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Sample records for acute psychiatric department

  1. Effects of legal and illegal use of benzodiazepines at acute admission to a psychiatric acute department

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    Vaaler Arne E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the psychiatric acute and emergency services patients present in severe crisis often complicated by behavioral problems, substance use, and multiple axis 1 diagnoses. In these clinical settings both legal and illegal use of benzodiazepines are difficult to evaluate since benzodiazepines could in some patients be regarded as first line treatment and in other patients as the cause of the acute psychiatric condition. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency and clinical effects of both legal and illegal use of benzodiazepines at admittance to a psychiatric acute department. Methods All patients acutely admitted to a Norwegian acute psychiatric university department serving a catchment area were asked about use of benzodiazepines, other medications and substances before admission. Patients were asked to give urine samples for analyses of benzodiazepines and substances. Results In 227 consecutive admissions there was legal use of benzodiazepines before admission in 39%, illegal use in 13% and no use in 48%. Patients with legal use of benzodiazepines were older, used more often antidepressants and a higher number of prescribed psychotropic medications. Illegal users of benzodiazepines more often used other illegal substances, were evaluated as clinically affected by a substance at admittance and were diagnosed with a substance use disorder. Patients with psychoses or major affective disorders treated with adequate medication (antidepressants, antipsychotics or mood-stabilizers before admission more often received benzodiazepines than patients without adequate medication. Conclusions The patients using benzodiazepines at admittance to psychiatric acute departments could be divided in illegal and legal users. The illegal users were young, used illegal substances and were more often regarded clinically affected by substances at admittance. The legal users were older, did not use other substances and were not regarded

  2. Symptoms of epilepsy and organic brain dysfunctions in patients with acute, brief depression combined with other fluctuating psychiatric symptoms: a controlled study from an acute psychiatric department

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    Linaker Olav M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In psychiatric acute departments some patients present with brief depressive periods accompanied with fluctuating arrays of other psychiatric symptoms like psychosis, panic or mania. For the purpose of the present study we call this condition Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS. The aims of the present study were to compare clinical signs of organic brain dysfunctions and epilepsy in patients with AUDS and Major Depressive Episode (MDE. Methods Out of 1038 consecutive patients admitted to a psychiatric acute ward, 16 patients with AUDS and 16 age- and gender-matched MDE patients were included in the study. Using standardized instruments and methods we recorded clinical data, EEG and MRI. Results A history of epileptic seizures and pathologic EEG activity was more common in the AUDS group than in the MDE group (seizures, n = 6 vs. 0, p = 0.018; pathologic EEG activity, n = 8 vs. 1, p = 0.015. Five patients in the AUDS group were diagnosed as having epilepsy, whereas none of those with MDE had epilepsy (p = 0.043. There were no differences between the groups regarding pathological findings in neurological bedside examination and cerebral MRI investigation. Conclusion Compared to patients admitted with mood symptoms fulfilling DSM 4 criteria of a major depressive disorder, short-lasting atypical depressive symptoms seem to be associated with a high frequency of epileptic and pathologic EEG activity in patients admitted to psychiatric acute departments. Trial registration NCT00201474

  3. Assessment of the Acute Psychiatric Patient in the Emergency Department: Legal Cases and Caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    in his wife’s behavior as she became more lethargic and depressed . He presented to Greenville Memorial Hospital’s emergency department (ED) on a Friday...do this, Dr. Crumpler negligently failed to prescribe appropriate antipsychotic medication.3 In the above case the EP correctly diagnosed a...patient one must always consider medication- related medical issues (neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, anticholinergic Good et al

  4. acute psychiatric readmissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychiatry, Maudsley Hospital, London). Centre for Health Policy, University of the Witwaters- rand, Johannesburg. International trends have seen a policy shift from chronic psychi- atric institutions and long hospital admissions towards acute, short hospital stays and community-based care. Following this ...

  5. Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Stoecker, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorders associated with onconeural antibodies often appear with neuropsychiatric symptoms. To study the prevalence of onconeural antibodies in patients admitted to acute psychiatric inpatient care, the serum of 585 such patients was tested for antibodies targeting MOG......, GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical...

  6. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting...

  7. The Impact of Psychiatric Patient Boarding in Emergency Departments

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    B. A. Nicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1% requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years, with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140 versus 340 min, CI (304–375; <0.001 when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198 compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue.

  8. Treatment profiles in a Danish psychiatric university hospital department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Mogensen, Rasmus Beyer; Crean, Lea Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about rising treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic medications and declining treatment with psychotherapy, actual treatment profiles of psychiatric patients are largely unknown. AIMS: To describe patterns in the treatment of patients in a large psychiatric...... university hospital department. METHODS: A descriptive mapping of treatment of in- and outpatients in a psychiatric department at Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark. Information was collected by healthcare staff using a 25-item survey form. The p-value was calculated with a chi-squared test and p...

  9. Negative rumor: contagion of a psychiatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohesion and morale among the staff implicated in these, too often, neglected occurrences. Dynamic aspects with particular focus on rumors in psychiatric units and suggestions for remedy and treatment are presented.

  10. Negative Rumor: Contagion of a Psychiatric Department

    OpenAIRE

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohe...

  11. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  12. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting complaint was other than minor trauma. There were trends for psychiatric morbidity to be associated with not being married and living in Bloomsbury Health District (No Fixed Abode or resident) or Northeast London. Sixty-nine percent of cases had a positive past psychiatric history. Ten of 12 cases (83%) requiring primary care intervention were not registered with a GP. It is suggested that appropriate intervention would be for A&E Departments to routinely facilitate such registration. In addition, resources need to be released to make 9am to 5pm walk-in psychiatric services commonplace.

  13. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

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    Bui, Quan M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:414–417.

  14. Patterns and determinants of acute psychiatric readmissions | Behr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns and determinants of acute psychiatric readmissions. Graham Michael Behr, Cathy Christie, Neil Soderlund, Tennyson Lee. Abstract. Objectives. Deinstitutionalisation and shortage of psychiatric beds worldwide has led to extensive research into the risk factors and interventions associated with rapid and recurrent ...

  15. A Professional Containment Method in Acute Psychiatric Care: Nursing Observations

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    Selma Sabancigullari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Observation is a method that is used in place of other control methods such as chemical and physical detention, isolation. Observation is used especially as an interference method to ensure the safety of the patients with suicidal and aggressive behaviors in acute psychiatric care in many countries. Especially in acute psychiatric wards using observations of nursing as a professional control method is an important issue. This article aims to draw attention to the importance of the subject in our country about using nursing observations as a control method in acute psychiatric care from the view of the literature. In this article several studies related to risk assessment, decision making, the levels of observation, the application of observation and the ethical aspects of observation on acute psychiatric care have been discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 79-91

  16. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...

  17. Screening for Sexual Orientation in Psychiatric Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Currier, Glenn W; Brown, Gregory; Walsh, Patrick G.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Chaudhury, Sadia; Stanley, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our goal was to explore whether emergency department (ED) patients would disclose their sexual orientation in a research evaluation and to examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients by self-identified sexual orientation. Methods: Participants (n=177) presented for psychiatric treatment at three urban EDs in New York City, Rochester, NY, and Philadelphia, PA. Participants were interviewed in the context of a larger study of a standardized s...

  18. Patterns and determinants of acute psychiatric readmissions

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    Graham Michael Behr

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . Deinstitutionalisation and shortage of psychiatric beds worldwide has led to extensive research into the risk fac- tors and interventions associated with rapid and recurrent admission to hospital. Little research of this nature has taken place in South Africa, particularly with regard to acute hospital admissions. This study attempted primarily to assess the effect of length of stay and administration of depot antipsychotics in hospital on time to readmission. Design. A retrospective cohort of 180 admissions was fol- lowed up for 12 months, after an index discharge, by means of multiple hospital and community-based record reviews. Each readmission was analysed as an event using a survival analysis model. Setting. Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Gauteng. Subjects. A random sample of patients admitted during a 6-month period in 1996. Outcome measures. Time to readmission. Results. Two hundred and eighty-four admissions were analysed. The only factor that provided a significant protective effect was being married or cohabiting ( P = 0.015. Clinic attendance showed a slight protective effect early on but con- ferred a significantly higher risk of readmission on those who had been out of hospital for a long period ( P = 0.001. Only 21% of discharged patients ever attended a clinic. The overall risk of readmission was significantly higher in the first 90 days post discharge. Conclusions. The lack of impact of length of hospital stay and use of depot neuroleptics on time to readmission may indicate that patients are being kept for appropriate duration and that the most ill patients are receiving depot medication. Several sampling and statistical artefacts may explain some of our findings. These results confirm the worldwide difficulty in finding consistent and accurate predictors of readmission. Low rates of successful referral to community aftercare need to be addressed before their effectiveness can be reasonably assessed. The inherent

  19. Validity of routine clinical diagnoses in acute psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eduard; Wyder, Lea; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs; Stulz, Niklaus

    2018-01-01

    To examine the validity of diagnoses obtained by clinicians during routine clinical examination on acute psychiatric inpatient wards. N=100 inpatients with a broad spectrum of major mental disorders were randomly selected in a mental hospital's department of general psychiatry. Patients were diagnosed by independent assessors within Md = 5 (Range: 1-18) days of admission using the SCID I in order to examine the validity of the diagnoses given by the clinical staff based on routine assessments. The commonly used clinical examination technique had good overall agreement with the SCID I assessments regarding primary diagnoses at the level of ICD-10 main categories (F2, F30-31, F32-F33, F4; κ = 0.65). However, agreement between routine clinical diagnoses and the SCID I diagnoses tended to be low for some specific mental disorders (e.g., depressive disorders) and for secondary diagnoses. The validity of routine clinical diagnoses established in acute inpatient settings is limited and should be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidities in Acute Coronary Heart Disease

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    Saeed Shoja shafti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric problems and stresses may deteriorate the prognosis of patients with IHD. So evaluating their frequency possibly will promote our perspective regarding their vital importance in the field of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Method and Materials. One hundred and one (101 patients with IHD were interviewed in CCU of a general hospital by a psychiatrist to find whether there was any relationship between cardiac events and psychiatric problems or stresses. Results. Cardiac events were significantly more prevalent among patients with both psychiatric problems and biological risk factors (P<0.05. Also, the number of patients suffering from psychiatric problems was significantly more than cases without that (P<0.05. There was a significant difference between male and female patients regarding the type of stress (P<0.01. 79% of total stresses were experienced by patients who had as well psychiatric problems (P<0.0001. In addition, there was significantly more dysthymic disorder in the acute group of patients in comparison with major or minor depressive disorder in the chronic group (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high prevalence of psychiatric problems and psychosocial stresses among patients with IHD deserves sufficient attention by clinicians for detection, monitoring, and management of them.

  1. Predictors of violent behavior among acute psychiatric patients: clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Menchetti, Marco; Tonti, Cristina; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Lundgren, Eva; Esposito, William; Berardi, Domenico

    2008-06-01

    Violence risk prediction is a priority issue for clinicians working with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of the present study was to determine violence risk factors in acute psychiatric inpatients. The study was conducted in a locked, short-term psychiatric inpatient unit and involved 374 patients consecutively admitted in a 1-year period. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of the medical records and patient interviews. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Psychiatric diagnosis was formulated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Past aggressive behavior was evaluated by interviewing patients, caregivers or other collateral informants. Aggressive behaviors in the ward were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Patients who perpetrated verbal and against-object aggression or physical aggression in the month before admission were compared to non-aggressive patients, moreover, aggressive behavior during hospitalization and persistence of physical violence after admission were evaluated. Violent behavior in the month before admission was associated with male sex, substance abuse and positive symptoms. The most significant risk factor for physical violence was a past history of physically aggressive behavior. The persistent physical assaultiveness before and during hospitalization was related to higher BPRS total scores and to more severe thought disturbances. Higher levels of hostility-suspiciousness BPRS scores predicted a change for the worse in violent behavior, from verbal to physical. A comprehensive evaluation of the history of past aggressive behavior and psychopathological variables has important implications for the prediction of violence in psychiatric settings.

  2. Treating psychiatric emergencies in incarcerated minors in the emergency department: what is the cost and what is their disposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David Brian; Donofrio, Joy Joelle; Santillanes, Genevieve; Lam, Chun Nok; Claudius, Ilene

    2014-06-01

    Although mental health disorders are common among incarcerated minors, psychiatric urgencies and emergencies often cannot be treated in juvenile detention facilities, necessitating emergency department (ED) transfers. The cost of this ED care has not been well studied. This study aimed to provide information on disposition and cost related to ED visits by juvenile hall patients transported for urgent psychiatric evaluation. A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study of patients presenting to 1 ED from juvenile detention centers for consideration of psychiatric holds was conducted. Eligible patients were identified by a search of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes and chart review. We collected information on patient demographics and disposition and calculated costs of ED visits, screening laboratories performed, inpatient stays on a medical ward, sitter and parole officer salaries, and ambulance transfers. One hundred eight patients accounting for 196 visits were transported from juvenile hall for urgent psychiatric evaluation. Of the 196 visits, 131 (67%) resulted in an involuntary psychiatric hold. More than half of the patients on hold (75 patients) were admitted to a medical ward for boarding because of lack of psychiatric inpatient beds. Included charges for the 196 visits during the 18-month period totaled US $1,357,884, with most of the costs due to boarding on the medical ward. We describe the magnitude and cost associated with addressing psychiatric emergencies in a juvenile correctional system relying on transport of patients to an ED for acute psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Further research is needed to determine if costs could be decreased by increasing psychiatric resources in juvenile detention centers.

  3. Screening for Sexual Orientation in Psychiatric Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currier, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to explore whether emergency department (ED patients would disclose their sexual orientation in a research evaluation and to examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients by self-identified sexual orientation. Methods: Participants (n=177 presented for psychiatric treatment at three urban EDs in New York City, Rochester, NY, and Philadelphia, PA. Participants were interviewed in the context of a larger study of a standardized suicide risk assessment. We assessed participants’ willingness to answer questions regarding sexual orientation along three dimensions: a self-description of sexual orientation, a self-description of sexual attraction, and the gender of any prior sexual partners. Results: No participants (0/177 refused to respond to the categorical question about sexual orientation, 168/177 (94.9% agreed to provide information about prior sexual partners, and 100/109 (91.7% provided information about current sexual attraction toward either gender. Of all 177 participants, 154 (87.0% self-identified as heterosexual, 11 (6.2% as bisexual, 10 (5.6% as gay or lesbian, and 2 (1.1% indicated they were not sure. As compared with heterosexual patients, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB patients were significantly younger and more likely to be non-white, but did not differ significantly in terms of education, income, employment, or religious affiliation or participation. Further, LGB participants did not differ from self-identified heterosexual participants for lifetime suicide attempt rate or lifetime history of any mood, substance-related, psychotic spectrum, or other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I disorder. Of self-identified heterosexual participants 5.6% (5/89 reported sexual attraction as other than ‘only opposite sex,’ and 10.3% (15/142 of sexually active ‘heterosexual’ participants reported previous same-gender sexual partners. Conclusion

  4. Screening for sexual orientation in psychiatric emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Glenn W; Brown, Gregory; Walsh, Patrick G; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Chaudhury, Sadia; Stanley, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to explore whether emergency department (ED) patients would disclose their sexual orientation in a research evaluation and to examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients by self-identified sexual orientation. Participants (n=177) presented for psychiatric treatment at three urban EDs in New York City, Rochester, NY, and Philadelphia, PA. Participants were interviewed in the context of a larger study of a standardized suicide risk assessment. We assessed participants' willingness to answer questions regarding sexual orientation along three dimensions: a self-description of sexual orientation, a self-description of sexual attraction, and the gender of any prior sexual partners. No participants (0/177) refused to respond to the categorical question about sexual orientation, 168/177 (94.9%) agreed to provide information about prior sexual partners, and 100/109 (91.7%) provided information about current sexual attraction toward either gender. Of all 177 participants, 154 (87.0%) self-identified as heterosexual, 11 (6.2%) as bisexual, 10 (5.6%) as gay or lesbian, and 2 (1.1%) indicated they were not sure. As compared with heterosexual patients, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) patients were significantly younger and more likely to be non-white, but did not differ significantly in terms of education, income, employment, or religious affiliation or participation. Further, LGB participants did not differ from self-identified heterosexual participants for lifetime suicide attempt rate or lifetime history of any mood, substance-related, psychotic spectrum, or other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis I disorder. Of self-identified heterosexual participants 5.6% (5/89) reported sexual attraction as other than 'only opposite sex,' and 10.3% (15/142) of sexually active 'heterosexual' participants reported previous same-gender sexual partners. Assessing patients' sexual orientation in the ED by a three

  5. Acute psychiatric disorders in foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Phyllis W L; Cheng, Judy G Y; Chow, Dickson L Y; Ungvari, G S; Leung, C M

    2009-11-01

    To explore the psychopathology of foreign domestic workers (FDWs) who had an acute psychiatric disorder in Hong Kong. This was a retrospective chart review. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from case records of FDWs who were admitted for the first time as inpatients for psychiatric treatment to three regional hospitals of the same catchment area in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2004. Relevant socio-demographic data on local FDWs and the general population of Hong Kong were obtained from local government departments. Twenty-seven Filipino and 14 Indonesian FDWs presenting with their first and so far only psychiatric admission were identified. There were significantly more FDWs who were single or never married in the sample. Filipino FDWs tended to fall ill after 4 years of service in Hong Kong while the corresponding figure for Indonesian FDWs was 2 years. Indonesian FDWs were older and had less access to social and medical services than their Filipino counterparts. Home sickness and marital problems were more commonly identified as stressors rather than work-related difficulties. Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder (ICD-10) was diagnosed in over 60% of the subjects, making FDWs two times more vulnerable than local women of similar age for this illness. FDWs constitute a vulnerable group in terms of psychiatric morbidity. Concerted political, social and psychological efforts would be require to alleviate the distress faced by this particularly disadvantaged subset of female expatriates.

  6. Factors predicting adherence with psychiatric follow-up appointments for patients assessed by the liaison psychiatric team in the emergency department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2010-01-01

    Several factors may predict adherence with psychiatric follow-up appointment for patients seen in the emergency department (ED) by liaison psychiatric teams. Awareness of these factors would allow for interventions targeted at vulnerable groups.

  7. An observational study in psychiatric acute patients admitted to General Hospital Psychiatric Wards in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives this Italian observational study was aimed at collecting data of psychiatric patients with acute episodes entering General Hospital Psychiatric Wards (GHPWs. Information was focused on diagnosis (DSM-IV, reasons of hospitalisation, prescribed treatment, outcome of aggressive episodes, evolution of the acute episode. Methods assessments were performed at admission and discharge. Used psychometric scales were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS and the Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE-30. Results 864 adult patients were enrolled in 15 GHPWs: 728 (320 M; mean age 43.6 yrs completed both admission and discharge visits. A severe psychotic episode with (19.1% or without (47.7% aggressive behaviour was the main reason of admission. Schizophrenia (42.8% at admission and 40.1% at discharge and depression (12.9% at admission and 14.7% at discharge were the predominant diagnoses. The mean hospital stay was 12 days. The mean (± SD total score of MOAS at admission, day 7 and discharge was, respectively, 2.53 ± 5.1, 0.38 ± 2.2, and 0.21 ± 1.5. Forty-four (6.0% patients had episodes of aggressiveness at admission and 8 (1.7% at day 7. A progressive improvement in each domain/item vs. admission was observed for MOAS and BPRS, while NOSIE-30 did not change from day 4 onwards. The number of patients with al least one psychotic drug taken at admission, in the first 7 days of hospitalisation, and prescribed at discharge, was, respectively: 472 (64.8%, 686 (94.2% and 676 (92.9%. The respective most frequently psychotic drugs were: BDZs (60.6%, 85.7%, 69.5%, typical anti-psychotics (48.3%, 57.0%, 49.6%, atypical anti-psychotics (35.6%, 41.8%, 39.8% and antidepressants (40.9%, 48.8%, 43.2%. Rates of patients with one, two or > 2 psychotic drugs taken at admission and day 7, and prescribed at discharge, were, respectively: 24.8%, 8.2% and 13.5% in mono-therapy; 22.0%, 20

  8. Day hospital versus admission for acute psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Max; Crowther, Ruth; Sledge, William Hurt; Rathbone, John; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Inpatient treatment is an expensive way of caring for people with acute psychiatric disorders. It has been proposed that many of those currently treated as inpatients could be cared for in acute psychiatric day hospitals. Objectives To assess the effects of day hospital versus inpatient care for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We approached trialists to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of day hospital versus inpatient care, for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Studies were ineligible if a majority of participants were under 18 or over 65, or had a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or organic brain disorder. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted and cross-checked data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We calculated weighted or standardised means for continuous data. Day hospital trials tend to present similar outcomes in slightly different formats, making it difficult to synthesise data. We therefore sought individual patient data so that we could re-analyse outcomes in a common format. Main results Ten trials (involving 2685 people) met the inclusion criteria. We obtained individual patient data for four trials (involving 646 people). We found no difference in the number lost to follow-up by one year between day hospital care and inpatient care (5 RCTs, n = 1694, RR 0.94 CI 0.82 to 1.08). There is moderate evidence that the duration of index admission is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (4 RCTs, n = 1582, WMD 27.47 CI 3.96 to 50.98). There is very low evidence that the duration of day patient care (adjusted days/month) is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (3 RCTs, n = 265, WMD 2.34 days

  9. Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Federico

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA, including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii to assess the aggressive behavior and the clinical management of FPA patients in Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura = psychiatric service for diagnosis and management. Method Cross-sectional observational multi-center study involving 62 Italian SPDCs (PERSEO – Psychiatric EmeRgency Study and EpidemiOlogy. Results 253 FPA aged Conclusion Subjects presenting at their first psychiatric ward admission have often not undergone previous adequate psychiatric assessment and diagnostic procedures. The first hospital admission allows diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment to be established. In our population, aggressive behaviors were rather frequent, although most commonly verbal. Psychiatric symptoms, as evaluated by psychiatrists and patients, improved significantly from admission to discharge both for FPA and non-FPA patients.

  10. [Acute psychiatric pathology disclosing subcortical lesion in neuro-AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, A; Harlé, J R; Cherif, A A; Gastaut, J A; Weiller, P J

    1991-01-01

    Maccario et al. described, in 1987, the case of an HIV-positive patient whose psychotic symptomatology was the expression of right centrum semi-ovale lesion. We report the case of a patient who suffered a sudden delirium, expression of a probable right lenticular cerebral toxoplasmosis. This 35-year-old male homosexual, who had no psychiatric history, suddenly developed in November 1988 the following psychiatric signs: he started to walk back and forth incessantly, he had the impression that he was the subject of the conversations of the passers-by, that all the posters and notices refer to him, and that he was God. He was admitted in a psychiatric department where the symptoms were progressively curbed by neuroleptics (cyamemazine 75 mg, and haloperidol 15 mg). The episode was not questioned by the patient, but attributed to bad eating habits. HIV-positivity had been discovered a year later (during systematic screening). A computerized tomographic (CT) scan performed subsequently to this delirium was interpreted as normal. Four weeks later the patient was referred to us. The psychiatric condition was stabilized in spite of a certain aggressiveness and the probable persistence of an underlying delirium state. Laboratory examinations showed the following: blood count revealed leukopenia (2.2 G/l) and thrombocytopenia (135 G/l; OKT4/OKT8 ratio was 0.08; CSF: normal; sputum culture evidenced the presence of pneumocystis carinii; EEG were normal. Neuropsychological symptoms concerned in particular a lack of concentration during the different tests with a definitive wavering of attention. Lexical retrieval was poor whatever the topic proposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Characteristics of psychiatric emergency department use among privately insured adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Vasa, Roma A

    2018-01-01

    This study examined differences in the rates of psychiatric-related emergency department visits among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and adolescents without autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Additional outcomes included emergency department recidivism, probability of psychiatric hospitalization after the emergency department visit, and receipt of outpatient mental health services before and after the emergency department visit. Data came from privately insured adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with autism spectrum disorder (N = 46,323), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (N = 408,066), and neither diagnosis (N = 2,330,332), enrolled in the 2010-2013 MarketScan Commercial Claims Database. Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder had an increased rate of psychiatric emergency department visits compared to adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (IRR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 2.1) and adolescents with neither diagnosis (IRR = 9.9, 95% confidence interval: 9.4, 10.4). Compared to the other groups, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder also had an increased probability of emergency department recidivism, psychiatric hospitalization after the emergency department visit, and receipt of outpatient care before and after the visit (all p < 0.001). Further research is required to understand whether these findings extend to youth with other neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those who are publicly insured.

  12. Switch Function and Pathological Dissociation in Acute Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-De Chiu

    Full Text Available Swift switching, along with atypical ability on updating and inhibition, has been found in non-clinical dissociators. However, whether swift switching is a cognitive endophenotype that intertwines with traumatisation and pathological dissociation remains unknown. Unspecified acute psychiatric patients were recruited to verify a hypothesis that pathological dissociation is associated with swift switching and traumatisation may explain this relationship. Behavioural measures of intellectual function and three executive functions including updating, switching and inhibition were administered, together with standardised scales to evaluate pathological dissociation and traumatisation. Our results showed superior control ability on switching and updating in inpatients who displayed more symptoms of pathological dissociation. When all three executive functions were entered as predictors, in addition to intellectual quotient and demographic variables to regress upon pathological dissociation, switching rather than updating remained the significant predictor. Importantly, the relationship between pathological dissociation and switching became non-significant when the effect of childhood trauma were controlled. The results support a trauma-related switching hypothesis which postulates swift switching as a cognitive endophenotype of pathological dissociation; traumatisation in childhood may explain the importance of swift switching.

  13. An analysis of acute admissions to a general hospital psychiatric unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid turnover of patients in a general hospital psychiatric unit demands stabilization and discharge as soon as possible. It is likely that patients are being prematurely discharged because of this pressure. Aim: The study sought to analyse admissions to an acute psychiatric unit with a view to determining the demographic ...

  14. An analysis of acute admissions to a general hospital psychiatric unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    Aim: The study sought to analyse admissions to an acute psychiatric unit with a view to determining the demographic distribution of the patients, duration ... males with a past psychiatric history of either an Axis I or a co-morbid Axis II disorder, and had defaulted on their regular follow up. .... The effectiveness of stigma coping.

  15. Psychiatric screening in the emergency department: validation of the General Health Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, I; Haughey, L; Baraff, L J

    1985-09-01

    Both a 28-item psychiatric scale, the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) were administered to 25 emergency department patients to determine the validity of the GHQ as a screening instrument for psychopathology in the emergency department setting. There was a significant association (P = 0.0343) between GHQ scores and DIS assessment. The sensitivity of the GHQ in this series was 55.6% and the specificity was 87.5% when compared with the DIS. This suggests that the GHQ may prove to be a valuable screening tool for patients with somatic complaints to detect unsuspected psychiatric illness in the emergency department.

  16. Improving the management of acute agitation in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Esther Wai Yin

    2017-01-01

    Health services routinely manage acute agitation. Such behaviour is especially prevalent in hospital emergency departments (EDs), and is usually secondary to mental illness and drug or alcohol intoxication. If not managed promptly, acute agitation may progress to aggression and violence, posing a risk to the safety of the individual and healthcare staff or other patients. In the ED, the goal of managing the acutely agitated patient is prevention or safe and rapid control of aggressive or ...

  17. Persistency of Cannabis Use Predicts Violence following Acute Psychiatric Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules R. Dugré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundViolence is a major concern and is prevalent across several mental disorders. The use of substances has been associated with an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms as well as with violence. Compared to other substances such as alcohol and cocaine, existing literature on the cannabis–violence relationship has been more limited, with most studies being conducted in the general population, and has shown controversial results. Evidence has suggested a stronger relationship when examining the effects of the persistency of cannabis use on future violent behaviors. Though, while cannabis use is highly prevalent amid psychiatric patients, far less literature on the subject has been conducted in this population. Hence, the present prospective study aims to investigate the persistency of cannabis use in psychiatric patients.MethodThe sample comprised of 1,136 recently discharged psychiatric patients provided by the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study. A multi-wave (five-assessment follow-up design was employed to allow temporal sequencing between substance use and violent behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to examine the effect of persistency of cannabis use on violence, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Potential bidirectional association was also investigated using the same statistical approach.ResultsOur results suggest a unidirectional association between cannabis use and violence. GEE model revealed that the continuity of cannabis use across more than one time wave was associated with increased risks of future violent behavior. Patients who reported having used cannabis at each follow-up periods were 2.44 times more likely to display violent behaviors (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.06–5.63, p < 0.05.ConclusionThese findings are particularly relevant as they suggest that the longer individuals report having used cannabis after a psychiatric discharge, the more likely they are of being violent in the

  18. Acute military psychiatric casualties from the war in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark A; Kiernan, Mathew D; McKechanie, Andrew G; Finch, Peter J C; McManus, Frank B; Neal, Leigh A

    2005-06-01

    The view that most military personnel evacuated from war zones are suffering from combat stress reactions, or are otherwise traumatised by the horrors of war, has an impact on all aspects of military psychiatry. To delineate the reasons for psychiatric aeromedical evacuation from Iraq from the start of build-up of UK forces in January 2003 until the end of October that year, 6 months after the end of formal hostilities. A retrospective study was conducted of field and in-patient psychiatric assessments of 116 military personnel evacuated to the UK military psychiatric in-patient facility in Catterick Garrison. Evacuees were mainly non-combatants (69%). A significant proportion were in reserve service (21%) and had a history of contact with mental health services (37%). Only 3% had a combat stress reaction. In over 85% of cases evacuation was for low mood attributed to separation from friends or family, or difficulties adjusting to the environment. These findings have implications especially for screening for suitability for deployment, and for understanding any longer-term mental health problems arising in veterans from Iraq.

  19. Psychiatric screening in the emergency department: its effect on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, I; Baraff, L J

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of our prospective, controlled study was to determine whether providing the results of a psychiatric screening instrument, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), to emergency physicians would result in a change in the detection and management of patients with psychosocial problems. Five hundred ninety-nine emergency department patients were enrolled, 242 in the control and 357 in the intervention group. Noncritical patients, selected by presenting complaint, were given the GHQ to complete before physician evaluation; those whose GHQ scores were high (10 or higher) were identified as having a greater likelihood of having psychosocial problems. During the intervention phase, physicians were provided the patient's GHQ score before beginning their evaluation, as well as a specific mechanism for psychosocial referral. A significantly greater proportion of patients with high GHQ scores in both study groups were judged by physicians to have a psychiatric problem (P less than .0001). During the intervention phase, patients with high scores more frequently were assigned a psychiatric diagnosis (14.1% vs 7.7%) and received psychosocial referral (36.1% vs 5.7%). However, only the latter difference was statistically significant (P less than .0001). The majority (85.7%) of patients offered psychosocial referral accepted their referral. There was no difference in the number of laboratory tests ordered or medical/surgical referrals requested between patients in the control or intervention groups with high scores. Therefore, providing GHQ results to emergency physicians led to more frequent psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial referrals of patients with high GHQ scores but did not alter their medical management.

  20. Acute psychiatric in-patients tested for HIV status: a clinical profile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-11

    Nov 11, 2005 ... Predominantly risperidone and haloperidol in combination with valproate were used in treatment and at relatively high dosages. Conclusion: Amongst HIV positive service users acute psychiatric symptoms almost exclusively consisted of associated psychosis or manic symptoms rather than depression.

  1. Investigation into the acceptability of door locking to staff, patients, and visitors on acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; van der Merwe, Marie; Nijman, Henk; Haglund, Kristina; Simpson, Alan; Bowers, Len

    2012-02-01

    There is disagreement among psychiatric professionals about whether the doors of acute psychiatric wards should be kept locked to prevent patients from leaving and harming themselves or others. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor perceptions about the acceptability of locking the ward door on acute psychiatric inpatient wards. Interviews were conducted with 14 registered nurses, 15 patients, and six visitors from three different acute wards. Findings revealed commonalities across all groups, with general agreement that locking the door reduced absconding. Staff expressed feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and fear of being blamed when a patient absconded. Staff also reported that open wards created anxious vigilance to prevent an abscond and increased workload in allocating staff to watch the door, whereas staff on partially-locked doors also perceived an increased workload in letting people in and out of the ward. Patients had mixed feelings about the status of the door, expressing depression, a sense of stigma, and low self-esteem when the door was locked. The issue of balancing safety and security on acute psychiatric wards against the autonomy of patients is not easily resolved, and requires focused research to develop innovative nursing practices. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Local Geographical Distribution of Acute Involuntary Psychiatric Admissions in Subdistricts In and Around Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Arjan W; van Ommeren, Omar W H R; van Buuren, Melissa L; Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo M; Engelhard, Iris M

    BACKGROUND: Acute involuntary psychiatric admissions (AIPA) tend to be applied more often in urban areas. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to describe AIPA prevalence differences between the subdistricts in an urban area, and to identify which district characteristics are associated with a higher

  3. Patients' descriptions of nursing interventions supporting quality of life in acute psychiatric wards: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Anneli; Hätönen, Heli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-11-01

    People with mental disorders suffer from impaired quality of life (QoL). In psychiatric hospital wards nurses are in a close relationship with patients and have good opportunities to support patients' QoL. Still, relatively little is known about patients' perceptions related to nursing interventions by which nurses can support the QoL of patients with severe mental illness. To explore patients' perceptions of nursing interventions in supporting patients' QoL in acute psychiatric inpatient settings. Explorative descriptive study design. The study was conducted in seven acute 24-h psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Southern Finland. Thirty-five inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder or delusional disorder. The data were generated through semi-structured interviews and processed by means of qualitative content analysis. Five main categories of patients' perceptions of nursing interventions were identified to support QoL from patients' descriptions: empowering interventions, social interventions, activating interventions, security interventions and interventions to support physical health. Impaired QoL of patients with severe mental illness can be supported in acute psychiatric wards through nursing interventions. However, we are not sure how effective these interventions are. Thus, research on the effectiveness of nursing interventions to support patients' QoL is needed.

  4. Psychiatric service users' experiences of emergency departments: a CERQual review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Kathrine; Lou, Stina; Groth Jensen, Lotte; Konstantin Nissen, Nina; Ortenblad, Lisbeth; Pfau, Margarete; Vedel Ankersen, Pia

    2017-05-01

    There is increased clinical and political attention towards integrating general and psychiatric emergency departments (ED). However, research into psychiatric service users' experiences regarding general EDs is limited. To identify and summarize current, qualitative evidence regarding service users' experiences attending EDs. A secondary aim is to apply and test the newly developed CERQual approach to summarizing qualitative review findings. A systematic literature review of five databases based on PRISMA guidelines yielded 3334 unique entries. Screening by title/abstract identified 57 studies and, after full text assessment, nine studies were included. The included studies were critically appraised using CASP. Thematic synthesis was applied for data extraction and identification of findings. The CERQual approach was utilized to assess the confidence of the findings. The results of the review showed moderate confidence in the findings that service users experience meeting caring and judgmental ED staff, and that waiting times and a stressful environment are integral to their ED experiences. In contrast, low-to-very low confidence was seen in the findings that service users experience having their symptoms ignored and that EDs are used due to a lack of alternatives. A companion may improve service users experience and outcome of ED visits. Service users experience stress and discomfort in the ED. Service users highly appreciate knowing staff who can ease the discomfort. Overall, the results of this review speak in favour of integrated EDs where service users' needs are more likely to be recognized and accommodated.

  5. Coping with suicidal urges among youth seen in a psychiatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Arango, Alejandra; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A

    2016-07-30

    This study of youth seeking psychiatric emergency department (ED) services examined (1) youth self-efficacy to use suicide-specific coping strategies, (2) whether these self-efficacy beliefs varied by demographic and clinical characteristics, (3) and associations of these beliefs with suicide attempts and ED visits 3-5 months later. Participants were 286 psychiatric ED patients (59% Female), ages 13-25. Ratings of self-efficacy to engage in 10 suicide-specific coping behaviors were assessed at index visit. A total of 226 participants (79%) were assessed 3-5 months later. Youth endorsed low-to-moderate self-efficacy for different suicide-specific coping behaviors, with lowest ratings endorsed for limiting access to lethal means and accessing professional resources. More severe baseline psychopathology was associated with lower self-efficacy. Males endorsed higher self-efficacy for coping behaviors not requiring external support. Lower coping self-efficacy for some of the key strategies, and lower confidence that these strategies will be helpful, differentiated those with and without follow-up suicide attempts and ED visits. The generally low-to-moderate confidence in youths' ability to engage in coping behaviors to manage suicidal crises, and its association with follow-up suicidal crises, is concerning because many of these strategies are commonly included as part of discharge recommendations or safety planning. Implications of findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Imaging strategies for acute chest pain in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dedic (Admir); T.S.S. Genders (Tessa); K. Nieman (Koen); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE. Echocardiography, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and coronary CT angiography (CTA) are the three main imaging techniques used in the emergency department for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this article is to quantitatively

  7. Predictors of suicide in the patient population admitted to a locked-door psychiatric acute ward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roar Fosse

    Full Text Available No prior study appears to have focused on predictors of suicide in the general patient population admitted to psychiatric acute wards. We used a case-control design to investigate the association between suicide risk factors assessed systematically at admission to a locked-door psychiatric acute ward in Norway and subsequent death by suicide.From 2008 to 2013, patients were routinely assessed for suicide risk upon admission to the acute ward with a 17-item check list based on recommendations from the Norwegian Directorate of Health and Social Affairs. Among 1976 patients admitted to the ward, 40 patients, 22 men and 18 women, completed suicide within December 2014.Compared to a matched control group (n = 120, after correction for multiple tests, suicide completers scored significantly higher on two items on the check list: presence of suicidal thoughts and wishing to be dead. An additional four items were significant in non-corrected tests: previous suicide attempts, continuity of suicidal thoughts, having a suicide plan, and feelings of hopelessness, indifference, and/or aggression. A brief scale based on these six items was the only variable associated with suicide in multivariate regression analysis, but its predictive value was poor.Suicide specific ideations may be the most central risk markers for suicide in the general patient population admitted to psychiatric acute wards. However, a low predictive value may question the utility of assessing suicide risk.

  8. Effects of mandatory screening labs in directing the disposition of the apparently healthy psychiatric patient in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, Karyn E; Smith, Meghan; Latyshenko, Ilya V; Mitchell, Christopher; Kagel, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether mandatory psychiatric admission laboratory tests yield results that change the disposition of a patient with primary psychiatric complaint from admission to a psychiatric service to admission to a medical service. This was a single center retrospective cohort chart review study approved by the facility Institutional Review Board in which we used a records database maintained by the emergency department's social workers to access the records of every patient that presented to our emergency department with a psychiatric chief complaint between the dates of December 1, 2011, and December 1, 2013. We focused on those that were admitted to either a psychiatric service or a medical service after a thorough evaluation by the department of social work and an emergency provider. We applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria and reviewed the results of the mandatory psychiatric laboratory tests (complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid stimulating hormone, acetaminophen, aspirin, blood alcohol level, urinalysis, urine pregnancy test, urine drug screen) required for admission. Our independent variables were the compulsory psychiatric admission laboratory tests and our dependent variable was the admission to a medical service. Of 5,606 laboratory tests that were ordered and produced results for the 682 patients enrolled in our study, 51 results were considered clinically significant abnormal results, or results requiring treatment prior to psychiatric service admission, by the 2 reviewing emergency physicians. Only one of 682 psychiatric patients received a final disposition to a medical service based upon abnormal laboratory studies. That patient presented without any medical complaints but a chief complaint of "suicidal ideation," and was found to have diabetic ketoacidosis. Based on our data, the probability that an abnormal laboratory test will result in a change in disposition is 1/682=0.1% (95% CI: 0.0% to 0.9%). Patients

  9. Risk factors leading to increased rehospitalization rates among adolescents admitted to an acute care child and adolescent psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Logan; Pullen, Lisa M; Savage, Jennifer; Cayce, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents in the United States, with suicidal behavior peaking in adolescence. Suicidal and self-harming behavior is often chronic, with an estimated 15-30% of adolescents who attempt suicide having a second suicide attempt within a year. The focus of acute psychiatric hospitalization is on stabilization of these psychiatric symptoms resulting at times in premature discharge. Finding from studies based on high rehospitalization rates among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital indicates that adolescents continue to experience crisis upon discharge from an acute psychiatric hospital, leading to the question of whether or not these adolescents are being discharged prematurely. A chart review was performed on 98 adolescent clients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital to identify risk factors that may increase rehospitalization among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Clients admitted to the hospital within a 12-month time frame were compared to clients who were not readmitted during that 12-month period. History of self-harming behavior and length of stay greater than 5 days were found to be risk factors for rehospitalization. Adolescent clients who are admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital with a history of self-harming behavior and extended length of stay need to be identified and individualized treatment plans implemented for preventing repeat hospitalizations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Burnout, depression and job satisfaction in acute psychiatric and secure mental health settings

    OpenAIRE

    Chabinska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Chapter 1: Objective: The systematic review aimed to review the literature on burnout and its relationship to depression within the acute in-patient mental health services: psychiatric units and specifically, secure forensic mental health services. Methods: The review process included a systematic search across five databases (Medline, PsychINFO, Cinahl Plus, EMBASE and SCOPUS). Eligible studies included a cross-sectional design, using validated measures on burnout and de...

  11. Security rules and banned items in psychiatric acute admission wards in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukia, Evmorfia; Giannouli, Eleni; Gonis, Nikolaos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2010-12-01

    Mental health nurses play a key role in maintaining the safety of patients, themselves, and others during hospitalization. The aim of the research was to evaluate the safety measures that are taken by mental health nurses to identify the security policies that exist in acute mental health wards. The Ward Safety and Security Rules Survey was used as a method of data collection. Descriptive analysis and content analysis were carried out in order to identify nurses' practices. The total sample consisted of 172 mental health nurses and nurses' assistants who worked in 14 acute inpatient psychiatric wards in three psychiatric hospitals in the greater area of Athens, Greece. The results show a minimum number of security features existing in the wards. Only one of the 14 wards had an intercom system. In only nine wards, there was a panic alarm in the office, and in eight, an emergency response telephone extension. A wide range of practices were noted concerning banned items and patient searches upon admission and return from leave. The results indicate the significant lack of protocols and specific safety rules to guide nurses' actions across psychiatric acute admission wards in Athens. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2010 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. Violent behavior in acute psychiatric inpatient facilities: a national survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancosino, Bruno; Delmonte, Sara; Grassi, Luigi; Santone, Giovanni; Preti, Antonio; Miglio, Rossella; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    Violence committed by acute psychiatric inpatients represents an important and challenging problem in clinical practice. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment information were collected for 1324 patients (677 men and 647 women) admitted to Italian public and private acute psychiatric inpatient facilities during an index period in 2004, and the sample divided into 3 groups: nonhostile patients (no episodes of violent behavior during hospitalization), hostile patients (verbal aggression or violent acts against objects), and violent patients (authors of physical assault). Ten percent (N = 129) of patients showed hostile behavior during hospitalization and 3% (N = 37) physically assaulted other patients or staff members. Variables associated with violent behavior were: male gender, attitude at admission, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, personality disorder, mental retardation, organic brain disorder or substance/alcohol abuse. Violent behavior during hospitalization was a predictive factor for higher Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and for lower Personal and Social Performance scale scores at discharge. Despite the low percentage of violent and hostile behavior observed in Italian acute inpatient units, this study shed light on a need for the careful assessment of clinical and treatment variables, and greater effort aimed at improving specific prevention and treatment programs of violent behavior.

  13. Acute fatal chest pain: optimized procedure in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Ming; Tong, Lianying; Lin, Shouyu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic procedure of acute fatal chest pain in emergency department (ED) in order to decrease the misdiagnosis rate and shorten the definite time to diagnosis. The ultimate aim is to rescue the patients timely and effectively. Three hundreds and two patients (56.9 ± 11.8 Years, 72% men) complained with acute chest pain and chest distress presenting to our ED were recruited. They were divided into two groups according to visiting time (Group I: from October 2010 to March 2011, Group II: from October 2011 to March 2012). The misdiagnosis rate, definite time for diagnosis and medical expense were analyzed. Patients of Group I were diagnosed by initial doctors who made their diagnosis according to personal experience in outpatient service or rescue room in ED. While patients of Group II were all admitted to rescue room and were diagnosed and rescued according to the acute chest pain screening flow-process diagram. Differences inter-group was compared. The misdiagnosis rate of fatal chest pain in Group I and Group II was 6.8% and 0% respectively, and there was statistic difference (P=0.000). The definite time to diagnosis was 65.3 min and 40.1 min in control and Group II respectively, the difference had statistic significance (P=0.000). And the mean cost for treatment was 787.5/124.5 ¥/$ and 905.5/143.2 ¥/$ respectively, and there was statistic difference too (P=0.012). Treating emergency patients with acute chest pain according to the acute chest pain screening flow-process diagram in rescue room will decrease misdiagnosis apparently, and it can also shorten the definite time to correct diagnosis. It has a remarkable positive role in rescuing patients with acute chest pain timely and effectively.

  14. A systematic review of music therapy practice and outcomes with acute adult psychiatric in-patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Carr

    Full Text Available There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported.A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis.98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions.No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to develop specific music therapy models for this

  15. A systematic review of music therapy practice and outcomes with acute adult psychiatric in-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to develop specific music therapy models for this patient group that

  16. A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to

  17. Adverse incidents, patient flow and nursing workforce variables on acute psychiatric wards: the Tompkins Acute Ward Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Nijman, Henk; Warren, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Adverse incidents (violence, self-harm and absconding) can cause significant harm to patients and staff, are difficult to predict, and are driving an increase in security measures and defensive practice. To explore the relationship between adverse incidents on acute psychiatric wards, admissions and nursing workforce variables. A retrospective analysis of officially collected data covering a period of 30 months on 14 acute wards at three hospitals. This data included 69 serious untoward incidents. Adverse incidents were more likely during and after weeks of high numbers of male admissions, during weeks when other incidents also occurred, and during weeks of high regular staff absence through leave and vacancy. It may be possible to predict adverse incidents. Careful staff management and deployment may reduce the risks.

  18. Treatment needs, diagnoses and use of services for acutely admitted psychiatric patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørgaard Knut W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared demography, diagnoses and clinical needs in acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway. Method All acutely admitted psychiatric patients in 1 psychiatric hospital in north-west Russia and 2 in northern Norway were in a three months period assessed with HoNOS and a Norwegian form developed to study acute psychiatric services (MAP. Data from a total of 841 patients were analysed (377 Norwegian, 464 Russian with univariate and multivariate statistics. Results Russian patients were more often males who had paid work. 2/3 were diagnosed with alcohol and organic disorders, and 70% reported problems related to sleep. Depression was widespread, as were problems associated with occupation. Many more Norwegian patients were on various forms of social security and lived in community supported homes. They had a clinical profile of affective disorders, use of drugs, suicidality and problems with activities involved of daily life. Slightly more Norwegian patients were involuntary admitted. Conclusion Acutely admitted psychiatric patients in North West Russia and Northern Norwegian showed different clinical profiles: alcohol, depression and organic disorders characterised Russian patients, affective disorders, suicidality and use of drugs characterised the Norwegians. Whereas Norwegian patients are mainly referred from GPs the Russians come via 1.line psychiatric services (“dispensaries”. Average length of stay for Russian patients was 2.5 times longer than that of the Norwegian.

  19. Nurses' perceptions of nursing interventions supporting quality of life in acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Anneli; Hätönen, Heli; Kollanen, Marjo; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to examine nurses' (N=29) perceptions of nursing interventions in supporting patients' quality of life (QoL) in acute psychiatric inpatient settings. An explorative descriptive study design was applied. The data were generated through seven focus group interviews and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Five main categories of nursing interventions to support patients' QoL were identified. Interventions were related to care planning, empowering interventions, social interventions, activating interventions, and security interventions. Emphasis should be placed on nurses' opportunities to improve patients' QoL according to patients' individual needs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The bulldozer and the ballet dancer: aspects of nurses' caring approaches in acute psychiatric intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkdahl, A; Palmstierna, T; Hansebo, G

    2010-08-01

    Demanding conditions in acute psychiatric wards inhibit provision of safe, therapeutic care and leave nurses torn between humanistic ideals and the harsh reality of their daily work. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' caring approaches within this context. Data were collected from interviews with nurses working in acute psychiatric intensive care. Data were analysed using qualitative analysis, based on interpretive description. Results revealed a caring-approach continuum on which two approaches formed the main themes: the bulldozer and the ballet dancer. The bulldozer approach functioned as a shield of power that protected the ward from chaos. The ballet dancer approach functioned as a means of initiating relationships with patients. When examining the data from a theoretical perspective of caring and uncaring encounters in nursing, the ballet dancer approach was consistent with a caring approach, while the bulldozer approach was more complex and somewhat aligned with uncaring approaches. Conclusions drawn from the study are that although the bulldozer approach involves a risk for uncaring and harming actions, it also brings a potential for caring. This potential needs to be further explored and nurses should be encouraged to reflect on how they integrate paternalistic nursing styles with person-centred care.

  1. Internalized Stigma and Perceived Family Support in Acute Psychiatric In-Patient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Gülçin; Küçük, Leyla

    2016-02-01

    This descriptive study aims to identify the relationship between internalized stigma and perceived family support in patients hospitalized in an acute psychiatric unit. The sample is composed of 224 patients treated in an acute inpatient psychiatric ward in İstanbul, Turkey. The data were collected using information obtained from the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale and Social Support from Family Scale. The mean age of the patients was 37±11.56years, and the mean duration of treatment was 6.27±5.81years. Most patients had been hospitalized three or more times. Of the total number of patients, 66.1% had been taken to the hospital by family members. We noted a statistically significant negative correlation between the total scores obtained from the perceived Social Support from Family Scale and the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale. The patients were observed to stigmatize themselves more when the perceived social support from their family had decreased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying key factors associated with aggression on acute inpatient psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Jeffery, Debra

    2009-04-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a critical issue for modern acute psychiatric services, not just because of the adverse impact it has on patients and staff, but also because it puts a financial strain on service providers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of patient violence to other variables: patient characteristics, features of the service and physical environment, patient routines, staff factors, the use of containment methods, and other patient behaviours. A multivariate cross sectional design was utilised. Data were collected for a six month period on 136 acute psychiatric wards in 26 NHS Trusts in England. Multilevel modelling was conducted to ascertain those factors most strongly associated with verbal aggression, aggression toward objects, and physical aggression against others. High levels of aggression were associated with a high proportion of patients formally detained under mental health legislation, high patient turnover, alcohol use by patients, ward doors being locked, and higher staffing numbers (especially qualified nurses). The findings suggest that the imposition of restrictions on patients exacerbates the problem of violence, and that alcohol management strategies may be a productive intervention. Insufficient evidence is available to draw conclusions about the nature of the link between staffing numbers and violence.

  3. Presentations to an urban emergency department in Bern, Switzerland associated with acute recreational drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Müller, Sabine; Stoller, Adrian; Ricklin, Meret; Liechti, Matthias E; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2017-03-07

    Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations. Currently, data from Switzerland are only available from the University Hospital of Basel. The present study aimed to describe the presentations due to recreational drug use at an emergency department in Bern, Switzerland during a 4 year period. Retrospective analysis of cases presenting from May 2012 to April 2016 at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity of recreational drug use. The cases were retrieved using a comprehensive full-text search algorithm of the electronic health records. Isolated ethanol intoxications were excluded. During the study period, 503 of the 157,328 emergency department attendances were directly related to acute toxicity of substances used recreationally. The mean patient age was 33 years (range 16-74), 68% were male. Alcohol co-ingestion was reported in 54% of the cases, and use of more than one recreational drug in 37% of the cases. Most presentations were related to cocaine (29%), cannabis (26%), heroin (20%) and benzodiazepines/sedatives (18%). Urine drug screening immunoassay was available in 277 cases (55%). The most frequently detected substances were cannabis (29%), cocaine (22%), benzodiazepines (21%) and opioids excluding methadone (20%). There were only two intoxications with novel psychoactive substances (NPSs): One with methylone and one with 2,5-dimethoxy-4(n)-propylphenethylamine (2C-P). The majority of patients (58%) displayed impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <15) upon presentation and/or pre-hospital; 21% were unconscious (GCS <8). Other frequent symptoms were agitation (36%), tachycardia (29%), and anxiety (24%). Severe complications included two fatalities, three acute myocardial infarctions, two intracranial haemorrhages, as well as psychosis and

  4. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  5. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  6. A preliminary study of Patient Dignity Inventory validation among patients hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosaria Di Lorenzo,1 Giulio Cabri,2 Eleonora Carretti,3 Giacomo Galli,4 Nina Giambalvo,4 Giulia Rioli,4 Serena Saraceni,4 Giulia Spiga,4 Cinzia Del Giovane,5 Paola Ferri6 1Mental Health Department, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment in NOCSAE General Hospital, 2Private Accredited Psychiatric Hospital villa Igea, Modena, 3Nursing Home of Rubiera, Reggio Emilia, 4Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 5PhD Statistics Unit, Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, 6Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy Purpose: To investigate the perception of dignity among patients hospitalized in a psychiatric setting using the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI, which had been first validated in oncologic field among terminally ill patients. Patients and methods: After having modified two items, we administered the Italian version of PDI to all patients hospitalized in a public psychiatric ward (Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment of a northern Italian town, who provided their consent and completed it at discharge, from October 21, 2015 to May 31, 2016. We excluded minors and patients with moderate/severe dementia, with poor knowledge of Italian language, who completed PDI in previous hospitalizations and/or were hospitalized for <72 hours. We collected the demographic and clinical variables of our sample (n=135. We statistically analyzed PDI scores, performing Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and principal factor analysis, followed by orthogonal and oblique rotation. We concomitantly administered to our sample other scales (Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Global Assessment of Functioning and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales to analyze the PDI concurrent validity. Results: With a response rate of 93%, we obtained a mean PDI score of 48.27 (±19.59 SD with

  7. Predictors of effective de-escalation in acute inpatient psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Renwick, Laoise; Brennan, Geoffrey; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence the use of de-escalation and its success in halting conflict in acute psychiatric inpatient setting. De-escalation is the use of verbal and nonverbal communication to reduce or eliminate aggression and violence during the escalation phase of a patient's behaviour. Although de-escalation is a first-line intervention in aggression management in acute psychiatric settings, little is known about the use or effectiveness of this technique. A retrospective case note analysis. For each patient (n = 522), their involvement in conflict (e.g. aggression) or containment (e.g. coerced medication) during the first two weeks of their admission was recorded. The frequency and order of the conflict and containment events were identified during each shift. The sequences of events occurring in shifts involving de-escalation were analysed. Sequences where de-escalation ended the pattern of conflict or containment were categorised as 'successful', and all others were categorised as 'unsuccessful'. Over half of patients (53%) experienced de-escalation during the first two weeks of admission, with the majority of these (37%) experiencing multiple episodes. De-escalation was successful in approximately 60% of cases. Successful de-escalations were preceded by fewer, and less aggressive, conflict events, compared with unsuccessful de-escalations, which were most frequently followed by administration of pro re nata medication. Patients with a history of violence were more likely to experience de-escalation, and it was more likely to be unsuccessful. De-escalation is frequently effective in halting a sequence of conflict in acute inpatient settings, but patients with a history of violence may be specifically challenging. These findings provide support for de-escalation in practice but suggest that nurses may lack confidence in using the technique when the risk of violence is greater. Providing evidence-based staff training may improve staff confidence

  8. Clinical features and therapeutic management of patients admitted to Italian acute hospital psychiatric units: the PERSEO (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology survey

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    Russo Federico

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PERSEO study (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology is a naturalistic, observational clinical survey in Italian acute hospital psychiatric units, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura; in English, the psychiatric service for diagnosis and management. The aims of this paper are: (i to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, including sociodemographic features, risk factors, life habits and psychiatric diagnoses; and (ii to assess the clinical management, subjective wellbeing and attitudes toward medications. Methods A total of 62 SPDCs distributed throughout Italy participated in the study and 2521 patients were enrolled over the 5-month study period. Results Almost half of patients (46% showed an aggressive behaviour at admission to ward, but they engaged more commonly in verbal aggression (38%, than in aggression toward other people (20%. A total of 78% of patients had a psychiatric diagnosis at admission, most frequently schizophrenia (36%, followed by depression (16% and personality disorders (14%, and no relevant changes in the diagnoses pattern were observed during hospital stay. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs, regardless of diagnosis, at all time points. Overall, up to 83% of patients were treated with neuroleptic drugs and up to 27% received more than one neuroleptic either during hospital stay or at discharge. Atypical and conventional antipsychotics were equally prescribed for schizophrenia (59 vs 65% during stay and 59 vs 60% at discharge, while atypical drugs were preferred in schizoaffective psychoses (72 vs 49% during stay and 70 vs 46% at discharge and depression (41 vs 32% during stay and 44 vs 25% at discharge. Atypical neuroleptics were slightly preferred to conventional ones at hospital discharge (52 vs 44%. Polypharmacy was in general widely used. Patient attitudes toward medications were on average positive and self

  9. Correlates of MMPI--a scales in acute psychiatric and forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Carlo O C; Graham, John R; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Forbey, Johnathan D; O'Connell, Carol; Rogers, Robert; White, Robert S

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand the empirical basis for interpretation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992). Participants were 157 boys from a forensic setting and 197 girls from an acute psychiatric inpatient setting. Criterion variables were identified from sources such as psychiatrist report, parent report, and psychosocial history. Results generally support the construct validity of MMPI-A scales. Scales measuring internalizing problems were more highly correlated with criterion measures of internalizing behaviors than measures of externalizing behaviors, whereas scales measuring externalizing problems were more highly correlated with externalizing variables than with internalizing criteria. Implications of this study include an expanded empirical foundation for interpretation of the MMPI-A, greater understanding of the constructs it measures, and evidence supporting the generalizability of these constructs across settings.

  10. Admissions to acute adolescent psychiatric units: a prospective study of clinical severity and outcome

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    Jensen Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries have established or are planning acute psychiatric in-patient services that accept around-the-clock emergency admission of adolescents. Our aim was to investigate the characteristics and clinical outcomes of a cohort of patients at four Norwegian units. Methods We used a prospective pre-post observational design. Four units implemented a clinician-rated outcome measure, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA, which measures mental health problems and their severity. We collected also data about the diagnoses, suicidal problems, family situations, and the involvement of the Child Protection Service. Predictions of outcome (change in HoNOSCA total score were analysed with a regression model. Results The sample comprised 192 adolescents admitted during one year (response rate 87%. Mean age was 15.7 years (range 10-18 and 70% were girls. Fifty-eight per cent had suicidal problems at intake and the mean intake HoNOSCA total score was 18.5 (SD 6.4. The largest groups of main diagnostic conditions were affective (28% and externalizing (26% disorders. Diagnoses and other patient characteristics at intake did not differ between units. Clinical psychiatric disorders and developmental disorders were associated with severity (on HoNOSCA at intake but not with outcome. Of adolescents ≥ 16 years, 33% were compulsorily admitted. Median length of stay was 8.5 days and 75% of patients stayed less than a month. Compulsory admissions and length of stay varied between units. Mean change (improvement in the HoNOSCA total score was 5.1 (SD 6.2, with considerable variation between units. Mean discharge score was close to the often-reported outpatient level, and self-injury and emotional symptoms were the most reduced symptoms during the stay. In a regression model, unit, high HoNOSCA total score at intake, or involvement of the Child Protection Service predicted improvement during admission

  11. Recovery-oriented practices of psychiatric-mental health nursing staff in an acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Kris A; Du Wick, Amanda; Collazzi, Charlene M; Puntil, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    There is a national initiative to integrate recovery-oriented practices into the delivery of mental health services. Few empirical studies have been conducted to measure these practices in psychiatric-mental health (PMH) nursing, particularly in short-term acute hospital settings. This study examined the reliability of the Recovery Self Assessment-Registered Nurse Version (RSA-RN) and explored recovery practices of PMH nurses and nursing staff in an acute treatment setting. A descriptive one-group design with convenience sampling was employed. One hundred and five participants completed the RSA-RN and the demographic data form. The RSA-RN full-scale instrument demonstrated excellent internal consistency, and the five subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Significant, favorable relationships were found between RSA-RN scores and nursing staff who (a) had formal education in mental health recovery, (b) considered themselves knowledgeable about recovery, and (c) considered their place of work to be "recovery-oriented." The RSA-RN is a useful tool in measuring recovery-oriented practice. Formal education should be considered as an intervention to increase recovery-oriented practices in PMH nursing.

  12. [Smoking habits of employees and patients in the psychiatric department of a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Töpper, M; Behrens, J

    2004-02-01

    Health promotion is becoming an increasingly more meaning in hospitals within their health promotion, primary and secondary prevention programmes. With reference to the preventive measures regarding nicotine dependence, it was first of all the objective of this study to determine the smoking habits of employees and patients in a psychiatric clinic. The question was also which implications for clinical practice could be drawn from this. Apart from the Fagerstroem Test for nicotine dependence, a new questionnaire was developed, supported by the questionnaire "Smoke free in hospital", developed by the Federal Agency for Health Education, and implemented. 382 Patients and 484 employees were questioned. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS, and in addition thereto, the T-Test and the chi (2)-Test were used. Definite gender differences pertaining to smoking habits could be demonstrated. Women smoked less often (p change are still not available. Added to that, it must be tested within the German Health System, whether a clinically supervised smoking cessation programme complementing the treatment of the main diagnosis (a psychiatric disease) is demanded by the affected person, whether the clinic can finance it, and whether it can be successfully implemented.

  13. Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms

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    Kgalabi J. Ngako

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse.The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education.A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding.The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care.The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs. 

  14. Prevalence of serum anti-neuronal autoantibodies in patients admitted to acute psychiatric care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Sæther, S G; Borowski, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-neuronal antibodies may be challenging to distinguish from primary psychiatric disorders. The significance of anti-neuronal antibodies in psychiatric patients without clear evidence of autoimmune encephalitis is unknown. We investigated the...

  15. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    approach may be useful for other psychiatric outpatient departments.

  16. Clinical experience and institutional in a Department of Mental Health: The multifamily groups for parents and children with psychiatric illness in the time of post-modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisella Ferraris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The following work shows the beginning and development of a multifamily group, involving mental health professionals, parents and psychiatric patients, in a mental health center. The group goals and the main functions of this setting, will be described, observing also the social and community changes, occurring in recent years. Finally, starting from the analysis of the major psychoanalysis research findings, the concepts of inter-subjectivity, therapeutic alliance and institution's role regarding the psychiatric patients’ treatment, will be deepened. Keywords: Department of Mental Health; Multifamily group; Community changes; Therapeutic alliance; Psychiatric patients

  17. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment.

  18. The association of psychiatric comorbidity and use of the emergency department among persons with substance use disorders: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allee Elise

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric and substance use problems are commonly found to be contributing factors to frequent Emergency Department (ED use, yet little research has focused on the association between substance use and psychiatric comorbidity. This study assesses the association of a psychiatric comorbidity on (ED use among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. Methods The study focuses on 6,865 patients who were diagnosed with SUDs in the ED of a large urban hospital in the southern United States from January 1994 – June 1998. Patients were grouped by type of substance use disorder. After examining frequency of visits by diagnosis, the sample was assigned to the following groups–alcohol dependence (ICD9 = 303, alcohol abuse (ICD9 = 305.0, cocaine dependence/abuse (ICD9 = 304.2, 305.6, and polysubstance/mixed use (ICD9 = 305.9. A patient was classified with psychiatric comorbidity if a psychiatric diagnosis appeared during any of the patient's visits. The following psychiatric diagnoses were included–schizophrenia/psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and dementia (ICD-9 codes available upon request. Results Patients with SUDs and psychiatric comorbidity had significantly higher mean number of ER visits (mean = 5.2 SD = 8.7 than SUD patients without psychiatric comorbidity (mean = 2.5, SD = 3.7. In logistic regressions predicting several categorizations of heavier use of the ED (either 4+, 8+, 12+, 16+, or 20+ visits over the span of the study SUD patients with psychiatric comorbidity had adjusted odds ratios of 3.0 to 5.6 (reference group = patients with SUDs but no psychiatric comorbidity. This association was found across all substance use diagnostic categories studied, with the strongest relationship observed among patients with cocaine disorders or alcohol dependence. Conclusion The results provide further support for the notion that the ED could and should serve as an important identification site for cost

  19. Clinical profile of acutely ill psychiatric patients admitted to a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-30

    Jan 30, 2006 ... surrounding primary care clinics or hospitals and from ambulatory community psychiatric clinics. After screening and initial treatment, service users were referred to other specialized units such as the forensic, adolescent, psychotherapy and eating disorder units of the two psychiatric hospitals on the circuit.

  20. Psychiatric Disorders and Personality Profiles of Middle-Aged Suicide Attempters with no Evidence of Specific Psychopathological Profiles Referring to an Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess socio-demographic and psychiatric characteristics of 40-65 years old suicide attempters referred to an emergency department within four hours of making their attempt.Method: We assessed a total of 93 suicide attempters (Mage=46.59 years referred to an emergency department. Patients completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, personality traits, mood, and impulsivity; experts rated patients’ psychiatric status.Results: Experts rated 85 (92.4% of the suicide attempters as having a psychiatric disorder. Based on self-ratings and compared to normative data, 42 (46.6% were psychopathologically ill. Suicide attempts were not related to impulsive personality traits, mood disorders, socio-demographic patterns or gender (gender-ratio: 1:1.58;f:m.Conclusions: The pattern of results suggests that further unknown factors were involved in pushing people to attempt suicide.

  1. Acute behavioral crises in psychiatric inpatients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): recognition of concomitant medical or non-ASD psychiatric conditions predicts enhanced improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinchat, Vincent; Cravero, Cora; Diaz, Lautaro; Périsse, Didier; Xavier, Jean; Amiet, Claire; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Wachtel, Lee; Cohen, David; Consoli, Angèle

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in severe challenging behaviors, such as aggression, self-injury, disruption, agitation and tantrums. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute behavioral crises in adolescents with ASD admitted to a dedicated neurobehavioral unit. We included retrospectively in 2008 and 2009 29 adolescents and young adults with ASD hospitalized for severe challenging behaviors and proposed a guideline (Perisse et al., 2010) that we applied prospectively for 29 patients recruited for the same indications between 2010 and 2012. In total, 58 patients were admitted (n=70 hospitalizations, mean age=15.66 (±4.07) years, 76% male). We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), comorbid organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. We explored predictors of Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAFS) score and duration of hospitalization at discharge. All but 2 patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability (ID), and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. During the inpatient stay (mean=84.3 (±94.9) days), patients doubled on average their GAFS scores (mean=17.66 (±9.05) at admission vs. mean=31.4 (±9.48) at discharge). Most common etiologies for acute behavioral crises were organic causes [n=20 (28%), including epilepsy: n=10 (14%) and painful medical conditions: n=10 (14%)], environmental causes [n=17 (25%) including lack of treatment: n=11 (16%) and adjustment disorder: n=6 (9%)], and non-ASD psychiatric condition [n=33 (48%) including catatonia: n=5 (7%), major depressive episode: n=6 (9%), bipolar disorder: n=4 (6%), schizophrenia: n=6 (9%), other/unknown diagnosis: n=12 (17%)]. We found no influence of age, gender, socio-economic status, migration, level of ID, or history of seizure on improvement of GAFS score at discharge

  2. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  3. Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Who Live with Family and Experience Psychiatric Crisis: Who Uses the Emergency Department and Who Stays Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Slusarczyk, Maggie; Lunsky, Yona

    2011-01-01

    Many individuals with intellectual disabilities who live with their families experience mental health problems and ensuing psychiatric emergencies. During periods of crisis, families may require additional services, including going to the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to elucidate demographic, clinical, and crisis features…

  4. Acute cholecystitis mimicking or accompanying cardiovascular disease among Japanese patients hospitalized in a Cardiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Michishige; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Hideaki; Miyamura, Masatoshi; Sohmiya, Koichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2015-12-19

    Acute cholecystitis sometimes displays symptoms and electrocardiographic changes mimicking cardiovascular problems. It may also coexist with cardiovascular disorders. We analyzed the clinical characteristic of the cardiac patients who were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis during hospitalization in the cardiology department. Using the department database, we identified 16 patients who were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis during the hospitalization in the cardiology department between June 2010 and June 2014. Five patients who were initially suspected to have cardiac problems (acute coronary syndrome, four patients; Adams-Stokes syndrome, one patient) owing to their symptoms were subsequently diagnosed with acute cholecystitis. Two of these patients showed electrocardiographic changes mimicking myocardial ischemia, and three tested positive for a biomarker (heart-type fatty acid binding protein) of acute myocardial injury. The 11 remaining cardiac patients were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis during their hospitalization or at the time of admission. Prolonged fasting and/or staying in an intensive care unit (ICU) may have contributed to their condition. Among these 11 patients, aortic dissection was the most prevalent underlying cardiac condition, affecting 5 patients. Although it is a rare condition, acute cholecystitis may coexist with or be misdiagnosed as a cardiovascular disorder. This possibility should not be overlooked in cardiac patients because a delay in treatment may result in critical complications.

  5. [Acute Datura stramonium poisoning in an emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Bernard; Martis, Antoine; Moreau, Céline; Arlie, Gilles; Kintz, Pascal; Leclerc, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The toxic effects of Datura stramonium most often include visual and auditory hallucinations, confusion and agitation. Severe and even fatal complications (coma, respiratory distress or death in more than 5% of cases) are not rare since the lethal concentration of the drug's toxic substances (i.e., atropine and scopolamine) is close to the level at which delirium occurs. A 17-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with agitation, delirium with persecutory ideation and frightening hallucinations of being assaulted by animals. Blood samples taken 12 hours after Datura stramonium ingestion and analyzed with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) found 1.7 ng/mL of atropine, close to the lethal level. After restraint and treatment with the antipsychotic drug cyamemazine, the young man returned to normal 36 hours after drug ingestion. A 17-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department after losing consciousness on a public thoroughfare. At the emergency department, 2 hours after she had ingested Datura stramonium, she was agitated, with delirium, anxiety, and frightening visual and tactile hallucination of green turtles walking on her as well as auditory hallucinations. Blood samples at D0, D1 and D2 after Datura stramonium ingestion, analyzed with LC-MS/MS, found: 1.4, 1.0, and 0.2 ng/mL of scopolamine, respectively. Atropine was massively eliminated in urine on D1 (114 ng/mL). After restraint and cyamemazine treatment, the young woman returned to normal 40 hours after she had first ingested this hallucinogen. These cases of intoxication with Datura stramonium are, to our knowledge, the first clinical reports correlated with toxicologic analysis by the reference method (LC-MS/MS) in an emergency setting. Since neither the drug-users nor those accompanying them usually volunteer information about drug use, it is important to consider this specific risk in cases of agitation and confusion in adolescents or young adults.

  6. Young people's risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department - a nested case-control design using Danish register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. A complete extraction of Danish register data for every individual born in the period 1983-1989 was made. Of these 403,431 individuals, 3,465 had attempted suicide. In order to control for confounder effects from gender, age and calendar-time, a nested case-control study was designed. A total population of 72,765 individuals was used to analyze the risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department. The case-control data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. This study shows that a child/adolescent's risk of suicide attempt peaks immediately after discharge from last contact with a psychiatric department. The risk of suicide attempt is highest for children and adolescents suffering from personality disorders, depression and substance use disorders. Children and adolescents with previous contact with a psychiatric department and parental income in the lowest third have a significantly higher risk of suicide attempt. Suicide attempters were more likely to have been given several different diagnoses and several different psychopharmacological drugs prior to their attempted suicide. The findings in this study highlight the need for psychopathology assessment in every case of attempted suicide. This study also shows that well-known risk factors such as contact with a psychiatric department do not affect all individuals in the same way. Individuals from families with low SES had the highest risk. This suggests that the presence of factors influencing both vulnerability and resiliency, e.g., family level of SES, needs to be included in the assessment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental

  7. Confirming mental health care in acute psychiatric wards, as narrated by persons experiencing psychotic illness: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebergsen, Karina; Norberg, Astrid; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2016-01-01

    It is important that mental health nurses meet the safety, security and care needs of persons suffering from psychotic illness to enhance these persons' likelihood of feeling better during their time in acute psychiatric wards. Certain persons in care describe nurses' mental health care as positive, whereas others report negative experiences and express a desire for improvements. There is limited research on how persons with psychotic illness experience nurses' mental health care acts and how such acts help these persons feel better. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore, describe and understand how the mental health nurses in acute psychiatric wards provide care that helps persons who experienced psychotic illness to feel better, as narrated by these persons. This study had a qualitative design; 12 persons participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed, content analysed and interpreted using Martin Buber's concept of confirmation. The results of this study show three categories of confirming mental health care that describe what helped the participants to feel better step-by-step: first, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of endurance; second, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of decreased psychotic symptoms; and third, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of support in daily life. The underlying meaning of the categories and of subcategories were interpreted and formulated as the theme; confirming mental health care to persons experiencing psychotic illness. Confirming mental health care acts seem to help persons to feel better in a step-wise manner during psychotic illness. Nurses' openness and sensitivity to the changing care needs of persons who suffer from psychotic illness create moments of confirmation within caring acts that concretely help the persons to feel better and that may enhance their health. The results show the

  8. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in South Africa. A retrospective descriptive study of acute first admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, L; Salamon, E; Allgulander, C; Owe-Larsson, B

    2009-08-01

    The social and living conditions of mine workers in South Africa contribute to a rapid transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV-associated dementia is a serious condition during HIV disease. Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been associated with clinical HIV infection. We describe the onset of psychiatric symptoms and signs in a group of untreated, HIV infected male mine workers first admitted for psychiatric treatment at the Rand Mutual Hospital in Johannesburg. Between 1987 and 1997, 38 consecutive cases were admitted, and their files were retrieved for study in 2006. The subjects were 38 black male mine workers admitted acutely for psychiatric care due to psychiatric symptoms, and subsequently diagnosed with HIV infection. The presenting psychiatric symptoms on admission and diagnoses at discharge were compiled for all patients, not to infer causality but to establish the range of symptoms that the clinician has to deal with. The 38 patients presented with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms. The dominating symptoms were those of cognitive deficits, and different psychotic manifestations. 12 of the patients, almost one third of the individuals, were diagnosed with dementia. The patients with dementia exhibited cognitive deficits, and in addition often abnormal behaviour and psychotic symptoms, and several also had symptoms of secondary mania. 5 of the patients presented with delirium. Psychosis, without concurrent dementia, was diagnosed in 5 patients. Bipolar disorder with mania, without concurrent dementia, and major depression was present in 2 patients, respectively. Screening for substance abuse showed that 9 of the patients had ongoing cannabis abuse and 10 had alcohol abuse. Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder was present in 5 patients. The findings confirm that patients with a new diagnosis of HIV may present with

  9. Chloramphenicol and acute esophagitis in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad T Andicochea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with its broad spectrum and low cost, concern over chloramphenicol′s adverse effects limited its use in the United States during the 1980s. Reports from United Kingdom and China in the 1990s demonstrated a low incidence of blood dyscrasias with the topical preparation of chloramphenicol, and showed continued good efficacy and low cost. Today, topical chloramphenicol is being used by some groups within otolaryngology and ophthalmology in the United States. As a result, emergency physicians are once again considering chloramphenicol-induced side effects in patients presenting to the emergency department. To date, there have been no published reports associating chest pain, dyspnea with chloramphenicol use, and there has only been one report of fungal esophagitis associated with topical chloramphenicol. We present a 31-year-old woman, 4 months status post tympanoplasty with a modified radical canal wall down mastoidectomy due to a cholesteatoma involving the epitympanum who had a residual tympanic membrane defect. She presented to the emergency department with chest "burning", with no other symptoms shortly after starting treatment with an insufflated combination antibiotic containing chloramphenicol. After ruling out cardiopulmonary or vascular etiology, she was treated successfully with a gastrointestinal cocktail cocktail for presumed esophagitis secondary to newly prescribed chloramphenicol.

  10. Acute bilateral vision loss in emergency department: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren sen Tanrikulu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke occurs due to the interruption of blood flow to the brain and it is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic. In the ischemic strokes, while the most commonly affected vessel is median cerebral artery (MCA, it is particularly affected bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA is very rare condition. In this study, a case of sudden loss of vision and bilateral occipital infarct associated with bilateral vertebral system pathology and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene mutation were reported. A 62-year-old man was admitted with sudden loss of vision complaint starting 10 h before applying to emergency department. The patient was oriented and cooperative. On neurological examination, there was complete loss of vision in the right eye and only a response to light in the left eye. On the brain computerized tomography (CT, ischemic lesions were observed in the bilateral occipital areas and on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there were foci showing diffusion limitation in cortico-subcortical areas of bilateral parieto-occipital region. On the detailed examination at the clinic, MTHFR (a1298c gene mutation was detected. Bilateral occipital infarction is rare and its diagnosis can be difficult because of its atypical symptoms. Therefore, occipital infarction should be suspected when the only sign is isolated vision loss in patients with risk factor for thromboembolism in their history and detailed visual-neurological examination of these patients should be performed. Keywords: MTHFR, Occipital infarctus, Visual loss

  11. Characteristics of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Admitted to an Acute Psychiatric Ward in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ning Chiou

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirms some previous Western reports that adolescents with depressive disorders commonly manifest suicide attempts. There are, however, some cultural differences in risk factors. School-related problems play an important role in Taiwan among the adolescent suicides, and prior suicide attempts predict future suicidal behavior. Enhancing school-based screening for adolescents with suicide risk and transferring them to psychiatric professionals for intervention is important. We should focus suicide prevention resources mainly on the adolescent population with psychiatric illness, prior suicide attempts, and with high risk factors.

  12. [Comparison of Aggressive Behavior, Compulsory Medication and Absconding Behavior Between Open and Closed door Policy in an Acute Psychiatric Ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Mara-Lena; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Müller, Sabine; Lang, Undine E; Schmidt, Yvonne; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Objective According to legal requirements coercive treatment must be limited to acts necessary for the protection of patients and cannot be used for institutional interests. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that opening psychiatric wards can reduce the number of aggressive assaults and of coercive treatment without increasing absconding rates. Methods Numbers of absconding, coercive medication, fixation and special security actions were collected retrospectively and compared between phases of closed (N total = 409; N legally committed = 64) and 90 % of daytime opened (N total = 571; N legally committed = 99) doors in an acute psychiatric ward. Results During the phase of opened doors we observed significantly reduced aggressive assaults (p < 0,001) and coercive medication (p = 0,006) compared to the closed setting, while the absconding rate did not change (p = 0,20). Limitation Given the retrospective non-experimental design, no causal interpretations can be drawn. Conclusion The results suggest that open door is associated with reduction of aggressive assaults and coercive medication without increasing absconding rates. This speaks for a stronger implementation of open door policies in acute wards in order to preserve human rights in psychiatry. To collect more robust evidence for this thesis, longer phases should be monitored and moderating variables such as atmosphere and social cohesion should be assessed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Young people's risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department - a nested case-control design using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background:  There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Meth...... influencing both vulnerability and resiliency, e.g., family level of SES, needs to be included in the assessment....

  14. Acute health problems in African refugees: ten years' experience in a Swiss emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Graf, Fabienne; Tabbara, Malek; Tabarra, Malek; Lindner, Gregor; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2012-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the total number of applications from Africans for asylum in the countries of the European Union has increased from 578,000 to more than 2.9 million. About 20 % (7,196/36,100) of the asylum seekers in Switzerland originate from Africa. The disease profile of African asylum seekers is remarkably different from that of the native population in the country of application. We have therefore conducted an analysis of African asylum seekers presenting themselves to our emergency department. In a retrospective analysis, the central patient registry database was searched for patients originating from Africa admitted from 1 January 2000 to 30 November 2011 and labelled as "Asylbewerber" (asylum seeker) or "Flüchtling" (refugee). Three thousand six hundred and seventy-five African asylum seekers were admitted to our emergency department between 2000 and 2010. Thirty-four percent (n = 1,247) were female and 66 % (n = 2,426) male. Eighty percent (n = 1,940) of the men and 70 % (n = 823) of the women were younger than 40 years. Most of our patients originated from Algeria (n = 612). Forty-five percent (n = 1,628) of all patients presented with internal medical problems, 40 % (n = 1,487) with injuries. 3.5 % (n = 130) of all patients presented with psychiatric problems. Admission for psychiatric problems increased steadily from 2 % (n = 4) in 2001 to 10 % (n = 35) in 2011. The causes of presentation are manifold, including internal medical problems and injuries. Admissions for psychiatric problems are increasing. Establishing simple screening scores for somatization should be a key priority in providing more focused treatment in emergency departments.

  15. [Shared decision-making in acute psychiatric medicine : Contraindication or a challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, S; Hamann, J

    2017-09-01

    The concept of shared decision-making (SDM) has existed since the 1990s in multiple fields of somatic medicine but has only been poorly applied in psychiatric clinical routine despite broad acceptance and promising outcomes in clinical studies on its positive effects. The concept itself and its practicability in mental health are carefully assessed and strategies for its future implementation in psychiatric medicine are presented in this article. Ongoing clinical studies probing some of those strategies are further outlined. On top of the ubiquitous shortage of time in clinical routine, psychiatrists report their concern about patients' limited abilities in sharing decisions and their own fear of potentially harmful decisions resulting from a shared process. Misinterpretation of shared decision-making restricting the health care professional to rather an informed choice scenario and their own adhesion to the traditional paternalistic decision-making approach further add to SDM's underutilization. Those hurdles could be overcome by communication skill workshops for all mental health care professionals, including nursing personnels, psychologists, social workers and physicians, as well as the use of decision aids and training courses for patients to motivate and empower them in sharing decisions with the medical staff. By this, the patient-centered treatment approach demanded by guidelines, carers and users could be further facilitated in psychiatric clinical routine.

  16. High-sensitivity troponin assays in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Christ, Michael; Bertsch, Thomas; Popp, Steffen; Bahrmann, Philipp; Heppner, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating patients with acute chest pain presenting to the emergency department remains an ongoing challenge. The spectrum of etiologies in acute chest pain ranges from minor disease entities to life-threatening diseases, such as pulmonary embolism, acute aortic dissection or acute myocardial infarction (MI). The diagnosis of acute MI is usually made integrating the triad of patient history and clinical presentation, readings of 12-lead ECG and measurement of cardiac troponins (cTn). Introdu...

  17. Acute cocaine-related health problems in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland: a case series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodmer, Michael; Enzler, Florian; Liakoni, Evangelia; Bruggisser, Marcel; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    .... We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of 165 acute, laboratory-confirmed cocaine intoxications admitted to an urban emergency department in Switzerland between January 2007 and March 2011...

  18. Role of Quantitative Wall Motion Analysis in Patients with Acute Chest Pain at Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Na, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of acute chest pain in emergency department (ED), using limited resource and time, is still very difficult despite recent development of many diagnostic tools. In this study, we tried to determine the applicability of new semi-automated cardiac function analysis tool, velocity vector imaging (VVI), in the evaluation of the patients with acute chest pain in ED. We prospectively enrolled 48 patients, who visited ED with acute chest pain, and store images to analyze VVI from July 2005 to July 2007. In 677 of 768 segments (88%), the analysis by VVI was feasible among 48 patients. Peak systolic radial velocity (Vpeak) and strain significantly decreased according to visual regional wall motion abnormality (Vpeak, 3.50 ± 1.34 cm/s for normal vs. 3.46 ± 1.52 cm/s for hypokinesia, 2.51 ± 1.26 for akinesia, p patient with acute chest pain at ED.

  19. Effects of psychiatric disorders on Type A acute aortic dissection pathogenesis and analysis of follow-up results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A connection between psychiatric disorders (PDs and Type A acute aortic dissection (AAD has not been shown. The aim of this study was to define the psychological profile of patients treated for AAD, and to analyze the prevalence of PDs in their medical histories, in the immediate postoperative period, and at a mid-term follow-up. Patients and Methods: From March 2005 to October 2014, 240 consecutive patients underwent surgery for AAD. 60 patients (mean age 60+/-13 years; 43 males underwent psychiatric consultation postoperatively, and they represent the subjects of our retrospective study. Ascending aorta +/- arch replacement was performed in 43 patients, whereas the Bentall procedure +/- arch replacement was performed in 17. Data were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-ups were completed in 59 patients (mean duration 35+/-23 months. Results: PDs were present in the medical histories of 34 patients. Postoperatively, in 28 cases, a definitive diagnosis of PD (group PD was made in agreement with the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV criteria, including: Major depression (n=13, anxious-depressive syndrome (n=6, bipolar disorder Type 2 (n=4, panic attacks (n=2, paranoid schizophrenia (n=1, and anxiety (n=2. 32 patients without a definitive psychiatric diagnosis were classified as Group non-PD. In the postoperative period, clinical manifestations of PDs, including delirium, persistent spatio-temporal disorientation, and psychomotor agitation were evident in 22 patients (78% in group PD versus 8 patients (25% in group non-PD (P<0.0001. During follow-up, only one death for non-cardiac reasons occurred in group PD. There were no suicides; only 10 patients of group PD required PD treatment (P<0.0001 vs. early postoperative findings; 4 patients in group non-PD required PD treatment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a strong relationship between PD and AAD. Because the psychiatric conditions appeared to be largely stable after

  20. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yüksel

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. Methods: The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1 and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2. Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  1. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff......This article reports on and compares two separate studies of the interactional characteristics of forensic mental health staff and acute mental health staff as they interact with inpatients, respectively. Both studies were conducted using participant observation, along with informal and formal...

  2. Group schema therapy for personality disorders: A pilot study for implementation in acute psychiatric in-patient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Lamberth, Sina; Reiss, Neele

    2017-07-01

    Group schema therapy (GST) has been proposed as a novel long-term treatment programme for borderline and cluster C personality disorders. We implemented a short-term GST programme (12-15 sessions, based on the manual by Farrell and Shaw (2012), including both cognitive / behavioural and experiential interventions for in-patients (n=9) with either borderline or cluster C personality disorders (and axis I co-morbidities) treated in a (sub)acute psychiatric in-patient setting. We evaluated pre- and post-treatment self-report of maladaptive and adaptive schema modes (using the SMI) and early maladaptive schemas (YSQ-3), as well as overall symptom severity (brief symptom check list, BSCL-53-S), patient satisfaction (ZUF-8) and group climate and coherence (GCQ-S). We found significant reduction of symptoms, and trend-level improvement for schema mode activation, but not maladaptive schemas. Effect sizes of Cohen's d=0.857 for symptoms and d=0.693 for maladaptive schema mode reduction were, however, lower than previous GST trials in in-patient settings with a longer treatment phase and outpatient GST trials using the Farrell and Shaw-model, indicating importance of duration in ST treatment. Our findings in this uncontrolled study provide first evidence that GST (based on the Farrell and Shaw model) can be implemented and adapted for use in short-term in-patient (sub)acute settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute asthma severity identification of expert system flow in emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Nurul Atikah Mohd; Ahmad, Norazura; Ahmad, Nazihah; Desa, Wan Laailatul Hanim Mat

    2017-11-01

    Integration of computerized system in healthcare management help in smoothening the documentation of patient records, highly accesses of knowledge and clinical practices guideline, and advice on decision making. Exploit the advancement of artificial intelligent such as fuzzy logic and rule-based reasoning may improve the management of emergency department in terms of uncertainty condition and medical practices adherence towards clinical guideline. This paper presenting details of the emergency department flow for acute asthma severity identification with the embedding of acute asthma severity identification expert system (AASIES). Currently, AASIES is still in preliminary stage of system validation. However, the implementation of AASIES in asthma bay management is hope can reduce the usage of paper for manual documentation and be a pioneer for the development of a more complex decision support system to smoothen the ED management and more systematic.

  4. Does physical exercise improve ADL capacities in people over 65 years with moderate or severe dementia hospitalized in an acute psychiatric setting? A multisite randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürge, Elisabeth; Berchtold, André; Maupetit, Christine; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; von Gunten, Armin; Ducraux, Daniel; Zumbach, Serge; Peeters, Anne; Kuhne, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Several studies on the effect of physical exercise on activities of daily living (ADL) for people with dementia exist; yet, data concerning the specific context of acute psychiatric hospitals remain scant. This study measured the effect of a physical exercise program on ADL scores in patients with moderate to severe dementia hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward. A multicenter clinical trial was conducted in five Swiss and Belgian psychiatric hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Members of the EG received 20 physical exercise sessions (strengthening, balance, and walking) over a four-week period while members of the CG participated in social interaction sessions of equivalent duration and frequency, but without physical exercise. The effect of exercise on ADL was measured by comparing scores of the Barthel Index and the Functional Independence Measure in the EG and CG before and after the intervention, and two weeks later. Hundred and sixty patients completed the program. Characteristics of participants of both groups were similar at the inception of the study. The mean ADL score of EG decreased slightly over time, whereas that of the CG significantly decreased compared to initial scores. Overall differences between groups were not significant; however, significant differences were found for mobility-related items. ADL scores in elderly with moderate to severe dementia deteriorate during acute psychiatric hospitalization. An exercise program delays the loss of mobility but does not have a significant impact on overall ADL scores.

  5. Benign Nuchal Rigidity: The Emergency Department Evaluation of Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary Levy; James Carroll; Heather Farley

    2012-01-01

    Acute prevertebral calcific tendonitis (APCT) is a rare condition, the exact incidence of which isunknown. It is of particular interest to the emergency physician owing to the other potentiallydevastating conditions in the differential diagnosis of neck stiffness and/or odynophagia (includingretropharyngeal abscess, infectious spondylitis, and meningitis.) In contrast, APCT has a benignclinical course and can be easily managed in the emergency department. We will present a case ofAPCT, follow...

  6. Duration of bed occupancy as calculated at a random chosen day in an acute care ward. Implications for the use of scarce resources in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restan Asbjørn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric acute wards are obliged to admit patients without delay according to the Act on Compulsive Psychiatric Care. Residential long term treatment facilities and rehabilitation facilities may use a waiting list. Patients, who may not be discharged from the acute ward or should not wait there, then occupy acute ward beds. Materials and methods Bed occupancy in one acute ward at a random day in 2002 was registered (n = 23. Successively, the length of stay of all patients was registered, together with information on waiting time after a decision was made on further treatment needs. Eleven patients waited for further resident treatment. The running cost of stay was calculated for the acute ward and in the different resident follow-up facilities. Twenty-three patients consumed a total of 776 resident days. 425 (54.8% of these were waiting days. Patients waited up to 86 days. Results Total cost of treatment was 0.69 million Euro (0.90 mill. $, waiting costs were 54.8% of this, 0.38 million Euro (0.50 million $. The difference between acute care costs and the costs in the relevant secondary resident facility was defined as the imputed loss. Net loss by waiting was 0.20 million Euro (0.26 million $ or 28.8% of total cost. Discussion This point estimate study indicates that treating patients too sick to be released to anything less than some other intramural facility locks a sizable amount of the resources of a psychiatric acute ward. The method used minimized the chance of financially biased treatment decisions. Costs of frustration to staff and family members, and delayed effect of treatment was set to zero. Direct extrapolation to costs per year is not warranted, but it is suggested that our findings would be comparable to other acute wards as well. The study shows how participant observation and cost effectiveness analysis may be combined.

  7. Substance abuse in patients admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to acute psychiatric wards: a national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Opsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and mental disorder comorbidity is high among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. The aim of the study was to identify this co-occurrence as a reason for involuntary admission and if specific substance use-related diagnoses were associated with such admissions.Methods: The study was a part of a multicentre, cross-sectional national study carried out during 2005-2006 within a research network of acute mental health services. Seventy-five percent of Norwegian hospitals providing acute in-patient treatment participated. Substance use was measured using the Clinician Rating Scale and the ICD-10 diagnoses F10-19. Diagnostic assessments were performed by the clinicians during hospital stay.Results: Overall, 33.2% (n=1,187 of the total patient population (3,506 were abusing alcohol or drugs prior to admission according to the Clinician Rating Scale. No difference in the overall prevalence of substance abuserelated diagnoses between the two groups was found. Overall, 310 (26% of the admissions, 216 voluntarily and 94 involuntarily admitted patients received a double diagnosis. Frequent comorbid combinations among voluntarily admitted patients were; a combination of alcohol and either mood disorder (40% or multiple mental disorders (29%. Among involuntarily admitted patients, a combination of poly drug use and schizophrenia was most frequent (47%. Substance abusing patients diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive stimulant substances had a significantly higher risk of involuntary hospitalization (OR 2.3.Conclusion: Nearly one third of substance abusing patients are involuntarily admitted to mental hospitals, in particular stimulant drug use was associated with involuntarily admissions.

  8. Antibiotic and bronchodilator prescribing for acute bronchitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening-Roche, Jason C; Soroudi, Arash; Castillo, Edward M; Vilke, Gary M

    2012-08-01

    Although the overuse of antibiotics and underuse of bronchodilators for treatment of acute bronchitis is well known, few studies have analyzed these trends in the emergency department (ED). To characterize the antibiotic and bronchodilator prescribing practices of physicians at two academic EDs in the diagnosis of acute bronchitis, and to identify factors that may or may not be associated with these practices. A computer database was searched retrospectively for all patients with an ED discharge diagnosis of acute bronchitis, and analyzed, looking at the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions, the class of antibiotic prescribed, and several other related factors including age, gender, chief complaint, duration of cough, and comorbid conditions. During the study period, there were 836 cases of acute bronchitis in adults. Of these, 622 (74.0%) were prescribed antibiotics. Of those prescribed antibiotics, 480 (77.2%) were prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Using multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval), antibiotics were prescribed significantly more often in patients aged 50 years or older (1.7, 1.2-2.5) and in smokers (1.5, 1.0-2.2). Of patients without asthma, 346 (49.9%) were discharged without a bronchodilator, and 631 (91.1%) were discharged without a spacer device. Antibiotics are over-prescribed in the ED for acute bronchitis, with broad-spectrum antibiotics making up the majority of the antibiotics prescribed. Age ≥50 years and smoking are associated with higher antibiotic prescribing rates. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Predictors of early arrival at the emergency department in acute ischaemic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, C

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: A requirement of an effective acute stroke service is the early arrival of patients to the hospital emergency department (ED). This will allow the possible use of thrombolytic therapy or other acute interventions within a limited time window. AIMS: We investigated the predictors of early arrival in a single hospital serving a mixed urban and rural catchment area. METHODS: A retrospective review of all case notes for 1 year was performed. RESULTS: Of 105 acute strokes, 91 were cerebral infarcts and a total of 71 cases presenting initially to the ED had timing available for analysis. 39.4% presented within 3 h, and 12.7% were potentially suitable for thrombolysis. Those living closer to the hospital were not more likely to arrive within 3 h (Z = -0.411, p = 0.68). Presenting directly to the hospital by emergency services (or private transport) was significantly associated with early arrival in a univariate comparison (p < 0.001), and in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION: The only independent predictor of early arrival to the ED is direct presentation. Improved public education of the importance of recognition of stroke symptoms and rapid contact with the emergency services will improve the early attendance following acute stroke, allowing increased use of acute stroke treatments.

  10. Schizoaffective Disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users and agreement with Operational Criteria (OPCRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryola Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizoaffective Disorder is a controversial and poorly understood diagnosis. Experts disagree on whether it is a discrete disorder; whether it is on a spectrum between Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia or whether it even exists. Lack of individual research attention given to this disorder, changing diagnostic criteria and hence poor diagnostic stability have all contributed to the dearth of knowledge surrounding Schizoaffective Disorder. Objectives: To describe the profile of mental health care users (MHCUs diagnosed with Schizoaffective Disorder and determine the degree of agreement between the clinicians’ diagnosis and Operational Criteria (OPCRIT. Method: All MHCUs at Helen Joseph Hospital psychiatric unit with Schizoaffective Disorder between 01 January 2004 and 31 December 2010 were included. The demographic, clinical and treatment profiles as well as data required for OPCRIT were extracted from hospital records and discharge summaries. Results: Most MHCUs with Schizoaffective Disorder were female (68.89%, with a mean age of illness onset of 25 years (SD ± 7.11, had a family history of mood disorders (76.92% and displayed impaired functioning. Majority (80% were treated with at least one antipsychotic and one mood stabiliser. No agreement was found between the clinicians’ diagnosis and OPCRIT. Conclusion: While the profile of MHCUs with Schizoaffective Disorder in this study is similar to other studies, the lack of agreement between the clinicians’ and OPCRIT diagnoses calls for further research using larger population samples and a dimensional approach to diagnoses in order to improve understanding and management of Schizoaffective Disorder.

  11. [Acute diabetic complications attended in a hospital emergency department: a descriptive analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Almazán, María; Montero-Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Ramón, Susana; Jorge-Bravo, M Teresa; Crespo-Soto, Cristina

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the characteristics of acute diabetic complications attended in a hospital emergency department. Cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study of patients with hyper- and hypoglycemic emergencies attended in a tertiary-care university hospital emergency department. We included 237 patients with a mean (SD) age of 61 (26) years. Diabetes had been diagnosed previously in 86.5% (type 2 in 74% and type 1 in 26%). Hyperglycemic emergencies were treated in 72%. The most frequent reasons for decompensation were poor control of type 1 diabetes (41.2%) and infections in type 2 diabetes (51.5%). Twenty-eight percent had low blood sugar levels caused by poor control of disease (50%). Patients with hypoglycemia had shorter mean stays. More admissions were made in type 2 diabetes than in type 1. Type 2 diabetes leads to more visits to the emergency department, more admissions, and a longer hospital stay than type 1 diabetes.

  12. Analysis of Patients Presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department with Acute Limping

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    Sabiha Şahin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limping is a common presenting complaint to a pediatric emergency department among children. The differential diagnosis of acute limp includes transient synovitis, trauma, infections, neoplasia, and congenital neuromuscular and developmental disorders. We aimed to evaluate patients presenting with acute limp to our pediatric emergency department and to analyze the clinical characteristics of the disease. In addition, we aimed to investigate the value of several laboratory parameters in early identification of septic and aseptic conditions. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children under 18 years of age who were admitted to our emergency department with acute limping in a two-year period. Patients with any chronic diseases, any history of trauma, coagulopathy (as documented by blood clotting tests and any history of intramuscular injections within the previous week were excluded. The patients’ complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, plain pelvic radiographs and ultrasonography reports were evaluated. The patients were classified as septic or aseptic according to their white blood cells (WBC, CRP and ESR values. Totally 120 patients were included in the study. The upper limit for WBC, ESR and CRP was accepted as 9000 cells/mm3, 20 mm/h and 0.8 mg/dL, respectively. Results: Of the total of 86 patients in the aseptic group, 81 had normal WBC, ESR and CRP levels and were diagnosed with transient synovitis, 2 female patients received the diagnosis of slipped upper femoral epiphysis, and 3 patients were diagnosed with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease during clinical follow-up. The remaining 34 patients with high ESR, WBC and CRP levels were included in the septic group in whom the following diagnoses were established during the follow-up: septic arthritis (n=12, Familial Mediterranean Fever (n=4, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (n=4, Guillain-Barré syndrome (n=3, osteomyelitis (n=3, acute

  13. A narrative review of studies of refusal of psychotropic medication in acute inpatient psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Bowers, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  14. Intravenous amiodarone for acute pharmacological conversion of atrial fibrillation in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, Richard S

    2002-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Pharmacological conversion of atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm (NSR) may be a feasible management strategy in selected patients. Recent guidelines have recommended intravenous amiodarone, a class III antiarrhythmic agent, for the conversion of AF to NSR. The purpose of this review is to examine the published evidence for the efficacy of IV amiodarone for the acute conversion of AF to NSR in the ED. Currently available data from 11 randomized, controlled trials and 3 meta analyses do not support the use of conventional doses of IV amiodarone for acute conversion in the ED. High dose IV or combined IV and oral administration may be effective as early as 8 hours in patients with recent-onset AF of amiodarone for acute conversion in patients with an ejection fraction of clinical heart failure, so its use in these scenarios should be limited to symptomatic patients who are refractory to electrical conversion. More well-designed studies are required to determine the role of IV amiodarone for the acute conversion of AF in the ED.

  15. Dientamoeba fragilis infection presenting to the emergency department as acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D; Nelson, Michael E

    2003-07-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a non-enteroinvasive, protozoan parasite of the human large intestine with a worldwide prevalence. Considered for years to be a non-pathogenic organism, more recent studies suggest that up to 25% of adult hosts and up to 90% of infested children may manifest clinical disease. D. fragilis infestation has been implicated in chronic gastrointestinal syndromes characterized by protean complaints such as post-prandial abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss. Rarely, D. fragilis infestation is the etiology of acute abdominal pain, mimicking a surgical abdomen. A case report is presented that details a patient with a 1-month history of vague abdominal complaints who presented to the Emergency Department with an apparent episode of acute appendicitis.

  16. Is there any difference between the early age myocardial infarction and late age myocardial infarction in terms of psychiatric morbidity in patients who have survived acute myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Uygur, Ömer Faruk

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to compare the rates of psychiatric morbidity in patients who had early age and late age MI in patients who have survived acute myocardial infarction? One hundred sixteen patients who were hospitalized in the coronary care unit were included in the study. Psychiatric assessment of the patients was carried out within 1-6months post-MI. Psychiatric interviews were conducted with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I). Also used were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI). A total of 116 patients were divided into two groups according to age as an early age myocardial infarction group (EA-MI) and a late age myocardial infarction group (LA-MI). The EA-MI group included 24 patients 45years of age and under. The LA-MI group included 92 patients over 45years of age. Current psychiatric disorders, lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime depressive disorders were significantly more frequent in the EA-MI group than in the LA-MI group. EA-MI patients have experienced a depressive episode prior to the onset of the MI, whereas in the LA-MI group, the patients typically experienced depressive episodes after MI. Our findings suggest that depression may increase the risk of MI at an early age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Family history of venous thromboembolism predicts the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher; Agy, Chad; Carlson, Margaret; Steenblik, Jacob; Bledsoe, Joseph; Hartsell, Stephen; Madsen, Troy

    2018-01-06

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) clinical decision rules do not consider a patient's family history of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We evaluated whether a family history of VTE predicts acute PE in the emergency department (ED). Over a 5.5-year study period, we enrolled a prospective convenience sample of patients presenting to an academic emergency department with chest pain and/or shortness of breath. We defined a family history of VTE as a first-degree relative with previous PE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We noted outcomes of testing during the patient's ED stay, including the diagnosis of acute PE by either computed tomography (CT) or ventilation/perfusion (VQ) scan. Of the 3024 study patients, 19.4% reported a family history of VTE and 1.9% were diagnosed with an acute PE during the ED visit. Patients with a family history of VTE were more likely to be diagnosed with a PE: 3.2% vs. 1.6% (p = 0.009). 82.3% of patients were Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC) positive, and among PERC-positive patients, those with a family history of VTE were more likely to be diagnosed with a PE: 3.6% vs. 1.9% (p = 0.016). Of patients who underwent testing for PE (33.7%), patients with a family history of VTE were more likely to be diagnosed with a PE: 9.4% vs. 4.9% (p = 0.032). Patients with a self-reported family history of VTE in a first-degree relative are more likely to be diagnosed with an acute PE in the ED, even among those patients considered to have a higher likelihood of PE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Use of High-Flow Nasal Cannula for Acute Dyspnea and Hypoxemia in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Tscheikuna, Jamsak; Praphruetkit, Nattakarn; Kijpinyochai, Sunthorn

    2015-10-01

    Acute dyspnea and hypoxemia are 2 of the most common problems in the emergency room. Oxygen therapy is an essential supportive treatment to correct these issues. In this study, we investigated the physiologic effects of high-flow nasal oxygen cannula (HFNC) compared with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in subjects with acute dyspnea and hypoxemia in the emergency room. A prospective randomized comparative study was conducted in the emergency department of a university hospital. Forty subjects were randomized to receive HFNC or COT for 1 h. The primary outcome was level of dyspnea, and secondary outcomes included change in breathing frequency, subject comfort, adverse events, and rate of hospitalization. Common causes of acute dyspnea and hypoxemia were congestive heart failure, asthma exacerbation, COPD exacerbation, and pneumonia. HFNC significantly improved dyspnea (2.0 ± 1.8 vs 3.8 ± 2.3, P = .01) and subject comfort (1.6 ± 1.7 vs 3.7 ± 2.4, P = .01) compared with COT. No statistically significant difference in breathing frequency was found between the 2 groups at the end of the study. HFNC was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were found. The rate of hospitalization in the HFNC group was lower than in the COT group, but there was no statistically significant difference (50% vs 65%, P = .34). HFNC improved dyspnea and comfort in subjects presenting with acute dyspnea and hypoxemia in the emergency department. HFNC may benefit patients requiring oxygen therapy in the emergency room. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Comparison of burden among family members of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a large acute psychiatric hospital in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanling; Rosenheck, Robert; Mohamed, Somaia; Ou, Yufen; Ning, Yuping; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Background The difference of burden between caregivers of acute patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder has not been well studied in China, a culture where family responsibility has a very high value. Our aim is to compare family burden in these two categories diagnosis and to identify predictors of family burden in a large psychiatric hospital in China. Methods Two hundred forty-three schizophrenic patients and 200 bipolar patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Patients ...

  20. Benign Nuchal Rigidity: The Emergency Department Evaluation of Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Levy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute prevertebral calcific tendonitis (APCT is a rare condition, the exact incidence of which isunknown. It is of particular interest to the emergency physician owing to the other potentiallydevastating conditions in the differential diagnosis of neck stiffness and/or odynophagia (includingretropharyngeal abscess, infectious spondylitis, and meningitis. In contrast, APCT has a benignclinical course and can be easily managed in the emergency department. We will present a case ofAPCT, followed by a brief discussion of the disease and current literature. [West J Emerg Med.2012;13(1:114–116.

  1. Benign nuchal rigidity: the emergency department evaluation of acute prevertebral calcific tendonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Zachary; Carroll, James; Farley, Heather

    2012-02-01

    Acute prevertebral calcific tendonitis (APCT) is a rare condition, the exact incidence of which is unknown. It is of particular interest to the emergency physician owing to the other potentially devastating conditions in the differential diagnosis of neck stiffness and/or odynophagia (including retropharyngeal abscess, infectious spondylitis, and meningitis.) In contrast, APCT has a benign clinical course and can be easily managed in the emergency department. We will present a case of APCT, followed by a brief discussion of the disease and current literature.

  2. Benign Nuchal Rigidity: The Emergency Department Evaluation of Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Zachary; Carroll, James; Farley, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Acute prevertebral calcific tendonitis (APCT) is a rare condition, the exact incidence of which is unknown. It is of particular interest to the emergency physician owing to the other potentially devastating conditions in the differential diagnosis of neck stiffness and/or odynophagia (including retropharyngeal abscess, infectious spondylitis, and meningitis.) In contrast, APCT has a benign clinical course and can be easily managed in the emergency department. We will present a case of APCT, followed by a brief discussion of the disease and current literature. PMID:22461940

  3. Computed Tomography Diagnosis of Nonspecific Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Department: From Typical Acute Coronary Syndrome to Various Unusual Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Min, Daniel; White, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    It is a challenging task for emergency department physicians to establish a precise and rapid diagnosis based only on clinical and laboratory findings in patients who present with nonspecific acute chest pain. In this circumstance, CT angiography can provide important clues to the diagnosis. To provide a rapid diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its various mimics, the physician should enumerate each possible cause of acute chest pain on the basis of an objective assessment of pretest probability. On the basis of clinical suspicion, the appropriate CT protocol should then be performed. Moreover, radiologists should be familiar with typical CT findings of ACS and its various mimics to assist the emergency department physician in diagnosing patients with nonspecific acute chest pain. This review article presents an overview on choosing an appropriate CT protocol in patients with nonspecific acute chest pain and provides specific CT findings of ACS and various mimics of ACS.

  4. Evaluation of acute chest pain in the emergency department: "triple rule-out" computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E; Wann, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Triage of patients with acute, potentially life-threatening chest pain is one of the most important issues currently facing physicians in the emergency department. Appropriate evaluation of these patients begins with a skilled assessment of the individual patient's presenting symptoms and a careful review of his or her history and physical examination, often followed by serial recording of electrocardiograms and measurement of serum biochemical markers such as troponin and d-dimer. Stress testing, often accompanied by rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging or echocardiography, and other diagnostic testing such as radionuclide lung scanning and invasive angiography may be required. A rapid, accurate, and cost-effective approach for the evaluation of emergency department patients with chest pain is needed. Development of newer generations of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) scanners, which are capable not only of performing high-quality noninvasive coronary angiography, but also concurrent aortic and pulmonary angiography, has led to increased use of MDCT for the so-called "triple rule out." MDCT is used for the detection of 3 of the most common life-threatening causes of chest pain-coronary artery disease, acute aortic syndrome, and pulmonary emboli. While triple rule-out protocol can be very useful and potentially cost effective when used appropriately, concern has risen regarding the overuse of this technology, which could expose patients to unnecessary radiation and iodinated contrast. The triple rule-out protocol is most appropriate for patients who present with acute chest pain, but are judged to have low to intermediate increased risk for acute coronary syndrome, and whose chest pain symptoms might also be attributed to acute pathologic conditions of the aorta or pulmonary arteries. MDCT should not be used as a routine screening procedure. Continued technical improvements in acquisition speed and spatial resolution of computed tomography images

  5. Screening for Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Emergency Department Medical Patients: Instrument and Results from the Psychiatric Emergency Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael H.; Abar, Beau W.; McCormick, Mark; Barnes, Donna H.; Haukoos, Jason; Garmel, Gus M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2013-01-01

    Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal 15 calls for organizations "to identify patients at risk for suicide." Overt suicidal behavior accounts for 0.6% of emergency department (ED) visits, but incidental suicidal ideation is found in 3%-11.6%. This is the first multicenter study of suicide screening in EDs. Of 2,243 patients in…

  6. North-south differences in US emergency department visits for acute allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudders, Susan A; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-05-01

    In a previous study, latitude was positively associated with EpiPen prescription rates. To determine whether a similar geographic difference exists for emergency department (ED) visits for acute allergic reactions (including anaphylaxis). We combined National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data for ED visits to noninstitutional hospitals from 1993 to 2005. Acute allergic reactions were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 995.0, 995.60-995.69, 995.1, 995.2, 995.3, 989.5, and 693.1, and visit rates were compared across standardized geographic divisions. Between 1993 and 2005, there were 17.3 million ED visits for acute allergic reactions, representing 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%-1.3%) of all ED visits. Per 1000 population, the Northeast had 5.5 visits (95% CI, 4.7-6.2 visits) and the South had 4.9 visits (95% CI, 4.3-5.6 visits). In a multivariable model, the Northeast had a higher odds ratio (OR) than the South (1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27; P = .04). The association was stronger when restricting the analysis to visits for food-related allergic reactions (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14-1.56; P < .001). The ED visit rates for acute allergic reactions are higher in northeastern vs southern regions. These observational data are consistent with the hypothesis that vitamin D may play an etiologic role in anaphylaxis, especially food-induced anaphylaxis.

  7. The HEART Pathway randomized trial: identifying emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Simon A; Riley, Robert F; Hiestand, Brian C; Russell, Gregory B; Hoekstra, James W; Lefebvre, Cedric W; Nicks, Bret A; Cline, David M; Askew, Kim L; Elliott, Stephanie B; Herrington, David M; Burke, Gregory L; Miller, Chadwick D

    2015-03-01

    The HEART Pathway is a decision aid designed to identify emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge. No randomized trials have compared the HEART Pathway with usual care. Adult emergency department patients with symptoms related to acute coronary syndrome without ST-elevation on ECG (n=282) were randomized to the HEART Pathway or usual care. In the HEART Pathway arm, emergency department providers used the HEART score, a validated decision aid, and troponin measures at 0 and 3 hours to identify patients for early discharge. Usual care was based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The primary outcome, objective cardiac testing (stress testing or angiography), and secondary outcomes, index length of stay, early discharge, and major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization), were assessed at 30 days by phone interview and record review. Participants had a mean age of 53 years, 16% had previous myocardial infarction, and 6% (95% confidence interval, 3.6%-9.5%) had major adverse cardiac events within 30 days of randomization. Compared with usual care, use of the HEART Pathway decreased objective cardiac testing at 30 days by 12.1% (68.8% versus 56.7%; P=0.048) and length of stay by 12 hours (9.9 versus 21.9 hours; P=0.013) and increased early discharges by 21.3% (39.7% versus 18.4%; P<0.001). No patients identified for early discharge had major adverse cardiac events within 30 days. The HEART Pathway reduces objective cardiac testing during 30 days, shortens length of stay, and increases early discharges. These important efficiency gains occurred without any patients identified for early discharge suffering MACE at 30 days. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01665521. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Psychosocial profile of male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction in a psychiatric outpatient department in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Kamath, Ravindra; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Henal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction can occur due to biological problems, relationship problems, lack of proper sexual knowledge or a combination of these. India is often known as the land of Kamasutra. But as far as sexuality research is concerned, there is a paucity of relevant data from India. In view of this, we conducted a study to assess the psychosocial profile of males presenting with sexual dysfunction to psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary medical hospital. Materials and Me...

  9. Manejo do paciente com transtornos relacionados ao uso de substância psicoativa na emergência psiquiátrica Management of patients with substance use illnesses in psychiatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Abrantes do Amaral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Transtornos por uso de substâncias são prevalentes em setores de emergência gerais e psiquiátricos, atingindo taxas de 28% das ocorrências em prontos-socorros gerais. Todavia, profissionais dos setores de emergência identificam menos que 50% dos casos de problemas relacionados ao álcool. Este artigo visa fornecer base fundamentada em evidências para o tratamento específico a pacientes que preencham os critérios diagnósticos de transtornos por uso de substâncias e que se apresentam ao pronto-socorro em quadros de intoxicação ou abstinência. MÉTODO: Uma revisão sobre o tema foi realizada na base de dados Medline, usando-se os descritores "intoxicação aguda", "abstinência", "álcool", "cocaína", "cannabis", "opioides", "inalantes" e "manejo", tendo o inglês como idioma. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: O cuidado de pessoas com transtornos por uso de substâncias deve conter: avaliação completa (médica geral e psiquiátrica, tratamento dos quadros diagnosticados (abstinência, intoxicação e quadros clínicos que caracterizem uma emergência, sensibilização do paciente para realizar tratamento, se for necessário, e elaboração de encaminhamento.OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorders are prevalent in emergency departments in medical and psychiatric services, reaching rates of 28% of cases in medical emergency departments. However, professionals in the emergency department identify less than 50% of cases of alcohol-related problems. This article aims to provide evidence-based interventions for the specific treatment to patients who meet diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders and who present to emergency rooms during intoxication or abstinence. METHOD: A literature review was performed on Medline database, using the descriptors "acute intoxication", "withdrawal", "alcohol", "cocaine", "cannabis", "opioid", "inhalant", "management", using English as the language. RESULTS: AND CONCLUSION: The care of persons with

  10. Effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in patients on an acute care psychiatric unit: a randomized three group effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Stigma is a major social barrier that can restrict access to and willingness to seek psychiatric care. Psychiatric consumers may use secrecy and withdrawal in an attempt to cope with stigma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in acute care psychiatric inpatients using a randomized design with wait-list control. Participants (N=83) were randomly assigned by cluster to one of three single-session group-based conditions: music therapy, education, or wait-list control. Participants in the music therapy and education conditions completed only posttests while participants in the wait-list control condition completed only pretests. The music therapy condition was a group songwriting intervention wherein participants composed lyrics for "the stigma blues." Results indicated significant differences in measures of discrimination (experienced stigma), disclosure (self-stigma), and total stigma between participants in the music therapy condition and participants in the wait-list control condition. From the results of this randomized controlled investigation, music therapy may be an engaging and effective psychosocial technique to treat stigma. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice and psychiatric music therapy research are provided. © 2013.

  11. [Psychiatric emergencies in drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel

    2003-06-01

    The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.

  12. Systolic blood pressure at Emergency Department presentation and 1-year mortality in acute chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Affan; Haaf, Philip; Meissner, Julia; Twerenbold, Raphael; Reiter, Miriam; Reichlin, Tobias; Schaub, Nora; Zbinden, Anina; Heinisch, Corinna; Drexler, Beatrice; Winkler, Katrin; Mueller, Christian

    2011-10-01

    High blood pressure at rest has been an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However the relationship between Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and 1-year-mortality among acute chest pain patients presenting to Emergency Department (ED); and effects of preexisting renal insufficiency, hemodynamic stress - as quantified by Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and chest pain duration, on this relationship is unknown. Data was used from APACE (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome Evaluation), a prospective observational multicenter study of 1240 ED chest pain patients. SBP at presentation was categorized into quartiles: Q1≤127mmHg; Q2 128-142mmHg; Q3 143-160mmHg; Q4≥161mmHg. 60 deaths occurred during 1-year. One-year-mortality-rate showed lower Hazard Ratios for Q2, Q3 and Q4 vs Q1 (HR [95% CI]; 0.39 (0.19-0.78), 0.34 (0.17-0.70), 0.35 (0.17-0.72); pPatients showed progressively better prognosis from Q2 through Q4 vs Q1 only in patients who presented to ED with for more than 12h of chest pain duration. Patients with renal insufficiency had lower SBP at presentation than others (p=0.001). There was no association between the outcome and interaction variable of SBP quartiles and BNP (p=0.27). Acute chest pain patients presenting to ED exhibit an inverse association between SBP at presentation and 1-year-mortality; a relationship which appears stronger in those who present with chest pain of greater than 12h duration. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of atrial fibrillation in the emergency department and following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Brett; Klein, George J; Talajic, Mario; Guerra, Peter G

    2005-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia managed by emergency physicians and there is increasing evidence that selected patients with acute AF can be safely managed in the emergency department without the need for hospital admission. The principles of management are identification and treatment of precipitating or underlying causes, hemodynamic stabilization/rate control, reduction of thromboembolism risk and the conversion/maintenance of sinus rhythm. A strategy of rate or rhythm control should be chosen based on the patient's clinical status, the duration of AF, the experience of the treating physician and the status of anticoagulation. Before either electric or pharmacological cardioversion, anticoagulation should be considered. Most patients should be given heparin or low molecular weight heparin while preparing for cardioversion. All patients should be considered for long-term anticoagulation based on their thromboembolic risk and bleeding risk from antithrombotic therapy. Following restoration of sinus rhythm, a decision regarding the use of antiarrhyhmic drugs should be made based on the estimated frequency of recurrence and degree of symptoms. In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, beta-blockers should be administered whenever possible. If beta-blockers are contraindicated, the rate can be slowed with digoxin or amiodarone. Cardioversion should be performed if the patient is hemodynamically unstable. Class IC antiarrhythmic drugs should not be administered in this setting.

  14. Novel Antiplatelet Agent Use for Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Emergency Department: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Curial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is a clinical condition encompassing ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI, Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI, and Unstable Angina (UA and is characterized by ruptured coronary plaque, ischemic stress, and/or myocardial injury. Emergency department (ED physicians are on the front lines of ACS management. The role of new antiplatelet agents ticagrelor and prasugrel in acute ED management of ACS has not yet been defined. Objective. To critically review clinical trials using ticagrelor and prasugrel in the treatment of ACS and inform practitioners of their potential utility in treating ACS in the ED. Results. Trials on the efficacy of ticagrelor and prasugrel achieve statistical significance in decreasing composite endpoints in select patient populations. Conclusion. The use of ticagrelor and prasugrel as first line ED treatment of ACS is not well established. Current evidence supports the use of several agents with the final decision based on treatment protocols conjointly developed between cardiology and emergency medicine (EM. Further clinical trials involving head-to-head trials or comparisons of drug-based strategies are required to show superiority in reducing cardiac endpoints with regard to ED initiation of treatment.

  15. Risk model for suspected acute coronary syndrome is of limited value in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian Backer; Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Jess Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    if assigned to the high-risk group was 3.0. Allocation to the high-risk group, male gender and age above 60 years was associated with a higher risk of ACS. For patients fulfilling the high-risk definition, sensitivity was 71%, specificity 55%, negative predictive value 90% and positive predictive value 24......INTRODUCTION: Among patients with acute chest pain, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is seen only in a minority of the patients, which raises the question, whether it is possible to separate a group with a high risk of ACS for admission to a cardiac care unit (CCU) from those with a low risk who would...... be treated at an emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe a risk stratification model for a Danish context. METHODS: This was a historic prospective cohort study of patients with suspicion of ACS. The patient was defined as a low-risk patient and admitted to the ED if: 1...

  16. [Acute complicated and uncomplicated pyelonephritis in the emergency department: process-of-care indicators and outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Vicente, Miriam; Lecaroz Agara, Mª Concepción; Barrios Andrés, José Luis; Canut Blasco, Andrés

    2017-02-01

    To assess process-of-care indicators and outcomes in acute pyelonephritis (APN) in a general hospital emergency department, and compare them between uncomplicaed and complicated APN. Retrospective study of consecutive patients discharged with a diagnosis of APN. We studied health processof- care indicators (percentage admitted, avoidable hospitalization, appropriate initial antibiotic therapy, urine and blood cultures) and outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], discharge from the emergency department, revisits, mortality, yields of microbiological tests ordered). A total of 529 cases (59% of them complicated) were included. Patients with uncomplicated APN were significantly younger on average (mean, 39 years) than patients with complicated APN (56 years). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen identified, although the percentage of E coli infection was lower in patients with complicated APN (78%) than in patients with uncomplicated APN (95%). The rates of admission and orders for urine and blood cultures were significantly higher and hospital LOS was longer in the group with complicated APN. Moreover, these patients had even longer stays if the initial antibiotic therapy was inappropriate. Significantly more patients with uncomplicated APN were discharged from the emergency department. Sixty-one percent of patients with uncomplicated APN were admitted; 9% of these cases were considered avoidable hospitalizations. Complicated APN is diagnosed more often in older patients, and E coli infection causes a smaller proportion of these cases. Hospital LOS is longer in complicated APN and more urine and blood cultures are ordered. Patients with uncomplicated APN are more often discharged from the emergency department, although the number of avoidable hospitalizations seems high based on the rate found in this study.

  17. A brief assessment of capacity to consent instrument in acutely intoxicated emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marc L; Klein, Lauren R; Miner, James R; Cole, Jon B; Nystrom, Paul C; Holm, Kayla M; Biros, Michelle H

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent acute alcohol intoxication effects capacity to assent, consent, or refuse research participation. This was a prospective, observation study performed at our inner city, county hospital with >100,000 annual emergency department visits. Non-pregnant, English speaking patients older than 18 with evidence of acute alcohol intoxication were considered eligible. After medical screening, a trained research associate presented the study version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC) tool. The primary outcome was the number of patients able to correctly respond to all 10 questions. Of 642 screened patients, 415 patients were enrolled and completed the tool. The mean alcohol concentration was 227mg/dL (range 25-500mg/dL). Sixteen patients (3.9%) answered all 10 questions correctly; by definition of the UBACC, these patients were deemed to possess capacity to consent. Mean alcohol concentrations in the capacity group were lower than in those lacking capacity; 182mg/dL (SD 6.7) versus 229mg/dL, (SD 7.9). Of the 287 patients who were interviewed upon sobriety at discharge, 182 patients (63.4%) did not recall completing the questionnaire. While intoxicated emergency department patients are able to complete the questionnaire, the majority do not possess capacity to provide informed consent to research. A minority of participants remember involvement once they have achieved sobriety, exception from informed consent protocols are needed to perform emergency research in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Student-selected component in the medical curriculum: investigations and psychiatric referral for paracetamol overdose in an accident and emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowman JG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James G Cowman, Manuel Bakheet Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland – Medical University of Bahrain, Manama, Bahrain Background: A student-selected component (SSC of the medical curriculum requires the student to be self-directed in locating and undertaking a placement in a clinical specialty of their choosing and completing a project. The clinical area for experience was an accident and emergency department, and our topic was a focused audit on the investigations and referral for paracetamol overdose. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to reflect on the education value to medical students of an SSC in a medical curriculum, and to highlight learning and understanding through completion of an audit.Materials and methods: An audit approach was applied. The aim of the project study was to investigate the level of compliance with best-practice guidelines for investigations and psychiatric referral in paracetamol overdose.Results: A total of 40 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly selected. The sample had a mean age of 27 years, of whom 70.5% were female, and the ingested dose of paracetamol ranged from 0.864 to 80 g. Paracetamol abuse may present as intentional and unintentional overdose. In our study, 85% of cases were identified as intentional overdose and 76% had a history of psychiatric illness. Generally, medical management was compliant with guidelines, with some minor irregularities. The international normalized ratio was the most underperformed test.Conclusion: Our choice of topic, paracetamol overdose, contributed to our understanding of the breadth of factors to be considered in the emergency medical management of a patient. In this regard, we had the benefit of understanding how the diagnostic and therapeutic factors, when applied in accordance with best-practice guidelines, work very effectively. The SSC impacted positively on our cognitive, personal, and professional development. In facilitating the student with

  19. Knowledge, Self-Confidence and Attitudes towards Suicidal Patients at Emergency and Psychiatric Departments: A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Educational Poster Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Landschoot, Renate; Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees

    2017-03-14

    Educational posters are used to enhance knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence of patients. Little is known on their effectiveness for educating health care professionals. As these professionals may play an important role in suicide prevention, the effects of a poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide on knowledge, self-confidence and attitudes regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviours, were studied in a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial, involving staff from 39 emergency and 38 psychiatric departments throughout Flanders ( n = 1171). Structured self-report questionnaires assessed the knowledge, confidence and beliefs regarding suicidal behaviour management, and attitudes. Data were analysed through a Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions. Baseline scores for knowledge and provider confidence were high. The poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide did not have an effect on knowledge about suicide and self-confidence in suicidal behaviour management. However, the poster campaign appeared to be beneficial for attitudes towards suicidal patients, but only among staff from mental health departments that were assigned to the un-pretested condition. Given the limited effects of the poster campaign in the studied population with a relatively high baseline knowledge, the evaluation of this poster as part of a multimodal educational programme in a more heterogeneous sample of health care professionals is recommended.

  20. Psychosocial profile of male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction in a psychiatric outpatient department in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Kamath, Ravindra; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Henal

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction can occur due to biological problems, relationship problems, lack of proper sexual knowledge or a combination of these. India is often known as the land of Kamasutra. But as far as sexuality research is concerned, there is a paucity of relevant data from India. In view of this, we conducted a study to assess the psychosocial profile of males presenting with sexual dysfunction to psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary medical hospital. Hundred consecutive male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction were screened using Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale for clinical sexual dysfunction and after obtaining their informed consent were included in this study. They were assessed using a semi-structured proforma, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) Edition, Text Revision criteria, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Majority of our respondents were in the 18-30 years age group and were married. The main source of sex knowledge for 69% of them was peer group. Age of onset of masturbation was 11-13 years for 43% of them. Premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction seen in the respondents. Marital discord was seen in significantly lesser number of respondents (32.35%) as also major depressive disorder that was seen in only 16%. Premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction in our sample. Despite the sexual dysfunction, marital discord and depression were seen less commonly in our respondents.

  1. acute psychiatric readmissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted primarily to assess the effect of length of stay and administration of depot antipsychotics in hospital on time to readmission. Design. A retrospective cohort of 180 admissions was fol- lowed up for 12 months, after an index discharge, by means of multiple hospital and community-based record reviews.

  2. IPOD Study: Management of Acute Left Colonic Diverticulitis in Italian Surgical Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelli, Massimo; Binda, Gian Andrea; Brandara, Francesco; Borasi, Andrea; Feroci, Francesco; Vadalà, Salvatore; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Birindelli, Arianna; Luridiana, Gianluigi; Coccolini, Federico; Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Agresta, Ferdinando; Piazza, Diego

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, the emergency management of acute left colonic diverticulitis (ALCD) has evolved dramatically despite lack of strong evidence. As a consequence, management strategies are frequently guided by surgeon's personal preference, rather than by scientific evidence. The primary aim of IPOD study (Italian Prospective Observational Diverticulitis study) is to describe both the diagnostic and treatment profiles of patients with ALCD in the Italian surgical departments. IPOD study is a prospective observational study performed during a 6-month period (from April 1 2015 to September 1 2015) and including 89 Italian surgical departments. All consecutive patients with suspected clinical diagnosis of ALCD confirmed by imaging and seen by a surgeon were included in the study. The study was promoted by the Italian Society of Hospital Surgeons and the World Society of Emergency Surgery Italian chapter. Eleven hundred and twenty-five patients with a median age of 62 years [interquartile range (IQR), 51-74] were enrolled in the IPOD study. One thousand and fifty-four (93.7%) patients were hospitalized with a median duration of hospitalization of 7 days (IQR 5-10). Eight hundred and twenty-eight patients (73.6%) underwent medical treatment alone, 13 patients had percutaneous drainage (1.2%), and the other 284 (25.2%) patients underwent surgery as first treatment. Among 121 patients having diffuse peritonitis, 71 (58.7%) underwent Hartmann's resection. However, the Hartmann's resection was used even in patients with lower stages of ALCD (36/479; 7.5%) where other treatment options could be more adequate. The IPOD study demonstrates that in the Italian surgical departments treatment strategies for ALCD are often guided by the surgeon's personal preference.

  3. High-sensitivity troponin assays in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Bertsch, Thomas; Popp, Steffen; Bahrmann, Philipp; Heppner, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Christian

    2011-09-06

    Evaluating patients with acute chest pain presenting to the emergency department remains an ongoing challenge. The spectrum of etiologies in acute chest pain ranges from minor disease entities to life-threatening diseases, such as pulmonary embolism, acute aortic dissection or acute myocardial infarction (MI). The diagnosis of acute MI is usually made integrating the triad of patient history and clinical presentation, readings of 12-lead ECG and measurement of cardiac troponins (cTn). Introduction of high-sensitivity cTn assays substantially increases sensitivity to identify patients with acute MI even at the time of presentation to the emergency department at the cost of specificity. However, the proportion of patients presenting with cTn positive, non-vascular cardiac chest pain triples with the implementation of new sensitive cTn assays increasing the difficulty for the emergency physician to identify those patients who are at need for invasive diagnostics. The main objectives of this mini-review are 1) to discuss elements of disposition decision made by the emergency physician for the evaluation of chest pain patients, 2) to summarize recent advances in assay technology and relate these findings into the clinical context, and 3) to discuss possible consequences for the clinical work and suggest an algorithm for the clinical evaluation of chest pain patients in the emergency department.

  4. Factors associated with triage assignment of emergency department patients ultimately diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kimberley; Greenslade, Jaimi; Dalton, Emily; Chu, Kevin; Brown, Anthony F T; Cullen, Louise

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the triage category assigned by the triage nurse for patients ultimately diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. This was a retrospective analysis of 12 months of data, on adult emergency department patients ultimately diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Data were obtained from hospital databases and included patient demographics, patient clinical characteristics and nurses' experience. Of the 153 patients, 20% (95% CI: 14-27%) were given a lower urgency triage category than recommended by international guidelines. Compared to patients who were triaged Australasian Triage Category 1 or 2, patients with an Australasian Triage Category 3-5 were older (mean age 76 versus 68 years), more likely to be female (63% versus 32%), more likely to present without chest pain (93% versus 35%) and less likely to have a cardiac history (3.3% versus 17.9%). A slightly higher proportion of patients Australasian Triage Category 3-5 were triaged by an experienced nurse (50%) compared to patients categorised Australasian Triage Category 1-2 (35.2%) but this finding did not reach statistical significance. One in five presentations was given a lower urgency triage category than recommended by international guidelines, potentially leading to delays in medical treatment. The absence of chest pain was the defining characteristic in this group of patients, along with other factors identified by previous research such as being of female sex and elderly. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Heart Failure in the Emergency Department: the SAFE-SIMEU Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Marchesini, Giulio; Carbone, Giorgio; Cosentini, Roberto; Ferrari, Annamaria; Chiesa, Mauro; Bertini, Alessio; Rea, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Patients with acute heart failure (AHF) have high rates of attendance to emergency departments (EDs), with significant health care costs. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients attending Italian EDs for AHF and their diagnostic and therapeutic work-up. We carried out a retrospective analysis on 2683 cases observed in six Italian EDs for AHF (January 2011 to June 2012). The median age of patients was 84 years (interquartile range 12), with females accounting for 55.8% of cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 53.5-57.6%). A first episode of AHF was recorded in 55.3% (95% CI 55.4-57.2%). Respiratory disease was the main precipitating factor (approximately 30% of cases), and multiple comorbidities were recorded in > 50% of cases (history of acute coronary syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, valvular heart disease). The treatment was based on oxygen (69.7%; 67.9-71.5%), diuretics (69.2%; 67.9-71.5%), nitroglycerin (19.7%; 18.3-21.4%), and noninvasive ventilation (15.2%; 13.8-16.6%). Death occurred within 6 h in 2.5% of cases (2.0-3.1%), 6.4% (5.5-7.3%) were referred to the care of their general practitioners within a few hours from ED attendance or after short-term (disease severity. Our study reporting the "real-world" clinical activity indicates that subjects attending the Italian EDs for AHF are rather different from those reported in international registries. Subjects are older, with a higher proportion of females, and high prevalence of cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute heart failure in the emergency department: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Marchesini, Giulio; Carbone, Giorgio; Cosentini, Roberto; Ferrari, Annamaria; Chiesa, Mauro; Bertini, Alessio; Rea, Federico

    2016-02-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major public health issue due to high incidence and poor prognosis. Only a few studies are available on the long-term prognosis and on outcome predictors in the unselected population attending the emergency department (ED) for AHF. We carried out a 1-year follow-up analysis of 1234 consecutive patients from selected Italian EDs from January 2011 to June 2012 for an episode of AHF. Their prognosis and outcome-associated factors were tested by Cox proportional hazard model. Patients' mean age was 84, with 66.0% over 80 years and 56.2% females. Comorbidities were present in over 50% of cases, principally a history of acute coronary syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, valvular heart disease. Death occurred within 6 h in 24 cases (1.9%). At 30-day follow-up, death was registered in 123 cases (10.0%): 110 cases (89.4%) died of cardiovascular events and 13 (10.6%) of non-cardiovascular causes (cancer, gastrointestinal hemorrhages, sepsis, trauma). At 1-year follow-up, all-cause death was recorded in 50.1% (over 3 out of 4 cases for cardiovascular origin). Six variables (older age, diabetes, systolic arterial pressure <110 mm/Hg, high NT pro-BNP, high troponin levels and impaired cognitive status) were selected as outcome predictors, but with limited discriminant capacity (AUC = 0.649; SE 0.015). Recurrence of AHF was registered in 31.0%. The study identifies a cluster of variables associated with 1-year mortality in AHF, but their predictive capacity is low. Old age and the presence of comorbidities, in particular diabetes are likely to play a major role in dictating the prognosis.

  7. Risk model for suspected acute coronary syndrome is of limited value in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Christian Backer; Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Jess Bjerre; Staehr, Peter Bisgaard

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with acute chest pain, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is seen only in a minority of the patients, which raises the question, whether it is possible to separate a group with a high risk of ACS for admission to a cardiac care unit (CCU) from those with a low risk who would be treated at an emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe a risk stratification model for a Danish context. This was a historic prospective cohort study of patients with suspicion of ACS. The patient was defined as a low-risk patient and admitted to the ED if: 1) electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal, 2) the patient did not have persisting chest pain and 3) there was no history of ischaemic heart disease, heart failure or cardioverter defibrillator. Otherwise, patients were admitted to the CCU. The primary outcome was whether the ACS diagnosis was confirmed or rejected. We included a total of 488 patients with suspicion of ACS, 50% of whom were low-risk patients. 17% had a verified ACS; 10% of those in the low-risk group and 24% of those in the high-risk group (p = 0.0001). Among the verified ACS cases, 71% went primarily to the CCU. The odds ratio for an ACS if assigned to the high-risk group was 3.0. Allocation to the high-risk group, male gender and age above 60 years was associated with a higher risk of ACS. For patients fulfilling the high-risk definition, sensitivity was 71%, specificity 55%, negative predictive value 90% and positive predictive value 24% for an ACS. The model for stratification separated patients into two equal groups, allocated 71% of all ACS directly to the CCU and could not be improved by any of the additional factors examined. Further development of referral strategies for chest pain patients is required. none. not relevant.

  8. Hostility during admission interview as a short-term predictor of aggression in acute psychiatric male inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alfonso; Kustermann, Stefano; Di Genio, Massimo; Siracusano, Alberto

    2003-12-01

    A critical step for improving the prediction of on-ward violence is the identification of variables that are not only consistently associated with an increased risk of aggression but also easily evaluated during the admission interview. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the predictive utility of hostility during admission interview. The sample consisted of 80 newly admitted male patients with heterogeneous DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses recruited from the psychiatric ward of an urban public hospital. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Aggressive behavior during the first week of hospitalization was measured with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Data were collected between January and June 1998. In a multiple regression model, BPRS items hostility and tension-excitement emerged as significant predictors of verbal aggression, whereas thinking disturbance (high) and suspiciousness-uncooperativeness (low) emerged as significant predictors of aggression against objects. In contrast, when aggression was treated as a binary dependent variable in a logistic model, hostility during the admission interview had no utility in predicting on-ward aggressive behavior. This study confirms the importance of distinguishing between different types of aggression to improve the accuracy of predictions of violence. The findings suggest that the question whether hostility is a useful short-term predictor of aggression in psychiatric inpatients cannot be answered conclusively. The predictive utility of hostility was relatively high for predicting verbal aggression but was negligible for predicting other types of aggressive behavior.

  9. 'She's manipulative and he's right off': a critical analysis of psychiatric nurses' oral and written language in the acute inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Bridget; Manias, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Remarks such as 'she's manipulative' and 'he's right off' are familiar to psychiatric nurses. This paper critiques the language nurses use in acute inpatient psychiatry services, highlighting the diverse discourses implicated in nurses' writing and speaking about patients. Based on a review of the literature, this paper examines ethnographic studies and discourse analyses of psychiatric nurses' oral and written language. A prominent debate in the literature surrounds nurses' use of standardized language, which is the use of set terms for symptoms and nursing activities. This review of spoken descriptions of patients highlights nurses' use of informal and local descriptions, incorporating elements of moral judgement, common sense language and empathy. Research into written accounts in patient files and records show nurses' use of objectifying language, the dominance of medicine and the emergence of the language of bureaucracy in health services. Challenges to the language of psychiatry and psychiatric nursing arise from fields as diverse as bioscience, humanism and social theory. Authors who focus on the relationship between language, power and the discipline of nursing disagree in regard to their analysis of particular language as a constructive exercise of power by nurses. Thus, particular language is in some instances endorsed and in other instances censured, by nurses in research and practice. In this paper, a Foucauldian analysis provides further critique of taken-for-granted practices of speech and writing. Rather than censoring language, we recommend that nurses, researchers and educators attend to nurses' everyday language and explore what it produces for nurses, patients and society.

  10. Evolution of the clinical profile of patients with acute heart failure treated in Spanish emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoda, R; Miró, Ò; Martín-Sánchez, F J; Jacob, J; Herrero, P; Gil, V; Garrido, J M; Pérez-Durá, M J; Fuentes, M; Llorens, P

    2017-04-01

    To analyse the changes in epidemiology, outpatient and emergency department clinical care, and outcomes of patients treated for acute heart failure (AHF) in Spanish hospital emergency departments (HEDs) between 2007 and 2014. A multicentre cohort study was conducted that consecutively included patients with AHF diagnosed in 9HEDs during 4 periods (2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014). The study analysed the changes observed in 20 variables corresponding to baseline data, outpatient care and emergency care data and outcome data. A total of 4,845 patients were included. There were significant changes in 13 variables: there was an increase in patients older than 80years (2007/2014: 45.9%/55.4%; P<.001) and a decrease in severe functional dependence (28.2%/19.7%; P<.001). In terms of long-term outpatient care, there was an increased use of beta-blockers (44.6%/57.8%; P=.002) and aldosterone antagonists (26.6%/37.7%; P<.05) among patients with reduced ejection fraction and an increase use of echocardiography (42.8%/56.2%; P=.001). The use of digoxin decreased (25.4%/16.9%; P=.005). In terms of emergency care, there was an increase in requests for troponins (54.6%/61.9%; P<.001), natriuretic peptides (7.8%/48.5%; P<.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (3.2%/6.9%; P=.004). Requests for endovenous perfusion drugs decreased (diuretics: 21.3%/10.4%; P<.001; nitrates: 21.3%/17.5%; P=.001; vasopressors: 4.2%/1.5%; P<.001). Finally, discharges directly from the emergency department without hospitalization increased (20.0%/25.9%; P<.001), and emergency department readmissions at 30days decreased (27.3%/17.6%; P=.007). Hospital mortality and mortality at 30days did not change. Changes in outcomes were detected during a 7-year period in patients with AHF treated in HEDs, with care that was more in line with the clinical guidelines. There are, however, areas for improvement. There was a noteworthy increase in outpatient follow-up without hospitalisation and a reduction in HED

  11. Acute pain in the emergency department: Effect of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Paltved, Charlotte; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2017-04-01

    Pain management is often inadequate in emergency departments (ED) despite the availability of effective analgesics. Interventions to change professional behavior may therefore help to improve the management of pain within the ED. We hypothesized that a 2-h educational intervention combining e-learning and simulation would result in improved pain treatment of ED patients with pain. Data were collected at the ED of Horsens Regional Hospital during a 3-week study period in March 2015. Pain intensity (NRS, 0-10) and analgesic administration were recorded 24h a day for all patients who were admitted to the ED during the first and third study weeks. Fifty-three ED nurses and 14 ED residents participated in the educational intervention, which took place in the second study week. In total, 247 of 796 patients had pain >3 on the NRS at the admission to the ED and were included in the data analysis. The theoretical knowledge of pain management among nurses and residents increased as assessed by a multiple choice test performed before and after the educational intervention (P=0.001), but no change in clinical practice could be observed: The administration for analgesics [OR: 1.79 (0.97-3.33)] and for opioids [2.02 (0.79-5.18)] were similar before and after the educational intervention, as was the rate of clinically meaningful pain reduction (NRS >2) during the ED stay [OR: 0.81 (CI 0.45-1.44)]. Conduction of a 2-h educational intervention combining interactive case-based e-learning with simulation-based training in an ED setting was feasible with a high participation rate of nurses and residents. Their knowledge of pain management increased after completion of the program, but transfer of the new knowledge into clinical practice could not be found. Future research should explore the effects of repeated education of healthcare providers on pain management. It is essential for nurses and residents in emergency departments to have the basic theoretical and practical skills to

  12. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Cássio M C; de Pádua, Analuiza Camozzato; Smid, Jerusa; Areza-Fegyveres, Renata; Novaretti, Tânia; Bahia, Valeria S

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1) to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO) and International (MEDLINE) databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and2) to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  13. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio M.C. Bottino

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1 to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO and International (MEDLINE databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and 2 to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  14. Evaluation of a Nurse-Initiated Acute Gastroenteritis Pathway in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Rebecca A; Mudd, Shawna S; Madati, P Jamil

    2017-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness treated in the emergency department. Delays in initiating rehydration for children with mild or moderate dehydration from AGE can lead to prolonged ED visits and increased resource utilization that do not provide prognostic value or support family-centered care. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to promote early oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for persons with AGE in an attempt to reduce unnecessary resource utilization and length of stay (LOS). This prospective quality improvement project used a nurse-initiated waiting room ORT pathway for patients 6 months to 21 years of age who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea with or without vomiting. Outcomes related to nurse-initiated ORT, intravenous fluid use, laboratory studies or diagnostic imaging, and LOS were measured before and after implementation. Of 643 patients for whom the pathway was initiated, 392 received nurse-initiated care. The proportion of intravenous fluid use was 10.2% lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.68) and laboratory test ordering was 7.4% lower (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.94) in patients receiving nurse-initiated care. Time to discharge after provider examination was 46 minutes faster in the nurse-initiated care group (P < .001), resulting in an overall LOS reduction by 40 minutes (P < .001). Nurse autonomy in using an AGE pathway facilitates evidence-based practice, improves ED efficiency, and decreases resource utilization and LOS. Future research should focus on family satisfaction and ED revisits within 72 hours of discharge. Copyright © 2014 © Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating children with acute asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Benedict; Kew, Kayleigh M

    2016-04-29

    Acute asthma in children can be life-threatening and must be treated promptly in the emergency setting. Intravenous magnesium sulfate is recommended by various guidelines for cases of acute asthma that have not responded to first-line treatment with bronchodilators and steroids. The treatment has recently been shown to reduce the need for hospital admission for adults compared with placebo, but it is unclear whether it is equally effective for children. To assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate (IV MgSO4) in children treated for acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). We identified studies by searching the Cochrane Airways Review Group Specialised Register up to 23 February 2016. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of other reviews, and we contacted study authors to ask for additional information. We included randomised controlled trials of children treated in the ED for exacerbations of asthma if they compared any dose of IV MgSO4 with placebo. Two review authors screened the results of the search and independently extracted data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements through discussion and contacted study authors in cases of missing data and other uncertainties relating to the studies.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios and continuous data as mean differences, both using fixed-effect models. We assessed each study for risk of bias and rated the quality of evidence for each outcome with GRADE and presented the results in a 'Summary of findings' table. There was insufficient evidence to conduct the planned subgroup analyses. Five studies (182 children) met the inclusion criteria, and four contributed data to at least one meta-analysis. The included studies were overall at low risk of bias, but our confidence in the evidence was generally low, mainly due to the small sample sizes. Treatment with IV MgSO4 reduced the odds of admission to hospital by 68% (odds ratio (OR) 0

  16. Dizziness and the Acute Vestibular Syndrome at the Emergency Department: A Population-Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, Micaela; Persson, Julia; Salzer, Jonatan

    2017-11-13

    Dizziness is a common occurrence witnessed at emergency departments (EDs). This study aims to describe the epidemiology and management of dizzy patients with and without an acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) in the ED at Umeå University Hospital. A total of n = 2,126 ED dizziness visits during 3 years were identified. Data were obtained through retrospective review of medical records. Cases were stratified based on presentation, including AVS and neurological deficits. The outcomes analyzed included cerebrovascular causes of dizziness. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating incidence CIs. Dizziness accounted for 2.1% of all ED visits, incidence 477/100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 457-498). Among dizzy patients, 19.2% had an AVS, incidence 92/100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 74-113). Top medical diagnostic groups were otovestibular (15.1%), cardiovascular (8.7%) and neurological diseases (7.7%), including stroke and transitory ischemic attack (4.8%). Cerebrovascular causes of dizziness were more common among those with an AVS (10.0%) vs. those without (3.6%), p < 0.01. The risk for cerebrovascular causes of dizziness, although low in an unselected cohort, increases with the presence of neurological signs and an AVS. These population-based data may be useful when planning and implementing dizziness and AVS management algorithms at EDs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescents and Young Adults Treated in Pediatric and Adult Departments in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennström, Lovisa; Edslev, Pernille Wendtland; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia suggest better results when using pediatric protocols for adult patients, while corresponding data for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are limited. PROCEDURE: We investigated disease characteristics and outcome...... for de novo AML patients 10-30 years old treated in pediatric or adult departments. We included 166 patients 10-18 years of age with AML treated according to the pediatric NOPHO-protocols (1993-2009) compared with 253 patients aged 15-30 years treated in hematology departments (1996-2009) in the Nordic...... countries. RESULTS: The incidence of AML was 4.9/million/year for the age group 10-14 years, 6.5 for 15-18 years, and 6.9 for 19-30 years. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was more frequent in adults and in females of all ages. Pediatric patients with APL had similar overall survival as pediatric patients...

  18. Implementation of clinical decision support in young children with acute gastroenteritis: a randomized controlled trial at the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.F. Geurts (Dorien); E. De Vos-Kerkhof (Evelien); S. Polinder (Suzanne); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J. van der Lei; H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAcute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequent reasons for young children to visit emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate (1) feasibility of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system for rehydration treatment in children with AGE and (2) the impact on

  19. The periodicities in and biometeorological relationships with bed occupancy of an acute psychiatric ward in Antwerp, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M.; de Meyer, F.; Peeters, D.; Meltzer, H.; Schotte, C.; Scharpe, S.; Cosyns, P.

    1993-06-01

    Recently, some investigators have established a seasonal pattern in normal human psychology, physiology and behaviour, and in the incidence of psychiatric psychopathology. In an attempt to elucidate the chronopsy and meteotropism in the latter, we have examined the chronograms of, and the biometeorological relationships to bed occupancy of the psychiatric ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during three consecutive calendar years (1987 1989). Weather data for the vicinity were provided by a local meteorological station and comprise mean atmospheric pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and minutes of sunlight and precipitation/day. The number of psychiatric beds occupied during the study period exhibited a significant seasonal variation. Peaks in bed occupancy were observed in March and November, with lows in August. An important part of the variability in the number of beds occupied could be explained by the composite effects of weather variables of the preceding weeks. Our results suggest that short-term fluctuations in atmospheric activity may dictate some of the periodicities in psychiatric psychopathology.

  20. The Practice of Seclusion and Time-out on English Acute Psychiatric Wards: The City-128 Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowers, L.; Merwe, M. van der; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hamilton, B.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Stewart, D.; Muir-Cochrane, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Seclusion is widely used internationally to manage disturbed behavior by psychiatric patients, although many countries are seeking to reduce or eliminate this practice. Time-out has been little described and almost completely unstudied. Aim and method - To assess the relationship of

  1. [THE CLINICAL ORGANIZATIONAL SUBSTANTIATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY OF HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRIC CARE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsevatkin, V G; Blinov, D S; Podsevatkin, D V; Podsevatkina, S V; Smirnova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The new technology of hospital psychiatric care, developed and implemented in the Mordovia republican clinical hospital, permits resolving problems of hospitalism, lethality, pharmaceutical resistance and others. The essence of this technology is in staging of hospital care under condition of intensification and standardization of curative diagnostic process, implementation of complex approach to treatment of psychiatric disorders. The patient sequentially passes through three stages: intensive diagnostics and intensive treatment (intensive care department, intensive therapy department), supportive therapy (general psychiatric department); rehabilitation measures (curative rehabilitative department). The concentration of resources at the first stage, application of intensive therapy techniques permit in the shortest period to arrest acute psychotic symptomatic. The described new technology of hospital psychiatric care permits enhancing effectiveness of treatment, significantly shorten period of hospitalization (37.5 days), to obtain lasting and qualitative remission, to rehabilitate most fully social working status of patient and to significantly decrease lethality.

  2. Implementation of a Risk Stratification and Management Pathway for Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christopher W; Greenberg, Jeffrey O; Mahler, Simon A; Kosowsky, Joshua M; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Parmar, Siddharth; Ciociolo, George R; Carr, Christina W; Ghazinouri, Roya; Scirica, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department, and a small but important minority represents an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Variation in diagnostic workup, risk stratification, and management may result in underuse, misuse, and/or overuse of resources. From July to October 2014, we conducted a prospective cohort study in an academic medical center by implementing a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for chest pain based on the HEART score. In addition to capturing adherence to the SCAMP algorithm and reasons for any deviations, we measured troponin sample timing; rates of stress test utilization; length of stay (LOS); and 30-day rates of revascularization, ACS, and death. We identified 239 patients during the enrollment period who were eligible to enter the SCAMP, of whom 97 patients were entered into the pathway. Patients were risk stratified into one of 3 risk tiers: high (n = 3), intermediate (n = 40), and low (n = 54). Among low-risk patients, recommendations for troponin testing were not followed in 56%, and 11% received stress tests contrary to the SCAMP recommendation. None of the low-risk patients had elevated troponin measurements, and none had an abnormal stress test. Mean LOS in low-risk patients managed with discordant plans was 22:26 h/min, compared with 9:13 h/min in concordant patients (P stress testing was 25:53 h/min, compared with 7:55 h/min for those without (P < 0.001). At 30 days, 10% of intermediate-risk patients and 0% of low-risk patients experienced an ACS event (risk difference 10% [0.7%-19%]); none experienced revascularization or death. The most frequently cited reason for deviation from the SCAMP was lack of confidence in the tool. Compliance with SCAMP recommendations for low- and intermediate-risk patients was poor, largely due to lack of confidence in the tool. However, in our study population, outcomes suggest that deviation from the SCAMP yielded no additional clinical benefit

  3. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating adults with acute asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Kayleigh M; Kirtchuk, Liza; Michell, Clare I

    2014-05-28

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by airways inflammation, constriction of airway smooth muscle and structural alteration of the airways that is at least partially reversible. Exacerbations of asthma can be life threatening and place a significant burden on healthcare services. Various guidelines have been published to inform management personnel in the acute setting; several include the use of a single bolus of intravenous magnesium sulfate (IV MgSO4) in cases that do not respond to first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this approach remains unclear, particularly in less severe cases. To assess the safety and efficacy of IV MgSO4 in adults treated for acute asthma in the emergency department. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Specialised Register (CAGR) up to 2 May 2014. We also searched www.ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of other reviews, and we contacted trial authors to ask for additional information. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults treated in the emergency department (ED) for exacerbations of asthma if they compared any dose of IV MgSO4 with placebo. All review authors screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, and at least two review authors independently extracted study characteristics, risk of bias and numerical data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, and we contacted trial investigators to obtain missing information.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios using study participants as the unit of analysis, and we analysed continuous data as mean differences or standardised mean differences using fixed-effect models. We rated all outcomes using GRADE and presented results in Summary of findings table 1.We carried out subgroup analyses on the primary outcome for baseline severity of exacerbations and whether or not ipratropium bromide was given as a co-medication. Unpublished data and studies at high risk of bias for blinding were removed from the main

  4. Usefulness of initial glucose level to improve acute coronary syndrome diagnosis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Sandrine; Cournot, Maxime; Lauque, Dominique; Girardi, Claire; Bounes, Vincent; Elbaz, Meyer; Ducassé, Jean Louis

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incremental usefulness of high blood glucose level for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnosis in patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for chest pain and suspected ACS. A post hoc analysis of a prospective, observational study of 11 months duration was carried out. Initial glucose levels were analysed in 672 consecutive patients admitted to the ED with chest pain and suspected non-ST elevation ACS. A cut-off glucose level (>140 mg/dl) for high glucose level diagnosis was defined. Based on hospital diagnostic test results, patients were classified as having non-ST elevation ACS by two independent physicians. The association and performance of high glucose level for ACS diagnosis were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Out of the 672 eligible patients who were recruited, 181 (26.9%) had a confirmed non-ST elevation ACS. The independent factors associated with a diagnosis of ACS were age, previous coronary artery disease, hyperlipidaemia, smoking status and glucose level >140 mg/dl (OR 1.98 95% CI 1.14 to 3.45). In addition to a predictive model that included the usual diagnostic tools for non-ST elevation ACS management, a glucose level >140 mg/dl added significant incremental information (p=0.03). However, the addition of blood glucose level >140 mg/dl to the conventional diagnostic tool resulted in small increases in the ability to classify ACS, as measured by the c-statistic (0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85). An initial serum glucose level >140 mg/dl is associated with non-ST elevation ACS in patients admitted to an ED for chest pain but added moderately to conventional tools used for ACS diagnosis. NCT00714298.

  5. Profiling acute presenting symptoms of geriatric patients attending an urban hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Chik Loon; Chan, Kim Chai; Goh, Hsin Kai; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-06-01

    To study the profile of geriatric patients warded to the emergency department (ED) of an Asian acute care general hospital and determine if they are 'more ill', more likely to have atypical presentations and have a higher utilisation of healthcare resources when compared to a younger group of patients. This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients aged 45 years and above presenting to the study ED over a period of 4 weeks from 4 June 2006 to 1 July 2006. The following data were obtained: (i) demographics, (ii) mode of arrival and triage acuity, (iii) presence of co-morbidities, (iv) investigations ordered in the ED, (v) clinical symptoms and diagnoses, (vi) disposition, (vii) length of hospital stay, (viii) injuries and outcomes of elderly fallers. The study population was divided into 2 groups--a study group with patients aged 65 years and above, and a control group with patients aged 45 to 64. There were 2847 patients in the study group and these were compared against 2875 in the control group. Those 65 years and above had greater representation in the ED population compared to the general population. In the study group, the proportion of females, the number arriving by ambulance and the likelihood of having a higher triage acuity increased with age. The elderly had higher rates of co-morbidities. They also had a higher resource utilisation rate. Falls was their commonest presenting complaint. It is crucial that EDs recognise the special needs of elderly patients due to the growing ageing population. Healthcare policy makers when allocating resources should take into account the profile of elderly patients presenting to an ED and their resource utilisation.

  6. A descriptive analysis of patients with an emergency department diagnosis of acute pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Andrew J; Celenza, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    To describe clinical characteristics, assessment and treatment of patients diagnosed in an emergency department (ED) with acute pericarditis. A medical record review of patients with an ED diagnosis of pericarditis conducted in an adult tertiary hospital over a 5-year period. Variables collected included pain characteristics, associated symptoms, physical examination findings, investigation results, ED treatment and disposition. 179 presentations were included, with 73.9% men and a mean age of 38.8 years. The majority of patients described pleuritic chest pain worse with inspiration with half characterising the pain as sharp or stabbing, with others describing tightness, dullness or cramping. Radiation to the left shoulder occurred in 2.8% and change of pain with posture occurred in 46.4%. A pericardial rub was documented in 19 presentations. All patients had an ECG recorded with ST segment elevation present in 69.3% and PR segment depression in 49.2%. Nearly 90% of patients had troponin testing but only 6.4% of these were positive. Only 8.1% of cases were treated with colchicine. No patients required pericardiocentesis. Patients with high-risk factors were more likely to have previous pericarditis, dyspnoea, nausea, abnormal investigation results, treatment with colchicine and admission to hospital. However, 16.9% of patients without risk factors were admitted, and 46.9% of patients with at least one risk factor were discharged. Pericarditis may not follow the classical clinical description. Admission and discharge decisions appear to relate to individual clinical characteristics rather than known risk factors. Use of colchicine for treatment in ED is infrequent.

  7. Clinical Factors and Outcomes in Patients with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hao Huang

    2005-07-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion and aggressive diagnostic imaging can facilitate early diagnosis and improve outcomes for patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. Risk stratification showed that elderly patients with metabolic acidosis, bandemia, or elevated AST and BUN had a poor prognosis. Greater therapeutic intervention is advocated to reduce mortality in high-risk patients with acute mesenteric ischemia.

  8. [Working with a family systems therapy approach as part of the routine treatment on acute psychiatric wards: sustained effects on team members' workload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Kordy, Henrike; Ochs, Matthias; Schweitzer, Jochen; Zwack, Julika

    2012-11-01

    Assessing long-term effects of a family systems therapy approach (systems therapy methods in acute psychiatry, SYMPA) on occupational stress and interdisciplinary cooperation of team members in three German psychiatric hospitals. Pre-post-follow-up survey using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Team Climate Inventory (TCI) questionnaires complemented by semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 56). Three years after implementing a family systems therapy approach, experienced work load and staff burnout remain significantly lower than before. Interdisciplinary cooperation was intensified and nursing staff status increased. Following systemic case conceptualisations and interventions the therapeutic alliance moved towards a need-adapted treatment approach. Seven years after implementation, the family systems therapy approach still included significantly lower workload burden, an intensified interdisciplinary cooperation, and a need-adapted treatment orientation that strengthens the alliance between staff and client system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. [Application of a continual improvement approach to selecting diagnostic markers for acute pancreatitis in an emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, María; Flores, Emilio; López-Garrigós, Maite; Díaz, Elena; Esteban, Patricia; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To apply a continual improvement model to develop an algorithm for ordering laboratory tests to diagnose acute pancreatitis in a hospital emergency department. Quasi-experimental study using the continual improvement model (plan, do, check, adjust cycles) in 2 consecutive phases in emergency patients: amylase and lipase results were used to diagnose acute pancreatitis in the first phase; in the second, only lipase level was first determined; amylase testing was then ordered only if the lipase level fell within a certain range. We collected demographic data, number amylase and lipase tests ordered and the findings, final diagnosis, and the results of a questionnaire to evaluate satisfaction with emergency care. The first phase included 517 patients, of whom 20 had acute pancreatitis. For amylase testing sensitivity was 0.70; specificity, 0.85; positive predictive value (PPV), 17; and negative predictive value (NPV), 0.31. For lipase testing these values were sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.96; PPV, 21, and NPV, 0.16. When both tests were done, sensitivity was 0.85; specificity 0.99; PPV, 85; and NPV, 0.15. The second phase included data for 4815 patients, 118 of whom had acute pancreatitis. The measures of diagnostic yield for the new algorithm were sensitivity, 0.92; specificity, 0.98; PPV, 46; and NPV, 0.08]. This study demonstrates a process for developing a protocol to guide laboratory testing in acute pancreatitis in the hospital emergency department. The proposed sequence of testing for pancreatic enzyme levels can be effective for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in patients with abdominal pain.

  10. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  11. The Clinical Epidemiology and 30-Day Outcomes of Emergency Department Patients With Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Xavier Scheuermeyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with increased mortality and dialysis in hospitalized patients but has been little explored in the emergency department (ED setting. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the risk factors, prevalence, management, and outcomes in the ED population, and to identify the proportion of AKI patients who were discharged home with no renal-specific follow-up. Design: This is a retrospective cohort study using administrative and laboratory databases. Setting: Two urban EDs in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Patients: We included all unique ED patients over a 1-week period. Methods: All patients had their described demographics, comorbidities, medications, laboratory values, and ED treatments collected. AKI was defined pragmatically, based upon accepted guidelines. The cohort was then probabilistically linked to the provincial renal database to ascertain renal replacement (transplant or dialysis and the provincial vital statistics database to obtain mortality. The primary outcome was the prevalence of AKI; secondary outcomes included (1 the proportion of AKI patients who were discharged home with no renal-specific follow-up and (2 the combined 30-day rate of death or renal replacement among AKI patients. Results: There were 1651 ED unique patients, and 840 had at least one serum creatinine (SCr obtained. Overall, 90 patients had AKI (10.7% of ED patients with at least one SCr, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7%-13.1%; 5.5% of all ED patients, 95% CI, 4.4%-6.7% with a median age of 74 and 70% male. Of the 31 (34.4% AKI patients discharged home, 4 (12.9% had renal-specific follow-up arranged in the ED. Among the 90 AKI patients, 11 died and none required renal replacement at 30 days, for a combined outcome of 12.2% (95% CI, 6.5%-21.2%. Limitations: Sample sizes may be small. Nearly half of ED patients did not obtain an SCr. Many patients did not have sequential SCr testing, and a

  12. Features and Prognostic Factors for Elderly With Acute Poisoning in the Emergency Department

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    Yu-Hui Hu

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that elderly patients with acute poisoning had a mortality rate of 9.6%. Suicide attempts resulted in more serious complications. The risk factors for mortality were herbicide intoxication, hypotension and respiratory failure.

  13. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and its complications in our pediatric otolaryngological department between 1997 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultész, Monika; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Majoros, Tatjana; Farkas, Zsolt; Katona, Gábor

    2009-11-01

    A retrospective survey of the number, age, gender, month of admission, type of persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and case history of pediatric patients who did not respond to conservative therapy, and of those who suffered from complications of acute sinusitis. The case charts of all children (rhinosinusitis that within 14-26 days against the course of appropriate conservative therapy have not recovered and complications of acute sinusitis were subjected to a retrospective review. Of the 339 patients 182 were admitted with persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and did not respond to conservative therapy and 157 children were diagnosed with secondary complications of acute sinusitis. Males predominated overall (54.8%). The most endangered age range was between 3 and 6 years. The highest number of admissions occurred in March. The maxillary sinus was most frequently involved. Orbital complications were observed in 150 patients: 126 cases of preseptal cellulitis, 9 of orbital cellulitis, 4 of subperiosteal abscess, and 11 of orbital abscess. Further two children were diagnosed with intracranial complications, four patients presented with osteomyelitis and the remaining one exhibited mucocele. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly cultured pathogen. There were no mortalities, and morbidity occurred in only two cases. The topicality and importance of this subject are illustrated by taking into account of two cases. The complications of acute rhinosinusitis are challenging, but the prognosis can be favorable. Early diagnosis and surgical drainage procedures in conjunction with aggressive medical management remain the standard of care for these critically ill patients.

  14. Effects of a live educational music therapy intervention on acute psychiatric inpatients' perceived social support and trust in the therapist: a four-group randomized effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Social support is associated with enhanced illness management and recovery in persons with mental illness, making it an important topic addressed through acute inpatient psychoeducational programs. In addition, trust in the therapist may mediate clinical outcomes in this patient population. To date, few studies have examined the effect of music-based psychoeducational programs on these variables. The purpose of this study was to isolate and examine the component parts of a live educational music therapy intervention, and its effect on acute psychiatric inpatients' perceived social support from significant others, family, and friends and trust in the therapist. This study also explored whether trust in therapist varied across conditions, but did not examine it as a mediator for social support. Participants (N = 96) were cluster-randomized in a single-session posttest-only design to one of four conditions: live educational music therapy, recorded educational music therapy, education without music, or recreational music therapy without education. Conditions were designed to isolate the following intervention components: live vs. recorded music, educational vs. non-educational content, and music vs. nonmusic modality. Dependent measures were assessed post intervention via established self-report instruments evaluating perceived social support and trust in the therapist. There were no significant between-group differences for social support or trust in therapist total scores. However, subscale score analyses revealed two significant between-group differences: (a) participants in the Live Educational Music Therapy condition reported significantly higher perceived therapist competence compared with the Recorded Educational Music Therapy condition; (b) participants in the Live Educational Music Therapy condition reported significantly higher perceived support from friends compared with the Recreational Music Therapy condition. Live educational music therapy may be a way to

  15. The impact of rotavirus vaccination on emergency department visits and hospital admissions for acute diarrhea in children under 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Locatelli Pedro Paulo

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease is the second cause of death in children under 5 years. In Brazil, from 2003 to 2009, acute diarrhea was responsible for nearly 100,000 hospital admissions per year and 4% of the deaths in children under 5 years. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea worldwide. In 2006, the rotavirus monovalent vaccine (RV1 was added to the Brazilian National Immunization Program. Objectives: To analyze the impact of the RV1 on emergency department (ED visits and hospital admissions for acute diarrhea. Method: A retrospective ecologic study at the University Hospital, University of São Paulo. The study analyzed the pre-vaccine (2003–2005 and the post-vaccine (2007–2009 periods. We screened the main diagnosis of all ED attendances and hospital admissions of children under 5 years in an electronic registry system database and calculated the rates of ED visits and hospital admissions. The reduction rate was analyzed according to the following formula: reduction (% = (1 - odds ratio x 100. Results: The rates of ED visits for acute diarrhea was 85.8 and 80.9 per 1,000 total ED visits in the pre and post vaccination periods, respectively, resulting in 6% reduction (95CI 4 to 9%, p<0.001. The rates of hospital admissions for acute diarrhea was 40.8 per 1,000 in the pre-vaccine period and dropped to 24.9 per 1,000 hospitalizations, resulting in 40% reduction (95CI 22 to 54%, p<0.001. Conclusion: The introduction of the RV1 vaccine resulted in 6% reduction in the ED visits and 40% reduction in hospital admissions for acute diarrhea.

  16. Delta neutrophil index as a promising prognostic marker of emergent surgical intervention for acute diverticulitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Seung; Cha, Yong Sung; Park, Kyung Hye; Hwang, Sung Oh

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of patients with acute diverticulitis who require emergent surgical intervention in the emergency department (ED) is important to the physician. Although computed tomography (CT) has an important role in evaluating the severity of diverticulitis, its findings alone may not predict the need for emergent surgical intervention in all patients with acute diverticulitis in the ED. Serum inflammation markers may help to differentiate severity of acute diverticulitis and predict the need for surgical intervention in clinical practice. No information is currently available on the clinical usefulness of the delta neutrophil index (DNI), with respect to the prediction of emergent surgical intervention in patients with acute diverticulitis at the ED. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive adult patients with acute diverticulitis confirmed by CT in the ED, between January 2014 and December 2016. Recruited patients were divided into two groups: emergent surgical intervention and no surgical intervention. The following laboratory serum parameters were examined in the ED: DNI value, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The patients were also examined for the presence or absence of complications by CT. A total of 132 patients were finally included in the study, with the emergent surgical intervention group constituting 52 patients. The median DNI value, CRP levels, neutrophil count, and NLR were significantly higher in the emergent surgical intervention group than in the no surgical intervention group. The area under the curve for predicting emergent surgical intervention, using the DNI was significantly higher than that of CRP levels, neutrophil count, or NLR. Moreover, the combination of initial DNI and CT was most powerful diagnostic modality. DNI values measured at the ED combined with CT were good predictors for emergent surgical intervention in acute

  17. Salbutamol via metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus nebulization for acute treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Fernández, Javier; González-Balenciaga, María; Capapé-Zache, Susana; Vázquez-Ronco, Miguel A; Mintegi-Raso, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of salbutamol delivered via a metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus a nebulizer for acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department. All consecutive children younger than 14 years old who required treatment of acute asthma exacerbation in the emergency department during May 2002 (prospective cohort, n = 321) and May 2001(retrospective cohort, n = 259) were included. Inhaled salbutamol was administered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer (and a face mask in children younger than 2 years old) in the prospective cohort and by nebulizer in the retrospective cohort. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts in the mean (+/-SD) age (44.50 +/- 38.64 vs. 48.37 +/- 43.55 months) and asthma treatment, arterial oxygen saturation (96.34 +/- 2.12% vs. 96.19 +/- 6.32%), and heart rate (123.71 +/- 23.63 vs. 129.41 +/- 34.55 beats/min) before emergency department consultation. The number of doses of inhaled bronchodilators was also similar (1.42 +/- 1.01 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.98) as well as the number of children that required a stay in the observation unit, admission to the hospital, or returned for medical care. The overall mean length of stay in the emergency department was slightly shorter in the prospective cohort (82 +/- 48 vs. 89 +/- 52 minutes). The administration of bronchodilators using a metered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department.

  18. First-visit patients without a referral to the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiwara, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Kazuyuki; Misago, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinichiro; Ueoka, Takato

    2017-01-01

    Nobuyuki Kajiwara,1 Kazuyuki Hayashi,1 Masahiro Misago,2 Shinichiro Murakami,2 Takato Ueoka2 1Department of Nephrology, Ikeda City Hospital, 2Department of General Medicine, Ikeda City Hospital, Johnan, Osaka, Japan Purpose: We sought to profile first-time patients without a referral who sought medical care at the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan. We anticipated that the analysis would highlight the demand for medical care needs from acute care ho...

  19. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ingrid; Sebbane, Mustapha; Molinari, Nicolas; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Riou, Bruno; Taourel, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1x10(-6)) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6x10(-6)) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. • Systematic unenhanced CT improves significantly diagnosis accuracy compared to current practice. • Systematic unenhanced CT optimizes appropriate hospitalization by increasing the number of discharged patients. • Systematic unenhanced CT allows detection of about one-third of acute unsuspected abdominal conditions. • It should allow boosting emergency department management decision-making confidence in old patients.

  20. Comparison of burden among family members of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a large acute psychiatric hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanling; Rosenheck, Robert; Mohamed, Somaia; Ou, Yufen; Ning, Yuping; He, Hongbo

    2016-08-11

    The difference of burden between caregivers of acute patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder has not been well studied in China, a culture where family responsibility has a very high value. Our aim is to compare family burden in these two categories diagnosis and to identify predictors of family burden in a large psychiatric hospital in China. Two hundred forty-three schizophrenic patients and 200 bipolar patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Patients were independently evaluated on symptoms, insight, attitudes toward medication, quality of life during the first week of their admissions. The prime caregiver for each patient was also evaluated with a standard measure of family burden within 1 week of patients' admission. Caregiver perceptions of violent behavior and suicidal risk among patients with bipolar disorder were significantly greater than among families of those with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated differential correlates of burden for all predictive factors with R(2) values ranging from 0.14 to 0.27 in the five burden factors in schizophrenia families; and from 0.12 to 0.24 in bipolar disorder families. Symptoms severity explained the greatest proportion of variance, whereas patient and caregiver demographic variables explained much less variance. Family burden, especially the caregiver perceptions of violent and suicidal behaviors were greater in care givers of acute bipolar disorder patients than among caregivers of schizophrenia patients in the present sample. However, in families of patients with both disorders clinical features were the strongest predictor of caregiver burden.

  1. History, Physical Examination, Laboratory Testing, and Emergency Department Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashika; Mehta, Ninfa; Secko, Michael; Schechter, Joshua; Papanagnou, Dimitri; Pandya, Shreya; Sinert, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common differential for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. The diagnostic accuracy of history, physical examination, and bedside laboratory tests for AC have not been quantitatively described. We performed a systematic review to determine the utility of history and physical examination (H&P), laboratory studies, and ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing AC in the ED. We searched medical literature from January 1965 to March 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS using a strategy derived from the following formulation of our clinical question: patients-ED patients suspected of AC; interventions-H&P, laboratory studies, and US findings commonly used to diagnose AC; comparator-surgical pathology or definitive diagnostic radiologic study confirming AC; and outcome-the operating characteristics of the investigations in diagnosing AC were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated using Meta-DiSc with a random-effects model (95% CI). Study quality and risks for bias were assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Separate PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS searches retrieved studies for H&P (n = 734), laboratory findings (n = 74), and US (n = 492). Three H&P studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria with AC prevalence of 7%-64%. Fever had sensitivity ranging from 31% to 62% and specificity from 37% to 74%; positive LR [LR+] was 0.71-1.24, and negative LR [LR-] was 0.76-1.49. Jaundice sensitivity ranged from 11% to 14%, and specificity from 86% to 99%; LR+ was 0.80-13.81, and LR- was 0.87-1.03. Murphy's sign sensitivity was 62% (range = 53%-71%), and specificity was 96% (range = 95%-97%); LR+ was 15.64 (range = 11.48-21.31), and LR- was 0.40 (range = 0.32-0.50). Right upper quadrant pain had sensitivity ranging from 56% to 93% and specificity of 0% to 96%; LR+ ranged from 0.92 to 14.02, and LR- from 0.46 to 7.86. One laboratory study met

  2. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit: experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Mogensen, Christian B; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit. The increase in emergency department observation units has increased short-term admissions and changed the patient journey from admission and discharge from specialised wards staffed by specialist nurses to admission and discharge from units staffed by emergency nurses. A comparative qualitative interview study. The study included 20 patients: 10 from an emergency department observation unit and 10 from a surgical assessment unit, and took a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Patients were interviewed at discharge and three months later. More patients from the emergency department observation unit experienced readiness for discharge and had plans for follow-up, compared with patients from the surgical assessment unit. In the surgical assessment unit, more patients were readmitted, had unanswered questions after three months and experienced a follow-up visit at the general practitioner as insufficient. More patients from the surgical assessment unit reported receiving useful self-care advice, compared with those from the emergency department observation unit. The experience of emergency department observation unit patients on discharge and follow-up was that the health professionals were more supportive, compared with surgical assessment unit patients, who felt discharge occurred too early, but with more preparation for independent home self-care. These results are an important factor in the patient experience of discharge from hospital and may reflect differences in specialisation of the nurses. Units discharging patients with acute abdominal pain could be inspired by scheduled fast-track surgery programmes with structured information about admission, treatment and follow-up and easy access to relevant health professionals after discharge. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Failure of a patient-centered intervention to substantially increase the identification and referral for-treatment of ambulatory emergency department patients with occult psychiatric conditions: a randomized trial [ISRCTN61514736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezami Wais A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that a computerized psychiatric screening interview (the PRIME-MD can be used in the Emergency Department (ED waiting room to identify patients with mental illness. In that trial, however, informing the ED physician of the PRIME-MD results did not increase the frequency of psychiatric diagnosis, consultation or referral. We conducted this study to determine whether telling the patient and physician the PRIME-MD result would result in the majority of PRIME-MD-diagnosed patients being directed toward treatment for their mental illness. Methods In this single-site RCT, consenting patients with non-specific somatic chief complaints (e.g., fatigue, back pain, etc. completed the computerized PRIME-MD in the waiting room and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: patient and physician told PRIME-MD results, patient told PRIME-MD results, and neither told PRIME-MD results. The main outcome measure was the percentage of patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who received a psychiatric consultation or referral from the ED. Results 183 (5% of all ED patients were approached. 123 eligible patients consented to participate, completed the PRIME-MD and were randomized. 95 patients had outcomes recorded. 51 (54% had a PRIME-MD diagnosis and 8 (16% of them were given a psychiatric consultation or referral in the ED. While the frequency of consultation or referral increased as the intervention's intensity increased (tell neither = 11% (1/9, tell patient 15% (3/20, tell patient and physician 18% (4/22, no group came close to the 50% threshold we sought. For this reason, we stopped the trial after an interim analysis. Conclusion Patients willingly completed the PRIME-MD and 54% had a PRIME-MD diagnosis. Unfortunately, at our institution, informing the patient (and physician of the PRIME-MD results infrequently led to the patient being directed toward care for their psychiatric condition.

  4. Triage vital signs predict in-hospital mortality among emergency department patients with acute poisoning: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiun-Hao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To document the relationship between triage vital signs and in-hospital mortality among emergency department (ED patients with acute poisoning. Methods Poisoning patients who admitted to our emergency department during the study period were enrolled. Patient’s demographic data were collected and odds ratios (OR of triage vital signs to in-hospital mortality were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the proper cut-off value of vital signs that predict in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of in-hospital mortality and vital signs after adjusting for different variables. Results 997 acute poisoning patients were enrolled, with 70 fatal cases (6.7%. A J-shaped relationship was found between triage vital signs and in-hospital mortality. ED triage vital signs exceed cut-off values independently predict in-hospital mortality after adjusting for variables were as follow: body temperature 37°C, p 150 mmHg, p 120 bpm, p 20 per minute, p = 0.38, OR: 1.4. Conclusions Triage vital signs could predict in-hospital mortality among ED patients with acute poisoning. A J-curve relationship was found between triage vital signs and in-hospital mortality. ED physicians should take note of the extreme initial vital signs in these patients.

  5. A Clinical Decision Rule to Establish the Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Winkelhagen, Jasper; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of diverticulitis can be made with a high certainty, distinguishing them from patients requiring imaging. METHODS: We prospectively recorded clinical features in patients with acute abdominal pain presenting at

  6. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice [CHU Lapeyronie, Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sebbane, Mustapha [Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Department of Medical Information and Statistics, CHU Montpellier (France); Riou, Bruno [GH Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Department of Emergency Medicine and Surgery, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10{sup -6}) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10{sup -6}) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  7. Considerations for early acute myocardial infarction rule-out for emergency department chest pain patients: the case of copeptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Di Somma, Salvatore; Monzani, Valter; Tubaro, Marco; Volpe, Massimo; Moscatelli, Paolo; Vernocchi, Arialdo; Cavazza, Mario; Galvani, Marcello; Cappelletti, Piero; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Ferraro, Simona; Lombardi, Alberto; Peracino, Andrea

    2012-01-06

    The evaluation of patients admitted at the emergency department (ED) for chest pain is challenging and involves many different clinical specialists including emergency physicians, laboratory professionals and cardiologists. The preferable approach to deal with this issue is to develop joint protocols that will assist the clinical decision-making to quickly and accurately rule-out patients with non life-threatening conditions that can be considered for early and safe discharge or further outpatient follow-up, rule-in patients with acute coronary syndrome and raise the degree of alert of the emergency physicians on non-cardiac life-threatening emergencies. The introduction of novel biomarkers alongside the well-established troponins might support this process and also provide prognostic information about acute short-term or chronic long-term risk and severity. Among the various biomarkers, copeptin measurement holds appealing perspectives. The utility of combining troponin with copeptin might be cost-effective due to the high negative predictive value of the latter biomarker in the rule-out of an acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, in the presence of a remarkably increased concentration (e.g., more than 10 times the upper limit of the reference range), to reveal the presence of acute life-threatening conditions that may not necessarily be identified with the use of troponin alone. The aim of this article is to review current evidence about the clinical significance of copeptin testing in the ED as well as its appropriate placing within diagnostic protocols.

  8. [Special observation on psychiatric patients on acute inpatient wards at the Division of Psychiatry, Landspítali-University Hospital in Iceland, attitudes of patients and staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorrason, Jón; Grímsdóttir, Gudrún Ulfhildur; Sigurdsson, Jón Fridrik

    2007-12-01

    Special observation (constant observation) of patients is common on psychiatric wards, both in Iceland and abroad, but very few studies have been conducted on their therapeutic value. The objective was to investigate the extent and nature of special observation on emergency wards at the division of psychiatry at the Landspitali-University Hospital in Iceland as well as the attitudes of patients and staff toward special observation. Information about patients on special observation was recorded over a three months period. Patients were interviewed with a standardised eleven questions interview shortly after the observation finished in order to investigate their attitudes toward the observation. Also, members of staff from each ward were asked to answer eight questions about their attitudes toward special observation in general. The Ethics Committee of Landspitali - University Hospital gave its permission for the study. During the research period observation was used for 157 patients, which is 31% of the total number of patients admitted during that period. Most of the patients (83%) were on 5-15 minutes observation, 25 per cent on close observation and 11 percent on suicide or constant observation. The majority of the patients claimed that security was the most important aspect of being on special observation, independent of which type of observation they were, and only one fifth felt that the company of staff was most important. The staff members on the other hand claimed that concern for the patient, respect and companionship were most important for the patients, independent of the type of observation used. The extent, nature and process of observation on acute inpatient wards in Iceland seems to be comparable to other studies from abroad. In view of the importance of special observations in psychiatric emergency care and their influence on patients' private life it is important to develop and implement clinical guidelines about their use.

  9. Unenhanced computed tomography in acute renal colic reduces cost outside radiology department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, J.; Andersen, J.R.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (UMDCT) is well established as the procedure of choice for radiologic evaluation of patients with renal colic. The procedure has both clinical and financial consequences for departments of surgery and radiology. However, the financial effect...... outside the radiology department is poorly elucidated. PURPOSE: To evaluate the financial consequences outside of the radiology department, a retrospective study comparing the ward occupation of patients examined with UMDCT to that of intravenous urography (IVU) was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS......) saved the hospital USD 265,000 every 6 months compared to the use of IVU. CONCLUSION: Use of UMDCT compared to IVU in patients with renal colic leads to cost savings outside the radiology department Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  10. Simple Measures of Hopelessness and Impulsivity are Associated with Acute Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Patients in Psychiatric Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B; Williamson, David J; May, Roberta S; Bruer, Emily H; Sheehan, David V; Alphs, Larry D

    2014-09-01

    To explore the authors' predictions 1) that hopelessness would positively correlate with suicidal ideation and that impulsivity (either transient urges to self-harm or impulsive acting out) would positively correlate with suicidal behavior, and 2) that the recent or long-standing nature of the traits will have corresponding effects on reported histories of suicidal ideation and behavior. Questionnaire validation trial in which each subject received every measure in counterbalanced fashion. Inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings associated with a medium-sized medical school in the southeastern United States. Forty-five subjects presenting with varying levels of suicidal ideation and behavior completed measures providing information about their histories of suicidal ideation and behavior, recent feelings of hopelessness, feelings of general hopelessness, recent feelings of difficulty controlling urges to self-harm, and feeling about general levels of impulsivity. The InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, and six additional questions to assess hopelessness and impulsivity. Recent and trait hopelessness correlated positively with suicidal ideation. Patients who reported any suicide attempt endorsed higher levels of general impulsivity than those who did not report a history of at least one suicide attempt. Those enrolled in the study secondary to a very recent suicide attempt reported more difficulties with recent suicidal impulses. Simple measures of hopelessness and impulsivity are associated with suicidal ideation and attempts and may add to determination of suicide risk.

  11. Practice Variations between Emergency Physicians and Pediatricians in Treating Acute Bronchiolitis in the Emergency Department: A Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Huang, Ka-Yi; Teng, Ying-Hock; Ku, Min-Sho; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Although supportive care is the mainstay management for acute bronchiolitis, non-evidence-based diagnostic testing and medications remain common in emergency departments (EDs). Our aim was to compare emergency physicians (EPs) and pediatricians practice patterns in the management of acute bronchiolitis in the ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using registration and claims datasets from 2008 to 2011. Patients with acute bronchiolitis were divided into EP group and pediatrician group. A total of 2174 patients were enrolled. The diagnostic tests used, including chest x-ray (63.7% vs. 46%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.27; 95% CI 1.77-2.91), complete blood count (33.2% vs. 21.8%; adjusted OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.33-2.26), C-reactive protein (35.1% vs. 22.6%; adjusted OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.38-2.33), blood culture (23.9% vs. 14.3%; adjusted OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.33-2.39), and arterial blood gas (3.7% vs. 1.8%, adjusted OR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.21-4.67), were higher in the EP group than in the pediatrician group. Intravenous fluid administration was also higher in the EP group (20.8% vs. 3.5%; adjusted OR = 7.49; 95% CI 5.12-10.8). In addition, EPs more frequently arranged for hospital admissions (36% vs. 19.5%; adjusted OR = 2.51; 95% CI 1.15-3.26). Both EPs and pediatricians had high rates of ordering diagnostic testing for acute bronchiolitis patients in ED. Compared with pediatricians, EPs used more diagnostic tests for the patients with acute bronchiolitis in ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mindfulness-Based Crisis Interventions for patients with psychotic symptoms on acute psychiatric wards (amBITION study): Protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Chadwick, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Inpatient psychiatric care is a scarce and expensive resource in the National Health Service (NHS), with chronic bed shortages being partly driven by high re-admission rates. People often need to go into hospital when they have a mental health crisis due to overwhelming distressing psychotic symptoms, such as hearing voices (hallucinations) or experiencing unusual beliefs (delusions). Brief talking therapies may be helpful for people during an acute inpatient admission as an adjunct to medication in reducing re-admission rates, and despite promising findings from trials in the USA, there have not yet been any clinical trials on this kind of intervention within NHS settings. The amBITION study is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a manualised brief talking therapy (Mindfulness-Based Crisis Intervention; MBCI). Inpatients on acute psychiatric wards are eligible for the study if they report at least one positive psychotic symptom, and are willing and able to engage in a talking therapy. In addition to treatment as usual (TAU), participants will be randomly allocated to receive either MBCI or a control intervention (Social Activity Therapy; SAT) which will be based on doing activities on the ward with the therapist. The primary objective of the study is to find out whether it is possible to carry out this kind of trial successfully within UK inpatient settings and to find out whether patients and staff find it an acceptable intervention. The secondary objective is to collect pilot data on primary and secondary outcome measures, including re-admission rates at 6 month follow-up. This will provide information on the appropriateness of re-admission as the primary outcome measure for future efficacy trials, as well as data on the acceptability and utility of the clinical self-report measures. The results of the feasibility trial will indicate whether a subsequent efficacy pilot trial is warranted, and if so, will provide vital information for the planning

  13. The Value of Ultrasonography, Leukocyte Count and Clinical Results in Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis and the Duration of Stay of the Patients in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi ERYIGIT

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: According to the present study results, acute appendicitis is commonly seen among the young adult male population. The coherence of ultrasonography findings with the diagnosis and its association with leukocytosis is significant and supportive. Additionally, the ultrasonography findings, leukocytosis, medical history and physical examination are important and essential factors for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A large number of patients with acute appendicitis were followed-up between 0–6 hours in the emergency department.

  14. Delta neutrophil index as a promising prognostic marker of emergent surgical intervention for acute diverticulitis in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Seung Kang

    Full Text Available Early identification of patients with acute diverticulitis who require emergent surgical intervention in the emergency department (ED is important to the physician. Although computed tomography (CT has an important role in evaluating the severity of diverticulitis, its findings alone may not predict the need for emergent surgical intervention in all patients with acute diverticulitis in the ED. Serum inflammation markers may help to differentiate severity of acute diverticulitis and predict the need for surgical intervention in clinical practice. No information is currently available on the clinical usefulness of the delta neutrophil index (DNI, with respect to the prediction of emergent surgical intervention in patients with acute diverticulitis at the ED.This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive adult patients with acute diverticulitis confirmed by CT in the ED, between January 2014 and December 2016. Recruited patients were divided into two groups: emergent surgical intervention and no surgical intervention. The following laboratory serum parameters were examined in the ED: DNI value, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR. The patients were also examined for the presence or absence of complications by CT.A total of 132 patients were finally included in the study, with the emergent surgical intervention group constituting 52 patients. The median DNI value, CRP levels, neutrophil count, and NLR were significantly higher in the emergent surgical intervention group than in the no surgical intervention group. The area under the curve for predicting emergent surgical intervention, using the DNI was significantly higher than that of CRP levels, neutrophil count, or NLR. Moreover, the combination of initial DNI and CT was most powerful diagnostic modality.DNI values measured at the ED combined with CT were good predictors for emergent surgical intervention

  15. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshay Chanana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6% were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%. Majority of the patients (76.9% presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36% followed by colicky type (22.3%. The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%. Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%, urinary tract infection (12.5%, acute pancreatitis (11%, acute appendicitis (10.6% and acute gastritis (8%. More than half (51.9% discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality.

  16. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  17. Unenhanced computed tomography in acute renal colic reduces cost outside radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, J; Andersen, J R; Nordling, J; Thomsen, H S

    2008-12-01

    Unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (UMDCT) is well established as the procedure of choice for radiologic evaluation of patients with renal colic. The procedure has both clinical and financial consequences for departments of surgery and radiology. However, the financial effect outside the radiology department is poorly elucidated. To evaluate the financial consequences outside of the radiology department, a retrospective study comparing the ward occupation of patients examined with UMDCT to that of intravenous urography (IVU) was performed. A total of 594 consecutive patients were admitted for renal colic during two 6-month periods. One hundred seventy-three consecutive patients were examined with IVU in 2000 and 421 with UMDCT in 2005. The only difference between the two groups was the imaging procedure. The duration of hospital stay and pathology findings were registered. In 50% of the patients undergoing UMDCT, a stone was found; a stone was found or suspected in 40% of patients undergoing IVU. Patients undergoing IVU stayed significantly longer in the ward than patients examined by UMDCT (PIVU. Use of UMDCT compared to IVU in patients with renal colic leads to cost savings outside the radiology department.

  18. Spirometry and PRAM severity score changes during pediatric acute asthma exacerbation treatment in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Donald H; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Hartert, Tina V

    2013-03-01

    To examine the time-dependent changes of spirometry (percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [%FEV(1)]) and the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) during the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations. We conducted a prospective study of participants aged 5-17 years with acute asthma exacerbations managed in a Pediatric Emergency Department. %FEV(1) and the PRAM were recorded pretreatment and at 2 and 4 hours. We examined responses at 2 and 4 hours following treatment and assessed whether the changes of %FEV(1) and of the PRAM differed during the first and the second 2-hour treatment periods. Among 503 participants, median [interquartile range, IQR] age was 8.8 [6.9, 11.4], 61% were male, and 63% were African-American. There was significant mean change of %FEV(1) during the first (+15.4%; 95% CI 13.7 to 17.1; p spirometry does not. This suggests that spirometry and clinical severity scores do not have similar trajectories and that clinical severity scores may be more sensitive to clinical change of acute asthma severity than spirometry.

  19. A randomized trial of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with epinephrine in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Simran; Ali, Samina; McConnell, Don W; Vandermeer, Ben; Klassen, Terry P

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with epinephrine is more effective than nebulized 0.9% saline with epinephrine in the treatment of bronchiolitis in the emergency department. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Single-center urban pediatric emergency department. Infants younger than 12 months with mild to moderate bronchiolitis. Patients were randomized to receive nebulized racemic epinephrine in either hypertonic or normal saline. The primary outcome measure was the change in respiratory distress, as measured by the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (RACS) from baseline to 120 minutes. The change in oxygen saturation was also determined. Secondary outcome measures included the rates of hospital admission and return to the emergency department. Forty-six patients were enrolled and evaluated. The 2 study groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RACS from baseline to 120 minutes demonstrated no improvement in respiratory distress in the hypertonic saline group compared with the normal saline control group. The change in oxygen saturation in the hypertonic saline group was not significant when compared with the control group. Rates of admission and return to the emergency department were not different between the 2 groups. In the treatment of acute bronchiolitis, hypertonic saline and epinephrine did not improve clinical outcome any more than normal saline and epinephrine in the emergency setting. This differs from previously published results of outpatient and inpatient populations and merits further evaluation. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN66632312.

  20. [A prospective study on acute poisonings presenting to the Emergency Department at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsdottir, Gudborg Audur; Thordardottir, Anna Maria; Kristinsson, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before. The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012. A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented. Females were 554 (57%) and males 423 (43%). The age range was from 2 months to 96 years old. More than half of the patients were under 30 years old. The majority of exposures occurred in private homes and ingestion was the most common route of exposure. Deliberate poisonings accounted for 66% of all the poisonings and 76% had drugs and/or alcohol as their main cause. Exposures to chemicals other than drugs were usually unintentional and 31% of them were occupational exposures. 80% of patients received treatment and were discharged from the ED, 20% were admitted to other departments, thereof 21% to ICU. Two patients died (0.2%). A slight but statistically unsignificant increase in incidence was observed. Females outnumbered males. Self-poisonings by ingestion of drugs and/or alcohol accounted for the majority of cases. The age range was wide, but the incidence was higher with young people. Mortality was low. Key words: toxicology, acute poisoning, epidemiology, self-poisoning. Correspondence: Gudborg Audur Gudjonsdottir, gudborgg@gmail.com.

  1. Public health response systems in-action: learning from local health departments' experiences with acute and emergency incidents.

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    Jennifer C Hunter

    Full Text Available As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems.

  2. Cardiology Consultation in the Emergency Department Reduces Re-hospitalizations for Low-Socioeconomic Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabit, Corey E; Coplan, Mitchell J; Spencer, Kirk T; Alcain, Charina F; Spiegel, Thomas; Vohra, Adam S; Adelman, Daniel; Liao, James K; Sanghani, Rupa Mehta

    2017-09-01

    Re-hospitalization after discharge for acute decompensated heart failure is a common problem. Low-socioeconomic urban patients suffer high rates of re-hospitalization and often over-utilize the emergency department (ED) for their care. We hypothesized that early consultation with a cardiologist in the ED can reduce re-hospitalization and health care costs for low-socioeconomic urban patients with acute decompensated heart failure. There were 392 patients treated at our center for acute decompensated heart failure who received standardized education and follow-up. Patients who returned to the ED received early consultation with a cardiologist; 392 patients who received usual care served as controls. Thirty- and 90-day re-hospitalization, ED re-visits, heart failure symptoms, mortality, and health care costs were recorded. Despite guideline-based education and follow-up, the rate of ED re-visits was not different between the groups. However, the rate of re-hospitalization was significantly lower in patients receiving the intervention compared with controls (odds ratio 0.592), driven by a reduction in the risk of readmission from the ED (0.56 vs 0.79, respectively). Patients receiving the intervention accumulated 14% fewer re-hospitalized days than controls and 57% lower 30-day total health care cost. Despite the reduction in health care resource consumption, mortality was unchanged. After accounting for the total cost of intervention delivery, the health care cost savings was substantially greater than the cost of intervention delivery. Early consultation with a cardiologist in the ED as an adjunct to guideline-based follow-up is associated with reduced re-hospitalization and health care cost for low-socioeconomic urban patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Outpatient Management of Emergency Department Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Variation, Patient Characteristics, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Reed, Mary E; Lin, James S; Kene, Mamata V; Sax, Dana R; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Wang, David H; McLachlan, D Ian; Pleshakov, Tamara S; Silver, Matthew A; Clague, Victoria A; Klonecke, Andrew S; Mark, Dustin G

    2017-12-13

    Outpatient management of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism is uncommon. We seek to evaluate the facility-level variation of outpatient pulmonary embolism management and to describe patient characteristics and outcomes associated with home discharge. The Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (MAPLE) study is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute pulmonary embolism undertaken in 21 community EDs from January 2013 to April 2015. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from comprehensive electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between patient characteristics and home discharge. We report ED length of stay, consultations, 5-day pulmonary embolism-related return visits and 30-day major hemorrhage, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and all-cause mortality. Of 2,387 patients, 179 were discharged home (7.5%). Home discharge varied significantly between EDs, from 0% to 14.3% (median 7.0%; interquartile range 4.2% to 10.9%). Median length of stay for home discharge patients (excluding those who arrived with a new pulmonary embolism diagnosis) was 6.0 hours (interquartile range 4.6 to 7.2 hours) and 81% received consultations. On adjusted analysis, ambulance arrival, abnormal vital signs, syncope or presyncope, deep venous thrombosis, elevated cardiac biomarker levels, and more proximal emboli were inversely associated with home discharge. Thirteen patients (7.2%) who were discharged home had a 5-day pulmonary embolism-related return visit. Thirty-day major hemorrhage and recurrent venous thromboembolism were uncommon and similar between patients hospitalized and those discharged home. All-cause 30-day mortality was lower in the home discharge group (1.1% versus 4.4%). Home discharge of ED patients with acute pulmonary embolism was uncommon and varied significantly between facilities. Patients selected for outpatient management had a

  4. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  5. Acute Headache at Emergency Department: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Complicated by Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction

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    M. Yger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  6. Acute management and outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments with hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Brian H; Singh, Mira; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Leiter, Lawrence A; Hramiak, Irene; Edmonds, Marcia L; Lang, Eddy; Sivilotti, Marco; Scheuermeyer, Frank; Worster, Andrew; Riley, Jennifer; Afilalo, Marc; Stiell, Ian; Yale, Jean-Francois; Woo, Vincent C; Campbell, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective chart audit examined the demographics, investigations, management and outcomes of adult patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments (EDs). All sites conducted a search of their electronic medical records using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes to identify ED visits for hypoglycemia between 2008 and 2010. Patient characteristics, demographics, ED management, ED resources and outcome are reported. A total of 1039 patients over the age of 17 years were included in the study; 347 (33.4%) were classified as type 1 diabetes and 692 (66.6%) were classified as type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes patients were significantly older (73 vs. 49 years; pdiabetes required admission (30.3 vs. 8.8%). Discharge instructions were documented in only 55.5% of patients, and referral to diabetes services occurred in fewer than 20% of cases. Considerable variation existed in the management of hypoglycemia across EDs. Patients with diabetes presenting to an ED with hypoglycemia consume considerable healthcare resources, and practice variation exists. Emergency departments should develop protocols for the management of hypoglycemia, with attention to discharge planning to reduce recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulmonary Function Tests in Emergency Department Pediatric Patients with Acute Wheezing/Asthma Exacerbation

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    Kathryn Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18 yrs with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35% were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission.

  8. A recovery-oriented approach for an acute psychiatric ward: is it feasible and how does it affect staff satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenschlag, Franziska; Konrad, Albrecht; Rueegg, Sebastian; Jaeger, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate professionals' attitudes to recovery and coercion, as well their satisfaction with working conditions before and after the implementation of a recovery-oriented ward concept on an admission ward. Longitudinal study design with two measurement times of the study sample, with a control group assessed at study end. Evaluating the implementation of the recovery concept, attitudes towards recovery, coercion, perceptions of the ward and working satisfaction were assessed with questionnaires and computed using Chi square and ANOVA variance analyses. The members of the intervention ward (n = 17) did not differ from the control group (n = 21), except that control group members were younger. The recovery-orientation of the study ward (ROSE questionnaire) increased significantly (alpha level = 0.05) from study begin to study end (p = 0.003), and compared to the control group (p = 0.002). The attitudes towards coercion did not change significantly in the intervention group, but did so compared to the control group. The contentedness (GMI) and the satisfaction with working conditions (ABB) of the intervention group members compared to control group was significantly higher (GMI: p = 0.004, ABB subscale working conditions: p = 0.043, satisfaction: p = 0.023). The study indicates that recovery-oriented principles can be implemented even in an acute admission ward, increasing team satisfaction with work, while attitudes towards coercion did not change significantly within this single-unit project.

  9. Effect of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment in Emergency Departments on the Hospitalization Rate for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoulvant, François; Bellêttre, Xavier; Milcent, Karen; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Claudet, Isabelle; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; de Pontual, Loïc; Minodier, Philippe; Dubos, François; Brouard, Jacques; Soussan-Banini, Valérie; Degas-Bussiere, Vanessa; Gatin, Amélie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Epaud, Ralph; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Cros, Pierrick; Marot, Yves; Flahaut, Philippe; Saunier, Pascal; Babe, Philippe; Patteau, Géraldine; Delebarre, Mathilde; Titomanlio, Luigi; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Trieu, Thanh-Van; Tahir, Abdelilah; Regnard, Delphine; Micheau, Pascale; Charara, Oussama; Henry, Simon; Ploin, Dominique; Panjo, Henri; Vabret, Astrid; Bouyer, Jean; Gajdos, Vincent

    2017-08-07

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Previous studies, underpowered to examine hospital admission, have found a limited benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment in the pediatric emergency department (ED). To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis. The Efficacy of 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (GUERANDE) study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 2 parallel groups conducted during 2 bronchiolitis seasons (October through March) from October 15, 2012, through April 15, 2014, at 24 French pediatric EDs. Among the 2445 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) assessed for inclusion, 777 with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis with respiratory distress and no chronic medical condition were included. Two 20-minute nebulization treatments of 4 mL of HS, 3%, or 4 mL of normal saline (NS), 0.9%, given 20 minutes apart. Hospital admission rate in the 24 hours after enrollment. Of the 777 infants included in the study (median age, 3 months; interquartile range, 2-5 months; 468 [60.2%] male), 385 (49.5%) were randomized to the HS group and 387 (49.8%) to the NS group (5 patients did not receive treatment). By 24 hours, 185 of 385 infants (48.1%) in the HS group were admitted compared with 202 of 387 infants (52.2%) in the NS group. The risk difference for hospitalizations was not significant according to the mixed-effects regression model (adjusted risk difference, -3.2%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 2.2%; P = .25). The mean (SD) Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score improvement was greater in the HS group (-3.1 [3.2]) than in the NS group (-2.4 [3.3]) (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.2; P = .006) and similarly for the Respiratory Assessment Change Score. Mild adverse events, such as worsening of cough, occurred more frequently among children in the HS group

  10. Prevalence of acute diseases in the elderly assisted in emergency department of orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Thiago de Angelis Guerra; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Furlaneto, Maria Elisabet; Silva, Jorge dos Santos; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make an analysis of the care of elderly in an Emergency Department of Orthopedics with the primary objective to know the percentage of elderly treated, their conditions of origin and level of accidental conditions, and examine possible comorbidities, evolution and mortality rate. METHODS: Retrospective observational epidemiological study based on survey records of a tertiary hospital during one year (January to December 2006) RESULTS: In the year 2006 (January to December) 12,916 calls to patients older than 60 were performed. CONCLUSION: Massive attendance of the elderly population was observed, however, the vast majority related to chronic problems that do not require urgent attention. Patients requiring urgent attention suffer from trauma related to falls and are between the seventh and ninth decades of life, mostly female and requiring hospitalization for longer periods. Level of Evidence VI, Cases Series. PMID:24868189

  11. Depressive symptoms and disability in acute patients with comorbidities in departments of internal medicine

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    Salvatore La Carrubba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are few data on the prevalence of depression among acute patients with comorbidities. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients admitted to Internal Medicine Units and the correlation between these symptoms and comorbidities and disability indexes. Materials and methods: All consecutive patients admitted to 26 Internal Medicine Units of the Italian National Public Health System in Sicily, Italy, from September 2001 to March 2002 were screened. Within 24 hours of admission, patients were administered the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Mini-Mental State Examination, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL and Charlson’s Comorbidity Index. Results: 1,947 subjects were included in the analyses. Of the patients, 509 (26.1% showed depressive symptoms (indicated by GDS score > 15. Depression was significantly associated (univariate analyses with hypertension (OR 1.45; CI 95% 1.18-1.79, diabetes (OR 1.48, CI 95% 1.17-1.87, cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.50, CI 95% 1.08-2.07, cirrhosis (OR 1.49, CI 95% 1.01- 2.19, ADL score (OR 0.72: CI 95% 0.63-0.82, and IADL score (OR 0.83; CI 95% 0.78-0.87, but not with Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (OR 1.04; CI 95% 0.98-1.10. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictive factors for depression were age (OR 1.02, CI 95% 1.01-1.02, female gender (OR 2.29, CI 95% 1.83 - 2.87, and IADL score (OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.81 - 0.93. Conclusions: The data suggest that depressive symptoms are not linked to worse clinical conditions but are associated with the loss of autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.

  12. Declining mortality following acute myocardial infarction in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System

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    Piñeros Sandy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI is declining worldwide. We sought to determine if mortality in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA has also been declining. Methods We calculated 30-day mortality rates between 2004 and 2006 using data from the VHA External Peer Review Program (EPRP, which entails detailed abstraction of records of all patients with AMI. To compare trends within VHA with other systems of care, we estimated relative mortality rates between 2000 and 2005 for all males 65 years and older with a primary diagnosis of AMI using administrative data from the VHA Patient Treatment File and the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MedPAR files. Results Using EPRP data on 11,609 patients, we observed a statistically significant decline in adjusted 30-day mortality following AMI in VHA from 16.3% in 2004 to 13.9% in 2006, a relative decrease of 15% and a decrease in the odds of dying of 10% per year (p = .011. Similar declines were found for in-hospital and 90-day mortality. Based on administrative data on 27,494 VHA patients age 65 years and older and 789,400 Medicare patients, 30-day mortality following AMI declined from 16.0% during 2000-2001 to 15.7% during 2004-June 2005 in VHA and from 16.7% to 15.5% in private sector hospitals. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital effects, the overall relative odds of death were similar for VHA and Medicare (odds ratio 1.02, 95% C.I. 0.96-1.08. Conclusion Mortality following AMI within VHA has declined significantly since 2003 at a rate that parallels that in Medicare-funded hospitals.

  13. Current European data collection on emergency department presentations with acute recreational drug toxicity: gaps and national variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Yates, Christopher; Dines, Alison M; Sedefov, Roumen; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-12-01

    The number of new (novel) psychoactive substances (NPS) available in the illegal market is increasing; however, current monitoring of the drug situation in Europe focuses mainly on classical drugs of abuse, with limited emphasis on clinical presentation in the emergency department (ED). The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) is a European Commission-funded project that aims to improve the knowledge of acute drug toxicity of both classical recreational drugs and NPS. As a baseline for this project, we performed a study to establish which data are currently being collected and reported in Europe on ED presentations with acute toxicity related to NPS and classical drugs of abuse. We used a three-pronged approach to identify any systematic collection of data on NPS toxicity in Europe by i) performing a literature search, ii) utilising an online survey of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Re seau Europe en d'Information sur les Drogues et les Toxicomanies national focal points and iii) exploiting the knowledge and resources of the Euro-DEN network members. The literature search revealed 21 papers appropriate for assessment, but only one described a systematic collection of clinical data on NPS. Twenty-seven of thirty countries responded to the online survey. More than half of all the countries (52%) did not perform any registration at all of such data, 37% collected systematic clinical data on NPS at a national level, while 44% collected data on classical drugs. A few examples for good practice of systematic collection of clinical data on ED presentations due to acute toxicity were identified. The systematic collection of data on ED presentation of toxicity related to NPS and classical drugs in Europe is scarce; the existing collection is limited to single centres, single countries, groups of patients or not focused on novel drugs; the collection of data is highly variable between the different countries. Euro-DEN, a European

  14. Identification of women exposed to acute physical intimate partner violence in an emergency department setting in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkoski, Tuija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is seen as a serious health risk factor for women with significant acute and long-term health consequences and it affects women from all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Knowledge of these consequences of IPV may help emergency department (ED) professionals to identify these women and provide them with appropriate care, including information on a variety of community services, and refer those women to such services if necessary. The study aimed to describe the frequency of ED visits by women exposed to physical intimate partner violence as estimated by ED professionals (nurses, practical nurses, emergency medical technicians) and identification of acute IPV. In this study 'partner' is defined as a woman's husband, former husband, current or former cohabitant or partner. This design was used as part of a larger, descriptive, cross-sectional multi-centre and multi-method study. Data were collected from 28 EDs in 13 Finnish hospital districts. Altogether 488 questionnaires were returned, which yielded a response rate of 51%. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and quantitative content analysis. Findings showed that 48% (n = 231) of the ED professionals reported that they encountered women in IPV relationships at least once a month. Over one-fifth of the ED professionals reported having repeatedly encountered the same women visiting the ED for IPV related injuries. Over half of the participants reported having problems 'often' or 'now and then' when identifying women exposed to IPV. Those with training on IPV estimated that they had identified women exposed to IPV more often. To conclude, the research suggests that improvement of identification of acute IPV requires that training be arranged and jointly agreed written procedures for handling IPV be introduced. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. The Value of Ultrasonography, Leukocyte Count and Clinical Results in Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis and the Duration of Stay of the Patients in Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryigit, Veysi; Mahsanlar, Yasin; Demirtas, Yoldas; Parlak, Ismet

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis in our center with the literature. The patients who were diagnosed with acute appendicitis between 01.10.2010 and 01.10.2011 in Emergency Department of İzmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital were included in this study. Patient demographics, dates and times of emergency department application, dates and times of hospitalization in the general surgery ward, duration of stay in the emergency department, leukocyte count and its relationship with age, the perforation rate, the relationship of perforation with age and leukocyte count, and the final diagnosis and ultrasound findings were assessed in this study. A total of 482 patients who were diagnosed with acute appendicitis [300 (62.2%) male, mean age 30.7±12.03; 182 (37.8%) female, mean age 31.17±13.22)] were enrolled. The duration of stay in the emergency department was between 0-6 and 6-12 hours in 320 (66.4%) and 143 (29.7%) patients, respectively. The ultrasonography findings were consistent with acute appendicitis in 366 (75.9%) patients, and the mean leukocyte count of these patients was 13.141/mm(3). 46 (9.5%) of the patients were diagnosed with perforated appendicitis. The ultrasonography findings were not consistent with acute appendicitis in 36 (7.5%) patients and the leukocyte counts were less than 11.000/mm(3) in these patients. According to the present study results, acute appendicitis is commonly seen among the young adult male population. The coherence of ultrasonography findings with the diagnosis and its association with leukocytosis is significant and supportive. Additionally, the ultrasonography findings, leukocytosis, medical history and physical examination are important and essential factors for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A large number of patients with acute appendicitis were followed-up between 0-6 hours in the emergency department.

  16. [Acute dextromethorphan poisoning based on the records of the Department of Toxicology and Internal Diseases in Poznan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2009-01-01

    The recreational usage of dextrometorphan, the popular antitussive medicine, has become alarming in Poland. The euphoric and hallucinogenic activity of this drug manifests after high doses, usually ranging from 225 to 1500 mg that may lead to acute poisoning. Currently, dextrometh-orphan is considered as addictive substance. In this article we describe the symptoms of acute dextrometorphan poisoning that have been observed in 11 patients, aged between 16 and 31 years that have been treated in the Department of Toxicology and Internal Diseases Raszeja Hospital in Poznan. In the course of intoxication the most frequent symptom was balance disturbation (12.50%), impaired motoric coordination (11.36%), confusion (11.36%) and papillary dilation (11.36%). Agitation (9.09%), tachycardia (7.95%), hallucinations (6.82%), disartria (5.68%) and hypertension (4.55%) were less common. The doses of dextromethorphan ranged from 4.28 to 16.67 mg/kg. All the patients were treated symptomatically. They recovered without sequelae and were discharged after 1-3 days of hospitalization.

  17. A simple statistical model for prediction of acute coronary syndrome in chest pain patients in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenbrandt Lars

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several models for prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among chest pain patients in the emergency department (ED have been presented, but many models predict only the likelihood of acute myocardial infarction, or include a large number of variables, which make them less than optimal for implementation at a busy ED. We report here a simple statistical model for ACS prediction that could be used in routine care at a busy ED. Methods Multivariable analysis and logistic regression were used on data from 634 ED visits for chest pain. Only data immediately available at patient presentation were used. To make ACS prediction stable and the model useful for personnel inexperienced in electrocardiogram (ECG reading, simple ECG data suitable for computerized reading were included. Results Besides ECG, eight variables were found to be important for ACS prediction, and included in the model: age, chest discomfort at presentation, symptom duration and previous hypertension, angina pectoris, AMI, congestive heart failure or PCI/CABG. At an ACS prevalence of 21% and a set sensitivity of 95%, the negative predictive value of the model was 96%. Conclusion The present prediction model, combined with the clinical judgment of ED personnel, could be useful for the early discharge of chest pain patients in populations with a low prevalence of ACS.

  18. Prognostic value of early warning scores in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU): A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannan Panday, R S; Minderhoud, T C; Alam, N; Nanayakkara, P W B

    2017-10-06

    A wide array of early warning scores (EWS) have been developed and are used in different settings to detect which patients are at risk of deterioration. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of studies conducted on the value of EWS on predicting intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU). A literature search was conducted in the bibliographic databases PubMed and EMBASE, from inception to April 2017. Two reviewers independently screened all potentially relevant titles and abstracts for eligibility. 42 studies were included. 36 studies reported on mortality as an endpoint, 13 reported ICU admission and 9 reported the composite outcome of mortality and ICU admission. For mortality prediction National Early Warning Score (NEWS) was the most accurate score in the general ED population and in those with respiratory distress, Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis score (MEDS) had the best accuracy in patients with an infection or sepsis. ICU admission was best predicted with NEWS, however in patients with an infection or sepsis Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) yielded better results for this outcome. MEWS and NEWS generally had favourable results in the ED and AMU for all endpoints. Many studies have been performed on ED and AMU populations using heterogeneous prognostic scores. However, future studies should concentrate on a simple and easy to use prognostic score such as NEWS with the aim of introducing this throughout the (pre-hospital and hospital) acute care chain. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of comorbid substance use disorders among acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUD) among psychiatric inpatients in the Western Cape, South Africa. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the prevalence of SUD among acute adult psychiatric inpatients at Stikland Hospital, one of three state acute psychiatric ...

  20. Short-term outcome following referral to a psychiatric emergency service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooren, D; van Heeringen, K; Jannes, C

    1997-01-01

    The study described here is part of an evaluation of a pilot project concerning the implementation of three psychiatric crisis units in general hospitals in Belgium. The purpose was to evaluate the short-term outcome of a multidisciplinary crisis intervention for psychiatric patients referred to the emergency department. Patients were assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) at the time of referral to the emergency department and again 1 month later. Patients referred for a psychiatric crisis intervention were compared with patients receiving short-term psychiatric inpatient treatment in another hospital. Patients referred to the emergency department showed a considerable degree of psychiatric disturbance. The General Health Questionnaire appeared to be a good measure for assessment of the "state" aspect of a psychiatric disturbance. The state of distress was significantly reduced one month after referral in both treatment conditions. Nevertheless, an important proportion of patients remained in a state of considerable distress. The results indicate that a short hospital-based crisis intervention approach is comparable with more traditional acute inpatient treatment. However, in the case of more severely distressed patients it may be insufficient. Several limitations of this study are also discussed (risk of overestimation of improvement, influence of time or pre-existing differences).

  1. Comparison of the HEART and TIMI Risk Scores for Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Benjamin C; Laurie, Amber; Fu, Rongwei; Ferencik, Maros; Shapiro, Michael; Lindsell, Christopher J; Diercks, Deborah; Hoekstra, James W; Hollander, Judd E; Kirk, J Douglas; Peacock, W Frank; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Pollack, Charles V

    2016-03-01

    The emergency department evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is common, costly, and challenging. Risk scores may help standardize clinical care and screening for research studies. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and HEART are two commonly cited risk scores. We tested the null hypothesis that the TIMI and HEART risk scores have equivalent test characteristics. We analyzed data from the Internet Tracking Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (i*trACS) from 9 EDs on patients with suspected ACS, 1999-2001. We excluded patients with an emergency department diagnosis consistent with ACS, or without sufficient data to calculate TIMI and HEART scores. The primary outcome was 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events, including all-cause death, acute myocardial infarction, and urgent revascularization. We describe test characteristics of the TIMI and HEART risk scores. The study cohort included 8255 patients with 508 (6.2%) 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events. Receiver operating curve and reclassification analyses favored HEART [c statistic: 0.753, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.733-0.773; continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.608, 95% CI: 0.527-0.689] over TIMI (c statistic: 0.678, 95% CI: 0.655-0.702). A HEART score 0-3 [negative predictive value (NPV) 0.982, 95% CI: 0.978-0.986; positive predictive value (PPV) 0.103, 95% CI: 0.094-0.113; likelihood ratio (LR) positive 1.76; LR negative 0.28] demonstrates similar or superior NPV/PPV/LR compared with TIMI = 0 (NPV 0.978, 95% CI: 0.971-0.983; PPV 0.077, 95% CI: 0.071-0.084; LR positive 1.28; LR negative 0.35) and TIMI = 0-1 (NPV 0.963, 95% CI: 0.958-0.968; PPV 0.102, 95% CI: 0.092-0.113; LR positive 1.73; LR negative 0.58). The HEART score has better discrimination than TIMI and outperforms TIMI within previously published "low-risk" categories.

  2. Psychiatric emergencies of minors with and without migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Popow, Christian; Waldhör, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2017-03-01

    The conditions of children and adolescents with migration background receiving emergency psychiatric care in Europe are not well known. Migrants usually attend regular psychiatric care less frequently than the autochthonous population. We therefore speculated that, being undertreated, they would be overrepresented among psychiatric emergency care patients. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1093 minors aged 4‑18 years treated during a period of three years at the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Medical University of Vienna. More minors with migration background than natives consulted our emergency clinic. Most frequent reasons for referral were suicide attempts by Turkish patients, acute stress disorder in Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian and in Austrian patients. Psychiatric diagnoses like eating and personality disorders were mostly diagnosed in natives. We found gender specific differences between the groups. The reasons for these differences possibly relate to deficits of adequate mental health-care in Austria, to intercultural and intrafamiliar conflicts related to acculturation distress in the migrant population. Prospective longitudinal studies focusing on the utilization of mental health care by the migrant children and the impact of the migration background on their mental health are needed for improving adequate culture-sensitive mental-health care for this population.

  3. Treatment outcomes of a combined cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for a sample of women with and without substance abuse histories on an acute psychiatric unit: do therapeutic alliance and motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nickeisha; Mun, Eun-Young; Kelly, Shalonda; White, Helene R; Lynch, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Women with comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse problems (PwSA) experience more consequences from their use and typically have the poorest prognosis and outcome, compared to those with psychiatric problems but without substance abuse problems (PwoSA). The present study examined outcomes of a combined intensive inpatient cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy program for women with PwSA and PwoSA. Sample consisted of 117 women on a women-only acute inpatient unit (PwSA = 50, PwoSA = 67). Women in both groups made significant improvements in psychological functioning. High motivation at admission and therapeutic alliance at discharge were associated with improved psychological functioning at discharge for both groups. Findings provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a combined CBT and pharmacotherapy program for women with psychiatric diagnoses on a women-only acute inpatient unit, and for pre-treatment motivation and therapeutic alliance as important correlates of better treatment outcomes. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Contingent Valuation Analysis of an Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology Emergency Department: The Value of Acute Specialty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Kozin, Elliot D; Sethi, Rosh K; Ota, H G; Gray, Stacey T; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Specialty emergency departments (EDs) provide a unique mechanism of health care delivery, but the value that they add to the medical system is not known. Evaluation of patient preferences to determine value can have a direct impact on resource allocation and direct-to-specialist care. To assess the feasibility of contingent valuation (CV) methodology using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey to evaluate specialty emergency services, in the context of an ophthalmology- and otolaryngology-specific ED. Contingent valuation analysis of a standalone otolaryngology and ophthalmology ED. Participants were English-speaking adults presenting to a dedicated otolaryngology and ophthalmology ED. The WTP questions were assessed using a payment card format, with reference to an alternative modality of treatment (ie, general ED), and were analyzed with multivariate regression. Validated WTP survey administered from October 14, 2014, through October 1, 2015. Sociodemographic data, level of distress, referral data, income, and WTP. A total of 327 of 423 (77.3%) ED patients responded to the WTP survey, with 116 ophthalmology and 211 otolaryngology patients included (52.3% female; mean [range] age, 46 [18-90] years). The most common reason for seeking care at this facility was a reputation for specialty care for both ear, nose, and throat (80 [37.9%]) and ophthalmology (43 [37.1%]). Mean WTP for specialty-specific ED services was $377 for ophthalmology patients, and $321 for otolaryngology patients ($340 overall; 95% CI, $294 to $386), without significant difference between groups (absolute difference, $56; 95% CI, $-156 to $43). Self-reported level of distress was higher among ear, nose, and throat vs ophthalmology patients (absolute difference, 0.47 on a Likert scale of 1-7; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.84). Neither level of distress, income, nor demographic characteristics influenced WTP, but patients with higher estimates of total visit cost were more likely to have higher WTP (β coefficient

  5. The Yield of Neuroimaging in Children Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Ataxia in the Post-Varicella Vaccine Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudloe, Tiffany; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Gorman, Mark P; Nigrovic, Lise E; Harper, Marvin B; Landschaft, Assaf; Kimia, Amir A

    2015-09-01

    To determine the yield of neuroimaging in children presenting to the emergency department with acute ataxia in the post-varicella vaccine era, we conducted a cross-sectional study between 1995 and 2013 at a single pediatric tertiary care center. We included children aged 1-18 years evaluated for acute ataxia of ataxia. Neuroimaging may be deferred in younger children with short duration of symptoms contingent on close follow-up. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  7. Excited delirium: Consideration of selected medical and psychiatric issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Edith Samuel1, Robert B Williams1, Richard B Ferrell21Department of Psychology, Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton, New Brunswick Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USAAbstract: Excited delirium, sometimes referred to as agitated or excited delirium, is the label assigned to the state of acute behavioral disinhibition manifested in a cluster of behaviors that may include bizarreness, aggressiveness, agitation, ranting, hyperactivity, paranoia, panic, violence, public disturbance, surprising physical strength, profuse sweating due to hyperthermia, respiratory arrest, and death. Excited delirium is reported to result from substance intoxication, psychiatric illness, alcohol withdrawal, head trauma, or a combination of these. This communication reviews the history of the origins of excited delirium, selected research related to its causes, symptoms, management, and the links noted between it and selected medical and psychiatric conditions. Excited delirium involves behavioral and physical symptoms that are also observed in medical and psychiatric conditions such as rhabdomyolysis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and catatonia. A useful contribution of this communication is that it links the state of excited delirium to conditions for which there are known and effective medical and psychiatric interventions.Keywords: excited delirium, excited states, cocaine misuse, restraint or in custody deaths

  8. Utility of Emergency Department Observation Units for Neurologically Intact Children With Head CT Abnormalities Secondary to Acute Closed Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Roxanna; Hunter, Jill V; Cruz, Andrea T; Caviness, A Chantal; Luerssen, Thomas G; Adekunle-Ojo, Aderonke

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of the emergency department observation unit (EDOU) for neurologically intact children with closed head injuries (CHIs) and computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. A retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years with acute CHI, abnormal head CT, and a Glasgow Coma Scales score of 14 or higher admitted to the EDOU of a tertiary care children's hospital from 2007 to 2010. Children with multisystem trauma, nonaccidental trauma, and previous neurosurgical or coagulopathic conditions were excluded. Medical records were abstracted for demographic, clinical, and radiographic findings. Poor outcome was defined as death, intensive care unit admission, or medically/surgically treated increased intracranial pressure. Two hundred two children were included. Median (range) age was 14 (4 days-16 years) months; 51% were male. The most common CT findings were nondisplaced (136, 67%) or displaced (46, 23%) as well as skull fractures and subdural hematomas (38, 19%); 54 (27%) had less than 1 CT finding. The most common interventions included repeat CT (42, 21%), antiemetics (26, 13%), and pain medication (29, 14%). Eighty-nine percent were discharged in less than 24 hours. Inpatient admission from the EDOU occurred in 6 (3%); all were discharged in less than 3 days. One patient required additional intervention (corticosteroid therapy). She had a subdural hematoma, persistent vomiting, intractable headache, and a nonevolving CT. Neurologically intact patients on initial ED evaluation had a very low likelihood of requiring further interventions, irrespective of CT findings. Although prospective evidence is necessary, this supports reliance on clinical findings when evaluating a well-appearing child with an acute CHI.

  9. Cardiac troponin I as a predictor of major cardiac events in emergency department patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, C A; Lee, T H; Cook, E F; Walls, R; Wybenga, D; Printy-Klein, G; Ludwig, L; Guldbrandsen, G; Johnson, P A

    1998-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain. Although cTnI has been shown to correlate with an increased risk for complications in patients with unstable angina, the prognostic significance of this assay in the heterogeneous population of patients who present to the ED with chest pain is unclear. cTnI and creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) mass concentration were collected serially during the first 48 h from onset of symptoms in 1,047 patients > or =30 years old admitted for acute chest pain. Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for cTnI and CK-MB collected in the first 24 h. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of cTnI for major cardiac events were 47%, 80% and 19%, respectively. Among patients were who ruled out for myocardial infarction, cTnI was elevated in 26% who had major cardiac complications compared with 5% for CK-MB; the positive predictive value for an abnormal cTnI result was 8%. Elevated cTnI in the presence of ischemia on the electrocardiogram was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.9) for major cardiac events within 72 h. Among patients without a myocardial infarction or unstable angina, cTnI was not an independent correlate of complications. In patients presenting to the ED with acute chest pain, cTnI was an independent predictor of major cardiac events, However, the positive predictive value of an abnormal assay result was not high in this heterogeneous cohort.

  10. [Usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmarza, Pilar; Lapresta, Carlos; García-Castañón, Sandra; López-Perales, Carlos; Pérez-Guerrero, Ainhoa; Portolés, Ana

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of copeptin (a stable fragment of the precursor of arginine vasopressin) in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain of probable coronary origin. The study includes 82 patients who were initially evaluated according to the protocol of a patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in our Emergency Department, including the determination of troponin and copeptin with specimens taken on admission (time 0) and at 6h. Statistically significant differences were observed in copeptin concentrations at time 0 among patients diagnosed with non-ST-segment elevation (NTEACS): 42.1±38.7pmol/L and non-NSTEACS patients: 15.6±21.2pmol/L (P<. 01). However, the differences did not reach statistical significance at 6h (P=.093). The analysis of the area under the ROC curve for Copeptin in NSTEACS patients at time 0 was 0.713, with a confidence interval of 95% from 0.592 to 0.834 and a significance level of P=.001. The concentration of copeptin represents an additional value in the differentiation between NSTEACS patients and non-NSTEACS patients, as well as between ACS patients and patients with stable angina. The cut-off point of 10pmol/L provides the best values for sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) in the diagnosis of NSTEACS patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of acupuncture on pain and inflammation in pediatric emergency department patients with acute appendicitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Kobylecka, Monika; Pham, Phung K; Johnson, Leighanne; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-05-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to treat various medical conditions, including acute and chronic pain, and there is limited evidence that acupuncture produces anti-inflammatory effects. This pilot study evaluated the use of acupuncture to treat pain and determine if acupuncture can reduce the inflammatory response in pediatric patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. This pilot study used convenience sampling and was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) of an urban tertiary care children's hospital. Patients conventionally evaluated and definitively diagnosed with appendicitis were eligible to voluntarily participate. The diagnostic homogeneity of the target population allowed for a standardized intervention protocol. A licensed acupuncturist performed a specific form of Japanese acupuncture known as the Kiiko Matsumoto Style on all study patients. Subjective pain was assessed immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes postintervention, using 3 measures: Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), colored analog scale (CAS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Evidence of inflammation was assessed using two biomarkers: white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). WBC and CRP were drawn and recorded 3 times: before the intervention, 2 minutes before removal of needles, and 30 minutes after needling. Six Latino/Hispanic patients (4 males, 2 females, median age=15 years) with no previous acupuncture experience participated in the study. Median pre/postacupuncture pain scores were as follows: FPS-R, 5 vs. 4; CAS, 6.1 vs. 4.8; VAS, 46 vs. 32. Median WBC (10(3)/μL) and CRP (mg/dL) across time were as follows: WBC, 13.2, 11.8, and 11.4; CRP, 4.5, 4.9, and 5.1. Median acupuncture duration was 28.5 minutes (range 22-32) and no complications were observed. Pilot data suggest that acupuncture may be a feasible and effective treatment modality for decreasing subjective pain and inflammation as measured by WBC. Acupuncture may be a useful

  12. Association between bullying and pediatric psychiatric hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Hadassa; Singh, Jasmine; Ghaffar, Ayesha; de Silva, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a serious public health issue. We sought to demonstrate an association between bullying victimization and hospital admissions for acute psychiatric problems. We described the demographics and types of bullying in a sample of hospitalized patients in Staten Island, NY, and compared bullying victimization scores with psychiatric versus medical admissions. Methods: Patients in grades 3–12 were recruited from the Staten Island University Hospital Inpatient Pediatrics unit and emergency department. Patients completed the validated Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBQ) was analyzed to formulate a report of bullying in our sample as well as a sub-score measurement of bullying victimization. Pediatric residents simultaneously documented whether the subject was a medical versus an in-patient psychiatry admission. Statistical analysis was performed to look for an association between the victimization sub-score and a psychiatric indication for admission. Results: A total of 185 surveys were analyzed. Peak bullying occurred in 7th and 8th grades. Demographics and types of bullying in our sample were described. A strong association between bullying victimization and hospitalization for in-patient psychiatry was demonstrated. Association between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, psychiatry, and social work consults was also shown. Concern for an association between hospitalization for psychogenic illness and bullying victimization was also raised. Conclusions: There is a significant association between bullying victimization and psychiatric hospital admissions. This raises the specter of the serious consequences of bullying as it is the first study to prospectively link hospital admissions to bullying. Studies using a valid measure of psychogenic illness to look for an association with bullying victimization are needed. PMID:29326819

  13. Clinical predictors of hypoxemia in Indian children with acute respiratory tract infection presenting to pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yashwant Kumar; Midha, Tanu; Kumar, Pankaj; Tripathi, Virendra Nath; Rai, Om Prakash

    2012-08-01

    In developing countries, facilities for measuring arterial oxygen saturation are not available in most settings, which make it difficult for health providers to detect hypoxemia in children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI). Most health providers rely on symptoms and signs to identify hypoxemia and start oxygen therapy. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the clinical predictors of hypoxemia in children with ARI. It was a cross-sectional study carried out at the Pediatric Emergency Department of GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India in children in the age group between 2 months and 5 years, presenting with ARI. All children with ARI attending the pediatric emergency department from April 2007 to September 2008 were included in the study. Clinical signs and symptoms including fever, cough, nasal flaring, inability to feed/drink, cyanosis, chest wall retraction, wheezing, grunting, tachypnea and crepitations were noted and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) was measured. Hypoxemia was defined as SpO(2) hypoxemia. Chest wall retraction (sensitivity=90%), crepitations (sensitivity=87%), nasal flaring (sensitivity=84%), tachypnea (sensitivity=81%) and inability to feed (sensitivity=81%) were observed to be the most sensitive indicators of hypoxemia while the best predictors were cyanosis [positive predictive value (PPV)=88%] and nasal flaring (PPV=53%). Chest wall retraction was found to be the most sensitive indicator, and cyanosis was the most specific indicator for hypoxemia. Of all the clinical signs and symptoms of hypoxemia, none had all the attributes of being a good predictor. A new hypoxemia score has been designed using a combination of clinical signs and symptoms to predict the need for supplemental oxygen therapy.

  14. [16-MDCT angiography coronary artery in the emergency department for patients with acute coronary syndrome (NSTEMI-UA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciani, E; Polettini, E; Bertini, L; Rotolo, F; Truscelli, G; Pittalis, A; Masselli, G; Campagnano, S; Pastore, R; Gualdi, G F

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina in the emergency department (ED) remains a challenge. The aim of our study was to investigate quality and the diagnostic accuracy of 16-MDCT coronary angiography, detecting coronary artery lesions in patients with suspected ACS presented in ED. We studied with 16-MDCT (Sensation 16, Siemens, Forchleim, Germania) and coronary angiography 37 patients with the following inclusion criteria: chest pain compatible with myocardial ischemia, normal or no-diagnostic ECG changes and initial concentrations of serum troponin-I 50% and correctly ruled out significant coronary artery disease in 19 patients with 1 FP and 2 FN: sensitivity 88%, specificity 95%, PPV 94%, NPV 90%. The plaques were hard in 6 cases, mixt in 16 cases and soft in 14 cases, respectively. Our results point-out that 16-MDCT in ED has the real ability to detect and rule out significant coronary stenoses in patients with ACS.

  15. Clinical implementation of an emergency department coronary computed tomographic angiography protocol for triage of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Vadvala, Harshna; Kim, Phillip; Meyersohn, Nandini M.; Janjua, Sumbal A.; Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Takx, Richard A.P. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Neilan, Tomas G.; Francis, Sanjeev [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Bittner, Daniel [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Medicine 2 - Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Mayrhofer, Thomas [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stralsund University of Applied Sciences, School of Business Studies, Stralsund (Germany); Greenwald, Jeffrey L. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Truong, Quyhn A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Weill Cornell College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Abbara, Suhny [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department Cardiothoracic Imaging, Dallas, TX (United States); Brown, David F.M.; Nagurney, John T. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Januzzi, James L. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Collaboration: MGH Emergency Cardiac CTA Program Contributors

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of emergency department (ED) coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) during a 3-year clinical experience. Single-center registry of coronary CTA in consecutive ED patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The primary outcome was efficiency of coronary CTA defined as the length of hospitalization. Secondary endpoints of safety were defined as the rate of downstream testing, normalcy rates of invasive coronary angiography (ICA), absence of missed ACS, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during follow-up, and index radiation exposure. One thousand twenty two consecutive patients were referred for clinical coronary CTA with suspicion of ACS. Overall, median time to discharge home was 10.5 (5.7-24.1) hours. Patient disposition was 42.7 % direct discharge from the ED, 43.2 % discharge from emergency unit, and 14.1 % hospital admission. ACS rate during index hospitalization was 9.1 %. One hundred ninety two patients underwent additional diagnostic imaging and 77 underwent ICA. The positive predictive value of CTA compared to ICA was 78.9 % (95 %-CI 68.1-87.5 %). Median CT radiation exposure was 4.0 (2.5-5.8) mSv. No ACS was missed; MACE at follow-up after negative CTA was 0.2 %. Coronary CTA in an experienced tertiary care setting allows for efficient and safe management of patients with suspicion for ACS. (orig.)

  16. Etiology and Risk Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in a Taipei Emergency Department: Clinical Features for Bacterial Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chih Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative pathogen is rarely identified in the emergency department (ED, since the results of cultures are usually unavailable. As a result, antimicrobial treatment may be overused. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathogens, risk factors of acute gastroenteritis, and predictors of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the ED. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study of 627 stool samples and 612 matched pairs. Results: Viruses (41.3% were the leading cause of gastroenteritis, with noroviruses (32.2% being the most prevalent, followed by bacteria (26.8% and Giardia lamblia (12.4%. Taking antacids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57–6.53, household members/classmates with gastroenteritis (aOR 4.69; 95% CI, 2.76–7.96, attending a banquet (aOR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.64–3.20, dining out (aOR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13–2.54, and eating raw oysters (aOR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.61–5.94 were highly associated with gastroenteritis. Elders (aOR 1.04; 05% CI, 1.02–1.05, those with CRP >10 mg/L (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62, or those who were positive for fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62 or fecal occult blood (aOR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.03–3.77 were more likely to be hospitalized in ED. In addition, presence of fecal leukocytes (time ratio [TR] 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06–1.41, abdominal pain (TR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07–1.41, and frequency of vomiting (TR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.98 were significantly associated with the duration of acute gastroenteritis. Presence of fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.42–3.05, winter season (aOR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28–0.74, frequency of diarrhea (aOR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01–2.83, and eating shrimp or crab (aOR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05–2.23 were highly associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the final model was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55–0.63. Conclusions: Acute bacterial gastroenteritis was highly associated with

  17. Exploring how nurses assess, monitor and manage acute pain for adult critically ill patients in the emergency department: protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varndell, Wayne; Fry, Margaret; Elliott, Doug

    2017-08-01

    Many critically ill patients experience moderate to severe acute pain that is frequently undetected and/or undertreated. Acute pain in this patient cohort not only derives from their injury and/or illness, but also as a consequence of delivering care whilst stabilising the patient. Emergency nurses are increasingly responsible for the safety and wellbeing of critically ill patients, which includes assessing, monitoring and managing acute pain. How emergency nurses manage acute pain in critically ill adult patients is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore how emergency nurses manage acute pain in critically ill patients in the Emergency Department. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the methods and protocol for a multiphase sequential mixed methods study, exploring how emergency nurses assess, monitor and manage acute pain in critically ill adult patients. The objective, method, data collection and analysis of each phase are explained. Justification of each method and data integration is described. Synthesis of findings will generate a comprehensive picture of how emergency nurses' perceive and manage acute pain in critically ill adult patients. The results of this study will form a knowledge base to expand theory and inform research and practice.

  18. A randomized controlled trial comparing intranasal fentanyl to intravenous morphine for managing acute pain in children in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Meredith; Jacobs, Ian; King, Barbara; O'Brien, Debra

    2007-03-01

    We compare the efficacy of intranasal fentanyl versus intravenous morphine in a pediatric population presenting to an emergency department (ED) with acute long-bone fractures. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in a tertiary pediatric ED between September 2001 and January 2005. A convenience sample of children aged 7 to 15 years with clinically deformed closed long-bone fractures was included to receive either active intravenous morphine (10 mg/mL) and intranasal placebo or active intranasal concentrated fentanyl (150 microg/mL) and intravenous placebo. Exclusion criteria were narcotic analgesia within 4 hours of arrival, significant head injury, allergy to opiates, nasal blockage, or inability to perform pain scoring. Pain scores were rated by using a 100-mm visual analog scale at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Routine clinical observations and adverse events were recorded. Sixty-seven children were enrolled (mean age 10.9 years [SD 2.4]). Fractures were radius or ulna 53 (79.1%), humerus 9 (13.4%), tibia or fibula 4 (6.0%), and femur 1 (1.5%). Thirty-four children received intravenous (i.v.) morphine and 33 received intranasal fentanyl. Statistically significant differences in visual analog scale scores were not observed between the 2 treatment arms either preanalgesia or at 5, 10, 20, or 30 minutes postanalgesia (P=.333). At 10 minutes, the difference in mean visual analog scale between the morphine and fentanyl groups was -5 mm (95% confidence interval -16 to 7 mm). Reductions in combined pain scores occurred at 5 minutes (20 mm; P=.000), 10 minutes (4 mm; P=.012), and 20 minutes (8 mm; P=.000) postanalgesia. The mean total INF dose was 1.7 microg/kg, and the mean total i.v. morphine dose was 0.11 mg/kg. There were no serious adverse events. Intranasal fentanyl delivered as 150 microg/mL at a dose of 1.7 microg/kg was shown to be an effective analgesic in children aged 7 to 15 years presenting to an ED with

  19. Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotze U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Lotze1, Holger Lemm2, Anke Heyer2, Karin Müller31Department of Internal Medicine, German Red Cross Hospital Sondershausen, Sondershausen, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Saale-Unstrut Hospital Naumburg, Naumburg, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this observational study was to test the diagnostic performance of the Elecsys® troponin T high-sensitive system combined with copeptin measurement for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (MI in clinical practice.Methods: Troponin T high-sensitive (diagnostic cutoff: <14 pg/mL and copeptin (diagnostic cutoff: <14 pmol/L levels were determined at admission in addition to other routine laboratory parameters in patients with suspected acute MI presenting to the emergency department of a general hospital over a period of five months.Results: Data from 142 consecutive patients (mean age 71.2 ± 13.5 years, 76 men were analyzed. Final diagnoses were acute MI in 13 patients (nine ST elevation MI, four non-ST elevation MI, 9.2% unstable angina pectoris in three (2.1%, cardiac symptoms not primarily associated with myocardial ischemia in 79 (55.6%, and noncardiac disease in 47 patients (33.1%. The patients with acute MI were younger and had higher troponin T high-sensitive and copeptin values than patients without acute MI. Seventeen patients had very high copeptin values (>150 pmol/L, one of whom had a level of >700 pmol/L and died of pulmonary embolism. A troponin T high-sensitive level of <14 pg/mL in combination with copeptin <14 pmol/L at initial presentation ruled out acute MI in 45 of the 142 patients (31.7%, each with a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%.Conclusion: According to this early experience, a single determination of troponin T high-sensitive and copeptin may enable early and accurate exclusion of acute MI in one third of patients, even in an emergency department of a general hospital.Keywords: highly sensitive troponin T

  20. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with acute non-specific chest pain in emergency and cardiology departments after the introduction of high-sensitivity troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilangkovan, Nivethitha; Mickley, Hans; Diederichsen, Axel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of clinical, cardiac-related endpoints and mortality among patients presenting to an emergency or cardiology department with non-specific chest pain (NSCP), and who receive testing with a high-sensitivity troponin. A second objective was to identify risk...... factors for the above-noted endpoints during 12 months of follow-up. DESIGN: A prospective multicentre study. SETTING: Emergency and cardiology departments in Southern Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study enrolled 1027 patients who were assessed for acute chest pain in an emergency or cardiology department......, and in whom a myocardial infarction or another obvious reason for chest pain had been ruled out. Patients were enrolled from September 2014 to June 2015 and followed for 1 year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical, cardiac-related endpoints (cardiac-related death, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina...

  1. The application of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide to a sample of Swiss patients attending a psychiatric emergency department for a non-lethal suicidal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Marc; Costanza, Alessandra; Richard-Lepouriel, Hélène; Pompili, Maurizio; Sarasin, François; Weber, Kerstin; Canuto, Alessandra

    2017-03-01

    Visits to emergency departments (EDs) for suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt have increased in the past decades. Yet comprehensive models of suicide are scarce, potentially enhancing misunderstandings from health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in a population visiting EDs for suicide-related issues. Three major hypotheses formulated by the IPTS were tested in a sample of 167 individuals visiting EDs for suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. As predicted by the IPTS, greater levels of perceived burdensomeness (PB) were associated with presence of current suicidal ideation. However, contrary to the theory assumptions, thwarted belongingness (TB) was not predictive of current suicidal ideation (Hypothesis 1). Similarly, the interaction between PB, TB and hopelessness did not account for the transition from passive to active suicidal ideation (Hypothesis 2). The interaction between active suicidal ideation and fearlessness of death did not either predict the transition from active suicidal ideation to suicidal intent (Hypothesis 3). The cross-sectional design limited the interpretation of causal hypotheses. Patients visiting EDs during nights and weekends were underrepresented. A general measure of hopelessness was considered, not a measure of hopelessness specifically related to PB and TB. Although the three hypotheses were only partially verified, health professionals might consider the IPTS as useful for the management of patient with suicide-related issues. Clinical intervention based on perceived burdensomeness could notably be proposed shortly after ED admission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-13

    Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants reported being able to operate all

  3. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy and Psychiatric Illness: Redefining the Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who encounter patients in the emergency department with chest pain, palpitations, or shortness of breath may often find it difficult to differentiate diagnosis of panic attacks from acute coronary syndrome or Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. Redefining and understanding the pathophysiological relationship of psychiatric illness including anxiety, depression, or panic attacks and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy may help clinicians implement a more effective and beneficial model of care for this affliction that is being found to be increasingly more common in today’s age.

  4. Does it require to exclude cardiobiliary reflex in every acute coronary syndrome follow up patient with bedside ultrasound on emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolatkale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In emergency department, physicians can diagnose pulseless electrical activity, asystole, pericardial effusions, ischemic heart disease, wall motion abnormalities, valvular cardiac disease volume status or global cardiac function evaluating with electrocardiographic findings or using bedside cardiac ultrasonography. But these two methods are not always sufficient to explain the underlying another pathologies such as pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis which can mimick acute cardiac events. Patients who are followed up with a preliminary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department, might have underlying biliary or pancreatic pathologies, or even more, these might be the sole reason of the clinical picture. So bedside abdomen ultrasonography and liver enzymes may be requested in all patients with suspected cardiac pathology with a normal cardiac ultrasonography when a patient presented with acute chest or abdominal pain. Physicians must be aware for coexisting pathophysiologies and take into account the differential diagnosis of all life-threatening causes such as cardiac ischemia or acute abdominal situations. So the diagnostic tests for gallbladder pathology could be added to cardiac ultrasonography

  5. [Metered-dose inhaler with spacer vs nebulization for severe and potentially severe acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannier, N; Timsit, S; Cojocaru, B; Leis, A; Wille, C; Garel, D; Bocquet, N; Chéron, G

    2006-03-01

    To compare treatment with beta 2 agonist delivered either by a spacer device or a nebulizer in children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma. In this randomized trial, children 4 to 15 years, cared for in the emergency department for severe or potentially severe acute asthma, received 6 times either nebulizations of salbutamol (0.15mg/kg) or puffs of a beta 2 agonist (salbutamol 50 microg/kg or terbutaline 125 microg/kg). The primary outcome was the hospitalization rate. Secondary outcomes included percentage improvement in Bishop score, in PEF, SaO(2), respiratory and heart rates, side effects, length of stay and relapses 10 and 30 days later. Groups did not differ for baseline data. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (nebulizer N=40, spacer N=39) for baseline characteristics before emergency department consultation except for length of acute asthma in the spacer group. Clinical evolution after treatment, hospitalization rate, relapse were similar including the more severe subgroup. In the spacer group, tachycardia was less frequent (Pvs 108+/-13 min, Pmetered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma in the emergency department. Time gained can be used for asthma education.

  6. Utility of the History and Physical Examination in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary Dw; Mattu, Amal; Body, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Chest pain accounts for approximately 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits and is the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. One of the most serious diagnoses emergency physicians must consider is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is both common and serious, as ischemic heart disease remains the single biggest cause of death in the western world. The history and physical examination are cornerstones of our diagnostic approach in this patient group. Their importance is emphasized in guidelines, but there is little evidence to support their supposed association. The purpose of this article was to summarize the findings of recent investigations regarding the ability of various components of the history and physical examination to identify which patients presenting to the ED with chest pain require further investigation for possible ACS. Previous studies have consistently identified a number of factors that increase the probability of ACS. These include radiation of the pain, aggravation of the pain by exertion, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Traditional cardiac risk factors identified by the Framingham Heart Study are of limited diagnostic utility in the ED. Clinician gestalt has very low predictive ability, even in patients with a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG), and gestalt does not seem to be enhanced appreciably by clinical experience. The history and physical alone are unable to reduce a patient's risk of ACS to a generally acceptable level (<1%). Ultimately, our review of the evidence clearly demonstrates that "atypical" symptoms cannot rule out ACS, while "typical" symptoms cannot rule it in. Therefore, if a patient has symptoms that are compatible with ACS and an alternative cause cannot be identified, clinicians must strongly consider the need for further investigation with ECG and troponin measurement.

  7. Utility of the History and Physical Examination in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Department Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary DW; Mattu, Amal; Body, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Chest pain accounts for approximately 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits and is the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. One of the most serious diagnoses emergency physicians must consider is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is both common and serious, as ischemic heart disease remains the single biggest cause of death in the western world. The history and physical examination are cornerstones of our diagnostic approach in this patient group. Their importance is emphasized in guidelines, but there is little evidence to support their supposed association. The purpose of this article was to summarize the findings of recent investigations regarding the ability of various components of the history and physical examination to identify which patients presenting to the ED with chest pain require further investigation for possible ACS. Previous studies have consistently identified a number of factors that increase the probability of ACS. These include radiation of the pain, aggravation of the pain by exertion, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Traditional cardiac risk factors identified by the Framingham Heart Study are of limited diagnostic utility in the ED. Clinician gestalt has very low predictive ability, even in patients with a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG), and gestalt does not seem to be enhanced appreciably by clinical experience. The history and physical alone are unable to reduce a patient’s risk of ACS to a generally acceptable level (<1%). Ultimately, our review of the evidence clearly demonstrates that “atypical” symptoms cannot rule out ACS, while “typical” symptoms cannot rule it in. Therefore, if a patient has symptoms that are compatible with ACS and an alternative cause cannot be identified, clinicians must strongly consider the need for further investigation with ECG and troponin measurement. PMID:28611898

  8. Thrombocytopenia on the first day of emergency department visit predicts higher risk of acute kidney injury among elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2017-02-10

    Few studies have addressed risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in geriatric patients. We investigated whether thrombocytopenia was a risk factor for AKI in geriatric patients with medical illnesses. A prospective cohort study was conducted, by recruiting elderly (≥65 years) patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for medical illnesses during 2014. They all received hemogram for platelet count determination, and were stratified according to the presence of thrombocytopenia (platelets, thrombocytopenia and subsequent AKI after ED stay, using Cox proportional hazard modeling, with platelet count as a continuous variable or thrombocytopenia as a categorical variable. Of 136 elderly patients (mean age of 80.7 ± 8.2 years, 40% with chronic kidney disease, and 39% with diabetes) enrolled, 22.8% presented with thrombocytopenia, without differences in baseline renal function. After a mean ED stay of 4.4 ± 2.1 days, 41.9% developed AKI (52.6% Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] grade 1, 24.6% grade 2, and 22.8% grade 3). Patients with higher AKI severity had stepwise lower platelet counts compared to those without AKI. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that lower platelet count as a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.975-0.994) and as a categorical variable (presence of thrombocytopenia) (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.06-3.27) increased the risk of AKI. The sensitivity analyses accounting for nephrotoxic medications use, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vancomycin, and contrast, yielded similar results. Thrombocytopenia is common among ED-visiting elderly, and the potential relationship between platelet counts and the risk of AKI suggests the utility of checking hemogram for those at-risk ofdeveloping adverse renal events. Thrombocytopenia on initial presentation might indicate an increased risk of AKI among elderly patients with medical illnesses.

  9. Use of a care bundle in the emergency department for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a feasibility study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Cormac

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy and usefulness of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care bundle designed for the initial management of acute exacerbations of COPD and to assess whether it improves quality of care and provides better outcomes. Introduction: The level of care provided in the emergency department (ED) for COPD exacerbations varies greatly, and there is a need for a more systematic, consistent, evidence-based quality improvement approach to improve outcomes and costs. Methods: A prospective before and after study was carried out in a university teaching hospital. Fifty consecutive patients were identified in the ED with COPD exacerbations and their management was reviewed. Following the education of ED staff and the implementation of a COPD care bundle, the outcome for 51 consecutive patients was analyzed. This COPD care bundle consisted of ten elements considered essential to the management of COPD exacerbations and was scored 0–10 according to the number of items on the checklist implemented correctly. Results: Following implementation, the mean bundle score out of 10 improved from 4.6 to 7 (P,0.001). There was a significant decrease in the unnecessary use of intravenous corticosteroids from 60% to 32% (P=0.003) and also a marked improvement in the use of oxygen therapy, with appropriate treatment increasing from 76% to 96% (P=0.003). Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism also improved from 54% to 73% (P=0.054). The 30-day readmission rate did not significantly improve. Conclusion: The use of a bundle improves the delivery of care for COPD exacerbations in the ED. There is more appropriate use of therapeutic interventions, especially oxygen therapy and intravenous corticosteroids.

  10. Highly sensitive troponin and coronary computed tomography angiography in the evaluation of suspected acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencik, Maros; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian; Januzzi, James L

    2016-08-07

    The evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a clinical challenge. The traditional assessment includes clinical risk assessment based on cardiovascular risk factors with serial electrocardiograms and cardiac troponin measurements, often followed by advanced cardiac testing as inpatient or outpatient (i.e. stress testing, imaging). Despite this costly and lengthy work-up, there is a non-negligible rate of missed ACS with an increased risk of death. There is a clinical need for diagnostic strategies that will lead to rapid and reliable triage of patients with suspected ACS. We provide an overview of the evidence for the role of highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) in the rapid and efficient evaluation of suspected ACS. Results of recent research studies have led to the introduction of hsTn with rapid rule-in and rule-out protocols into the guidelines. Highly sensitive troponin increases the sensitivity for the detection of myocardial infarction and decreases time to diagnosis; however, it may decrease the specificity, especially when used as a dichotomous variable, rather than continuous variable as recommended by guidelines; this may increase clinician uncertainty. We summarize the evidence for the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the rapid diagnostic tool in this population when used with conventional troponin assays. Coronary CTA significantly decreases time to diagnosis and discharge in patients with suspected ACS, while being safe. However, it may lead to increase in invasive procedures and includes radiation exposure. Finally, we outline the opportunities for the combined use of hsTn and coronary CTA that may result in increased efficiency, decreased need for imaging, lower cost, and decreased radiation dose. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS PRESENTING TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT WITH SEVERE SEPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Mark E.; Shah, Chirag V.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Gaieski, David F.; Lyon, Sarah; Miltiades, Andrea N.; Goyal, Munish; Fuchs, Barry D.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Christie, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of sepsis and sepsis-associated ARDS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To date, no study has directly examined the epidemiology of ARDS in severe sepsis from the earliest presentation to the health care system, the Emergency Department (ED). Methods Single-center retrospective, observational cohort study of 778 adults with severe sepsis presenting to the ED. The primary outcome was the development of ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation during the first 5 hospital days. ARDS was defined using the Berlin definition. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors associated independently with ARDS development. Results The incidence of ARDS was 6.2% (48 of 778 patients) in the entire cohort. ARDS development varied across the continuum of care: 0.9% of patients fulfilled criteria for ARDS in the ED, 1.4% admitted to the ward developed ARDS, and 8.9% admitted to the ICU developed ARDS. ARDS developed a median of 1 day after admission and was associated with a four-fold higher risk of in-hospital mortality (14% vs. 60%, p<0.001). Independent risk factors associated with increased risk of ARDS development included: intermediate (2–3.9 mmol/L) (p=0.04) and high (≥ 4) serum lactate levels (p=0.008), lung injury prediction score (LIPS) (p<0.001) and microbiologically-proven infection (p=0.01). Conclusions In patients presenting to the ED with severe sepsis, the rate of sepsis-associated ARDS development varied across the continuum of care. ARDS developed rapidly and was associated with significant mortality. Elevated serum lactate levels in the ED and a recently validated clinical prediction score were independently associated with the development of ARDS in severe sepsis. PMID:23903852

  12. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Implementing a Music Therapy Program at a New 72-Hour Acute Psychiatric Admissions Unit: A Case Study of a Patient Who Was Malingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the relatively poor treatment available, the high financial costs of hospitalization, multiple and complex issues of persons with severe mental illnesses, and advancements in pharmacotherapy, psychiatric patients are often only hospitalized for a few days before they are discharged. Thus, brief psychosocial interventions for persons who…

  14. [Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Care of Refugees by Reference of a Large Psychiatric Care Hospital in Western Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Jonas; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Gün, Ali Kemal; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2017-04-01

    Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A sample of 239 cases of refugee patients who were referred to in- and outpatient departments of the LVR Clinics Cologne between April 2015 and March 2016 are evaluated in respect of diagnoses, admission modalities and socio-demographic variables. The majority of principal diagnoses (40.2%) belong to the group of stress-related and somatoform disorders (F4 in ICD-10). Mood disorders (F3 in ICD-10) represented 31.0%, followed by mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F1 in ICD-10) with 15.1%. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was the most prevalent diagnose (13.0%). Among the 29 countries of the patients' origin Afghanistan (10,0%), Serbia (9.6%) and Kosovo (8.8%) were the most abundant. The diagnoses and the high rate of acute psychiatric events reflect the massive psychological pressure of the patients. The important role of interpreters and mediators specialized in language and integration in the treatment process is emphasized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Gender differences in acute and chronic pain in the emergency department: results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference pain section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musey, Paul I; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Miner, James R; Bortsov, Andrey V; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S; Chang, Andrew K; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten G; Feldman, James A; Fusaro, Angela M; Lee, David C; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J; Peak, David A; Nam, Catherine S; Patel, Roma G; Fillingim, Roger B; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the life span; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  16. A Social Media-Based Acute Alcohol Consumption Behavior (NekNomination): Case Series in Italian Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Stefania; Feltracco, Paolo; Lucchetta, Vittorio; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Tredese, Alberto; Bergamini, Mauro; Vettore, Gianna; Pietrantonio, Vincenzo; Avato, Francesco Maria; Donato, Daniele; Boemo, Deris Gianni; Nesoti, Maria Vittoria; Snenghi, Rossella

    2018-01-31

    NekNomination, also known as NekNominate, Neck and Nominate, or Neck Nomination, is a social network-based drinking game which is thought to have originated in Australia and spread all over the world between 2013 and 2014. Individuals record videos of themselves while rapidly drinking excessive quantities of alcoholic drinks (necking) and then nominate friends to outdo them within 24 hours; the videos are then posted on social media such as Facebook or YouTube. The consequences of this drinking game have been very dangerous; at least 5 people under age 30 years have died after drinking deadly cocktails, and many others have suffered from alcohol intoxication. The goal of the research is to evaluate data about clinically important acute alcohol intoxication among teenagers and young adults and inform and educate the general public, especially parents, teachers, and health workers, about the spreading craze of dangerous Internet-related behavior among today's teenagers and young people up to the age of 23 years. Patients aged 15 to 23 years with acute alcohol intoxication who came to the emergency department (ED) of 2 major hospitals in Italy from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2014, were included in this study. Data were retrieved from prehospital and intrahospital medical records and included personal information, methods of intoxication, triage color code, date and time of access to the ED, any relevant signs and symptoms, blood alcohol concentration, and diagnosis at discharge. A total of 450 young patients (male 277/450, 61.5%, female 173/450, 38.5%; age 15 to 16 years 15/450, 3.3%, age 17 to 18 years 184/450, 40.9%, age 19 to 23 years 251/450, 55.8%) were recruited. The causes of intoxication were happy hour, binge drinking, NekNominate, eyeballing, other alcoholic games, or a mix of them. Happy hour was found to be more common among the older patients, whereas NekNominate accounted for almost half of the youngest group of hospitalizations. Eyeballing occurred in

  17. Editor's Choice-The role of the emergency department in the management of acute heart failure: An international perspective on education and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter S; Collins, Sean P; Miró, Òscar; Bueno, Hector; Diercks, Deborah B; Di Somma, Salvatore; Gray, Alasdair; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hollander, Judd E; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Levy, Phillip D; Papa, AnnMarie; Möckel, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Emergency departments are a major entry point for the initial management of acute heart failure (AHF) patients throughout the world. The initial diagnosis, management and disposition - the decision to admit or discharge - of AHF patients in the emergency department has significant downstream implications. Misdiagnosis, under or overtreatment, or inappropriate admission may place patients at increased risk for adverse events, and add costs to the healthcare system. Despite the critical importance of initial management, data are sparse regarding the impact of early AHF treatment delivered in the emergency department compared to inpatient or chronic heart failure management. Unfortunately, outcomes remain poor, with nearly a third of patients dying or re-hospitalised within 3 months post-discharge. In the absence of robust research evidence, consensus is an important source of guidance for AHF care. Thus, we convened an international group of practising emergency physicians, cardiologists and advanced practice nurses with the following goals to improve outcomes for AHF patients who present to the emergency department or other acute care setting through: (a) a better understanding of the pathophysiology, presentation and management of the initial phase of AHF care; (b) improving initial management by addressing knowledge gaps between best practices and current practice through education and research; and (c) to establish a framework for future emergency department-based international education and research.

  18. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...

  19. Low numeracy is associated with increased odds of 30-day emergency department or hospital recidivism for patients with acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Candace D; Collins, Sean P; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S; Storrow, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. A cohort of patients with acute heart failure who presented to 4 emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; 30-day follow-up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30 days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, sex, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relation between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.98; P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted odds ratio of recidivism was 1.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.65; P=0.37). Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure.

  20. Psychiatric service users' experiences of emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Kathrine; Lou, Stina; Jensen, Lotte Groth

    2017-01-01

    regarding service users’ experiences attending EDs. A secondary aim is to apply and test the newly developed CERQual approach to summarizing qualitative review findings. Methods: A systematic literature review of five databases based on PRISMA guidelines yielded 3334 unique entries. Screening by title...

  1. Short-term prediction of threatening and violent behaviour in an Acute Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit based on patient and environment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to investigate clinically relevant patient and environment-related predictive factors for threats and violent incidents the first three days in a PICU population based on evaluations done at admittance. Methods In 2000 and 2001 all 118 consecutive patients were assessed at admittance to a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Patient-related conditions as actuarial data from present admission, global clinical evaluations by physician at admittance and clinical nurses first day, a single rating with an observer rated scale scoring behaviours that predict short-term violence in psychiatric inpatients (The Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC)) at admittance, and environment-related conditions as use of segregation or not were related to the outcome measure Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). A multiple logistic regression analysis with SOAS-R as outcome variable was performed. Results The global clinical evaluations and the BVC were effective and more suitable than actuarial data in predicting short-term aggression. The use of segregation reduced the number of SOAS-R incidents. Conclusions In a naturalistic group of patients in a PICU segregation of patients lowers the number of aggressive and threatening incidents. Prediction should be based on clinical global judgment, and instruments designed to predict short-term aggression in psychiatric inpatients. Trial registrations NCT00184119/NCT00184132 PMID:21418581

  2. Short-term prediction of threatening and violent behaviour in an Acute Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit based on patient and environment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morken Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to investigate clinically relevant patient and environment-related predictive factors for threats and violent incidents the first three days in a PICU population based on evaluations done at admittance. Methods In 2000 and 2001 all 118 consecutive patients were assessed at admittance to a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Patient-related conditions as actuarial data from present admission, global clinical evaluations by physician at admittance and clinical nurses first day, a single rating with an observer rated scale scoring behaviours that predict short-term violence in psychiatric inpatients (The Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC at admittance, and environment-related conditions as use of segregation or not were related to the outcome measure Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R. A multiple logistic regression analysis with SOAS-R as outcome variable was performed. Results The global clinical evaluations and the BVC were effective and more suitable than actuarial data in predicting short-term aggression. The use of segregation reduced the number of SOAS-R incidents. Conclusions In a naturalistic group of patients in a PICU segregation of patients lowers the number of aggressive and threatening incidents. Prediction should be based on clinical global judgment, and instruments designed to predict short-term aggression in psychiatric inpatients. Trial registrations NCT00184119/NCT00184132

  3. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  4. Use of coronary artery calcium scanning beyond coronary computed tomographic angiography in the emergency department evaluation for acute chest pain: the ROMICAT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursnani, Amit; Chou, Eric T; Zakroysky, Pearl; Deaño, Roderick C; Mamuya, Wilfred S; Woodard, Pamela K; Nagurney, John T; Fleg, Jerome L; Lee, Hang; Schoenfeld, David; Udelson, James E; Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A

    2015-03-01

    Whether a coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan provides added value to coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in emergency department patients with acute chest pain remains unsettled. We sought to determine the value of CAC scan in patients with acute chest pain undergoing CCTA. In the multicenter Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computer-Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial, we enrolled low-intermediate risk emergency department patients with symptoms suggesting acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this prespecified subanalysis of 473 patients (54±8 years, 53% men) who underwent both CAC scanning and CCTA, the ACS rate was 8%. Overall, 53% of patients had CAC=0 of whom 2 (0.8%) developed ACS, whereas 7% had CAC>400 with 49% whom developed ACS. C-statistic of CAC>0 was 0.76, whereas that using the optimal cut point of CAC≥22 was 0.81. Continuous CAC score had lower discriminatory capacity than CCTA (c-statistic, 0.86 versus 0.92; P=0.03). Compared with CCTA alone, there was no benefit combining CAC score with CCTA (c-statistic, 0.93; P=0.88) or with selective CCTA strategies after initial CAC>0 or optimal cut point CAC≥22 (P≥0.09). Mean radiation dose from CAC acquisition was 1.4±0.7 mSv. Higher CAC scores resulted in more nondiagnostic CCTA studies although the majority remained interpretable. In emergency department patients with acute chest pain, CAC score does not provide incremental value beyond CCTA for ACS diagnosis. CAC=0 does not exclude ACS, nor a high CAC score preclude interpretation of CCTA in most patients. Thus, CAC results should not influence the decision to proceed with CCTA, and the decision to perform a CAC scan should be balanced with the additional radiation exposure required. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01084239. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Acute ethyl-alcohol intoxications treated at the Emergency Department of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina from 2013 - 2015: Characteristics and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nikolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute poisonings are becoming an increasingly important issue for health services all over the world. The most common are acute alcohol intoxications. Excessive alcohol use is considered to be a high risk factor for injuries, trauma and violence and it is one of the major causes of death across the world. Aim: The aim of this research is to examine characteristics and the significance of acute alcohol intoxications treated at the Emergency Center of the Clinical Center of Vojvodina (ED CCV in a three year period. This research is a retrospective study. Material and Methods: Data was collected from medical records of patients treated under the diagnosis of acute intoxication at the EC CCV from 2013 to 2015. Results: During the observed time period, 3729 patients were treated under the diagnosis of acute intoxication. Intoxications were caused by alcohol in 65.90%. In the largest number of patients (56.41%, alcohol was the only identified substance. Among those who have combined alcohol with other drugs, psychotropic drugs were the most common (76.82%. Most of the patients were male (68.81% with the average age of 40.00 (±15 years. The average blood alcohol content was 1,87‰ (±1,33. Most of the patients had a blood alcohol content between 1,5-3,00‰, and they accounted for 39,84% of all patients treated. Blood alcohol level between 0,5-1,5‰ was detected in 12.72% of patients. Conclusion: Admissions due to alcohol intoxications are common and increasing in number. This development is problematic not only for Emergency Department units, but for the society as a whole. Special attention should be directed towards prevention and education, in order to decrease the number of acute intoxications.

  6. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosaria Di Lorenzo,1 Nina Cimino,2 Elena Di Pietro,3 Gabriella Pollutri,4 Vittoria Neviani,5 Paola Ferri2 1Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Department of Mental Health, AUSL Modena, Modena, 2School of Nursing, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3School of Neuro-Psychiatry, 4School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 5 “The Medlar”, Villa Igea Hospital, Modena, Italy Background: Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods: This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT, and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18 who had acute hospitalizations (n=140 in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83, from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient -2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic

  7. Lower Numeracy Is Associated with Increased Odds of 30-Day Emergency Department and Hospital Recidivism for Patients with Acute Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Candace D.; Collins, Sean; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H.; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. Methods and Results A cohort of patients with AHF who presented to four emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; thirty-day follow up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30-days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, gender, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relationships between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.98, P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted OR of recidivism was 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65, P=0.37). Conclusions Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure. PMID:23230305

  8. The value of pancreatic stone protein in predicting acute appendicitis in patients presenting at the emergency department with abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschuor Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic Stone Protein (PSP is a protein naturally produced mainly in the pancreas and the gut. There is evidence from experimental and clinical trials that blood PSP levels rise in the presence of inflammation or infection. However, it is not known whether PSP is superior to other established blood tests (e.g. White Blood Count, Neutrophils or C - reactive protein in predicting appendicitis in patients presenting with abdominal pain and a clinical suspicion of appendicitis at the emergency room. Methods/design The PSP Appendix Trial is a prospective, multi-center, cohort study to assess the value of PSP in the diagnostic workup of acute appendicitis. 245 patients will be prospectively recruited. Interim analysis will be performed once 123 patients are recruited. The primary endpoint of the study concerns the diagnostic accuracy of PSP in predicting acute appendicitis and therefore the evidence of appendicitis on the histopathological specimen after appendectomy. Discussion The PSP Appendix Trial is a prospective, multi-center, cohort study to assess the value of PSP in the diagnostic workup of acute appendicitis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01610193; Institution Ethical Board Approval ID: KEKZH- Nr. 2011–0501

  9. First-visit patients without a referral to the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Kazuyuki; Misago, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinichiro; Ueoka, Takato

    2017-01-01

    We sought to profile first-time patients without a referral who sought medical care at the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan. We anticipated that the analysis would highlight the demand for medical care needs from acute care hospitals and help confirm one of the problems associated with primary care in Japan. The study population comprised 765 patients who sought outpatient consultation without a referral at "the Department of General Internal Medicine" at the Ikeda City Hospital on Fridays over 4 years. Data on the following variables were collected: age, sex, examination date, reason for encounter (RFE), diagnosis, as well as history of consultation with or without antibiotic treatment at another medical institution for the same RFE. We used the International Classicication of Primary Care, Revised Second edition (ICPC-2-R) codes for RFEs and diagnoses. The main RFE fields were digestive (ICPC-2-R Chapter D), general and unspecified (A), and respiratory (R). The main diagnosis fields were digestive (D), respiratory (R), general and unspecified (A), and musculoskeletal (L). In total, 27.6% of patients had sought consultation at another medical institution for the same RFE. Of these, 64.7% of patients for whom the RFE was cough (ICPC-2-R code, R05), and 72.0% for whom the RFE was fever (A03) were prescribed antibiotics. In total, 62.4% of patients underwent emergency investigations and waited for the results; 4.3% were hospitalized on the same day; and 60.5% were medicated at the initial examination. In 11.5%, the main underlying problem appeared to be psychosomatic. We used the ICPC-2-R to analyze the state of first-visit patients without a referral visiting the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan. Common RFEs were abdominal pain, cough, and fever. A tendency toward overprescription of antibiotics was observed among primary care physicians.

  10. Cross-sectional study of emergency department presentation triage categories at Goondiwindi Hospital and their effect on the treatment of acute emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the number and proportion of non-acute presentations to a district hospital emergency department in Goondiwindi, a rural Queensland town, both in the treatment of emergency cases and potential barriers patients have in seeing a medical practitioner in the general practice setting. Occasions of service to Goondiwindi Hospital were collated from administrative records according to Australasian Triage Scale categories and analysed by Student's t-test for monthly variations in triage category presentations. Outpatient clinic (emergency department of a public district hospital). All patients presenting to Goondiwindi Hospital Emergency Department from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2013. Proportion of high and low triage category presentations in Goondiwindi Hospital during the study period. Triage category 4 and 5 presentations comprised 35.9% (mean = 225 per month) and 44.4% (mean = 278 per month), respectively, of all occasions of service at the Goondiwindi Hospital Emergency Department during this 6 month period. Life-threatening presentations (Triage Category 1 and 2) comprised emergency departments such as Goondiwindi Hospital. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. Acute agitated delirious state associated with Taser exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Colin; Vu, Julie; Ani, Chizobam

    2010-12-01

    The use of the Taser (Taser International, Scottsdale, Arizona) as a form of nonlethal force is increasingly common because of its safety profile. Tasers have been associated with in-custody mortality particularly in agitated individuals, though potential explanatory mechanisms are poorly understood. While Tasers are often used to subdue acutely agitated individuals, no study has reported Taser exposure precipitating agitation or delirium, even though high-voltage electrical exposure is well documented independently to precipitate acute delirium. We present a case of an acute agitated or delirious state occurring post-Taser exposure in a resting, otherwise nonagitated individual. The patient was a 37-year-old African American male with no prior psychiatric history, tasered multiple times during an arrest episode. He became delirious and agitated while in the emergency department, requiring sedation and intubation, followed by 3 days of continued refractory delirium. Toxicology screening demonstrated therapeutic doses of methadone and trace amounts of marijuana, not thought to be associated with the acute onset of the patient's agitated or delirious state. Imaging, neurological, and psychiatric assessments were similarly not contributory. The occurrence of acute agitation and delirium in this patient without any prior psychiatric history or significant substance use suggests an association with Taser exposure. This case report is thought to be the first report demonstrating a temporal association between Taser exposure and an acute or delirious state. Further studies to explore the association between Taser exposure and acute agitation are needed.

  12. Comparison of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments versus that in patients admitted to coronary care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Maria; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the clinical characteristics including symptoms and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments (NCDs). For comparison, similar observations in patients admitted...... to the coronary care unit (CCU) were collected. During a 1-year period, consecutive patients having cardiac troponin I measured at the Odense University Hospital were considered. The hospital has 27 clinical departments. Patients were classified as having an AMI if the diagnostic criteria of the universal...... definition were met. Follow-up was at least 1 year with mortality as the clinical end point. Of 3,762 consecutive patients, an AMI was diagnosed in 479, of whom 114 patients (24%) were hospitalized in NCDs and 365 (76%) in the CCU. Chest pain or chest discomfort more frequently occurred in patients from...

  13. Psychiatric Morbidity in Patients with Chikungunya Fever: First Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Gautam, Priyanka; Jhanjee, Anurag

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya fever is an acute illness caused by an arbovirus and has various complications like neurological, psychological, dermatological and even multi organ failure. Psychiatric co-morbidity is not very well studied till now. This is the first report from India. Aim of the study was to assess the psychiatric morbidity during or after the onset of Chikungunya fever. Patients referred from Medicine department with confirmed diagnosis of Chikungunya fever were recruited, after taking informed consent. Patient's socio-demographic characteristics were noted and Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed by complete history taking and mental status examination, using WHO International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) edition (ICD -10) of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic criteria for research. The age range of the study group was found to be 23-48 years. Fourteen (70%) were males and 6 (30%) were females. Five (25%) patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder, 3 (15%) patients had Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), 2 (10%) patients GAD with Panic attacks, 1(5%) patients phobic disorder (claustrophobia), 3 (15%) patients Somatoform Disorder, 3 (15%), Neurasthenia (Fatigue Syndrome), etc. Two (10%) patients presented with vague somatic complaints which did not fit into any of the diagnostic category. Chikungunya fever can result in significant psychiatric morbidity, mainly in the form of depressive episode, anxiety disorder and even long persisting illnesses like somato-form disorders. Further research is required to know about the phenomenology or the neurobiology of the psychiatric disorders occurring in the course of this illness.

  14. First-visit patients without a referral to the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajiwara N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Kajiwara,1 Kazuyuki Hayashi,1 Masahiro Misago,2 Shinichiro Murakami,2 Takato Ueoka2 1Department of Nephrology, Ikeda City Hospital, 2Department of General Medicine, Ikeda City Hospital, Johnan, Osaka, Japan Purpose: We sought to profile first-time patients without a referral who sought medical care at the Department of Internal Medicine at a medium-sized acute care hospital in Japan. We anticipated that the analysis would highlight the demand for medical care needs from acute care hospitals and help confirm one of the problems associated with primary care in Japan. Patients and methods: The study population comprised 765 patients who sought outpatient consultation without a referral at “the Department of General Internal Medicine” at the Ikeda City Hospital on Fridays over 4 years. Data on the following variables were collected: age, sex, examination date, reason for encounter (RFE, diagnosis, as well as history of consultation with or without antibiotic treatment at another medical institution for the same RFE. We used the International Classicication of Primary Care, Revised Second edition (ICPC-2-R codes for RFEs and diagnoses. Results: The main RFE fields were digestive (ICPC-2-R Chapter D, general and unspecified (A, and respiratory (R. The main diagnosis fields were digestive (D, respiratory (R, general and unspecified (A, and musculoskeletal (L. In total, 27.6% of patients had sought consultation at another medical institution for the same RFE. Of these, 64.7% of patients for whom the RFE was cough (ICPC-2-R code, R05, and 72.0% for whom the RFE was fever (A03 were prescribed antibiotics. In total, 62.4% of patients underwent emergency investigations and waited for the results; 4.3% were hospitalized on the same day; and 60.5% were medicated at the initial examination. In 11.5%, the main underlying problem appeared to be psychosomatic. Conclusion: We used the ICPC-2-R to analyze the state of first-visit patients without a

  15. Acute poisonings during pregnancy and in other non-pregnant women in emergency departments of four government hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyasu, Mebrahtu; Dida, Tolesa; Worku, Yoseph; Worku, Solomon; Shafie, Mensur

    2017-10-01

    To characterise acute poisonings in pregnant and non-pregnant women treated at emergency departments of government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2010 and 2015. All data for acutely poisoned women were retrospectively collected from patient medical charts at the emergency departments of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ras Desta Memorial Hospital, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College and Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Data were collected by extraction questionnaire and analysed using SPSSv. 20 statistical software. During the study period, 998 cases of acutely poisoned women were listed in the hospital registries. Of these, complete data for inclusion in the study were available for 592. 36.3% of the study participants were in the age group of 20-24, with a mean (±SD) age of 23.03 (±6.3) years. 80.9% were from Addis Ababa; 4.6% were pregnant. The mean arrival time of all cases was 4.14 h. 85.5% of all study cases were due to intentional self-poisoning, of whom 42.1% were discharged without complications. The most common poisons were bleach and organophosphates; 25.9% of pregnant cases and 32.6% of non-pregnant cases were poisoned by bleach; and 18.5% of pregnant cases and 18.9% of non-pregnant cases had organophosphate poisoning. 0.7% had a history of poisoning; all were non-pregnant women. The common route of poison exposure was oral, and the case fatality rate of organophosphate poisoning in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 20 and 1.87%, respectively. The pre-hospital intervention for the majority of the women was milk, in 12.0% of cases. Acute poisoning remains a public health problem in our community. Bleach is the most common poisons. Our present findings indicate the necessity of educational programmes on preventable reasons of acute poisonings and their outcomes on pregnant and non-pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nurses' experiences of patient suicide and suicide attempts in an acute unit

    OpenAIRE

    DOYLE, LOUISE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Suicide and suicide attempts in Ireland have increased dramatically in the last twenty years. Many of the presentations of suicide attempts to Emergency Departments are recommended an admission to an acute mental health unit. A psychiatric staff nurse working in an acute mental health setting has a high chance of experiencing a patient suicide or suicide attempt during their career. The occurrence of an inpatient suicide or suicide attempt is unquestionably an overwhelmingly stre...

  17. Admission to women's crisis houses or to psychiatric wards: women's pathways to admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Louise M; Rigon, Elena; Cole, Laura; Lawlor, Caroline; Johnson, Sonia

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and pathways to admission for women admitted to women's crisis houses and to psychiatric hospitals. A women's crisis house is a residential mental health crisis facility for women who would otherwise be considered for voluntary hospital admission. A survey of all 388 female admissions to women's crisis houses and psychiatric hospitals in four boroughs of London during a 12-week period in 2006 was conducted with questionnaires administered to key workers involved in the admissions. Pathways to admission were significantly less complex for women admitted to the crisis houses (fewer preadmission contacts with police, emergency departments, and other services). Women admitted to psychiatric wards were more likely to require supervision or observation. A multivariate analysis of data for the 245 voluntary admissions indicated that women admitted to women's crisis houses were significantly less likely to have a care coordinator (odds ratio [OR]=.528) or to have gone to an accident and emergency department (OR=.214) before admission. No other differences were found between the two groups. Pathways to admission were somewhat different for women admitted to women's crisis houses, but few clinical or sociodemographic differences were found between the two groups. Women's crisis houses may be a viable alternative to traditional wards for voluntary patients not needing intensive supervision and observation. Research should examine whether women's crisis houses are as effective as traditional inpatient services in treating women with acute psychiatric problems.

  18. Acute CT perfusion changes in seizure patients presenting to the emergency department with stroke-like symptoms: correlation with clinical and electroencephalography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payabvash, S; Oswood, M C; Truwit, C L; McKinney, A M

    2015-10-01

    To determine acute computed tomography perfusion (CTP) changes in seizure patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms and to correlate those changes with clinical presentation and electroencephalography (EEG). The medical records of all patients who presented to the emergency department with acute stroke-like symptoms and underwent CTP (n=1085) over a 5.5-year period were reviewed. Patients were included who had primary seizure as the final diagnosis, and underwent CTP within 3 hours of symptom onset. A subset of patients had a follow-up EEG within 7 days. The perfusion changes and EEG findings were compared between different clinical presentations. Eighteen of 1085 patients (1.7%) who underwent CTP following an acute stroke-like presentation were included. The abnormality on CTP was usually focal, unilateral hyperperfusion - increased relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV) (n=14/18), which most often affected the temporal lobe. Those patients who presented with a motor or speech deficit (n=12) had a higher temporal lobe rCBV, and rCBF, and lower relative mean transit time (rMTT) compared to those with non-focal neurological deficit at presentation. Early EEG was available in 13 patients; a sharp-spike epileptiform EEG discharge pattern (n=5) was associated with higher temporal lobe ipsilateral rCBF and rCBV, and lower rMTT on admission CTP examination. Seizure patients who present with a unilateral motor or speech deficit most commonly have contralateral hyperperfusion in the corresponding eloquent brain regions on the acute-stage CTP examination. In such patients, epileptiform discharges on the early follow-up EEG are associated with ipsilateral hyperperfusion on the admission CTP. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a clinical prediction rule for 30-day cardiac events in emergency department patients with chest pain and possible acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Erik P; Brison, Robert J; Perry, Jeffrey J; Calder, Lisa A; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Agarwal, Dipti; Sadosty, Annie T; Silvilotti, Marco L A; Jaffe, Allan S; Montori, Victor M; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain who are at low risk for acute coronary syndrome is resource intensive and may lead to false-positive test results and unnecessary downstream procedures. We seek to identify patients at low short-term risk for a cardiac event for whom additional ED investigations might be unnecessary. We prospectively enrolled patients older than 24 years and with a primary complaint of chest pain from 3 academic EDs. Physicians completed standardized data collection forms before diagnostic testing. The primary adjudicated outcome was acute myocardial infarction, revascularization, or death of cardiac or unknown cause within 30 days. We used recursive partitioning to derive the rule and validated the model with 5,000 bootstrap replications. Of 2,718 patients enrolled, 336 (12%) experienced a cardiac event within 30 days (6% acute myocardial infarction, 10% revascularization, 0.2% death). We developed a rule consisting of the absence of 5 predictors: ischemic ECG changes not known to be old, history of coronary artery disease, pain typical for acute coronary syndrome, initial or 6-hour troponin level greater than the 99th percentile, and age greater than 50 years. Patients aged 40 years or younger required only a single troponin evaluation. The rule was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval 97.2% to 100.0%) and 20.9% specific (95% confidence interval 16.9% to 24.9%) for a cardiac event within 30 days. This clinical prediction rule identifies ED chest pain patients at very low risk for a cardiac event who may be suitable for discharge. A prospective multicenter study is needed to validate the rule and determine its effect on practice. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics and Needs of Psychiatric Patients with Prolonged Hospital Stay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aflalo, Marc; Soucy, Nathalie; Xue, Xiaoqing; Colacone, Antoinette; Jourdenais, Emmanuelle; Boivin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and needs prior to, on admission, during the first month in hospital, at the thirtieth day of hospitalization and posthospital discharge of psychiatric patients occupying acute beds. Methods...

  1. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within the juvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute ...

  3. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    King, Cheryl A.; Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal be...

  4. A comparison of symptoms and drug use between patients with methamphetamine associated psychoses and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in two acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhus, Sigrid; Mordal, Jon; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-03-30

    Psychosis induced by the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine leads to dramatic symptoms and frequent readmissions and poses diagnostic challenges. Earlier studies have often relied on history taking and/or urine samples to reveal drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the psychotic symptoms of two groups: (1) acutely admitted patients who tested positive for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with drug-induced or methamphetamine-induced psychoses and (2) acutely admitted patients who tested negative for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Blood and urine samples were used. In addition, we investigated whether the severity of symptoms, in those who tested positive, was related to the blood concentration of methamphetamine. Of 285 patients who volunteered blood and/or urine samples within 48h of admission, 37 (13%) had recently taken methamphetamine. Positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups were compared by PANSS using the positive subscale. The results showed no differences in positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups. The severity of positive psychotic symptoms in patients with three different levels of urine/blood methamphetamine concentrations, were compared. We found no clinically or statistically significant relationship between blood methamphetamine levels and severity of psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What is the evidence for the management of patients along the pathway from the emergency department to acute admission to reduce unplanned attendance and admission? An evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Sarah H; O'Keeffe, Colin; Mason, Suzanne; Sutton, Anthea; Howe, Emma; Croft, Susan J; Whiteside, Mike

    2017-05-16

    Globally, the rate of emergency hospital admissions is increasing. However, little evidence exists to inform the development of interventions to reduce unplanned Emergency Department (ED) attendances and hospital admissions. The objective of this evidence synthesis was to review the evidence for interventions, conducted during the patient's journey through the ED or acute care setting, to manage people with an exacerbation of a medical condition to reduce unplanned emergency hospital attendance and admissions. A rapid evidence synthesis, using a systematic literature search, was undertaken in the electronic data bases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science, for the years 2000-2014. Evidence included in this review was restricted to Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) and observational studies (with a control arm) reported in peer-reviewed journals. Studies evaluating interventions for patients with an acute exacerbation of a medical condition in the ED or acute care setting which reported at least one outcome related to ED attendance or unplanned admission were included. Thirty papers met our inclusion criteria: 19 intervention studies (14 RCTs) and 11 controlled observational studies. Sixteen studies were set in the ED and 14 were conducted in an acute setting. Two studies (one RCT), set in the ED were effective in reducing ED attendance and hospital admission. Both of these interventions were initiated in the ED and included a post-discharge community component. Paradoxically 3 ED initiated interventions showed an increase in ED re-attendance. Six studies (1 RCT) set in acute care settings were effective in reducing: hospital admission, ED re-attendance or re-admission (two in an observation ward, one in an ED assessment unit and three in which the intervention was conducted within 72 h of admission). There is no clear evidence that specific interventions along the patient journey from ED arrival to 72 h after admission benefit ED

  6. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness in hospitalized psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talih FR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Farid R Talih,1 Jean J Ajaltouni,1 Hani M Tamim,2 Firas H Kobeissy3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Objectives: This study evaluated the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in hospitalized psychiatric patients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUB-MC. Factors associated with OSA and EDS occurrence in this sample were also examined. Methods: The Berlin questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale; which respectively evaluate OSA and EDS symptoms, were administered to individuals hospitalized at an acute psychiatric treatment unit at the AUB-MC between the dates of January 2014 and October 2016. Additional data collected included general demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and questionnaires evaluating depression and anxiety symptoms. Statistical analyses utilizing SPSS were performed to determine the prevalence of OSA and EDS, as well as their respective associations with patient profiles. Results: Our results showed that 39.5% of participants were found to have a high risk of sleep apnea and 9.9% of the participants were found to have abnormal daytime sleepiness. The risk of developing OSA was associated with a higher body mass index (BMI (P=0.02, and depression severity (patient health questionnaire 9 score (P=0.01. Increasing severity of depressive symptoms was associated with a higher risk of sleep apnea (P=0.01. BMI (odds ratio [OR] =5.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89–18.82 and depression severity (OR =4.04, 95% CI 1.80–9.07 were also found to be predictors of OSA. The psychiatric diagnoses of the participants were not found to have a significant association with the risk of sleep apnea. Conclusion: The risk of OSA is increased among hospitalized

  7. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  8. Impact of social-psychiatric services and psychiatric clinics on involuntary admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Barbara; Haussleiter, Ida Sybille; Kalthoff, Jörg; Schramm, Anja; Hoffmann, Knut; Jendreyschak, Jasmin; Schaub, Markus; Armgart, Carina; Juckel, Georg; Illes, Franciska

    2014-11-01

    Germany provides a wide range of highly developed mental health care to its citizens. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the voluntariness of admissions to psychiatric hospitals. Especially the impact of demographic factors of the region, characteristics of the psychiatric hospitals and characteristics of the psychosocial services was analyzed. A retrospective analysis of hospital admission registers from 13 German adult psychiatric hospitals in 2009 was conducted. Public data on the regional psychiatric accommodation and demographic situation were added. Hospitals were dichotomously divided according to their index of involuntary admissions. Group comparisons were performed between the clinics with low and high involuntary admission indices. Analysis was conducted with clinical, psychiatric provision and demographic data related to inpatients in the Landschaftsverbands Westfalen-Lippe (LWL)-PsychiatryNetwork. Especially the range of services provided by the social-psychiatric services in the region such as number of supervised patients and home visits had an influence on the proportion of involuntary admissions to a psychiatric hospital. Some demographic characteristics of the region such as discretionary income showed further influence. Contrary to our expectations, the characteristics of the individual hospital seem to have no influence on the admission rate. Social-psychiatric services show a preventive impact on involuntary acute psychiatry interventions. Sociodemographic factors and patient variables play a role with regard to the number of involuntary hospitalizations, whereas characteristics of hospitals seemed to play no role. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Short- and Long-Term Prognostic Utility of the HEART Score in Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department for Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun; Nowak, Richard; Hudson, Michael; Frisoli, Tiberio; Jacobsen, Gordon; McCord, James

    2016-06-01

    The HEART score is a risk-stratification tool that was developed and validated for patients evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). We sought to determine the short-term and long-term prognostic utility of the HEART score. A retrospective single-center analysis of 947 patients evaluated for possible ACS in the ED in 1999 was conducted. Patients were followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 30 days: death, acute myocardial infarction, or revascularization procedure. All-cause mortality was assessed at 5 years. The HEART score was compared with the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score. At 30 days, 14% (135/947) of patients had an MACE: 48 deaths (5%), 84 acute myocardial infarctions (9%), and 48 (5%) revascularization procedures. The MACE rate in patients with HEART score ≤3 was 0.6% (1/175) involving a revascularization procedure, 9.5% (53/557) in patients with HEART score between 4 and 6, and 38% (81/215) with HEART score ≥7. The C-statistic for the HEART score was 0.82 and 0.68 for the TIMI score for predicting 30-day MACE (P < 0.05). Patients with HEART score ≤3 had lower 5-year mortality rate compared with those with TIMI score of 0 (10.6% vs. 20.5%, P = 0.02). The HEART score is a valuable risk-stratification tool in predicting not only short-term MACE but also long-term mortality in patients evaluated for possible ACS in the ED. The HEART score had a superior prognostic value compared with the TIMI score.

  10. Sex-Based Differences in the Performance of the HEART Score in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Ingrid E M; de Hoog, Vince C; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Doevendans, Pieter A; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dalmeijer, Geertje; Wildbergh, Thierry X; Mosterd, Arend; Timmers, Leo

    2017-06-21

    Sex-based differences in clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcomes of patients with acute chest pain are increasingly being recognized, but are not implemented in guidelines and clinical prediction tools. We evaluated the performance of the HEART score in women versus men, because sex-based differences may exist among the algorithm's components: history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, and admission troponin level. The HEART score was retrospectively assessed in 831 women and 1084 men presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, assigning patients to the low-, intermediate-, or high-risk category for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 6 weeks. MACE, consisting of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and all-cause death, also included events during index visit. Six-week MACE rates were 2 times lower in women than men (10.0% versus 20.8%; Prisk categories: 2.1% versus 6.5% (Prisk category, 12.7% versus 21.3% (Prisk category, and 53.1% versus 77.0% (P=0.02) in the high-risk category. The HEART score-adjusted risk ratio for men was 1.6 (1.3-2.0; Prisk in men across all HEART risk categories should be taken into account when using the HEART score to guide clinical decision making; early discharge with a low-risk HEART score appears less safe for men than women with acute chest pain. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Risk stratifying emergency department patients with acute pulmonary embolism: Does the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index perform as well as the original?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Mark, Dustin G; Huang, Jie; Reed, Mary E; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Wang, David H; Lin, James S; Kene, Mamata V; Pleshakov, Tamara S; Sax, Dana K; Sax, Jordan M; McLachlan, D Ian; Yamin, Cyrus K; Swap, Clifford J; Iskin, Hilary R; Vemula, Ridhima; Fleming, Bethany S; Elms, Andrew R; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-12-01

    The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a validated prognostic score to estimate the 30-day mortality of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A simplified version (sPESI) was derived but has not been as well studied in the U.S. We sought to validate both indices in a community hospital setting in the U.S. and compare their performance in predicting 30-day all-cause mortality and classification of cases into low-risk and higher-risk categories. This retrospective cohort study included adults with acute objectively confirmed PE from 1/2013 to 4/2015 across 21 community EDs. We evaluated the misclassification rate of the sPESI compared with the PESI. We assessed accuracy of both indices with regard to 30-day mortality. Among 3006 cases of acute PE, the 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 4.4%. The sPESI performed as well as the PESI in identifying low-risk patients: both had similar sensitivities, negative predictive values, and negative likelihood ratios. The sPESI, however, classified a smaller proportion of patients as low risk than the PESI (27.5% vs. 41.0%), but with similar low-risk mortality rates (<1%). Compared with the PESI, the sPESI overclassified 443 low-risk patients (14.7%) as higher risk, yet their 30-day mortality was 0.7%. The sPESI underclassified 100 higher-risk patients (3.3%) as low risk who also had a low mortality rate (1.0%). Both indices identified patients with PE who were at low risk for 30-day mortality. The sPESI, however, misclassified a significant number of low-mortality patients as higher risk, which could lead to unnecessary hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of strain values using automated function imaging on transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of acute chest pain in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mirae; Chang, Sung-A; Cho, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung-Ji; Choi, Jin-Oh; Lee, Sang-Chol; Oh, Jae K; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-03-01

    Left ventricular strain echocardiography is reported to be more sensitive in detecting myocardial ischemia than conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We evaluated the usefulness of 2D strain analysis for the assessment of acute chest pain in emergency department (ED). Patients presenting to ED with acute chest pain were recruited. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, known coronary artery disease (CAD), non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, or non-cardiac chest pain were excluded. The pretest probability of CAD and TTEs were evaluated in all patients. TTEs included visual assessments of regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) and analysis of global and regional longitudinal strain (GLS and RLS). The diagnosis of CAD and the occurrence of cardiac events during 1 month after ED visit were reviewed. Cardiac events were observed in 25% of total 104 patients, and CAD was detected in 36% of 69 patients with coronary imaging tests. Compared to RWMA, RLS showed higher sensitivity (sensitivity/specificity = 64/89 vs. 92/77%) with similar diagnostic accuracy (79.7 vs. 82.6%, p = 0.791) for CAD. RLS also demonstrated better diagnostic performance than either GLS (sensitivity/specificity = 92/57%) or pretest probability (sensitivity/specificity = 72/64 %). Similarly, RLS had the higher predictive value for 1-month cardiac events. In multivariable analyses including pretest probability, LVEF, RWMA, cardiac enzyme, GLS, and RLS; only pretest probability (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.22-2.99, p = 0.005) and RLS (OR 25.42, 95 % CI 1.84-342.04, p = 0.016) independently predicted CAD. Strain echocardiography appears to be effective in diagnosing CAD and predicting future events with high sensitivity and negative predictive value in acute chest pain patients visiting ED.

  13. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  14. Combining presentation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and glucose measurements to rule-out an acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting to emergency department with chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, J H; Kavsak, P; Parsonage, W; Shortt, C; Than, M; Pickering, J W; Aldous, S; Cullen, L

    2015-03-01

    The use of high sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) may enable early rule out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain. This study evaluated two approaches to the early rule out of AMI; a combination of a presentation hs-Tn acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the dual testing and LoD approaches. Of the 1412 participants, 182 (12.9%) had index AMI. The LoD and the dual testing approach were 100% sensitive for index AMI. The specificity of the dual testing approach (25.2%) was slightly higher than that of the LoD (20.4%). Sensitivity for ACS was similar for the two approaches (96.5% for dual testing and 98.1% for the LoD). The dual testing and LoD approach identified all patients with index AMI and could be used to reduce the proportion of patients requiring lengthy assessment and inpatient admission. Further investigation is still required to rule out unstable angina pectoris in patients identified as low risk. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The occurrence rate of acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in Chinese small- and medium-scale departments of ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Xinyi; Chen, Peiqing; Wu, Jianjun; Hua, Huixia; Yao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Endophthalmitis can be a devastating complication after cataract surgery. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the occurrence rate of acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in Chinese small and medium-scale departments of ophthalmology, as well as identify its risk factors and assess the treatment options. This investigation revealed 52 postoperative endophthalmitis cases in 46,185 operations at 30 hospitals from 2011 to 2013, at an occurrence rate of 0.11%. A small cataract surgery volume of less than 500 cases per year (OR 2.21; p = 0.006), the absence of 0.5% povidone iodine (PVP-I) irrigation (OR 1.73; p = 0.046), and intraoperative posterior capsular rupture (PCR) with vitreous loss (OR 4.40; p = 0.034) showed statistically significant associations with endophthalmitis in the multivariate analysis. The rate of culture positivity was 44.2%, with Staphylococcus epidermidis being the most common organism isolated in China. More than 40% of the endophthalmitis cases were treated with a nonstandard antibiotics regimen, and only 32.7% of these had a visual acuity of better than 20/40. We concluded that the occurrence rate of acute-onset endophthalmitis following cataract surgery in Chinese small and medium-scale departments of ophthalmology lags behind the level of developed countries, as well as Chinese top eye centers. Overall, the use of 0.5% PVP-I irrigation seemed to be an effective measure to reduce the risk of the development of postoperative endophthalmitis. PMID:28094301

  16. Geriatric urolithiasis in the emergency department: risk factors for hospitalisation and emergency management patterns of acute urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arampatzis Spyridon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urolithiasis is one of the most common conditions seen in emergency departments (ED worldwide, with an increasing frequency in geriatric patients (>65 years. Given the high costs of emergency medical urolithiasis treatment, the need to optimise management is obvious. We aimed to determine risk factors for hospitalisation and evaluate diagnostic and emergency treatment patterns by ED physicians in geriatric urolithiasis patients to assist in optimising treatment. Methods After receiving ethics committee approval, we examined the records of emergency urolithiasis admissions to our ED between January 2000 and December 2010 to determine risk factors for hospitalisation and to evaluate current diagnostic and emergency treatment patterns in geriatric urolithiasis patients. Results 1,267 consecutive patients at least 20 years of age with confirmed urolithiasis (1,361 ED visits and complete follow-up data were analyzed. Geriatric patients comprised 10% of urolithiasis patients with more than half of them experiencing their first urolithiasis episode at ED admission. Although stone site, side and size did not significantly differ between groups, urinary stone disease was more severe in the elderly. The risk of severe complications correlated with increasing age, female sex and diabetes mellitus. Geriatric patients had a two-fold greater likelihood of being hospitalised. A significantly lower percentage of geriatric patients received combined analgesic therapy for pain management (37% vs. 64%, p =  Conclusion Geriatric patients with urolithiasis have a higher morbidity than younger patients and may be undertreated concerning analgetic and expulsive treatment in ED.

  17. A comparison of the safety of olanzapine and haloperidol in combination with benzodiazepines in emergency department patients with acute agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P; MacDonald, Kai; Vilke, Gary M; Feifel, David

    2012-11-01

    Pharmacologic management of the agitated emergency department patient is controversial. The combination of olanzapine + benzodiazepines is not recommended by the manufacturer, but a recent report suggested harm only if the patient was intoxicated. Whether this is also true for haloperidol + benzodiazepines is not known. The measurement of vital signs and ethanol levels in patients who received haloperidol with or without benzodiazepines was compared to a previous analysis of patients who received olanzapine with or without benzodiazepines. This is a structured retrospective chart review of patients who received parenteral haloperidol or parental olanzapine either with or without benzodiazepines. There were 96 patients (71 haloperidol, 25 olanzapine) who met inclusion criteria. No patient in the olanzapine + benzodiazepine group had hypotension, although one patient in the olanzapine-only group did (6.7%); 2 patients in the haloperidol + benzodiazepines group (5.1%) and 2 patients in the haloperidol-only group (6.3%) had hypotension. In alcohol-negative (ETOH-) patients, neither olanzapine alone nor olanzapine + benzodiazepines was associated with decreased oxygen saturations. In ETOH+ patients, olanzapine alone was not associated with decreased oxygen saturations, but olanzapine + benzodiazepines were associated with lower oxygen saturations than haloperidol + benzodiazepines. In this sample, olanzapine alone or with a benzodiazepine was not associated with more hypotension than haloperidol. However, olanzapine + benzodiazepines were associated with lower oxygen saturations than haloperidol + benzodiazepines in ETOH+ but not ETOH- patients. In patients with known alcohol ingestion, haloperidol, haloperidol + benzodiazepines, or olanzapine alone may be better choices for treatment of agitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Measure Data – National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Psychiatric facilities that are eligible for the Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program are required to meet all program requirements,...

  19. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Measure Data – by Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Psychiatric facilities that are eligible for the Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program are required to meet all program requirements,...

  20. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Measure Data – by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Psychiatric facilities that are eligible for the Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program are required to meet all program requirements,...

  1. Economic Impact of Oritavancin for the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections in the Emergency Department or Observation Setting: Cost Savings Associated with Avoidable Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodise, Thomas P; Fan, Weihong; Sulham, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    Data indicate that acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) patients without major comorbidities can be managed effectively in the outpatient setting. Because most patients with ABSSSIs present to the emergency department, it is essential that clinicians identify candidates for outpatient treatment given the substantially higher costs associated with inpatient care. We examined the potential cost avoidance associated with shifting care from inpatient treatment with vancomycin to outpatient treatment with oritavancin for ABSSSI patients without major complications or comorbidities. A decision analytic, cost-minimization model was developed to compare costs of inpatient vancomycin versus outpatient oritavancin treatment of ABSSSI patients with few or no comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≤1) and no life-threatening conditions presenting to emergency department. Hospital discharge data from the Premier Research Database was used to determine the costs associated with inpatient vancomycin treatment. Mean costