, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the

  16. Automyelotherapy efficiency limit in treatment for acute radiation sickness as determined by experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Automyelotherapy is the most effective method for treatment of acute radiation sickness. Therapy with use of frozen long-storage hemopoietic cells owing to their complex procurement and storage may be recommended only to a limited cohort with a high risk for uncontrolled irradiation. Prognosis of substitution therapy outcome is based, firstly, on knowledge of a maximum irradiation dose at which a therapeutic effect is manifested. Such information may be obtained only in experiment. The object of research is to establish the upper limit of irradiation dose at which therapeutic results of automyelotherapy are manifested. Research was performed on guinea pigs irradiated with doses from 5 to 10 Gy. A bone marrow cell suspension was obtained from anesthetizied animals by diaphysis puncture and lavage of 2 tibial bones. An effective therapeutic dose of cells (120 mln) was transplanted which guaranteed 100% survival of animals irradiated with the dose of 8.5 Gy exceeding the minimum absolute lethal dose by 7%. As the irradiation dose was further increased up to 10, 11 and 13 Gy survival of treated animals decreased to 61, 55 and 22% respectively. Although all treated guinea pigs perished after irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, their life span increased twice as much versus control and reached 9.5 days. Experimental data have confirmed that there is a limit of automyelotherapy efficacy. In the described experiment, it amounted to 15 Gy. The analysis of dose-effect'' relationship in treated and control animals has demonstrated DRF being equal to 1.8. This index characterizes the maximum therapeutic result of automyelotherapy. (author)

  17. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. Methods We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiothera...

  18. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  19. Studies on the acute radiation syndrome following exposure to fast neutrons (6.2 MeV) and Co-60-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.

    1978-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome caused by gamma radiation doses of 600 - 1200 rads and fast neutron doses of 250 - 900 rads was studied by determining the survival rates of whole-body irradiated mice and by histological analysis of the surviving crypt stem cells of the small intestine. The results have shown that survival was more diminished by neutron treatment than by gamma irradiation but that in comparison to neutrons mortality caused by gamma irradiation was increased with increasing time after irradiation. Thus, the determined RBE values varied in the range 2.0 - 2.6, not only as a function of dose but also as a function of time after irradiation. When correlated to LD 50 , the values after gamma irradiation dropped from 1150 to 680 rads in the interval 5 - 100 days after irradiation, while after neutron irradiation the LD 50 decreased from 470 to 330 rads in the same interval. The highest RBE values were obtained for the radiation-induced mortality 5 days after irradiation, i.e., in comparison to gamma radiation neutrons have a stronger effect in the period characterized by the gastrointestinal syndrome. Histological studies of the crypt stem cells of the small intestine were carried out for analyzing the intestinal syndrome 3 - 4 days after irradiation. Depending on the dose the RBE derived from the effect of fast neutrons on the cellular survival rate corresponded to that determined for early mortality 5 - 10 days after irradiation. (author)

  20. In vitro effects of recombinant human stem cell factor on hematopoietic cells from patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuansheng; Cheng Tao; Xu Yanqun

    1994-01-01

    The effects of rhSCF, rhPIXY 321, rhGM-CSF and rhIL-3 on clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from five cases of acute radiation sickness were studied. The results showed that rhSCF could stimulate clonal proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells and the best results were obtained when the concentration of rhSCF was 5 x 10 4 ng/L. Clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from four cases of acute radiation sickness was stimulated while that from one case was inhibited. Moreover, the responsiveness of cells to rhSCF was correlated with the doses of radiation. Analysis of cell surface antigen, cell morphology and histochemistry revealed that rhSCF promoted predominantly the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage lineage. rhSCF in combination with other three factors could further enhance the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells. The effects of rhPIXY 321, a fusion protein of GM-CSF and IL-3, were also analysed and found it to be a novel valuable hematopoietic growth factor

  1. GRK2 moderates the acute mitochondrial damage to ionizing radiation exposure by promoting mitochondrial fission/fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonietta; Sorriento, Daniela; Gambardella, Jessica; Pacelli, Roberto; Prevete, Nella; Procaccini, Claudio; Matarese, Giuseppe; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido; Ciccarelli, Michele

    2018-12-01

    The modern understanding of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 has grown towards the definition of a stress protein, for its ability to rapidly compartmentalize within the cell in response to acute stimulation. Also, mitochondria can be regulated by GRK2 localization. We show that Ionizing Radiation (IR) exposure acutely damages mitochondria regarding mass, morphology, and respiration, with recovery in a framework of hours. This phenomenon is actively regulated by GRK2, whose overexpression results to be protective, and reciprocally, deletion accelerates degenerative processes. The regulatory effects of the kinase involve a new interactome that includes binding HSP90 and binding and phosphorylation of the key molecules involved in the process of mitochondrial fusion and recovery: MFN-1 and 2.

  2. Comparison of the acute effects of radiation therapy including or excluding the thymus, on the lymphocyte subpopulations of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.A.; Byfield, P.E.; Byfield, J.E.; Small, R.C.; Benfield, J.; Pilch, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation therapy to either mediastinum or pelvis causes a rapid decrease in circulating lymphocytes of both B and T types and in addition an impairment in the function of the remaining lymphocytes, as measured by their ability to proliferate in response to mitogens. The acute depression is short-lived. Substantial recovery is apparent within 3 wk after cessation of therapy; however, most patients show a modest, chronic depression in both numbers and functional capacities of circulating lymphocytes. T cells are somewhat more sensitive than B cells, but both are affected. Irradiation of the thymus per se seems to have little influence on the acute changes which occur, as patients receiving pelvic and mediastinal (including thymic) radiotherapy show a similar degree of lymphopenia and depression of lymphocyte responsiveness

  3. [Low dose volume histogram analysis of the lungs in prediction of acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-bin; Zhu, Shu-chai; Gao, Hong-mei; Li, You-mei; Liu, Zhi-kun; Li, Juan; Su, Jing-wei; Wan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of low dose volume of the lung on acute radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) only, and to analyze the relation of comprehensive parameters of the dose-volume V5, V20 and mean lung dose (MLD) with acute RP. Two hundred and twenty-two patients with esophageal cancer treated by 3D-CRT have been followed up. The V5-V30 and MLD were calculated from the dose-volume histogram system. The clinical factors and treatment parameters were collected and analyzed. The acute RP was evaluated according to the RTOG toxicity criteria. The acute RP of grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 68 (30.6%), 40 (18.0%), 8 (3.6%) and 1 (0.5%) cases, respectively. The univariate analysis of measurement data:The primary tumor length, radiation fields, MLD and lung V5-V30 had a significant relationship with the acute RP. The magnitude of the number of radiation fields, the volume of GTV, MLD and Lung V5-V30 had a significant difference in whether the ≥ grade 1 and ≥ grade 2 acute RP developed or not. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that MLD, Lung V5, V20 and V25 were independent risk factors of ≥ grade 1 acute RP, and the radiation fields, MLD and Lung V5 were independent risk factors of ≥ grade 2 acute RP. The ≥ grade 1 and ≥ grade 2 acute RP were significantly decreased when MLD less than 14 Gy, V5 and V20 were less than 60% and 28%,respectively. When the V20 ≤ 28%, the acute RP was significantly decreased in V5 ≤ 60% group. When the MLD was ≤ 14 Gy, the ≥ 1 grade acute RP was significantly decreased in the V5 ≤ 60% group. When the MLD was >14 Gy, the ≥ grade 2 acute RP was significantly decreased in the V5 ≤ 60% group. The low dose volume of the lung is effective in predicting radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with 3D-CRT only. The comprehensive parameters combined with V5, V20 and MLD may increase the

  4. Comparison of effective radiation doses in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikefjord, E.N.; Thorsen, F.; Rorvik, J. [Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the effective radiation dose in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain, and to explore technical and practical factors affecting the effective dose. Subjects and methods: One hundred nineteen patients with acute flank pain were included. All patients were examined using both MDCT and excretory urography. CT involved one acquisition from the upper kidney margin to the symphysis pubis. The only protocol variation was in the tube current (mAs), which was made according to patient body mass. The excretory urography protocol consisted of three images, with more when supplementary images were needed. Effective radiation doses were computer-simulated using dosimetry programs for CT and conventional radiography, based on Norwegian Radiological Protection Board dose data sets. Mean and SDs of measured patient doses were calculated and compared. Further analyses of dose variations in body mass categories (body mass index) were conducted, as were analyses concerning the number of images taken. Results: The mean effective doses were 7.7 mSv with MDCT and 3.63 mSv with excretory urography. The effective dose varied both in and between techniques but could be predicted. Radiation risk decreased significantly with increased patient weight. Conclusion: The average effective dose with MDCT was more than double that with excretory urography. However, the appropriate dose could be strongly predicted by the patient's body mass index and by procedure. An optimum low-dose protocol should be considered before initiating unenhanced MDCT for ureteral colic in order to minimize the radiation-induced cancer risk and to secure adequate image quality. (author)

  5. Coronary CT angiography for acute chest pain triage: techniques for radiation exposure reduction; 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Matetzky, Shlomi; Eshet, Yael; Goitein, David; Hamdan, Ashraf; Segni, Elio Di; Konen, Eli

    2011-10-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used daily in acute chest pain triage, although exposing patients to significant radiation dosage. CCTA using prospective ECG gating (PG CCTA) enables significant radiation reduction. To determine whether the routine use of 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) can increase the proportion of patients scanned using PG CCTA technique, lowering radiation exposure, without decreasing image quality. The study comprised 232 patients, 116 consecutive patients scanned using 128 MDCT (mean age 49 years, 79 men, BMI 28) and 116 consecutive patients (mean age 50 years, 75 men, BMI 28) which were scanned using 64 MDCT. PG CCTA was performed whenever technically permissible by each type of scanner: 64 MDCT = stable heart rate (HR) exposure was 6.2 ± 4.8 mSv and 10.4 ± 7.5 mSv for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.008). The 128 MDCT scanner enables utilization of PG CCTA technique in a greater proportion of patients, thereby decreasing the related radiation significantly, without hampering image quality.

  6. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  7. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  8. Inhibitory effect of magnesium sulfate on reaction of lipid hyperoxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Zhou Juying; Yu Zhiying; Qin Songbing; Xu Xiaoting; Li Li; Tu Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: 60 maturity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron. MgSO 4 was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental-therapeutic group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points ranging from the 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d after irradiation, the brain tissue were taken. The xanthine oxidase and colorimetric examination were used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) respectively in the rat brain respectively. Results: Compared with blank control group, the SOD in brain of experimental control group decreased significantly (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the lipid peroxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries and alleviate the damage induced by free radicals to brain tissue. (authors)

  9. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  10. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  11. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  12. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure

  13. Acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients in Japan. Study of 31 cases at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminuma, Takuya; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Hanyu, Nahoko

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients has increased in Japan. HIV-positive patients are at a higher risk of cancer than the general population. This paper retrospectively reports the acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients who were treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious diseases Center Komagome Hospital (TMCICK). Thirty-one cases involving 24 HIV-positive cancer patients who were treated at TMCICK from January 1997 to March 2009 were included in this study. All acute adverse effects of radiation therapy were examined during, and one month after, the last radiation therapy session. Acute adverse effects were classified according to the site of radiation therapy treatment and analyzed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. Grade 3 acute adverse effects were seen in 17% of cases, and Grade 2 toxicities were found in 23% of patients. Damage to the skin and mucosa, including stomatitis or diarrhea, tended to occur after low-dose radiation therapy; however, no severe acute adverse effects were seen in other organs, such as the brain, lung, and bone. Acute adverse effects tended to occur earlier in HIV-positive patients and became severe more frequently than in the general population. In particular, disorders of the mucosa, such as those of the oral cavity, pharynx, and intestine, tended to occur rapidly. It was shown that radiation therapy is safe when treatment is performed carefully and that it is a very useful treatment for cancer in HIV-positive patients. (author)

  14. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Acute radiation pneumonitis after conformational radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer: clinical, dosimetric, and associated-treatment risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Etienne Giroux; Fernandez, Diego; Chatellier, Gilles; Klotz, Sylvain; Giraud, Philippe; Durdux, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Conformational thoracic radiotherapy (CTR) is a key-treatment in locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) is one of the major complications. To evaluate the predictors of ARP after CTR in the treatment of LA-NSCLC. A total of 47 consecutive patients (pts) were treated with CTR for LA-NSCLC and retrospectively analyzed. The mean total dose of radiation therapy (RT) was 65 Gy, with respiratory gating (RG) in 19 cases. Induction and concomitant chemotherapy was performed in 33 pts (70%) and 41 pts (87%), respectively. Eleven pts (23%) had an ARP resulting in death for one pt. In univariate analysis, age, sex, pretherapeutic value of forced expiratory volume (FEV), not-gated radiotherapy and type of concomitant chemotherapy did not appear as contributing factors in contrast to the administration of induction gemcitabine ( p = 0.03). The occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with nontumor lung volumes irradiated to 13 Gy (V13, p = 0.04), 20 Gy (V20, p = 0.02), and 25 Gy (V25, p = 0.006), the mean lung dose ( p = 0.008) and lung normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) ( p = 0.004). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with age >75 years (odds ratio (OR) = 16.72, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.77-157.87) and administration of induction gemcitabine (OR = 18.08, CI 95% 1.09-300.08). ARP is a common acute complication, requiring close posttreatment follow-up, particularly for elderly patients. The use of gemcitabine before radiation should be avoided. The benefits and risks of CTR must be carefully analyzed, according to the dosimetric parameters.

  16. Acute radiation pneumonitis after conformational radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer: Clinical, dosimetric, and associated-treatment risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Giroux Leprieur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conformational thoracic radiotherapy (CTR is a key-treatment in locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC. Acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP is one of the major complications. Aims: To evaluate the predictors of ARP after CTR in the treatment of LA-NSCLC. Materials and methods: A total of 47 consecutive patients (pts were treated with CTR for LA-NSCLC and retrospectively analyzed. The mean total dose of radiation therapy (RT was 65 Gy, with respiratory gating (RG in 19 cases. Induction and concomitant chemotherapy was performed in 33 pts (70% and 41 pts (87%, respectively. Results: Eleven pts (23% had an ARP resulting in death for one pt. In univariate analysis, age, sex, pretherapeutic value of forced expiratory volume (FEV, not-gated radiotherapy and type of concomitant chemotherapy did not appear as contributing factors in contrast to the administration of induction gemcitabine ( p = 0.03. The occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with nontumor lung volumes irradiated to 13 Gy (V13, p = 0.04, 20 Gy (V20, p = 0.02, and 25 Gy (V25, p = 0.006, the mean lung dose ( p = 0.008 and lung normal tissue complication probability (NTCP ( p = 0.004. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of ARP was significantly associated with age >75 years (odds ratio (OR = 16.72, confidence interval (CI 95% 1.77-157.87 and administration of induction gemcitabine (OR = 18.08, CI 95% 1.09-300.08. Conclusion: ARP is a common acute complication, requiring close posttreatment follow-up, particularly for elderly patients. The use of gemcitabine before radiation should be avoided. The benefits and risks of CTR must be carefully analyzed, according to the dosimetric parameters.

  17. Combined exposure to simulated microgravity and acute or chronic radiation reduces neuronal network integrity and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Rafi

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. This study aimed at assessing the effect of these combined conditions on neuronal network density, cell morphology and survival, using well-connected mouse cortical neuron cultures. To this end, neurons were exposed to acute low and high doses of low LET (X-rays) radiation or to chronic low dose-rate of high LET neutron irradiation (Californium-252), under the simulated microgravity generated by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch space). High content image analysis of cortical neurons positive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin unveiled a reduced neuronal network integrity and connectivity, and an altered cell morphology after exposure to acute/chronic radiation or to simulated microgravity. Additionally, in both conditions, a defect in DNA-repair efficiency was revealed by an increased number of γH2AX-positive foci, as well as an increased number of Annexin V-positive apoptotic neurons. Of interest, when combining both simulated space conditions, we noted a synergistic effect on neuronal network density, neuronal morphology, cell survival and DNA repair. Furthermore, these observations are in agreement with preliminary gene expression data, revealing modulations in cytoskeletal and apoptosis-related genes after exposure to simulated microgravity. In conclusion, the observed in vitro changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by space simulated conditions provide us with mechanistic understanding to evaluate health risks and the development of countermeasures to prevent neurological disorders in astronauts over long-term space travels. Acknowledgements: This work is supported partly by the EU-FP7 projects CEREBRAD (n° 295552)

  18. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) on intestinal microflora, translocation, and mortality was studied in mice treated with 7.0 Gy radiation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, selected by in vitro and in vivo methods, increased survival parameters of the mice...

  20. Flaxseed Mitigates Acute Oxidative Lung Damage in a Mouse Model of Repeated Radiation and Hyperoxia Exposure Associated with Space Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Solomides, Charalambos C; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct extravehicular activities (EVA). Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours and be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health. We have developed a mouse model of total body radiation and hyperoxia exposure and identified acute damage of lung tissues. In the current study we evaluated the usefulness of dietary flaxseed (FS) as a countermeasure agent for such double-hit exposures. We evaluated lung tissue changes 2 weeks post-initiation of exposure challenges. Mouse cohorts (n=5/group) were pre-fed diets containing either 0% FS or 10% FS for 3 weeks and exposed to: a) normoxia (Untreated); b) >95% O 2 (O 2 ); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O 2 and IR (O 2 +IR) 3 times per week for 2 consecutive weeks, where 8-hour hyperoxia treatments were spanned by normoxic intervals. At 2 weeks post challenge, while control-diet fed mice developed significant lung injury and inflammation across all challenges, FS protected lung tissues by decreasing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophils (pspace exploration.

  1. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  3. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that priming of the skin with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) before being injured would enhance wound healing. Four groups, each comprising 20 immunocompetent hairless mice, were exposed to simulated solar irradiation in escalating UVR doses; 0 standard erythema dose (SED) = control, 1...

  4. Acute effects of exposure to space radiation on CNS function and cognitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    On exploratory class missions, such as a mission to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (cosmic rays) that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the Space Shuttle and International Space Station operate. Exposure to cosmic rays produces changes in neuronal functi...

  5. Pathogenesis and therapeutical influenceability of the hemorrhagic syndrome in acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, H.

    1983-01-01

    New knowledge on the pathogenesis of the hemorrhagic syndrome was obtained in animal experiments and discussed as to the literature. The importance of radiation-independent secundary factors acting on the organism during the latent period is explained and consequences concerning the medicamentous therapy are derived

  6. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  7. Effects of acute gamma radiation on the reproductive ability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowmithra, K.; Shetty, N.J.; Harini, B.P.; Jha, S.K.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are the parts of nutritional webs, and are present in relatively high numbers. Four months old Eisenia fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, namely 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy to study the effects of radiation on different reproductive parameters. The number of cocoons laid and the hatchlings emerged were recorded for all the selected doses. There was no reduction in cocoon production, however; decreasing size and weight of the cocoons was observed from the samples exposed to 20 Gy and above doses. Significant reductions in the hatchlings were recorded in earthworms exposed to 10 Gy and above doses. The dose response curves for a percentage reduction in hatchlings were constructed. Exposure to radiation dose of 1 and 2 Gy did not show any reduction, however, there was ≈10%, ≈50% and ≈90% decrease in the hatchlings in samples exposed to 3, 15 and 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses respectively. Delayed hatchability was also reported at al exposure level. Histology of irradiated earthworms revealed that the structural damage in the seminal vesicles was prominent at the exposed dose of 3 Gy onwards with complete degeneration on exposure to 60 Gy of gamma radiation. - Highlights: • Eisenia fetida exposed to several doses of gamma-radiation to study the impact on reproduction. • There was no reduction in the cocoon production however. • There was reduction in size, weight and change in shape of the cocoons observed. • Reduction in number of hatchlings and degradation of seminal vesicles was pragmatic

  8. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  9. A clinical and pathological study of acute rectal injury by the radiation therapy of uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo; Katayama, Hiroshi; Haruma, Ken; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Suenaga, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features, magnifying colonoscopic findings and pathological findings of acute radiation proctitis were investigated in 40 cases of uterine cervix cancer and the following results were obtained. 1)As a clinical simptom, diarrhea was observed in about half of all cases. 2)The value of serum total protein and number of leukocyte decreased until the dose of 30 Gy (3000 rads) and no remarkable change of them were observed afterwards. Hemoglobin value did not change throughout the whole clinical course. 3)Magnifying colonoscopic findings showed remarkable change with increase of the dose and especially irregularity of pit was observed in all cases. 4)In pathological findings, edema, degenerative change of epitherial cells and decreased number of goblet cells were observed from the beginning. In cases that received more than 50 Gy (5000 rads), fibrosis developed and the epithelium showed strong regeneration. Also Paneth cells were observed in 5 out of 40 cases. 5)Remarkable change was not observed before or after the radiation by barium enema. (author)

  10. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  11. Some physico-chemical characteristics of a modified histone H2b on acute radiation affection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapunov, S.N.; Mel'nik, G.G.; Blyum, Ya.B.; Tsudzevich, B.A.; Kucherenko, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of optical characteristics of histone H2b isolated from liver nuclei 12 h following irradiation in a dose of 0.21 C/kg. It was demonstrated that under similar conditions, the control and exposed histones H2b have different steric organization which correlates with radiation-induced modifications of lateral radicals in H2b histone molecules

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Innovative Medical Approaches in Military Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-30

    of the Second World War, nearly all radiation injuries have been caused by accidents in the medical and nuclear power industries. However, the rise in...extracts prepared from brain tissue injured by oxygen deprivation (ischemic injury). The involvement of the specific chemokine in question was verified by...factors that facilitate wound healing. These factors include angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, mitogenic, and homing signals, such as vascular endothelial

  13. Remote effects in treated dogs survived acute radiation sickness. Hemodynamics at various times after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.; Lopukhova, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Dogs were exposed to X-radiation at a dose of 15 Gy; part of them received a complex treatment. The morphological of internal organs of control dogs were made before death (on days 4 to 15 after irradiation). The treated dogs were killed 0.5-2 years following irradiation. Hemodynamics normalization was noted in 1.5-2 years in the liver, brain cortex, adrenals, insular tissue of the pancreas, and lymph nodes

  14. Deficient innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and gene expression response to radiation in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wing; Neale, Geoffrey; Behm, Fred; Iyengar, Rekha; Finkelstein, David; Kastan, Michael B; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2010-06-01

    Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at an increased risk of developing secondary malignant neoplasms. Radiation and chemotherapy can cause mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities and induce genomic instability. Host immunity and appropriate DNA damage responses are critical inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine the long-term effects of ALL treatment on immune function and response to DNA damage. Comparative studies on 14 survivors in first complete remission and 16 siblings were conducted. In comparison to siblings on the cells that were involved in adaptive immunity, the patients had either higher numbers (CD19+ B cells and CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells) or similar numbers (alphabetaT cells and CD45RO+/RA- memory T cells) in the blood. In contrast, patients had lower numbers of all lymphocyte subsets involved in innate immunity (gammadeltaT cells and all NK subsets, including KIR2DL1+ cells, KIR2DL2/L3+ cells, and CD16+ cells), and lower natural cytotoxicity against K562 leukemia cells. Thymopoiesis was lower in patients, as demonstrated by less CD45RO-/RA+ naïve T cell and less SjTREC levels in the blood, whereas the Vbeta spectratype complexity score was similar. Array of gene expression response to low-dose radiation showed that about 70% of the probesets had a reduced response in patients. One of these genes, SCHIP-1, was also among the top-ranked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) during the whole-genome scanning by SNP microarray analysis. ALL survivors were deficient in innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and DNA damage responses to radiation. These defects may contribute to their increased likelihood of second malignancy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Brockmann, Carolin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A; Kim, Jong Hyo; Wiesmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p < .05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. • Perfusion CT is highly accurate for the detection of ischemic brain lesions • Perfusion CT results in high radiation exposure, therefore low-dose protocols are required • Reduction of tube current down to 72 mAs produces sufficient perfusion maps.

  16. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ahmed E.; Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  17. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  18. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F 0 and F 1 Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F 0 Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F 2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F 2 progeny of irradiated F 0 Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F 2 progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F 2 progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  19. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  20. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu [Division of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  1. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: jhuang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  2. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  3. Combination therapeutics of Nilotinib and radiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia as an effective method against drug-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Kaveh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is characterized by a very poor prognosis and a high likelihood of acquired chemo-resistance. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy has improved clinical outcome, most ALL patients relapse following treatment with TKI due to the development of resistance. We developed an in vitro model of Nilotinib-resistant Ph+ leukemia cells to investigate whether low dose radiation (LDR in combination with TKI therapy overcome chemo-resistance. Additionally, we developed a mathematical model, parameterized by cell viability experiments under Nilotinib treatment and LDR, to explain the cellular response to combination therapy. The addition of LDR significantly reduced drug resistance both in vitro and in computational model. Decreased expression level of phosphorylated AKT suggests that the combination treatment plays an important role in overcoming resistance through the AKT pathway. Model-predicted cellular responses to the combined therapy provide good agreement with experimental results. Augmentation of LDR and Nilotinib therapy seems to be beneficial to control Ph+ leukemia resistance and the quantitative model can determine optimal dosing schedule to enhance the effectiveness of the combination therapy.

  4. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with acute haemorrhage. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.-M.; Chiu, H.-M.; Chan, C.-M.; Cheung, Y.-L.; Tang, K.-W.; Law, C.-K.

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhage from rupture of petrous ICA aneurysm can be life threatening and emergency treatment is required. We report 2 cases of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm presenting with acute hemorrhage (epistaxis and otorrhagia) after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both patients had a history of RT treatment for NPC. The first patient, a 54-year-old man, presented with sudden severe epistaxis and hemorrhagic shock. The second patient, a 35-year-old man, presented with episodes of severe otorrhagia. The first patient was immediately resuscitated. Obliteration of the aneurysm was performed by endovascular occlusion of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils and fibered platinum coils. For the second patient, the aneurysm was treated by deploying a self-expandable stent across the aneurysm neck. In an emergency situation, ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm can be treated with endovascular occlusion of the ICA with micro-coils if there is a good collateral blood flow. Alternatively, the aneurysm can be treated by deployment of a stent, which can induce stasis and eventual thrombosis of the aneurysm. (author)

  5. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  6. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2013-12-01

    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  7. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Jamie A., E-mail: jamie.dean@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Wong, Kee H. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nutting, Christopher M. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Gulliford, Sarah L. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  8. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Jamie A.; Wong, Kee H.; Gay, Hiram; Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya; Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Nutting, Christopher M.; Gulliford, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  9. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jamie A; Wong, Kee H; Gay, Hiram; Welsh, Liam C; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya; Newbold, Kate L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Harrington, Kevin J; Deasy, Joseph O; Nutting, Christopher M; Gulliford, Sarah L

    2016-11-15

    Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue-sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares-logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component-logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate-response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/-0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/-0.96, 0.79/-0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe toxicity in the PLR models. Dose levels greater than

  10. Acute radiation-induced toxicity of heavy ion radiotherapy delivered with intensity modulated pencil beam scanning in patients with base of skull tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Haberer, Thomas; Scholz, Michael; Thilmann, Christoph; Wenz, Frederik; Jäkel, Oliver; Kraft, Gerhard; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Jürgen

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate acute radiation-induced toxicity of carbon ion therapy. From December 1997 to November 2000, 37 patients with chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ions at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI, Darmstadt. Tumor-conformal application of carbon beams was realized by intensity-controlled raster scanning in combination with pulse-to-pulse energy variation. The treatment planning procedure included a biological plan optimization. We applied a cobalt-Gray equivalent dose of 60GyE. Acute toxicity was assessed according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC). Acute toxicity included skin reactions ( degrees I+ degrees II) in four patients, mucositis ( degrees I- degrees III) in eight patients, otitis and middle ear effusion in four, sinusitis in four, nausea/weight loss in one and edema of the temporal lobes in one patient. In two patients, preexisting neurological symptoms worsened. We did not observe acute morbidity > degrees III of normal tissues. Scanning beam delivery of heavy charged particles is safe and reliable. No unexpected acute dose limiting toxicity was observed. With regard to toxicity, a substantial improvement compared to passive beam shaping technology is achieved.

  11. Updated assessment of the six-minute walk test as predictor of acute radiation-induced pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingfang; Zhang, Junan; Zhou, Sumin; Das, Shiva; Hollis, Donna R; Folz, Rodney J; Wong, Terence Z; Marks, Lawrence B

    2007-03-01

    To assess the utility of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a predictor of symptomatic radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). As part of a prospective trial to study radiation-induced lung injury, 53 patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy (RT) underwent a pre-RT 6MWT, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and had >or=3-month follow-up for prospective assessment of Grade 2 or worse RP (requiring medications or worse). Dosimetric parameters (e.g., the percentage of lung receiving >or=30 Gy) were extracted from the lung dose-volume histogram. The correlations between the 6MWT and PFT results were assessed using Pearson's correlation. The receiver operating characteristic technique was used in patient subgroups to evaluate the predictive capacities for RP of the dosimetric parameters, 6MWT results, and PFT results, or the combination (using discriminant analysis) of all three metrics. ROCKIT software was used to compare the receiver operating characteristic areas between each predictive model. The association of the decline in 6MWT with the development of RP was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. The pre-RT PFT and 6MWT results correlated weakly (r = 0.44-0.57, p or=30 Gy, receiver operating characteristic area 0.73, p = 0.03). Including the PFT or 6MWT results with the percentage of lung receiving >or=30 Gy did not improve the predictions. The predictive abilities of dosimetric-based models improved when the analysis was restricted to those patients whose tumors were not causing regional lung dysfunction. No correlation was found between the decline in the 6MWT result and the RP rate (p = 0.6). Although the PFTs and 6MWT are related to each other, the correlation coefficients were weak, suggesting that they could be measuring different physiologic functions. In the present data set, the addition of the PFTs or 6MWT did not increase the ability of the dosimetric parameters to predict for acute symptomatic RP. Additional work is needed to better understand the interaction

  12. The efficacy of octreotide in the therapy of acute radiation-induced diarrhea: a randomized controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Melek N.; Yavuz, A. Aydin; Aydin, Fazil; Can, Gamze; Kavgaci, Halil

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although the somatostatin analog octreotide is currently used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and secretory diarrhea associated with various disorders, its role in the management of radiation enteritis is not well defined. We performed a randomized study that compared octreotide acetate with diphenoxylate hydrochloride plus atropine sulfate, the drug commonly used as therapy for acute radiation-induced diarrhea (ARID). Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with Grade 2 (four to six stools per day) or Grade 3 (≥ seven stools per day, National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) diarrhea associated with pelvic radiotherapy were assigned randomly to receive octreotide s.c., 100 μg three times daily (n=33) or diphenoxylate and atropine orally, 2.5 mg four times daily (n = 28). Radiotherapy was delivered to all patients in a conventional manner, with high-energy photons in a total dose ≥45 Gy, which exceeds the tolerance of intestine. Overall, there was no significant difference in patient characteristics or radiotherapy applied between the two arms. Patients were evaluated daily for the primary study end point, resolution of diarrhea, as well as for interruption of pelvic radiotherapy. Results: Within 3 days, ARID completely resolved in 20 patients in the octreotide arm (2 within the first day, 11 within the second day, and 7 within the third day) vs. only 4 (all within the second day of therapy) in the diphenoxylate arm (p=0.002). On the diphenoxylate arm, 15/28 patients were required to discontinue pelvic radiotherapy; on the octreotide arm, 6/33 patients were required to discontinue pelvic radiotherapy for an average of 1.89±0.5 and 0.45±0.2 days, respectively (p=0.003). No side effects were observed in either arm. Three patients on the diphenoxylate arm and only 1 on the octreotide arm required further treatment for parenteral replenishment of fluids and electrolytes or other antidiarrheal treatments. Conclusion

  13. Identification of biomarkers for radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) in cervical cancer patients by serum protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yanlan; Wang Juan; Gao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most frequent complication of radiotherapy that causes great pain and limits the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify serum biomarkers of RIAISs in cervical cancer patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples were collected from 66 cervical cancer patients prior to pelvic radiotherapy. In our study, RIAISs occurred in 11 patients. An additional 11 patients without RIAISs were selected as controls, whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods were matched to RIAISs patients. The 22 sera were subsequently analyzed by SELDI-TOF MS, and the resulting protein profiles were evaluated to identify biomarkers using appropriate bioinformatics tools. Comparing the protein profiles of serum samples from the RIAIS group and the control group, it was found that 22 protein peaks were significantly different (P < 0.05), and six of these peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 7514.9, 4603.94, 6887.41, 2769.21, 3839.72 and 4215.7 were successfully identified. A decision tree model of biomarkers was constructed based on three biomarkers (m/z 1270.88, 1503.23 and 7514.90), which separated RIAIS-affected patients from the control group with an accuracy of 81%. This study suggests that serum proteomic analysis by SELDI-TOF MS can identify cervical cancer patients that are susceptible to RIAISs prior to pelvic radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Acute toxicity profile of craniospinal irradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in children with medulloblastoma: A prospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Maurice C.; Kusters, Johannes M.; Gidding, Corrie E.; Schieving, Jolanda H.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.; Janssens, Geert O.

    2015-01-01

    To report on the acute toxicity in children with medulloblastoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with daily intrafractionally modulated junctions. Newly diagnosed patients, aged 3–21, with standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) medulloblastoma were eligible. A dose of 23.4 or 36.0Gy in daily fractions of 1.8Gy was prescribed to the craniospinal axis, followed by a boost to the primary tumor bed (54 or 55.8Gy) and metastases (39.6–55.8Gy), when indicated. Weekly, an intravenous bolus of vincristine was combined for patients with SR medulloblastoma and patients participating in the COG-ACNS-0332 study. Common toxicity criteria (CTC, version 2.0) focusing on skin, alopecia, voice changes, conjunctivitis, anorexia, dysphagia, gastro-intestinal symptoms, headache, fatigue and hematological changes were scored weekly during radiotherapy. From 2010 to 2014, data from 15 consecutive patients (SR, n = 7; HR, n = 8) were collected. Within 72 h from onset of treatment, vomiting (66 %) and headache (46 %) occurred. During week 3 of treatment, a peak incidence in constipation (33 %) and abdominal pain/cramping (40 %) was observed, but only in the subgroup of patients (n = 9) receiving vincristine (constipation: 56 vs 0 %, P = .04; pain/cramping: 67 vs 0 %, P = .03). At week 6, 73 % of the patients developed faint erythema of the cranial skin with dry desquamation (40 %) or moist desquamation confined to the skin folds of the auricle (33 %). No reaction of the skin overlying the spinal target volume was observed. Headache at onset and gastro-intestinal toxicity, especially in patients receiving weekly vincristine, were the major complaints of patients with medulloblastoma undergoing craniospinal irradiation with IMRT

  15. Low dose cisplatin as a radiation sensitizer in management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: evaluation of acute toxicity and early response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hun Jung; Cho, Young Kap; Kim, Chul Su; Kim, Woo Chul; Lee, Suk Ho; Loh, John J. K. [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To evluate possible acute toxicity and early response of concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin as a radiosensitizer in patients with locally advanced uterine cervical carcinomas. From December 1996 to January 1999, 38 previously untreated patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (from stage IIB to stage IIIB) were treated at lnha University Hospital. All patients underwent standard pretreatment staging procedures after the initial evaluation by gynecologists and radiation oncologists. Sixteen patients with huge cervical mass (>4 cm) were submitted to the group treated with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin while the remainder was treated with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to whole pelvis (midline block after 3060 cGy), 900-1000 cGy boost to involved parametrium, and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3000-3500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the group treated with low dose cisplatin concurrently, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given from the 1 st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was measured according to expanded common toxicity criteria of the NCI (C) Clinical Trials. Early response data were analyzed at minimum 4 weeks' follow-up after completion of the treatment protocol. Hematolgic toxicity was more prominent in patients treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin. Six of 16 patients (37.5%) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and one of 22 patients (4.5%) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced grade 3 leukopenia. In Fisher's exact test, there was statistically significant difference between two groups regarding leukopenia (p=0.030). There was no apparent difference in the frequency of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity between two groups (p=0.066). Three of 16 patients (18

  16. Low dose cisplatin as a radiation sensitizer in management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: evaluation of acute toxicity and early response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun Jung; Cho, Young Kap; Kim, Chul Su; Kim, Woo Chul; Lee, Suk Ho; Loh, John J. K.

    1999-01-01

    To evluate possible acute toxicity and early response of concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin as a radiosensitizer in patients with locally advanced uterine cervical carcinomas. From December 1996 to January 1999, 38 previously untreated patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (from stage IIB to stage IIIB) were treated at lnha University Hospital. All patients underwent standard pretreatment staging procedures after the initial evaluation by gynecologists and radiation oncologists. Sixteen patients with huge cervical mass (>4 cm) were submitted to the group treated with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin while the remainder was treated with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to whole pelvis (midline block after 3060 cGy), 900-1000 cGy boost to involved parametrium, and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3000-3500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the group treated with low dose cisplatin concurrently, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given from the 1 st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was measured according to expanded common toxicity criteria of the NCI (C) Clinical Trials. Early response data were analyzed at minimum 4 weeks' follow-up after completion of the treatment protocol. Hematolgic toxicity was more prominent in patients treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin. Six of 16 patients (37.5%) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and one of 22 patients (4.5%) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced grade 3 leukopenia. In Fisher's exact test, there was statistically significant difference between two groups regarding leukopenia (p=0.030). There was no apparent difference in the frequency of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity between two groups (p=0.066). Three of 16 patients (18.7%) treated with

  17. In vitro radiosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts. Lack of correlation with acute radiation toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, Volker; Dietz, Andreas; Conradt, Christian; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Flentje, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a considerable hope among clinicians and radiobiologists to detect genetically radiosensitive patients prior to radiotherapy. A predictive assay would enable adjustment of the total irradiation dose to the individual at a constant risk of normal tissue complications. In this prospective study, the clonogenic survival assay for primary human fibroblasts to determine radiosensitivity in vitro was evaluated and then correlated with clinically observed acute radiation reactions. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-five independent survival experiments with primary fibroblasts derived from 63 biopsies from 55 cancer and non-cancer patients were performed. Results: A wide variation of cell survival between biopsies was detected. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significantly larger interindividual than intraindividual variation of SF2 values. However, a considerable scatter of SF2 values in repeated experiments was observed in individual cases. Age, gender, disease status (cancer patient, non-cancer patient) and origin of fibroblasts (skin, periodontal tissue) were demonstrated not to be statistically significant confounding factors on the intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro. In a prospective study, no correlation of the SF2 and acute reactions in 25 patients with head and neck cancer treated with a primary accelerated radiochemotherapy was detected. Conclusion: Our data show that the clonogenic assay is able to distinguish between intrinsic radiosensitivities of primary human fibroblasts if a statistical approach is used but does not predict acute radiation toxicity

  18. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Kazuto; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Noda, Shin-ei; Harashima, Koichi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Yuko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Takashi; Niibe, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Several investigations have revealed that the α/β ratio for prostate cancer is atypically low, and that hypofractionation or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens using appropriate radiation doses may be expected to yield tumor control and late sequelae rates that are better or at least as favorable as those achieved with conventional radiation therapy. In this setting, we attempted treating localized prostate cancer patients with HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using this approach, with special emphasis on the relationship between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral dose calculated from the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2003, 70 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated by iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at the Gunma University Hospital. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered in fraction doses of 3 Gy, three times per week; a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided HDR brachytherapy. The fraction size and the number of fractions in HDR brachytherapy were prospectively changed, whereas the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The fractionation in HDR brachytherapy was as follows: 5 Gy x 5, 7 Gy x 3, 9 Gy x 2, administered twice per day, although the biologic effective dose (BED) for HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT, assuming that the α/β ratio is 3, was almost equal to 138 in each fractionation group. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on

  19. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  20. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.Z.; Maling, T.M.J.; Glocer, J.; Mark, S.; Abbott, C.

    2001-01-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$ 136; CTU A$ 173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119(53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P< 0.43). Mean radiation dose to diagnosis was 5.00 mSv (NCCT) versus 3.50 mSv (IVU) (P < 0.001). Mean imaging time was 30 min (NCCT) versus 75 min (IVU) (P < 0.001). Diagnostic imaging costs were remarkably similar. Although NCCT involves a higher radiation dose than IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10 8  colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer

  2. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A₂ in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-04-30

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A₂ (bvPLA₂) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA₂ six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA₂ treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA₂ treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes' mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA₂ on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA₂ are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA₂ in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments.

  3. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasom Shin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2 has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments.

  4. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  5. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  6. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  7. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Sykes, J; Butler, J [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom); Wisenberg, G; Prato, F [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  8. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  9. The effects of acute joint exposure to radiation and certain pesticides on the peripheric blood in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of joint external γ-radiation and some pesticides on the peripheric blood is studied. Lindane, trichlorfon and tetramethylthiuram disulfide are used as toxic chemicals. It is shown that the combined effect has caused, like radiation, stable leukopenia, but less expressed than the effect of gamma radiation. It is especially obvious in the case of combining ionizing radiation and TMTD when the number of leukocytes averaged by 25% more than in the case of injury by radiation alone. Lymphocytes are most sensitive blood cell elements earily responsing to radiation and chemical organism injuries, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of analyzing the dynamics of the most qualitative and quantitative paramaters of leukocytes permit to state the summation of mutual effects of factors of radiation and chemical nature

  10. A randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study of mesalazine for the prevention of acute radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resbeut, Michel; Marteau, Philippe; Cowen, Didier; Richaud, Pierre; Bourdin, Sylvain; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Mere, Pascale; N'Guyen, Tan D.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Symptoms of acute radiation enteritis (ARE), dominated by diarrhea, occur in more than 70% of patients receiving pelvic irradiation. Eicosanoids and free radicals release have been implicated in the pathogenesis. Mesalazine (5-ASA) is a potent inhibitor of their synthesis in the mucosa and could therefore be of some interest in preventing ARE. Patients and methods: The study was performed in six radiotherapy units in France who agreed on standardized irradiation procedures. One hundred and fifty-three patients planned for external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis ≥45 Gy for prostate (n = 97) or uterus (n = 54) cancer were randomized on a double blind basis to receive prophylactic 5-ASA (4 g/day Pentasa[reg]) or placebo. Patients with concomitant chemotherapy were excluded. Prostate and uterus cancers were chosen since these centropelvic tumors require a similar radiotherapy protocol during the first step of treatment and involve a comparable volume of small intestine. The symptoms of ARE and their severity were assessed every week during irradiation, and 1 and 3 months after its end. All patients followed a low fiber and low lactose diet. End points were diarrhea, use of antidiarrheal agents, abdominal pain, and body weight. Efficacy was evaluated using intention to treat. Results: (means ± SD) Groups did not differ for age (mean 64 ± 9 years), sex, tumor site, or irradiation procedure. During irradiation, diarrhea occurred in 69% and 66% of the 5-ASA and placebo groups, respectively (χ 2 , P = 0.22). Curves of survival without diarrhea did not differ between groups (logrank P = 0.09). Severity of diarrhea did not differ between groups except at d15 where it was significantly more severe in the 5-ASA group (ANOVA P = 0.006). Duration of diarrhea did not differ (22 ± 15 days in both groups, P = 0.88). Abdominal pain was less frequently reported in the 5-ASA group at d28 (34% vs. 51%, P 0.048). Use of antidiarrheal agents and body weight

  11. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V 45 ) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V 45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V 45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V 45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V 45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V 45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V 45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V 45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  12. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

  13. Evaluation of mid- and long-term consequences, clinical and social performance in Chernobyl acute radiation syndrome patients in a multi-centre clinical follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.; Fischer, B.; Fliedner, T.M.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Belyi, D.A.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Nadejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 nearly all survivors (n=199) of 237 patients with suspected acute radiation syndrome (ARS) underwent regular follow-up investigations in the scientific centres in Kiev and in Moscow. In a close collaboration with these centres we investigate the health status of this population in a five step approach. An integral part of this approach to patient evaluation and analysis of the mid- and long-term consequences of the Chernobyl accident is a 'Questionnaire for clinical, laboratory and functional follow-up of radiation-exposed persons', developed with these centres. Beyond this project we report as an interim some results of analyses performed by the scientific centers in Kiev and in Moscow about disorders of the cardiovascular system and the digestive tract, formation of cataract, generalized and local skin injuries and/or disorders as well as for a subpopulation (n=89) the Karnofsky performance score and working ability

  14. Pathological characteristics of extremely severe acute radiation injury in a patient's legs and hands after a very uneven accidental exposure to an extremely high dose of 192Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Li Guomin; Liu Shujun; Yang Yijing; Li Fumeng; Yang Junhua

    1997-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of an extremely high dose radiation in the legs and hands of a patient is reported. the patient was exposed to 192 Ir γ-rays for 9 hours and 20 minutes, the activity of which was 2.76 TBq. The amputations of the right thigh and left forearm had to be performed 8 days after the irradiation and the debridements and skin graftings were performed on the right hand and the inner side of left knee 55 days after the radiation. Microscopically, massive necrosis of cells of the epidermis, cutaneous appendages, hypodermics and skeletal muscles, and hemorrhage in the dermis, hypodermics and skeletal muscles were seen in the local irradiated parts of the right shank. But the arrector pili muscles in the dermis of the right shank remained. On the fingers and the palm of the left hand, vacuolar degeneration and massive necrosis of the cells of epidermis were present with extensive neutrophil infiltration. Cysts of large or small size were formed from the necrotic cells, separating epidermis from dermis. There were degeneration and necrosis of glandular epithelium cells of sweat glands. Hemorrhage was present in dermis and hypodermics. All the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow in the upper ends of the tibia and fibula and in the lower ends of the femur, the radius and the ulna disappeared. Acute radiation ulcers were present on the skin of the left knee and on the skin of the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand. The extremely severe acute radiation injury caused by extremely high dose of 192 Ir led to the necrosis of the extensive soft tissues deep to skeletal muscles and the disappearance of the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow

  15. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; van der Heide, Uulke A.; van Herk, Marcel; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions

  16. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J M; Glocer, J; Abbott, C; Maling, T M; Mark, S

    2001-08-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$136; CTU A$173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119 (53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P IVU) (P IVU) (P IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital.

  17. Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, E.I.; Misharina, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

  18. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  19. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  20. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin toxicity: a survey of practice across Europe and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A; Coleman, M; Harris, R; Herst, P

    2015-05-01

    Radiation-induced toxicity is a common adverse side effect of radiation therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated a lack of evidence to support common skincare advice for radiotherapy patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the management of radiation-induced skin toxicity across Europe and the USA. Where previous surveys have focused on national practice or treatment of specific sites, the current study aimed to gain a broader representation of skincare practice. An anonymous online survey investigating various aspects of radiotherapy skincare management was distributed to departments across Europe and the USA (n = 181/737 responded i.e. 25%). The UK was excluded as a similar survey was carried out in 2011. The results highlight the lack of consistency in both the prevention and management of radiation-induced skin toxicity. Recommended products are often not based on evidence-based practice. Examples include the continued use of aqueous cream and gentian violet, as well as the recommendations on washing restrictions during treatment. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive survey to date on the current management of radiation-induced skin toxicity. This study highlights significant disparities between clinical practice and research-based evidence published in recent systematic reviews and guidelines. Ongoing large prospective randomised trials are urgently needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  2. The use of human recombinant interleukins 1α- and 1β as an early therapy for the cases of an acute radiation-induced disease (experimental)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogacheva, S.A.; Simbirtsev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Paper presents publications devoted to investigation: therapeutic efficiency of IL-1α interleukins during radio biologic experiment conducted using mice, as well as, IL-1α and IL-1β ones in experiments conducted on dogs. Mice were irradiated using 8.7, 9.0, 9.3 and 9.6 Gy doses, while dogs-using 3.15 Gy dose. Power of the absorbed dose constituted 158 c Gy/min. Recombinant IL-1α and IL-1β are shown to affect therapeutically at acute radiation. The optimal therapeutic dose of IL-1 for mice was a dose equal to 100.0 μgxkg -1 (rise of survival rate at CD 70 by 50%, while at CD 100 by 17%); for dogs - 1.0 μgxkg -1 (rise of survival rate at CD 100 at the background of antibacterial therapy up to 80%)

  3. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Henry G; Malmgren, Judith A; Atwood, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on the hematopoietic niche and treatment of acute radiation syndrome by gene therapy in highly-irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrigou, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The hematopoietic stem cell niche represents a complex radiosensitive compartment whose protection is required for recovery from radiation-induced myelosuppression. We initially studied RI effects on endothelial and mesenchymal progenitors by an evaluating radiosensitivity and cell death. Then, we have proposed a new gene therapy strategy based on local and short term secretion of Sonic hedgehog morphogen to favour vascular niche repair and to stimulate residual hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We investigated the hematopoietic response of 8-Gy gamma irradiated monkeys to a single intra-osseous injection of xenogeneic multipotent mesenchymal stem cells transduced with a Shh pIRES2 plasmid. Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia duration were significantly reduced in grafted animals and clonogenics normalized from day 42. Areas under the curve of PLTs and ANCs between day 0 and day 30 were significantly higher in treated animals than in controls. Grafting Matrigel TM colonized or not with ASC in immunocompromised mice demonstrated a notable pro-angiogenic activity for Shh-ASC. Long term follow up (180-300 days) confirmed a durable recovery in the four grafted monkeys. Globally this study suggests that grafting Shh-multipotent stem cells may represent a new strategy to cure radiation-induced niche damage. (author)

  5. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.A.; Tapic, R.T.; Aurigue, F.B.

    2008-01-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S.kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S.tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effect of dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also, it sought to determine the lethal dose and optimum dose of gamma radiation on the three species. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose level of gamma radiation. The three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. Results showed that as the dose level and ministered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases whereas, the seedlings height, number of roots and root length decreased. However, there was an increase in the number of leaves at 10 and 20 Gy dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreased the number of leaves. Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma irradiation

  6. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  7. Effect of Probiotics for the Prevention of Acute Radiation-Induced Diarrhoea Among Cervical Cancer Patients: a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Ye Htut; Thu, K Khine; Win, Nang Hla Hla

    2018-03-17

    Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment of cervical cancer and the most common acute side effect is radiation-induced diarrhoea (RID), which can affect up to 80% of the patients. The most frequently used probiotics for the RID in previous studies with somewhat positive results are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a probiotic containing live Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for the prevention of acute (RID) among cervical cancer patients. Patients receiving external beam pelvic radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy were randomized into probiotic or placebo groups and were double-blinded. The probiotic group received the capsules containing 1.75 billion lyophilized live bacteria to be taken one capsule three times daily beginning from the first day until the end of radiotherapy, and the placebo group received identically appearing capsules containing starch with the same schedule. Every patient received the standard dietary recommendations. The patients were assessed daily during radiotherapy and follow-up weekly for 3 weeks after radiotherapy. Total 54 patients were analyzed. The incidence of diarrhoea was reduced in the probiotic group than the placebo group (53.8 and 82.1%, p probiotic group (p probiotic group than the placebo group (p probiotic is an easy and effective way to reduce the incidence and severity of RID in cervical cancer patients.

  8. Acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a daily water-filled endorectal balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Curtiland; Both, Stefan; Bui, Viet; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Kay-See; Schaer, Mattia; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERB H2O ), and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERB H2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Mean age was 68 (range 51–88). Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV) rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps < 0.05). Maximum acute GU toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 for 17%, 41%, and 42% of patients, respectively. Infield bladder V20 (P = 0.03) and pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) (P = 0.003) were associated with grade 2 GU toxicity. Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERB H2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities

  9. Clinical Indicators of Psychosocial Distress Predict for Acute Radiation-Induced Fatigue in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: An Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sharif, Jamal; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Steinberg, Michael L.; McCloskey, Susan A., E-mail: smccloskey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the magnitude and predictors of patient-reported fatigue among breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Patients receiving breast RT completed a survey querying fatigue at each weekly on-treatment visit. Patient-reported fatigue severity and interference was assessed on an ordinal scale of 0 to 4, using a validated scoring system. Baseline anxiety and depression scores were also obtained. The kinetics of mean fatigue scores per week and the maximum fatigue scores over the course of the entire treatment were assessed, and clinical predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate regression. Results: The average fatigue severity and interference scores were 0.6 and 0.46. The average fatigue scores increased to an equivalent extent from week to week, with expected increases of 0.99 in fatigue severity and 0.85 in interference over 7 weeks. Patients treated with hypofractionated RT (HF-RT) versus conventionally fractionated RT (CF-RT) had significantly fewer maximum fatigue severity or interference scores that were >2 (ie, severe or very severe; 29% vs 10% for severity, and 26% vs 8% for interference, P<.01). Age ≤45 years, presence of psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities, and baseline sadness and anxiety severity were predictive of average and maximum fatigue scores (P<.05), but variables related to treatment intensity (eg, mastectomy vs lumpectomy, chemotherapy use, radiation target volumes) and other host factors (working, children, marital status, proximity to RT facility) were not. Conclusion: Patient-reported fatigue modestly increases over RT courses, with less maximum fatigue reported with HF-RT. Younger age and baseline sadness, anxiety, and psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities are powerful predictors of fatigue, whereas other factors, such as treatment intensity, are not. Future studies will investigate interventions for patients at high risk for fatigue.

  10. Prediction of Acute Radiation Mucositis using an Oral Mucosal Dose Surface Model in Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the dose-response relationship for development of acute radiation mucositis (ARM using an oral mucosal dose surface model (OMDS-model in carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT for head and neck tumors.Thirty-nine patients receiving C-ion RT for head and neck cancer were evaluated for ARM (once per week for 6 weeks according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG scoring systems. The irradiation schedule typically used was 64 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE] in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Maximum point doses in the palate and tongue were compared with ARM in each patient.The location of the ARM coincided with the high-dose area in the OMDS-model. There was a clear dose-response relationship between maximum point dose and ARM grade assessed using the RTOG criteria but not the CTCAE. The threshold doses for grade 2-3 ARM in the palate and tongue were 43.0 Gy(RBE and 54.3 Gy(RBE, respectively.The OMDS-model was useful for predicting the location and severity of ARM. Maximum point doses in the model correlated well with grade 2-3 ARM.

  11. DNA Double-Strand Break Analysis by {gamma}-H2AX Foci: A Useful Method for Determining the Overreactors to Radiation-Induced Acute Reactions Among Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiridi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kanive Parashiva, Guruprasad; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy [Division of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Interindividual variability in normal tissue toxicity during radiation therapy is a limiting factor for successful treatment. Predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before initiation of radiation therapy may have the benefit of opting for altered radiation therapy regimens to achieve minimal adverse effects with improved tumor cure. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and its repair kinetics in lymphocytes of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy was analyzed by counting {gamma}-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay, and a modified version of neutral filter elution assay. Acute normal tissue reactions were assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The correlation between residual DSBs and the severity of acute reactions demonstrated that residual {gamma}-H2AX foci in head-and-neck cancer patients increased with the severity of oral mucositis and skin reaction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that {gamma}-H2AX analysis may have predictive implications for identifying the overreactors to mucositis and skin reactions among head-and-neck cancer patients prior to initiation of radiation therapy.

  12. Effects of acute sublethal gamma radiation exposure on aggressive behavior in male mice: A dose-response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, D.M.; Landauer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The resident-intruder paradigm was used to assess the effects of gamma radiation (0, 3, 5, 7 Gray [Gy] cobalt-60) on aggressive offensive behavior in resident male mice over a 3-month period. The defensive behavior of nonirradiated intruder mice was also monitored. A dose of 3 Gy had no effect on either the residents' offensive behavior or the defensive behavior of the intruders paired with them. Doses of 5 and 7 Gy produced decreases in offensive behavior of irradiated residents during the second week postirradiation. The nonirradiated intruders paired with these animals displayed decreases in defensive behavior during this time period, indicating a sensitivity to changes in the residents' behavior. After the third week postirradiation, offensive and defensive behavior did not differ significantly between irradiated mice and sham-irradiated controls. This study suggests that sublethal doses of radiation can temporarily suppress aggressive behavior but have no apparent permanent effect on that behavior

  13. The Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist Entolimod Mitigates Lethal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Non-Human Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim I Krivokrysenko

    Full Text Available There are currently no approved medical radiation countermeasures (MRC to reduce the lethality of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation expected in nuclear emergencies. An ideal MRC would be effective even when administered well after radiation exposure and would counteract the effects of irradiation on the hematopoietic system and gastrointestinal tract that contribute to its lethality. Entolimod is a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist with demonstrated radioprotective/mitigative activity in rodents and radioprotective activity in non-human primates. Here, we report data from several exploratory studies conducted in lethally irradiated non-human primates (rhesus macaques treated with a single intramuscular injection of entolimod (in the absence of intensive individualized supportive care administered in a mitigative regimen, 1-48 hours after irradiation. Following exposure to LD50-70/40 of radiation, injection of efficacious doses of entolimod administered as late as 25 hours thereafter reduced the risk of mortality 2-3-fold, providing a statistically significant (P<0.01 absolute survival advantage of 40-60% compared to vehicle treatment. Similar magnitude of survival improvement was also achieved with drug delivered 48 hours after irradiation. Improved survival was accompanied by predominantly significant (P<0.05 effects of entolimod administration on accelerated morphological recovery of hematopoietic and immune system organs, decreased severity and duration of thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia, and increased clonogenic potential of the bone marrow compared to control irradiated animals. Entolimod treatment also led to reduced apoptosis and accelerated crypt regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract. Together, these data indicate that entolimod is a highly promising potential life-saving treatment for victims of radiation disasters.

  14. [Selective decontamination of the intestine and total gnotobiologic isolation in treatment of mice with acute radiation sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, L A; Bush, V; Korshunov, V M

    1992-01-01

    Comparative study of ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and amikacin showed that ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin had a selective action on the intestinal microflora of conventional mice. Amikacin induced inhibition not only of the opportunistic bacteria but also of the representatives of the indigenous microflora. The use of the drugs in combination with total gnotobiological isolation in treatment of experimental radiation sickness provided an increase in survival of the irradiated animals, the more so as ciprofloxacin was used.

  15. Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, F K C

    2007-10-01

    In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations.

  16. Isolated late testicular relapse of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with intensive systemic chemotherapy and response-based testicular radiation: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barredo, Julio C; Hastings, Caroline; Lu, Xiamin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Chen, Yichen; Armstrong, Daniel; Winick, Naomi; Wood, Brent Lee; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Loh, Mignon; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Jorstad, Dean Thomas; Marcus, Robert; Ritchey, Kim; Carrol, William L; Hunger, Stephen P

    2018-05-01

    The incidence of isolated testicular relapse (ITR) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has decreased with contemporary treatment strategies, but outcomes are suboptimal with a 58% 5-year overall survival (OS). This study aimed to improve outcome in patients with ITR of B-cell ALL (B-ALL) occurring after 18 months of first clinical remission using intensive systemic chemotherapy and to decrease long-term sequelae by limiting use of testicular radiation. Forty patients in first ITR of B-ALL were enrolled. Induction (dexamethasone, vincristine, daunorubicin, and intrathecal triple therapy) was preceded by one dose of high-dose methotrexate (MTX, 5 g/m 2 ). Following induction, 25 of 26 patients who had persistent testicular enlargement underwent testicular biopsy. Eleven had biopsy-proven disease and received bilateral testicular radiation (24 Gy), whereas twenty-nine did not. Overall 5-year event-free survival (EFS)/OS was 65.0 ± 8.8%/73.1 ± 8.3%, with 5-year EFS 62.1 ± 11.0% vs. 72.7 ± 14.4% for patients who did not receive radiation therapy (XRT) (n = 29) compared with those who did (n = 11), respectively (P = 0.64). There were six second bone marrow relapses and six second ITRs. The proportion of second relapses was similar in the patients that received testicular radiation and those who did not. However, the 5-year OS was similar for patients who did not receive XRT (72.6 ± 10.2%) compared with those who did (72.7 ± 14.4%) (P = 0.85). A 5-year OS rate of 73.1 ± 8.3% was obtained in children with first ITR of B-ALL occurring after 18 months of CR1 (length of first clinical remission) using intensive chemotherapy and limiting testicular radiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Correlation of the acute oxidative stress markers with radiation induced late lung disease response of pneumonitis and/or fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers which predict for the occurrence of radiation-induced lung responses of pneumonitis and/or fibrosis are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated whether markers of oxidative stress and intracellular antioxidants, measured within days of radiation exposure, correlated with the lung tissue injury response occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J, CBA/J, NZW/LacJ) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10-23 weeks) were studied. Mice were unirradiated (controls) or received whole thorax irradiation (18 Gy) and were euthanized at 6h, 1d, 7d, 8w and upon presentation of respiratory distress. Pulmonary levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione, and of oxidative damage (reactive oxygen species (ROS), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and numbers of γH2AX foci), were assessed

  18. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells ameliorates acute radiation-induced pneumonitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D; Lee, G; Lee, S; Park, S; Jung, K-H; Lee, J H; Lee, J M; Kim, J-Y; Cho, J; Bae, H

    2017-02-01

    Forkhead transcription factor 3 (Foxp3) has a critical role in regulatory T cells (Treg). There are an increasing number of researches concerning the functions of Foxp3 in other cells, including lung epithelial cells besides Treg. However, the roles of Foxp3 in lung epithelial cells remain poorly understood. To examine the potential therapeutic benefits of Foxp3 for lung inflammation, this study investigates the effect of adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 overexpression in a radiation-induced lung damage model. Foxp3-EGFP expressing adenovirus was administered by intratracheal injection three times over 14 days after focal X-ray irradiation. To evaluate effects of Foxp3 overexpression in radiation-induced lung inflammation, immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were analyzed. Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significant inhibition of immune cell infiltration, such as eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in BAL fluid. Histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 overexpression inhibits inflammatory cell recruitment and collagen deposition in lung tissues. In addition, expression of inflammatory and fibrosis-related genes was decreased in the Foxp3 expression adenovirus-infected group. These results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lungs holds considerable therapeutic potential for attenuating inflammation and fibrosis in radiation-induced lung injury.

  19. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  20. Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes After Radiation Therapy Are Similar to De Novo Disease and Differ From Other Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Valentina; Winkfield, Karen M.; Ok, Chi Young; Niemierko, Andrzej; Kluk, Michael J.; Attar, Eyal C.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Wang, Sa A.; Hasserjian, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) represent a unique clinical syndrome occurring in patients treated with chemotherapy and/or external-beam radiation (XRT) and are characterized by poorer prognosis compared with de novo disease. XRT techniques have evolved in recent years and are associated with significantly reduced bone marrow exposure. The characteristics of post-XRT t-MN in the current era have not been studied. Patients and Methods We analyzed patients who developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) after XRT alone (47 patients) or cytotoxic chemotherapy/combined-modality therapy (C/CMT, 181 patients) and compared them with patients with de novo MDS or AML (222 patients). We estimated bone marrow exposure to radiation and compared the clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic features and outcome of the XRT patients with the C/CMT patients and with patients with de novo MDS and AML. Results Patients with t-MN after XRT alone had superior overall survival (P = .006) and lower incidence of high-risk karyotypes (P = .01 for AML and < .001 for MDS) compared with patients in the C/CMT group. In contrast, there were no significant differences in survival or frequency of high-risk karyotypes between the XRT and de novo groups. Conclusion AML and MDS diagnosed in the past decade in patients after receiving XRT alone differ from t-MN occurring after C/CMT and share genetic features and clinical behavior with de novo AML/MDS. Our results suggest that post-XRT MDS/AML may not represent a direct consequence of radiation toxicity and warrant a therapeutic approach similar to de novo disease. PMID:22585703

  1. Joint report of the Jilin {sup 192}Ir radiation accident: a clinical study on a case of moderate degree bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness with extremely severe local radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Genyao; Wang Guilin; Yang Zhixiang [North Taiping Road Hospital, Beijing (China); Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the joint report of the Jilin {sup 192} Ir radiation accident, describing the clinical study of the medical handling of a patient exposed to extremely uneven total body irradiation from a 2,765 TBq Iridium source, on january 5, 1996 in Jilin city, China. The authors emphasize the early amputation as the key for the success, the importance of rh G-CSF effect and the significance of radiation nutrition for the patient support, who had total body irradiation, massive local radiation injury and extensive surgical intervention for sustaining.

  2. Analysis of cellular response by exposure to acute or chronic radiation in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

    To clarify the biological effects of low-dose rate radiation on human health for long-term stay in space, we analyzed the induction of apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression after irradiation with different dose-rate in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells harboring wild-type p53 gene. We irradiated TK-6 cells by X-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 Gy/min) and then sampled at 25 hr after culturing. We also irradiated by gamma-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 mGy/min) and then sampled immediately or 25 hr after irradiation. For DNA ladder analysis, we extracted DNA from these samples and electrophoresed with 2% agarose gel. In addition, we extracted mRNA from these samples for DNA-array analysis. mRNA from non-irradiated cells was used as a control. After labeling the cDNA against mRNA with [α -33P]-dCTP and hybridizing onto DNA array (Human Apoptosis Expression Array, R&D Systems), we scanned the profiles of the spots by a phosphorimager (BAS5000, FUJI FILM) and calculated using a NIH Image program. The data of each DNA-array were normalized with eight kinds of house keeping genes. We analyzed the expression level of apoptosis-related genes such as p53-related, Bcl-2 family, Caspase family and Fas-related genes. DNA ladders were obviously detected in the cells exposed to a high dose-rate radiation. We detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-promotive genes. In contrast, almost no apoptosis was observed in the cells exposed to the chronic radiation at a low dose-rate. In addition, we detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-suppressive genes as compared with apoptosis promotive-genes immediately after chronic irradiation. These results lead the importance of biological meaning of exposure to radiation at low dose-rate from an aspect of carcinogenesis. Finally, the effects of chronic irradiation become a highly important issue in space radiation biology for human health.

  3. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Brittany A.; Ly, David; Savage, Jason E.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Dan, Tu D.; Ylaya, Kris; Shankavaram, Uma; Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin; Camphausen, Kevin; Mitchell, James B.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation

  4. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Brittany A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ly, David; Savage, Jason E. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Hewitt, Stephen M. [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dan, Tu D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ylaya, Kris [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Shankavaram, Uma [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Simone, Nicole L., E-mail: nicole.simone@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  5. Sequence analysis of the ATM gene in 20 patients with RTOG grade 3 or 4 acute and/or late tissue radiation side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppitz, Ulrich; Bernthaler, Ulrike; Schindler, Detlev; Sobeck, Alexandra; Hoehn, Holger; Platzer, Matthias; Rosenthal, Andre; Flentje, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) show greatly increased radiation sensitivity and cancer predisposition. Family studies imply that the otherwise clinically silent heterozygotes of this autosomal recessive disease run a 3.5 to 3.8 higher risk of developing cancer. In vitro studies suggest moderately increased cellular radiation sensitivity of A-T carriers. They may also show elevated clinical radiosensitivity. We retrospectively examined patients who presented with severe adverse reactions during or after standard radiation treatment for mutations in the gene responsible for A-T, ATM, considering a potential means of future identification of radiosensitive individuals prospectively to adjust dosage schedules. Material and Methods: We selected 20 cancer patients (breast, 11; rectum, 2; ENT, 2; bladder, 1; prostate, 1; anus, 1; astrocytoma, 1; Hodgkins lymphoma, 1) with Grade 3 to 4 (RTOG) acute and/or late tissue radiation side effects by reaction severity. DNA from the peripheral blood of patients was isolated. All 66 exons and adjacent intron regions of the ATM gene were PCR-amplified and examined for mutations by a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and exon-scanning direct sequencing. Results: Only 2 of the patients revealed altogether four heteroallelic sequence variants. The latter included two single-base deletions in different introns, a single-base change causing an amino acid substitution in an exon, and a large insertion in another intron. Both the single-base deletions and the single-base change represent known polymorphisms. The large insertion was an Alu repeat, shown not to give rise to altered gene product. Conclusions: Despite high technical efforts, no unequivocal ATM mutation was detected. Nevertheless, extension of similar studies to larger and differently composed cohorts of patients suffering severe adverse effects of radiotherapy, and application of new

  6. Influence of radiation dose rate and lung dose on interstitial pneumonitis after fractionated total body irradiation: acute parotitis may predict interstitial pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Natsuo; Sasai, Keisuke; Tachiiri, Seiji; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Okada, Takashi; Yano, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated patients for the influence of the dose rate and lung dose of fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on the subsequent development of interstitial pneumonitis (IP). Sixty-six patients at our institute were treated with TBI followed by BMT. All of the patients received a total TBI dose of 12 Gy given in 6 fractions over 3 days and were divided into 3 groups according to the radiation dose rate and lung dose: group A, lung dose of 8 Gy (n = 18); group B, lung dose of 12 Gy at 8 cGy/min (n = 25); and group C, lung dose of 12 Gy at 19 cGy/min (n = 23). The overall survival rate, the cumulative incidence of relapse, and the cumulative incidence of IP were evaluated in relation to various potential indicators of future IP. There were no significant differences in survival and relapse rates between patient group A and combined groups B and C. Clinically significant IP occurred in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of IP was significantly higher in patients who developed acute parotitis as indicated by either an elevation in the serum amylase level or parotid pain of grade 1 to 2. There was no difference in IP incidence among groups A, B, and C. There was no significant difference in IP incidence between lung dose values of 8 Gy (with lung shielding) and 12 Gy (without lung shielding) and between dose rate values of 8 cGy/min and 19 cGy/ min, at least when TBI was given in 6 fractions. The presence of acute parotitis during or just after TBI may be a predictor of IP.

  7. Radiation effects in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Herrmann, T.; Doerr, W.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of radiation effects in normal tissues is fundamental for optimal planning of radiotherapy. Therefore, this book presents a review on the following aspects: General pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in normal tissues; general pathogenesis of chronic radiation effects in normal tissues; quantification of acute and chronic radiation effects in normal tissues; pathogenesis, pathology and radiation biology of various organs and organ systems. (MG) [de

  8. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Phelps County Regional Hospital, Rolla, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: deasyj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 Asterisk-Operator MED+1.50 Asterisk-Operator ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts

  9. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  10. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  11. Concomitant evaluation of efficiency, acute and delayed toxicities of combined treatment of radiation and CDDP on an in vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia, A.M.; Canal, P.; Berg, D.; Bachaud, J.M.; Daly, N.J.; Bugat, R.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency, acute and delayed toxicities of different radio-chemotherapeutic combinations were assessed on an in vivo model (Krebs II ascitic carcinoma grafted to female Swiss mice). Mice were given whole abdomen irradiation (WAI) 2.5 to 10 Gy as a single dose (WAI). CDDP was given intraperitoneally at 0.5 to 4 mg/kg dose level, 12 hr before or after WAI. There was a relationship between dose of CDDP and increase of life span (ILS) of mice. However, WAI did not increase the life span. When a single dose of 2 mg/kg CDDP was given prior to a 2.5 Gy WAI, the ILS reached 47%. By contrast, it was only 37% when treatment sequence was reversed. When the WAI dose level was increased to 5 Gy, the ILS was not increased. The jejunal crypt cell number, determined 3 days after the last treatment, was not modified, regardless of the treatment sequence. There was no delayed renal toxicity. The study on the Krebs II ascites model confirms the tumor cell therapeutic potentiation without exacerbation of normal tissue damage

  12. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation

  13. HemaMax™, a recombinant human interleukin-12, is a potent mitigator of acute radiation injury in mice and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena A Basile

    Full Text Available HemaMax, a recombinant human interleukin-12 (IL-12, is under development to address an unmet medical need for effective treatments against acute radiation syndrome due to radiological terrorism or accident when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure. This study investigated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of m-HemaMax (recombinant murine IL-12, and HemaMax to increase survival after total body irradiation (TBI in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, with no supportive care. In mice, m-HemaMax at an optimal 20 ng/mouse dose significantly increased percent survival and survival time when administered 24 hours after TBI between 8-9 Gy (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by increases in plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ and erythropoietin levels, recovery of femoral bone hematopoiesis characterized with the presence of IL-12 receptor β2 subunit-expressing myeloid progenitors, megakaryocytes, and osteoblasts. Mitigation of jejunal radiation damage was also examined. At allometrically equivalent doses, HemaMax showed similar pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys compared to m-HemaMax in mice, but more robustly increased plasma IFN-γ levels. HemaMax also increased plasma erythropoietin, IL-15, IL-18, and neopterin levels. At non-human primate doses pharmacologically equivalent to murine doses, HemaMax (100 ng/Kg and 250 ng/Kg administered at 24 hours after TBI (6.7 Gy/LD(50/30 significantly increased percent survival of HemaMax groups compared to vehicle (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by a significantly higher leukocyte (neutrophils and lymphocytes, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte counts during nadir (days 12-14 and significantly less weight loss at day 12 compared to vehicle. These findings indicate successful interspecies dose conversion and provide proof of concept that HemaMax increases survival in irradiated rhesus monkeys by promoting

  14. Induction of NKG2D ligands by gamma radiation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may participate in the tissue damage during acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé, Monique; Buzyn, Agnès; Bogiatzi, Sofia I; Lambert, Marion; Soumelis, Vassili; Dal Cortivo, Liliane; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Brousse, Nicole; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2008-03-27

    Immunopathology of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) involves secretion of proinflammatory cytokines with subsequent expression of danger signals by injured host tissues. This explanation, however, does not explain the cluster of aGVHD target organs (skin, gut, and liver). NKG2D ligands (MICA/B and ULBP1-3 proteins) are stress-induced molecules that act as danger signals to alert NK and alphabeta or gammadelta CD8 T cells through engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor. We observed a strong and reversible induction of MICA/B expression in skin and liver sections during aGVHD. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma-radiation up-regulated expression of MICA/B and ULBP proteins in vitro on skin and intestine epithelial cell lines and ex vivo in normal skin explants. This NKG2D-ligand induction was regulated by a complex interplay between NFkB and JNK activation pathways. Our data suggest that NKG2D ligand induction might participate in the amplification loop that leads to tissue damage during aGVHD.

  15. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.; Eppinger-Helft, M.; Braier, J.; Vergara, B.; Garay, G.; Kvicala, R.; Divito, J.M.; Failace, R.

    1983-08-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count < 50,000 and in the untreated group was 11%. In patients with a WBC count > 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count < 50,000 was 20% in the irradiated group and 32% in the group with i.t. MTX-DMT alone. The relapse-free survival at 60 mo was 26% and 41%, respectively, (p < 0.0005). The incidence in patients with a WBC count > 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation.

  16. Development of the drug for acute treatment of emergent exposure to radiation by nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Described is a flow of authors' studies on the drug development in the title, aiming to save the life after the emergent exposure to peri-lethal dose. Medicals with radioprotective properties have been essentially those to be given before the exposure. Authors have studied the mechanism of bystander effect of non-exposed cells where they, localizing around the directly radiation-exposed cells, acquire the radioresistance; have found that nitrogen oxide (NO) is one of mediators for the effect; and have thought to apply the NO generating agents for the drug already clinically available, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), isosorbide nitrate (ISDN), nicolandil (NC), nitroglycerin (NG), and nipradilol (NP). ISDN, NC, NG and NP exhibited no in vitro-toxicity in colony formation of human fibroblast AG1522 cells up to 30 micro-M whereas SNP was toxic at the level >3 micro-M due to the formation of cyanide which could be detoxicated in vivo. Actually, the 5 agents were not toxic in vivo. When male jcl/ICR mice were irradiated with lethal dose of 7.5 Gy X-ray and the 5 agents were given to make their level 30 micro-M immediately, 1, 2 and 7 days after the exposure, 3/5 animals given SNP survived. With the half lethal dose of 6.5 Gy X-ray and 50 animals, SNP was further examined in details: survival was found to be 75-85% in mice given SNP in contrast to 30-40% in the control and the life-saving effect was suggested to be due to suppression of intestinal and marrow death with the improved feature of peripheral platelet and leukocyte. Thus SNP, a drug for angina pectoris, is found radioprotective even post exposure. (T.T.)

  17. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  18. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  19. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  1. CT of suspected thoracic acute aortic injury in the emergency department: is routine abdominopelvic imaging worth the additional collective radiation dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Momenian, Shawn; Rischall, Jonathan; Okey, Neil; Taffel, Myles; Khati, Nadia; Zeman, Robert

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of non-traumatic acute aortic injury (AAI) extending from the chest into the abdomen or pelvis in emergency department (ED) patients with acute aortic syndrome (AAS), to estimate the effective dose of the abdominopelvic portion of these CT exams, and to compare the number needed to screen (NNS) with the collective population radiation dose of imaging those stations. All patients (n = 238) presenting to the ED with AAS between March 2014 and June 2015 who were imaged per CT AAI protocol (noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT angiography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis) were retrospectively identified in this IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant study. The Stanford classification for positive cases of AAI was further subclassified based on chest, abdominal, or pelvic involvement. The dose length product (DLP) of each exam was used to estimate the dose of the abdominal and pelvic stations and the collective effective dose for the population. There were five cases of aortic dissection (AD) and two of intramural hematoma (IMH), with an AAI incidence of 2.9/100. Three cases of AAI were confined to the chest. Two cases of AAI were confined to the chest and abdomen, and two cases involved the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. There was only one case of AAI involving the ascending aorta that extended into the abdomen or pelvis. The number needed to screen to identify (a) AAI extending from the chest into the abdomen or pelvis was 59.5 and (b) Stanford A AAI extending into the abdomen or pelvis was 238. The estimated mean effective dose for the abdominopelvic stations were unenhanced abdomen 2.3 mSv, unenhanced pelvis 3.3 mSv, abdominal CTA 2.5 mSv, and pelvic CTA 3.6 mSv. The collective effective doses to the abdomen and pelvis with unenhanced CT and CTA in 59.5 patients and 238 patients were 761.6 and 3046.4 mSv, respectively. While the estimated mean effective dose for imaging of the abdominopelvic stations are low, the collective

  2. Reduced Radiation Dose with Model-based Iterative Reconstruction versus Standard Dose with Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction in Abdominal CT for Diagnosis of Acute Renal Colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontarensky, Mikael; Alfidja, Agaïcha; Perignon, Renan; Schoenig, Arnaud; Perrier, Christophe; Mulliez, Aurélien; Guy, Laurent; Boyer, Louis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of reduced-dose abdominal computed tomographic (CT) imaging by using a new generation model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to diagnose acute renal colic compared with a standard-dose abdominal CT with 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 118 patients with symptoms of acute renal colic who underwent the following two successive CT examinations: standard-dose ASIR 50% and reduced-dose MBIR. Two radiologists independently reviewed both CT examinations for presence or absence of renal calculi, differential diagnoses, and associated abnormalities. The imaging findings, radiation dose estimates, and image quality of the two CT reconstruction methods were compared. Concordance was evaluated by κ coefficient, and descriptive statistics and t test were used for statistical analysis. Intraobserver correlation was 100% for the diagnosis of renal calculi (κ = 1). Renal calculus (τ = 98.7%; κ = 0.97) and obstructive upper urinary tract disease (τ = 98.16%; κ = 0.95) were detected, and differential or alternative diagnosis was performed (τ = 98.87% κ = 0.95). MBIR allowed a dose reduction of 84% versus standard-dose ASIR 50% (mean volume CT dose index, 1.7 mGy ± 0.8 [standard deviation] vs 10.9 mGy ± 4.6; mean size-specific dose estimate, 2.2 mGy ± 0.7 vs 13.7 mGy ± 3.9; P < .001) without a conspicuous deterioration in image quality (reduced-dose MBIR vs ASIR 50% mean scores, 3.83 ± 0.49 vs 3.92 ± 0.27, respectively; P = .32) or increase in noise (reduced-dose MBIR vs ASIR 50% mean, respectively, 18.36 HU ± 2.53 vs 17.40 HU ± 3.42). Its main drawback remains the long time required for reconstruction (mean, 40 minutes). A reduced-dose protocol with MBIR allowed a dose reduction of 84% without increasing noise and without an conspicuous deterioration in image quality in patients suspected of having renal colic.

  3. Prevention of acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis by balsalazide: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahraus, Christopher D.; Bettenhausen, Doug Phar; Malik, Uzma M.B.B.S.; Sellitti, Marguerite; St Clair, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A common complication of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis (RIPS), for which a multitude of therapies have been tried. The 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), which are traditionally used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, have been tested; however, all but one prior randomized attempt to limit or prevent RIPS with 5-ASA-type agents have failed. We sought to evaluate balsalazide, a new 5-ASA drug, for its potential to prevent or limit RIPS in patients undergoing RT for carcinoma of the prostate, as a representative sample of pelvic RT patients. Balsalazide has a unique delivery system in that 99% of ingested drug is delivered to and activated in the colon, a higher yield than all other oral agents currently available in this class. Furthermore, it lacks the antigenic sulfa moiety present in sulfasalazine, the only other 5-ASA with demonstrated benefit in this setting. Thus, it was deemed an ideal candidate for preventing or limiting RIPS. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included prostate cancer patients, American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage T1-3, M0 being treated with external beam radiotherapy in University of Kentucky Department of Radiation Medicine. Between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2004, 27 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were administered 2250 mg of balsalazide or an identical-appearing placebo twice daily beginning 5 days before RT and continuing for 2 weeks after completion. Toxicities were graded weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria v. 2.0 for each of the following: proctitis, diarrhea, dysuria, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A symptom index was formulated for each toxicity consisting of the toxicity's numeric grade multiplied by the number of days it was experienced, and summed for each grade experienced throughout the course of RT. Results: With the exception of nausea or vomiting, seen in 3 patients on balsalazide and 2 on placebo

  4. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0

  5. The Value of Botox-A in Acute Radiation Proctitis: Results From a Phase I/II Study Using a Three-Dimensional Scoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Te; Waschke, Kevin; Niazi, Tamim; Richard, Carole; Parent, Josee; Liberman, Sender; Mayrand, Serge; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side effect of pelvic radiotherapy, and its management is challenging in daily practice. The present phase I/II study evaluates the safety and efficacy of the botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in ARP treatment for rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients, treated with neoadjuvant HDREBT, 26-Gy in 4 fractions, received the study treatment that consisted of a single injection of BTX-A into the rectal wall. The injection was performed post-HDREBT and prior to the development of ARP. The control group, 20 such patients, did not receive the BTX-A injection. Both groups had access to standard treatment with hydrocortisone rectal aerosol foam (Cortifoam) and anti-inflammatory and narcotic medication. The ARP was clinically evaluated by self-administered daily questionnaires using visual analog scores to document frequency and urgency of bowel movements, rectal burning/tenesmus, and pain symptoms before and after HDREBT. Results: At the time of this analysis, there was no observed systemic toxicity. Patient compliance with the self-administered questionnaire was 100% from week 1 to 4, 70% during week 5, and 40% during week 6. The maximum tolerated dose was established at the 100-U dose level, and noticeable mean differences were observed in bowel frequency (p = 0.016), urgency (p = 0.007), and pain (p = 0.078). Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility and efficacy of BTX-A intervention at 100-U dose level for study patients compared to control patients. A phase III study with this dose level is planned to validate these results.

  6. RTOG 0529: A Phase 2 Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, Lisa A., E-mail: lisa.kachnic@bmc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Winter, Kathryn [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Goodyear, Michael D. [Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Willins, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Esthappan, Jacqueline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Rotman, Marvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York—Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Parikh, Parag J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Safran, Howard [Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A multi-institutional phase 2 trial assessed the utility of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) in reducing grade 2+ combined acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events (AEs) of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) chemoradiation for anal cancer by at least 15% compared with the conventional radiation/5FU/MMC arm from RTOG 9811. Methods and Materials: T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancer patients received 5FU and MMC on days 1 and 29 of DP-IMRT, prescribed per stage: T2N0, 42 Gy elective nodal and 50.4 Gy anal tumor planning target volumes (PTVs) in 28 fractions; T3-4N0-3, 45 Gy elective nodal, 50.4 Gy ≤3 cm or 54 Gy >3 cm metastatic nodal and 54 Gy anal tumor PTVs in 30 fractions. The primary endpoint is described above. Planned secondary endpoints assessed all AEs and the investigator’s ability to perform DP-IMRT. Results: Of 63 accrued patients, 52 were evaluable. Tumor stage included 54% II, 25% IIIA, and 21% IIIB. In primary endpoint analysis, 77% experienced grade 2+ gastrointestinal/genitourinary acute AEs (9811 77%). There was, however, a significant reduction in acute grade 2+ hematologic, 73% (9811 85%, P=.032), grade 3+ gastrointestinal, 21% (9811 36%, P=.0082), and grade 3+ dermatologic AEs 23% (9811 49%, P<.0001) with DP-IMRT. On initial pretreatment review, 81% required DP-IMRT replanning, and final review revealed only 3 cases with normal tissue major deviations. Conclusions: Although the primary endpoint was not met, DP-IMRT was associated with significant sparing of acute grade 2+ hematologic and grade 3+ dermatologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Although DP-IMRT proved feasible, the high pretreatment planning revision rate emphasizes the importance of real-time radiation quality assurance for IMRT trials.

  7. Phase 3 trial of domiciliary humidification to mitigate acute mucosal toxicity during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: first report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G; Porceddu, Sandro V; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I; Morton, Randall P; Hay, K David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L; King, Madeleine T; Fraser-Browne, Carol L; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H&N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: amacann@adhb.govt.nz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  9. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility

  10. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  11. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1983-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  12. Combined Therapy of Pegylated G-CSF and Alxn4100TPO Improves Survival and Mitigates Acute Radiation Syndrome after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation Alone and Followed by Wound Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G; Zhai, Min; Bolduc, David L; Smith, Joan T; Anderson, Marsha N; Ho, Connie; Lin, Bin; Jiang, Suping

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation alone or combined with traumatic tissue injury is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological incidents. Radiation injuries occur at the molecular, cellular, tissue and systemic levels; their mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. Exposure to radiation combined with skin wounding, bacterial infection or burns results in greater mortality than radiation exposure alone in dogs, pigs, rats, guinea pigs and mice. In the current study we observed that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60 Co gamma-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin wounds experienced an increment of 25% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to those subjected to radiation alone. Radiation exposure delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. On day 30 post-injury, bone marrow and ileum in animals from both groups (radiation alone or combined injury) still displayed low cellularity and structural damage. White blood cell counts, e.g., neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelets, still remained very low in surviving irradiated alone animals, whereas only the lymphocyte count was low in surviving combined injury animals. Likewise, in surviving animals from radiation alone and combined injury groups, the RBCs, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets remained low. We observed, that animals treated with both pegylated G-CSF (a cytokine for neutrophil maturation and mobilization) and Alxn4100TPO (a thrombopoietin receptor agonist) at 4 h postirradiation, a 95% survival (vehicle: 60%) over the 30-day period, along with mitigated body-weight loss and significantly reduced acute radiation syndrome. In animals that received combined treatment of radiation and injury that received pegylated G-CSF and Alxn4100TPO, survival was increased from 35% to 55%, but did not accelerate wound healing. Hematopoiesis and ileum showed significant improvement in animals from both groups (irradiation

  13. Beneficial radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Feinendegen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is harmful and may cause cancer, as is well known. However, again and again, low doses of ionizing radiation, under certain conditions, are said to have beneficial effects on human health and, in particular, may reduce the cancer rate. This effect, which is discussed controversially in the technical and scientific literature, is called 'hormesis'. Studies of possible positive effects of ionizing radiation are becoming increasingly more important in scientific research. The article is an attempt to show, by the model case of cancer, under what conditions such positive health effects can occur, at least in principle, and will also contain rough plausibility assessments of the existence of such conditions. Aspects not covered include other existing or presumed positive biological effects of ionizing radiation, such as acceleration of growth, or general increase in the life expectancy of organisms. Also genetic damage will not be discussed in greater detail, despite the existence of some parallels with cancer, both cases constituting lesions to the genetic material of the cells, in one case, germ cells and, in the case of cancer, somatic cells. Also, acute radiation effect will be excluded which occur only at high radiation doses and, as such, always cause damage which, in therapeutic application to cancer, may again be lifesaving. It should be emphasized that the article is limited to a greatly restricted range of biological effects of ionizing radiation which, consequently, are of limited value for overall assessment. (orig.) [de

  14. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... well it can be treated. Complications of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Long-term lung damage (ARDS) Buildup ...

  15. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ito, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Nakano, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization

  16. Conformal radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer: acute tolerance and early evaluation of effectiveness; Konformierende Strahlentherapie des lokalisierten Prostatakarzinoms: Akute Toleranz und fruehe Wirksamkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierhut, D. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Flentje, M. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Sroka-Perez, G. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Rudat, V. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, M. [Klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Aim: In a prospective trial early effectiveness and acute toxicity of conformal 3D-planned radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer was quantified using dose-volume-histogramms and evaluated with respect of treatment technique. Results: Eleven patients (of 32) had none, 15 mild (RTOG grade 1) and 6 moderate symptoms (RTOG grade 2, mainly diarrhoea, dysuria and polyuria). Acute complications leading to treatment interruption did not occur. In 16 patients symptoms disappeared within 6 weeks after radiotherapy. Only 2 men had symptoms which lasted longer than 3 months and were endoscopically examined. Up to now no late complications were detected. Incidence and severity of toxicity was significantly (p<0,05) related to the size of treatment volume. Akute toxicity was found to depend statistically significant (p<0,05) on the proportional volume of bladder and rectum, irradiated with more than 35 Gy. In 81% of the patients with pretherapeutic elevated PSA levels normalisation of PSA was observed. Overall mean PSA levels of 15.7{+-}22.6 {mu}g/l at the beginning of radiotherapy fell to 2.1{+-}3.7 {mu}g/l 6 weeks after irradiation. Only 1 Patient relapsed locally 22 months after radiation therapy. Conclusion: We conclude that due to modern 3D-planned conformal techniques with optimization of treatment dose and improved protection of critical organs such as urinary bladder and rectum, radiotherapy allows an effective and well tolerated therapy of localized prostatic carcinoma. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Ziel: Quantifizierung der fruehen Wirksamkeit und akuten Toxizitaet der 3D-geplanten und konformierenden Strahlentherapie des lokalisierten Prostatakarzinoms mittels Dosis-Volumen-Histogramm sowie Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit von der Bestrahlungstechnik in einer prospektiven Studie. Ergebnisse: Elf Patienten hatten keine, 15 leichte (RTOG Grad I) und sechs maessiggradige Nebenwirkungen (RTOG Grad II, meist Diarrhoe, Dysurie und Polyurie). Bei keinem Patienten musste die

  17. Influence Of Terahertz Range Electromagnetic Radiation At Molecular Spectrum Frequency Of 150+0,75 Ghz Nitric Oxide On Microcirculation Morphofunctional Disturbances In White Rats In Condition Of Acute And Prolonged Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Kurtukova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of electromagnetic radiation of terahertz range at frequency of emission and absorption molecular spectrum of 150+0,75GHz nitric oxide on morphofunctional changes of microcirculation and tissue structure in animals in condition of acute and prolonged immobilization stress has been studied. It has shown that the influence of electromagnetic waves at these frequencies causes activity decrease of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and tireoyd axis of stress reaction. It has been determined that terahertz range waves at frequency of nitric oxide are liable to restore disturbances of intravascular, vascular and extravascular components of microcirculation and also have histoprotective effect

  18. Acute biological effects of simulating the whole-body radiation dose distribution from a solar particle event using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Yee, Stephanie S; Seykora, John T; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H; Litt, Harold I; Reetz, Jennifer A; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses.

  19. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E.; Lialiaris, Theodoros S.; Dimitriou, Thespis; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Papazoglou, Dimitrios; Pappa, Aglaia; Pistevou, Kyriaki; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2 [4h] ) and 24 hours (SF2 [24h] ) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2 (4h) was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio (30min) (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio (4h) /γH2AX-ratio (30min) ) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with efficient DSB repair ability

  20. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E. [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Lialiaris, Theodoros S. [Department of Medical Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Dimitriou, Thespis [Department of Anatomy, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Papazoglou, Dimitrios [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pappa, Aglaia [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pistevou, Kyriaki [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Aristotle University of Thessalonica, Thessalonica (Greece); Kalamida, Dimitra [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2{sub [4h]}) and 24 hours (SF2{sub [24h]}) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2{sub (4h)} was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)} (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio{sub (4h)}/γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)}) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with

  1. Radiation enteropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthmann, E.H. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Imdahl, A. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Eggstein, S. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG)

  2. Radiation enteropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farthmann, E.H.; Imdahl, A.; Eggstein, S.

    1994-01-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  4. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  5. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  6. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  7. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  8. Predictive markers of radiation pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provatopoulou, X; Athanasiou, E; Gounaris, A

    2008-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is an acute-phase response to radiation therapy and a common complication that affects a patient's quality of life. Under the need to reduce the incidence and severity of radiation-induced pulmonary complications as well as to identify patients at risk, several investigations on potential predictive markers of radiation pneumonitis have been conducted. The present study reviews the currently available knowledge on biomolecules of potential predictive value for radiation pneumonitis.

  9. Acute aortic syndromes: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Carole A; Litmanovich, Diana E

    2015-05-01

    The term acute aortic syndrome comprises aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. The most recent developments in acute aortic syndromes include (1) a change in the mindset that each entity is pathologically distinct, with a shift toward considering the acute aortic syndromes as points along a spectrum of aortic disease, (2) the optimization of aortic imaging quality and radiation dose, and (3) surgical or endovascular management. This review article focuses on how these developments pertain to thoracic radiologists.

  10. SU-D-204-03: Comparison of Patient Positioning Methods Through Modeling of Acute Rectal Toxicity in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Does Quality of Data Matter More Than the Quantity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X; Fatyga, M; Vora, S; Wong, W; Schild, S; Schild, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Li, J; Wu, T [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if differences in patient positioning methods have an impact on the incidence and modeling of grade >=2 acute rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients who were treated with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: We compared two databases of patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a database of 79 patients who were treated with 7 field IMRT and daily image guided positioning based on implanted gold markers (IGRTdb), and a database of 302 patients who were treated with 5 field IMRT and daily positioning using a trans-abdominal ultrasound system (USdb). Complete planning dosimetry was available for IGRTdb patients while limited planning dosimetry, recorded at the time of planning, was available for USdb patients. We fit Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model to IGRTdb only, and Univariate Logistic Regression (ULR) NTCP model to both databases. We perform Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis to determine the predictive power of NTCP models. Results: The incidence of grade >= 2 acute rectal toxicity in IGRTdb was 20%, while the incidence in USdb was 54%. Fits of both LKB and ULR models yielded predictive NTCP models for IGRTdb patients with Area Under the Curve (AUC) in the 0.63 – 0.67 range. Extrapolation of the ULR model from IGRTdb to planning dosimetry in USdb predicts that the incidence of acute rectal toxicity in USdb should not exceed 40%. Fits of the ULR model to the USdb do not yield predictive NTCP models and their AUC is consistent with AUC = 0.5. Conclusion: Accuracy of a patient positioning system affects clinically observed toxicity rates and the quality of NTCP models that can be derived from toxicity data. Poor correlation between planned and clinically delivered dosimetry may lead to erroneous or poorly performing NTCP models, even if the number of patients in a database is large.

  11. Single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage dual-energy CT for short-term follow-up of acute pancreatitis: evaluation of CT severity index, interobserver agreement and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Majenka, Pawel; Beeres, Martin; Kromen, Wolfgang; Schulz, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J.M.; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wesarg, Stefan [Fraunhofer IGD, Cognitive Computing and Medical Imaging, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To intra-individually compare single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage (100-kVp) computed tomography (CT) with 120-kVp images for short-term follow-up assessment of CT severity index (CTSI) of acute pancreatitis, interobserver agreement and radiation dose. We retrospectively analysed 66 patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual-contrast-phase CT (unenhanced, arterial, portal phase) at admission and short-term (mean interval 11.4 days) follow-up dual-contrast-phase dual-energy CT. The 100-kVp and linearly blended images representing 120-kVp acquisition follow-up CT images were independently evaluated by three radiologists using a modified CTSI assessing pancreatic inflammation, necrosis and extrapancreatic complications. Scores were compared with paired t test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean CTSI scores on unenhanced, portal- and dual-contrast-phase images were 4.9, 6.1 and 6.2 (120 kVp) and 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1 (100 kVp), respectively. Contrast-enhanced series showed a higher CTSI compared to unenhanced images (P < 0.05) but no significant differences between single- and dual-contrast-phase series (P > 0.7). CTSI scores were comparable for 100-kVp and 120-kVp images (P > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was substantial for all evaluated series and subcategories (ICC 0.67-0.93). DLP of single-portal-phase 100-kVp images was reduced by 41 % compared to 120-kVp images (363.8 versus 615.9 mGy cm). Low-tube-voltage single-phase 100-kVp CT provides sufficient information for follow-up evaluation of acute pancreatitis and significantly reduces radiation exposure. (orig.)

  12. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  13. On the mechanism of regulation of the catalase synthesis rate in the rat liver in the course of acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komov, V.P.; Rakhmanina, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A method has been proposed to determine the activity of factors that regulate the rate of catalase synthesis in the rat liver at the stage of translation. The analysis of certain normal and pathologic parameters of these factors suggests a possibility of interpreting more definitely the effect of radiation on the catalase synthesis. Marked changes have been found both in the structure and the activity of the given factors in the course of the development of radiation damage

  14. Gel of chamomile vs. urea cream to prevent acute radiation dermatitis in patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Elaine Barros; Ciol, Marcia A; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; Bontempo, Priscila de Souza Maggi; Vieira, Nayara Narley Pires; Silva, Luis Felipe Oliveira E; Avelino, Samuel Ramalho; Dos Santos, Marcos Antônio; Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz

    2016-08-01

    To compare a gel made with chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) with a cream of urea as an intervention to delay the time to occurrence of radiation dermatitis. Radiation dermatitis is one of the most common adverse effects of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. It is characterized by erythema, itching, pain, skin breakage and burning sensation, and there is no consensus on how to prevent it. The study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. We will recruit 48 individuals with head and neck cancer who will be starting their radiotherapy and randomize them to receive either gel of chamomile or cream of urea, as an intervention for prevention of radiation dermatitis. Social-demographic data will be collected at baseline, and clinical data will be collected before the initiation of radiotherapy. Participants will be followed weekly to assess development of radiation dermatitis. The protocol is funded by Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico (Brazil). The study was approved by a research ethics committee. Given the clinical relevance of preventing radiation dermatitis and the lack of evidence supporting specific preventive interventions, it is important to study new products that might be efficacious to prevent this complication. This article presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing a gel made with chamomile (intervention) with a cream of urea (control) to prevent radiation dermatitis in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Prevention5. Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is acute bronchitis? Acute ... heartburn, you can get acute bronchitis when stomach acid gets into the bronchial tree. How is acute ...

  17. The effect of antiemetics and reduced radiation fields on acute gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy in Stage I seminoma of the testis: a randomized pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Rainford, K.; Horwich, A.; Dearnaley, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for Stage I seminoma of the testis. Ten Stage I patients receiving para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodal (dog-leg) RT provided a toxicity baseline (group A). Twenty Stage I patients randomized to dog-let RT or para-aortic RT (10 per group) were further randomized to received prophylactic ondansetron or expectant therapy with metoclopramide (group B). Daily patient-completed questionnaires evaluated acute toxicity. Dog-leg RT for Stage I seminomas is associated with readily demonstrable gastrointestinal tract (GIT) toxicity. The number of patients in this study is too small to produce definitive results, but there appears to be reduced GIT toxicity with prophylactic antiemetics. The effect of reduced RT fields has been assessed further in the MRC randomized tiral of field sizes (TE10). (Author)

  18. The dose-volume relationship of acute small bowel toxicity from concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, Kathy L.; Frazier, Robert C.; Yan Di; Huang, Raywin R.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Robertson, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A direct relationship between the volume of small bowel irradiated and the degree of acute small bowel toxicity experienced during concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma is well recognized but poorly quantified. This study uses three-dimensional treatment-planning tools to more precisely quantify this dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Forty patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation for rectal carcinoma had treatment-planning CT scans with small bowel contrast. A median isocentric dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered using a posterior-anterior and opposed lateral field arrangement. Bowel exclusion techniques were routinely used, including prone treatment position on a vacuum bag cradle to allow anterior displacement of the abdominal contents and bladder distension. Individual loops of small bowel were contoured on each slice of the planning CT scan, and a small bowel dose-volume histogram was generated for the initial pelvis field receiving 45 Gy. The volume of small bowel receiving each dose between 5 and 40 Gy was recorded at 5-Gy intervals. Results: Ten patients (25%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity. A highly statistically significant association between the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity and the volume of small bowel irradiated was found at each dose level. Specific dose-volume threshold levels were found, below which no Grade 3+ toxicity occurred and above which 50-60% of patients developed Grade 3+ toxicity. The volume of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V 15 ) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity. Univariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicity. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity in patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy

  19. Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Garibov, A.A.; Samedov, P.A.; Farajov, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

  20. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C.; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-11-01

    Our goal here was to identify dose and temporal dependent radiation responses in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. Direct sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts following exposure to 0.1, 2 and 10 Gy of ionizing radiation at 3 and 8 hours. These doses include a low dose in the range of some medical diagnostic procedures (0.1 Gy), a dose typically received during radiotherapy (2.0 Gy) and a lethal dose (10 Gy). These doses could be received after an intentional or accidental radiation exposure and biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage exposed individuals. A total of 1701 genes were deemed to be significantly affected by high dose radiation exposure with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. A group of 29 genes including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA, and AEN were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at multiple time points. A much larger group of up regulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after a 10 Gy exposure. At high doses, down regulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a handful of genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy exposure using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to the high dose exposures. Differential regulation of PLK1 signaling at low and high doses was confirmed using qRT-PCR. These results indicate that some alterations in gene expression are qualitatively different at low and high doses of radiation in this model system.

  1. Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Davor; Stimac, Tea

    2011-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a rare condition estimated to occur in 1 per 1000 to 1 per 12,000 pregnancies. The most frequent etiology in pregnancy is biliary, followed by hyperlipidemia and/or alcohol abuse. Abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound are ideal imaging techniques for diagnosing disease because they have no radiation risk. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be used with caution. Treatment could be conservative or surgical, and standard algorithms are slightly modified in pregnant women. In the last decades the outcome of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is much better, and perinatal mortality is less than 5%.

  2. Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered over 4 or 11 days: A comparison of acute toxicity and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Suneil; Poon, Ian; Soliman, Hany; Keller, Brian; Kim, Anthony; Lochray, Fiona; Yeung, Latifa; Cheung, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal duration over which lung SBRT should be delivered is unknown. We conducted a randomized pilot study in patients treated with four fractions of lung SBRT delivered over 4 or over 11 days. Methods: Patients with a peripheral solitary lung tumor (NSCLC or pulmonary metastasis) ⩽5 cm were eligible. For NSCLC lung tumors ⩽3 cm, a dose of 48 Gy in 4 fractions was used, otherwise 52 Gy in 4 fractions was delivered. Patients were randomized to receive treatment over 4 consecutive days or over 11 days. The primary end-point was acute grade ⩾2 toxicity. Secondary end-points included quality of life (QOL) assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LC13 questionnaires. Results: Fifty four patients were enrolled. More patients in the 11 day group had respiratory symptoms at baseline. 55.6% patients treated over 4 days and 33.3% of patients treated over 11 days experienced acute grade ⩾2 toxicity (p = 0.085). Dyspnea, fatigue and coughing domains were worse in the 11 day group at baseline. At 1 and 4 months, more patients in the 4 day group experienced a clinically meaningful worsening in the dyspnea QOL domain compared to the 11 day group (44.5% vs 15.4%, p = 0.02; 38.5% vs 12.0%, p = 0.03, respectively). However, raw QOL scores were not different at these time-points between treatment groups. Conclusions: Grade 2 or higher acute toxicity was more common in the 4 day group, approaching statistical significance. More patients treated on 4 consecutive days reported a clinically meaningful increase in dyspnea, although interpretation of these results is challenging due to baseline imbalance between treatment groups. Larger studies are required to validate these results

  3. Dose-Painted Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Report of Acute Toxicity and Response to Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, Lisa A., E-mail: lisa.kachnic@bmc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tsai, Henry K. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Coen, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hartshorn, Kevan [Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Kwak, Eunice L. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Willins, John D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Chemoradiation for anal cancer yields effective tumor control, but is associated with significant acute toxicity. We report our multi-institutional experience using dose-painted IMRT (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: Between August 2005 and May 2009, 43 patients were treated with DP-IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy for biopsy-proven, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal at two academic medical centers. DP-IMRT was prescribed as follows: T2N0: 42 Gy, 1.5 Gy/fraction (fx) to elective nodal planning target volume (PTV) and 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx to anal tumor PTV; T3-4N0-3: 45 Gy, 1.5 Gy/fx to elective nodal PTV, and 54 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx to the anal tumor and metastatic nodal PTV >3 cm with 50.4 Gy, 1.68 Gy/fx to nodal PTVs {<=}3 cm in size. Acute and late toxicity was reported by the treating physician. Actuarial analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median age was 58 years; 67% female; 16% Stage I, 37% II; 42% III; 5% IV. Fourteen patients were immunocompromised: 21% HIV-positive and 12% on chronic immunosuppression. Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 0.6-43.5 months). Sixty percent completed chemoradiation without treatment interruption; median duration of treatment interruption was 2 days (range, 2-24 days). Acute Grade 3+ toxicity included: hematologic 51%, dermatologic 10%, gastrointestinal 7%, and genitourinary 7%. Two-year local control, overall survival, colostomy-free survival, and metastasis-free survival were 95%, 94%, 90%, and 92%, respectively. Conclusions: Dose-painted IMRT appears effective and well-tolerated as part of a chemoradiation therapy regimen for the treatment of anal canal cancer.

  4. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Acute Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  5. Risk of chronic myeloid and acute leukemia mortality after exposure to ionizing radiation among workers at four U.S. nuclear weapons facilities and a nuclear naval shipyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Daniels, Robert D; Fleming, Donald A; Markey, Andrea M; Couch, James R; Ahrenholz, Steven H; Burphy, Jenneh S; Anderson, Jeri L; Tseng, Chih-Yu

    2007-02-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers at five U.S. nuclear facilities to evaluate leukemia mortality risk (excluding chronic lymphocytic) from ionizing radiation using worksite doses and adjusting for potential confounding. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of exposed workers and the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of radiation among 206 cases and 823 age-matched controls. Adjusting for sex and benzene, the RR of leukemia for workers receiving more than 10 mSv was higher compared to those receiving lower or no dose; however, the risk increase was attenuated in the highest dose group. The ERR per 10 mSv was 1.44% (95% CI: 100 mSv), the sex- and benzene-adjusted ERR per 10 mSv was 6.82% (95% CI: -2.87%, 24.1%). The results suggest that risks among these nuclear workers are comparable to those observed in high-dose populations, although no evidence was observed of a positive quadratic dose-response term in this study. This large study is among the first to jointly evaluate benzene and ionizing radiation risk.

  6. Characterization of the dose response relationship for lung injury following acute radiation exposure in three well-established murine strains: developing an interspecies bridge to link animal models with human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Isabel L; Xu, Pu-Ting; Nguyen, Giao; Down, Julian D; Johnson, Cynthia S; Katz, Barry P; Hadley, Caroline C; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Approval of radiation countermeasures through the FDA Animal Rule requires pivotal efficacy screening in one or more species that are expected to react with a response similar to humans (21 C.F.R. § 314.610, drugs; § 601.91, biologics). Animal models used in screening studies should reflect the dose response relationship (DRR), clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of lung injury in humans. Over the past 5 y, the authors have characterized systematically the temporal onset, dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse mouse strains. In these studies, C57L/J, CBA/J, and C57BL/6J mice received wide field irradiation to the whole thorax with shielding of the head, abdomen, and forelimbs. Doses were delivered at a rate of 69 cGy min using an x-ray source operated at 320 kVp with half-value layer (HVL) of 1 mm Cu. For all strains, radiation dose was associated significantly with 180 d mortality (p pneumonitis in non-human primates (10.28 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-10.7 Gy) and humans (10.60 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-12.1 Gy). Furthermore, in the C57L/J strain, there was no gender-specific difference in DRR (p = 0.5578). The reliability of the murine models is demonstrated by the reproducibility of the dose-response and consistency of disease presentation across studies.Health Phys. 106(1):000-000; 2014.

  7. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  8. The Degree of Radiation-Induced DNA Strand Breaks Is Altered by Acute Sleep Deprivation and Psychological Stress and Is Associated with Cognitive Performance in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; von Scheven, Gudrun; Feiveson, Alan; Bürkle, Alexander; Wu, Honglu; Goel, Namni

    2018-03-27

    Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA damage in humans. It remains unknown whether sleep deprivation or psychological stress in humans affects DNA damage response from environmental stressors, and whether these responses predict cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. Sixteen healthy adults (ages 29-52;mean age±SD, 36.4±7.1 years;7 women) participated in a 5-day experiment involving two 8 hour time-in-bed [TIB] baseline nights, followed by 39 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD), and two 8-10 hour TIB recovery nights. A modified Trier Social Stress Test was conducted on the day after TSD. Psychomotor Vigilance Tests measured behavioral attention. DNA damage was assessed in blood cells collected at 5 time points, and blood cells were irradiated ex-vivo. TSD, alone or in combination with psychological stress, did not induce significant increases in DNA damage. By contrast, radiation-induced DNA damage decreased significantly in response to TSD, but increased back to baseline when combined with psychological stress. Cognitively-vulnerable individuals had more radiation-induced DNA strand breaks before TSD, indicating their greater sensitivity to DNA damage from environmental stressors. Our results provide novel insights into the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, psychological stress, and performance vulnerability. They are important for situations involving sleep loss, radiation exposure and cognitive deficits, including cancer therapy, environmental toxicology, and space medicine.

  9. Acute Toxicity and Tumor Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy With Shortening of the Overall Treatment Time Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost: A Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    But-Hadzic, Jasna, E-mail: jbut@onko-i.si [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anderluh, Franc [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brecelj, Erik; Edhemovic, Ibrahim [Division of Surgery, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Secerov-Ermenc, Ajra; Hudej, Rihard; Jeromen, Ana [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kozelj, Miran; Krebs, Bojan [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Oblak, Irena [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Omejc, Mirko [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Lubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogrin, Andrej [Division of Diagnostics, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Velenik, Vaneja [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-12-01

    Background and Purpose: This phase 2 study investigated the efficacy and safety of preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) without dose escalation, concomitant with standard capecitabine chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2014 and March 2015, 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma received preoperative IMRT with pelvic dose of 41.8 Gy and simultaneously delivered 46.2 Gy to T2/3 and 48.4 Gy to T4 tumor in 22 fractions, concomitant with capecitabine, 825 mg/m{sup 2}/12 hours, including weekends. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). Results: Fifty patients completed preoperative treatment according to the protocol, and 47 underwent surgical resection. The sphincter preservation rate for the low rectal tumors was 62%, and the resection margins were free in all but 1 patient. Decrease in tumor and nodal stage was observed in 32 (68%) and 39 (83%) patients, respectively, with pCR achieved in 12 (25.5%) patients. There were only 2 G ≥ 3 acute toxicities, with infectious enterocolitis in 1 patient and dermatitis over the sacral area caused by the bolus effect of the treatment table in the second patient. Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT-SIB without dose escalation is well tolerated, with a low acute toxicity profile, and can achieve a high rate of pCR and downstaging.

  10. Preliminary studies of radiation port in children receiving cranial irradiation for preventing central nervous system (CNS) disease of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Takeyoshi; Sato, Takeyuki; Okimoto, Yuri; Sunami, Shosuke; Komori, Isao; Oda, Hideaki; Shima, Yukichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Nakajima, Hironori

    1986-01-01

    For preventing CNS leukemia in children with ALL, simple whole skull irradiation that included only retro-orbital spaces and not anterior part of the cribriform plate and first two cervical vertebrae had been given until March 1982 to patients who had remission after drug therapy. Since March 1982, however, such patients have received new modified cranial irradiation of Pinkel's method of preventive CNS therapy to include the cribriform plate. Pinkel's method usually includes first two cervical vertebrae in radiation port, but sometimes his method of radiation fails to reach the brain and the meninges on the anterior parts of the lamina cribrosa. In this study, a comparison of CNS-relapes ratio between these two methods of preventive CNS therapy was carried out. The frequency of CNS leukemia was remarkably high in patients given the simple whole skull irradiation. Of 18 patients, 7 developed CNS leukemia. Among these 7, 5 patients (71 %) had occurence of CNS-relapse within 1 year 7 months with the other one patient, making a total of 86 %, having CNS-relapse within 1 year 11 months. On the other hand, 17 of 39 patients who received new modified cranial irradiation were followed up for more than 1 year 9 months, and all patient had no CNS-relapse to date. This result showed that the irradiation of whole circulation areas of cerebrospinal fluid of the brain and the spine at first two cervical vertebra levels had great importance in preventing CNS-relapse after achievement of drug-induced remission. (author)

  11. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuzheng; Wang Mingzhi; Chen Jianjiang; Wang Zhongxiang; Mao Yongjie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  12. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  13. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Webster, Joan; Chung, Bryan; Marquart, Louise; Ahmed, Muhtashimuddin; Garantziotis, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is a common side effect that affects the majority of cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. RISR is often characterised by swelling, redness, pigmentation, fibrosis, and ulceration, pain, warmth, burning, and itching of the skin. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of interventions which aim to prevent or manage RISR in people with cancer. We searched the following databases up to November 2012: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), CINAHL (from 1981) and LILACS (from 1982). Randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for preventing or managing RISR in cancer patients were included. The primary outcomes were development of RISR, and levels of RISR and symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were time taken to develop erythema or dry desquamation; quality of life; time taken to heal, a number of skin reaction and symptom severity measures; cost, participant satisfaction; ease of use and adverse effects. Where appropriate, we pooled results of randomized controlled trials using mean differences (MD) or odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Forty-seven studies were included in this review. These evaluated six types of interventions (oral systemic medications; skin care practices; steroidal topical therapies; non-steroidal topical therapies; dressings and other). Findings from two meta-analyses demonstrated significant benefits of oral Wobe-Mugos E for preventing RISR (OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.38)) and limiting the maximal level of RISR (MD -0.92 (95% CI -1.36 to -0.48)). Another meta-analysis reported that wearing deodorant does not influence the development of RISR (OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.37)). Despite the high number of trials in this area, there is limited good, comparative research that provides definitive results suggesting the effectiveness of any single intervention for

  14. [The electroretinogram parameters and the state of the cornea in the rabbit following acute exposure of the eye to UV-radiation of different intensities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, V V; Gramenitskiĭ, A E

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate wave amplitudes and latencies of electroretinograms (ERG) and to examine the eye cornea of rabbits a month after their eye UV-B-irradiation with a biologically effective dose of 1.3 kJ/m2 at three intensities of 1.62, 0.567 or 0.157 W/m2. It was demonstrated that ERG a- and b-waves decreased significantly 7-20 days after irradiation while latencies remained unchanged. It was also found that during this time period ERG wave amplitudes were dependent on the intensity: at higher intensities amplitudes of both waves diminished to a greater extent. After irradiation with a peak intensity photokeratoconjunctivitis was more severe and prolonged; however, the effect of irradiation with two other intensities was very similar. In view of the fact that the highest intensity of UV-B-radiation was comparable with that beyond the Earth's atmosphere while the lowest intensity was close to that near the Earth's surface, the above findings can be used to solve space biology problems and to assess potential effects of the ozone layer destruction on the eye.

  15. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with severe acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Anhui; Zhu, Guangying; Wu, Hao; Yu, Rong; Li, Fuhai; Xu, Bo

    2010-05-12

    To evaluate the association between the clinical, dosimetric factors and severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We analyzed 94 LANSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT between May 2005 and September 2006. SARP was defined as greater than or equal 3 side effects and graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. The clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between clinical, dosimetric factors and SARP. Median follow-up was 10.5 months (range 6.5-24). Of 94 patients, 11 (11.7%) developed SARP. Univariate analyses showed that the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), mean lung dose (MLD), relative volumes of lung receiving more than a threshold dose of 5-60 Gy at increments of 5 Gy (V5-V60), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1) were associated with SARP (p 4.2% and NTCP 50% were 5.7% and 29.2%, respectively (p < 0.01). NTCP value and V10 are the useful indicators for predicting SARP in NSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT.

  16. Comparison of autologous cell therapy and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) injection vs. G-CSF injection alone for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome in a non-human primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Frick, Johanna; Prat, Marie; Demarquay, Christelle; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Trompier, Francois; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Thierry, Dominique; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of autologous cell therapy after irradiation combined with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections with G-CSF treatment alone in a heterogeneous model of irradiation representative of an accidental situation. Material and Methods: Non-human primates were irradiated at 8.7 Gy whole-body dose with the right arm shielded to receive 4.8 Gy. The first group of animals received G-CSF (lenograstim) injections starting 6 h after irradiation, and a second group received a combination of G-CSF (lenograstim) injections and autologous expanded hematopoietic cells. Animals were followed up for blood cell counts, circulating progenitors, and bone marrow cellularity. Results: No significant differences were seen between the two treatment groups, whatever the parameter observed: time to leukocyte or platelet recovery and duration and severity of aplasia. Conclusion: Our results indicated that identical recovery kinetic was observed when irradiated animals are treated with G-CSF independently of the reinjection of ex vivo expanded autologous hematopoietic cells. Thus G-CSF injections might be chosen as a first-line therapeutic strategy in the treatment of accidental acute radiation victims

  17. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  18. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960's. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of open-quotes the JANUS programclose quotes. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF 1 mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records

  19. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  20. N08C9 (Alliance): A Phase 3 Randomized Study of Sulfasalazine Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Acute Diarrhea in Patients Receiving Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Robert C., E-mail: miller.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petereit, Daniel G. [Rapid City Regional Oncology Group, Rapid City, South Dakota (United States); Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martenson, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bearden, James D. [Upstate Carolina Community Clinical Oncology Program, Spartanburg, South Carolina (United States); Sapiente, Ronald [Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Seeger, Grant R. [Altru Health Systems, Grand Forks, North Dakota (United States); Mowat, Rex B. [Toledo Community Hospital Oncology Program CCOP, Toledo, Ohio (United States); Liem, Ben [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Iott, Matthew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Loprinzi, Charles L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To provide confirmatory evidence on the use of sulfasalazine to reduce enteritis during pelvic radiation therapy (RT), following 2 prior single-institution trials suggestive that benefit existed. Methods and Materials: A multi-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was designed to assess the efficacy of sulfasalazine versus placebo in the treatment of RT-related enteritis during RT including the posterior pelvis (45.0-53.5 Gy) and conducted through a multicenter national cooperative research alliance. Patients received 1000 mg of sulfasalazine or placebo orally twice daily during and for 4 weeks after RT. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of diarrhea (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0). Toxicity and bowel function were assessed by providers through a self-administered bowel function questionnaire taken weekly during RT and for 6 weeks afterward. Results: Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial between April 29, 2011, and May 13, 2013, with evenly distributed baseline factors. At the time of a planned interim toxicity analysis, more patients with grade ≥3 diarrhea received sulfasalazine than received placebo (29% vs 11%, P=.04). A futility analysis showed that trial continuation would be unlikely to yield a positive result, and a research board recommended halting study treatment. Final analysis of the primary endpoint showed no significant difference in maximum diarrhea severity between the sulfasalazine and placebo arms (P=.41). Conclusions: Sulfasalazine does not reduce enteritis during pelvic RT and may be associated with a higher risk of adverse events than placebo. This trial illustrates the importance of confirmatory phase 3 trials in the evaluation of symptom-control agents.

  1. N08C9 (Alliance): A Phase 3 Randomized Study of Sulfasalazine Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Acute Diarrhea in Patients Receiving Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Robert C.; Petereit, Daniel G.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan; Martenson, James A.; Bearden, James D.; Sapiente, Ronald; Seeger, Grant R.; Mowat, Rex B.; Liem, Ben; Iott, Matthew J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To provide confirmatory evidence on the use of sulfasalazine to reduce enteritis during pelvic radiation therapy (RT), following 2 prior single-institution trials suggestive that benefit existed. Methods and Materials: A multi-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was designed to assess the efficacy of sulfasalazine versus placebo in the treatment of RT-related enteritis during RT including the posterior pelvis (45.0-53.5 Gy) and conducted through a multicenter national cooperative research alliance. Patients received 1000 mg of sulfasalazine or placebo orally twice daily during and for 4 weeks after RT. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of diarrhea (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0). Toxicity and bowel function were assessed by providers through a self-administered bowel function questionnaire taken weekly during RT and for 6 weeks afterward. Results: Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial between April 29, 2011, and May 13, 2013, with evenly distributed baseline factors. At the time of a planned interim toxicity analysis, more patients with grade ≥3 diarrhea received sulfasalazine than received placebo (29% vs 11%, P=.04). A futility analysis showed that trial continuation would be unlikely to yield a positive result, and a research board recommended halting study treatment. Final analysis of the primary endpoint showed no significant difference in maximum diarrhea severity between the sulfasalazine and placebo arms (P=.41). Conclusions: Sulfasalazine does not reduce enteritis during pelvic RT and may be associated with a higher risk of adverse events than placebo. This trial illustrates the importance of confirmatory phase 3 trials in the evaluation of symptom-control agents.

  2. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  3. Radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is included in a textbook which is primarily intended for medical students. The following topics are dealt with: radiation effects on molecules; chemical and biochemical radiation effects; modification of radiation effects and radiosensitivity; radiation-induced pathomorphological and pathophysiological effects in organs and organ systems; radiation syndrome; radiation effects in embryos and fetuses; genetic radiation effects; carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis after irradiation; and radiation effects after intake of radionuclides

  4. Manual for medical problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The manual deals comprehensively and topically with the theoretical and practical fundamentals of radiation protection of the population considering the present knowledge in the fields of radiobiology and radiation protection medicine. The subject is covered under the following headings: (1) physics of ionizing radiations, (2) biological radiation effects, (3) the acute radiation syndrome, (4) medical treatment of the acute radiation syndrome, (5) combined radiation injuries, and (6) prophylaxis and therapy of injuries caused by fission products of nuclear explosions. The book is of interest to medical doctors, medical scientists, and students in medicine who have to acquire special knowledge in the field of radiation protection and it is of value as a reference book in daily routine

  5. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  6. Immunohistological studies in radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo; Haruma, Ken

    1985-01-01

    Immunohistological studies of radiation proctitis were performed in comparison with those in control subjects, with special reference to the number of immunoglobulin bearing cells in the rectal mucosa. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The rates of distribution of immunoglobulin bearing cells were 16.9% in IgG, 71.7% in IgA, and 11.4% in IgM in control subjects. 2) The number of IgG bearing cells in acute and late radiation proctitis markedly decreased in comparison with those in control subjects. 3) The number of IgA bearing cells in the patients with acute radiation proctitis decreased slightly and recovere 1 in late phase. 4) The number of IgM bearing cells markedly decreased in 11 Gy to 30 Gy radiation group with acute phase. 5) No significant difference could be found in the number of immunoglobulin bearing cells in late radiation proctitis with and without rectal bleeding. 6) Serum immunoglobulin levels of patients with acute radiation proctitis decreased and were well correlated with change the number of immunoglobulin bearing cells. (author)

  7. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with severe acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between the clinical, dosimetric factors and severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LANSCLC treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods We analyzed 94 LANSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT between May 2005 and September 2006. SARP was defined as greater than or equal 3 side effects and graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0. The clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between clinical, dosimetric factors and SARP. Results Median follow-up was 10.5 months (range 6.5-24. Of 94 patients, 11 (11.7% developed SARP. Univariate analyses showed that the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, mean lung dose (MLD, relative volumes of lung receiving more than a threshold dose of 5-60 Gy at increments of 5 Gy (V5-V60, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1 were associated with SARP (p p = 0.001 and V10 (p = 0.015 were the most significant factors associated with SARP. The incidences of SARP in the group with NTCP > 4.2% and NTCP ≤4.2% were 43.5% and 1.4%, respectively (p 50% were 5.7% and 29.2%, respectively (p Conclusions NTCP value and V10 are the useful indicators for predicting SARP in NSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT.

  8. Acute dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  9. Clinical characteristics of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Ye Genyao; Huang Shimin

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of subacute radiation sickness are analysed and discussed in this paper on the basis of clinical data from cases in a 137 Cs source accident in Mudanjiang and of a review of the literature. We consider that the subacute radiation sickness is a whole body disease caused by comparatively large dose of continuous or intermittent external irradiation in several weeks or months. it must be differentiated from acute radiation sickness, chronic radiation sickness, idiopathic aplastic anemia and other hematological diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

  10. Symptoms of radiation disease in survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szirmai, E.; Medgyesy, G.

    1975-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: Thermal injuries; radiation injuries; course and sequence of the injuries after the explosions; acute injuries; chronic injuries; and genetic damage. Emphasis is on the late effects of the explosions. (U.K.)

  11. Radiation induced liver disease: A clinical update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.; Madan, R.; Chander, S.; Kilambi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) or radiation hepatitis is a sub-acute form of liver injury due to radiation. It is one of the most dreaded complications of radiation which prevents radiation dose escalation and re irradiation for hepatobiliary or upper gastrointestinal malignancies. This complication should be kept in mind whenever a patient is planned for irradiation of these malignancies. Although, incidence of RILD is decreasing due to better knowledge of liver tolerance, improved investigation modalities and modern radiation delivery techniques, treatment options are still limited. In this review article, we have focussed on pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention and management of RILD

  12. Radiation-induced enteropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, M.E.; Bauer, J. (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The incidence of chronic radiation enteritis appears to have risen in recent years due to the increasing utilization of radiotherapy for abdominal and pelvic malignancies. The etiology, pathogenesis, and management of radiation enteritis are discussed. Two case reports exemplify the progressive nature of the disease. Case 1 demonstrates the classical picture of multiple exacerbations and remissions of partial small bowel obstruction and the eventual need for surgical management ten years after radiation therapy. Case 2 presents the more severe sequelae of an acute perforation with a 14-yr latency period. Predisposing factors in the progression of radiation injury include excessive radiation, underlying cardiovascular disease, fixation of the bowel, and an asthenic habitus. In both cases, radiation injury was localized to a discrete segment of bowel; therefore, resection with a primary end-to-end anastomosis was performed. In addition, diseased bowel was eliminated and, therefore, would not cause further complications such as intractable bleeding or fistula formation. The review focuses on current knowledge which may be applied to the treatment and prevention of radiation enteritis.

  13. What is cosmic radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The earth was indeed receiving ionizing radiations from the heavens. This cosmic radiation consists of particles travelling near the speed of light. It consists of two components, the first of which is permanent and of galactic origin, while the other is more sporadic, depending on the sun's activities. Natural land-based sources expose each of us to an average total dose of 2.4 mSv per year (source UNSCEAR). In addition, the human activities using ionizing radiation contribute to an average annual exposure of 1.4 mSv, originating primarily with medical activities ( radiodiagnostic and radiation therapy). Members of flights crew are subject to exposure. The total dose of cosmic radiation received is is directly proportional with the duration of exposure, and thus with the duration of the flight. Measurement taken on board aircraft during the 1990's showed that flight personnel (on long haul flights) receive an average dose of approximately the same magnitude as the one due to exposure to natural radioactivity in France. The damage caused by ionizing radiation depends on the quantity of energy released by radiation into the cells of each organ or tissue of the human body(exposure dose). For a given quantity of absorbed energy (dose expressed in Gray), the damage will vary according to the nature of the radiation and the affected organ. These effects are of two types: acute effects and deferred effects. Two measurements are essential for radiation protection: the measurements of the dose of radiation absorbed by the body and the assessment of the risk associated with the absorbed dose. Two units were thus created: the gray and the sievert. (N.C.)

  14. Radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  15. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  16. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  17. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  18. Emetic Mechanism in Acute Radiation Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-20

    observation of a behavioral nature that emerged from this study is that all the cordotomized cats failed to become anorexic following their exposure to...irradiation but did not become anorexic . Figures 8 and 9 are presented on pages 35 and 36, respectively. It is evident from the figures that extensive

  19. Acute Effects of Gamma Radiation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-04-01

    intestinal tracts of the first 20 ascending colon (fig. 20). Severe gastric ulcera - tion was prominent in those animals dying on "the 4th through the...the abnormal growth of the epithelial .. .,?.. cells, and hemorrhage resulted from the ulcera - tions. Conversely in the latter it appeared that...localized hemorrhage probably resulted in •• , • " ~ mucosal ulceration. " Microscopic findings "Gastrointestinal tract. The areas of ulcera - b tion in the

  20. Radiation effects in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggle, J.E.; Lambert, B.E.; Moores, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines the principles of radiobiology that can explain the time of onset, duration, and severity of the complex reactions of the lung to ionizing radiation. These reactions have been assayed biochemically, cell kinetically, physiologically, and pathologically. Clinical and experimental data are used to describe the acute and late reactions of the lung to both external and internal radiation including pneumonitis, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Acute radiation pneumonitis, which can be fatal, develops in both humans and animals within 6 months of exposure to doses greater than or equal to 8 Gy of low LET radiation. It is divisible into a latent period lasting up to 4 weeks; an exudative phase (3-8 weeks) and with an acute pneumonitic phase between 2 and 6 months. There is much evidence to suggest that pneumonitis is an epithelial reaction and some evidence to suggest that this early damage may not be predictive of late fibrosis. However, despite detailed work on collagen metabolism, the pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis remains unknown. The data on radiation-induced pulmonary cancer, both in man and experimental animals from both external and internal irradiation following the inhalation of both soluble and insoluble alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are reviewed. 312 references. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Acute pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, that in the detailed study of various types of acute pneumonia s the roentgenologic method plays a great role. The most characteristic roentge nological signs of primary (bacterial, viral, rickettsial, parasitogenic and fun gous) and secondary pneumonias (in the case of lessions in lesser circulation, changes in bronchi, aspirational and other diseases of organism) are presented

  2. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  3. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  4. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  5. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  6. Acute ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Acute ileus backgrounds are multiple. Dynamic ileus may take place during peritonitis, some nervous diseases, parathyroid diseases, hysteria. Mechanical ileus is connected with some obstacle in intestines. Small intestines ileus is rarely seen and may be caused by a tumor gall stones, invagination, swallowed foreign bodies. For exclusion of abdominal organs injury and gall stone ileus, if the roentgenological picture isn't clear enough, ultrasonography or computerized tomography of the abdomen are carried out

  7. Acute epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Aijaz; Joyner-Triplett, Nedra

    1996-05-01

    Preview Acute anterior nosebleeds are frightening because bleeding is often so copious and seemingly unstoppable. But, ironically, this type is usually less severe than posterior epistaxis, in which blood may run briskly but unseen down the throat. The choice among the many treatment methods available depends on the source and cause of epistaxis. The authors present a methodical approach to patient evaluation and describe the best therapy for various situations.

  8. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, J; Mintzer, D; Warhol, M J

    1994-10-01

    Studies of the growing population of long-term survivors of cancer have led to increased recognition of the neoplastic complications of therapy. The causes of secondary malignancies are probably multifactorial, but radiation therapy and chemotherapy have certainly been implicated in the development of posttherapy neoplasia. A case of pleural mesothelioma after successful radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease is described with a review of radiation-associated mesotheliomas reported in the literature. In Hodgkin's disease, patients may receive radiation, chemotherapy, or combined treatment; the most common secondary malignancy is acute nonlymphocytic leukemia while sarcomas are the second most common solid tumors. Although mesothelioma is an uncommon sarcoma, its occurrence has been documented numerous times after exposure to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation.

  9. Health management of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)

  10. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  11. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  12. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kill any cancer cells that remain. Lifetime Dose Limits There is a limit to the amount of radiation an area of ... total dose of radiation more quickly or to limit damage to healthy cells. Different ways of delivering ...

  13. Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts of radiation and could be caused by Dirty bombs - a mix of explosives with radioactive powder Fallout from a nuclear bomb Accidental release from a nuclear reactor or a nuclear weapons plant A lot of radiation over a short ...

  14. Medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK).

  15. Radiation watchdog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.

    1984-01-01

    Designated by WHO as a Collaborating Centre, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee provides assistance to all countries of the Americas in radiation accidents including human contamination or overexposure. It also conducts courses in radiation emergency response for health professionals from throughout the world

  16. Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long ...

  17. Prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis in relation to the acute radiation syndrome. A retrospective analysis based on the data base SEARCH; Prognostische Bedeutung von gastrointestinalen Symptomen und Befunden in Zusammenhang mit dem aktuen Strahlensyndrom. Eine retrospektive Datenanalyse anhand der Datenbank SEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebbel, Mathias Niklaus Johannes

    2016-11-17

    The following thesis explores the prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnoses in relation to acute radiation syndrome. This is a retrospective analysis based on the SEARCH (System of Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database, which was created by a team of researchers in Ulm in 1998. The SEARCH database compiled health status data of individuals involved in a total of 78 ionized radiation accidents between 1945 and 2003. In the past changes in bloodbuilding systems were considered the defining factor in determining a prognosis regarding survival times. Treatment decisions were made in line with these findings, including stem-cell transplants. In recent history, especially after the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl in 1986, the focus shifted onto other organ systems. As a result it has been proven that significant cutaneous damages present an important influence on survival regardless of haematopoiesis. Several researchers have looked at changes in the gastrointestinal tract and possible correlations with radiation induced multiple organ failure. In this paper, all of the data recorded in SEARCH in regards to gastrointestinal symptoms have been analyzed. These include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and changes in bowel movement as well as their onset and severity. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was also further investigated. Despite the occasional gaps in data in SEARCH, results from the analysis proved that the occurrence of certain symptoms, their severity and their onset were directly correlated to life expectancy, regardless of the dose estimation, and the pending blood test results. An immediate triage of these patients by skilled medical professionals is imperative to accurate categorization.

  18. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  19. Acute vasculitis after endovascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo L-G, Luis F.; Prionas, Stavros D.; Kaluza, Grzegorz L.; Raizner, Albert E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Angioplasty effectively relieves coronary artery stenosis but is often followed by restenosis. Endovascular radiation (β or γ) at the time of angioplasty prevents restenosis in a large proportion of vessels in swine (short term) and humans (short and long term). Little information is available about the effects of this radiation exposure beyond the wall of the coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: Samples were obtained from 76 minipigs in the course of several experiments designed to evaluate endovascular brachytherapy: 76 of 114 coronary arteries and 6 of 12 iliac arteries were exposed to endovascular radiation from 32 P sources (35 Gy at 0.5 mm from the intima). Two-thirds of the vessels had angioplasty or stenting. The vessels were systematically examined either at 28 days or at 6 months after radiation. Results: We found an unexpected lesion: acute necrotizing vasculitis in arterioles located ≤2.05 mm from the target artery. It was characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of the wall, often associated with lymphocytic exudates or thrombosis. Based on the review of perpendicular sections of tissue samples, the arterioles had received between 6 and 40 Gy. This arteriolar vasculitis occurred at 28 days in samples from 51% of irradiated coronary arteries and 100% of irradiated iliac arteries. By 6 months, the incidence of acute vasculitis decreased to 24% around the coronary arteries. However, at that time, healing vasculitis was evident, often with luminal narrowing, in 46% of samples. Vasculitis was not seen in any of 44 samples from unirradiated vessels (0%) and had no relation to angioplasty, stenting, or their sequelae. This radiation-associated vasculitis in the swine resembles the localized lymphocytic vasculitis that we have reported in tissues of humans exposed to external radiation. On the other hand, it is quite different from the various types of systemic vasculitis that occur in nonirradiated humans. Conclusion: Endoarterial brachytherapy

  20. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  1. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  2. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include any of the following: Bloody stools Breath odor and metallic taste in the mouth Bruising easily Changes in ...

  3. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  4. Radiation therapy in palliative care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Hitoshi; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2005-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a valuable treatment for palliation of local symptoms with consistently high response rates in the relief and control of bone pain, neurological symptom, obstructive symptoms, and tumor hemorrhage. Over than 80% of patients who developed bone metastasis and superior vena cava syndrome obtained symptom relief by radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is also well established as an effective treatment for brain metastasis, improving symptoms and preventing progressive neurological deficits, and recently stereotactic irradiation had became a alternative treatment of surgery for small metastatic brain tumors. Both radiation therapy and surgery are effective in the initial treatment of malignant spinal cord compression syndrome, and no advantages of surgery over radiation therapy has been demonstrated in published series when patients have a previously conformed diagnosis of malignant disease and no evidence of vertebral collapse. The outcome of treatment depends primarily upon the speed of diagnosis and neurological status at initiation of treatment. It is very important to start radiation therapy before patient become non-ambulant. Low irradiation dose and short treatment period of palliative radiation therapy can minimize disruption and acute morbidity for the patients with advanced cancer with enabling control of symptoms and palliative radiation therapy is applicable to the patient even in poor general condition. (author)

  5. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  6. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  7. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  8. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    and treatment of AA it is important that the classifications are consistent. Furthermore, in the clinical settings, incorrect classification might lead to over diagnosing and a prolonged antibiotic treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the concordance between perioperative diagnosis made......BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...

  9. Nuclear radiation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The manifestations of acute radiation sickness in the post-nuclear attack period must be recognized and understood in order to apply therapeutic measure appropriately. The syndromes observed-hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system-are dose dependent and vary in the degree of patient impairment and lethality. Estimates of mortality and morbidity following a massive exchange vary profoundly, depending on the targeting scenarios, the modes employed, and the meteorologic conditions anticipated. Even the LD-50 dose remain the subject of controversy. Using a US Government model of such an exchange, an estimated 23 million survivors would have radiation sickness, frequently complicated by trauma and burns. Among these survivors, an overriding consideration will be the presence and extent of infection, associated with alterations in the immune system, malnutrition, dehydration, exposure and hardship. Triage and treatment will be extraordinarily complex, requiring patient relocation, massive fluid replacement, antibiotics, a sterile environment , and many other measures. Massive disparities between supply and demand for physicians, nurses, other health workers, hospital beds, supplies and equipment, antibiotics, and other pharmaceutical agents will render a coherent physician response virtually impossible. Such disparities will be compounded by the destruction of transport systems and intolerably high radiation levels in many areas. If it is true that the meliorative efforts of physicians in post-attack radiation damage will be incapable of addressing this massive health care problem meaningfully, then clearly their most effective role is to prevent the threat from materializing. (authors)

  10. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  11. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Du-Hyong [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk-Hee [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Inho, E-mail: inhojo@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. This

  12. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk

  13. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  14. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  15. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  16. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  17. Radiation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet has been produced by UKAEA and the Marie Curie Memorial Foundation to give some basic information about what radiation is and how it is used in day to day diagnosis and treatment. It will be of interest to people undergoing treatment, their relatives and friends, and anyone who wants to know more about this important area. After a brief historical introduction the booklet explains what radiation is, the natural and man-made sources of radiation, how it is produced and how X-rays are used in medical diagnosis and treatment. The radiation protection measures taken and safety standards followed are mentioned. (author)

  18. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  19. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  20. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  1. Hemodynamic changes induced by preventive exposure to terahertz radiation at a frequency range corresponding to molecular emission and absorption spectrum of nitric oxide in animals under conditions of acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuck, V F; Velikanova, T S; Ivanov, A N

    2011-06-01

    We studied the influence of preventive irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on hemodynamic parameters in arteries of albino rats upon acute immobilization stress. We showed that exposure to the specified frequencies can produce adaptogenic effect manifesting in the absence of post-stress changes in the linear, systolic, and diastolic blood flow velocities and pressure gradient in various blood vessels of experimental animals.

  2. How to diagnose acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostbeck, Gerhard; Adam, E Jane; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2016-01-01

    and complementary imaging with MRI/CT if indicated. Accordingly, both ionizing radiation to our patients and cost of pre-therapeutic diagnosis of AA will be low, with low negative appendectomy and perforation rates. Main Messages • Ultrasound (US) should be the first imaging modality for diagnosing acute...... to keep both the negative appendectomy rate and the perforation rate low. Introduced in 1986, graded-compression ultrasound (US) has well-established direct and indirect signs for diagnosing AA. In our opinion, US should be the first-line imaging modality, as graded-compression US has excellent...

  3. Benefits of sonography in diagnosing suspected uncomplicated acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Welfur C; Shuaib, Waqas; Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Fajardo, Carlos G; Cabrera, Waldo E; Costa, Juan L

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence demonstrating equivalent accuracy of sonography and computed tomography (CT) in the workup of mild/uncomplicated acute diverticulitis, CT is overwhelmingly performed as the initial diagnostic test, particularly in the acute setting. Our study evaluated potential radiation and turnaround time savings associated with performing sonography instead of CT as the initial diagnostic examination in the workup of suspected uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records from January 2010 to December 2012 for patients presenting with clinical symptoms of acute diverticulitis. Patients were categorized as a whole and subgrouped by age (>40 and 40 years and 121 diverticulitis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  5. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  6. Radiation Recall Pneumonitis During Systemic Treatment With Everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Ramaekers, Ryan; Norvell, Max; Copur, Mehmet Sitki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall syndrome is an acute inflammatory reaction developing at anatomical sites of previously irradiated tissue, weeks to months after the completion of radiation therapy. The distribution pattern of inflammation typically involves, and remains limited to, the boundaries of prior radiation treatment fields. Several classical chemotherapy drugs have been reported to have the potential for causing radiation recall syndrome. With the increasing availability and expanding use of novel biologic and targeted therapy anticancer drugs, isolated reports of radiation recall syndrome secondary to this class of agents are starting to appear in the literature. We describe a case of everolimus-induced radiation recall pneumonitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer.

  7. Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenrod, W. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Stockley, C.S. [Australian Wine Research Institute, South Australia (Australia); Burcham, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Abbey, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Fenech, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.fenech@hsn.csiro.au

    2005-12-11

    Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative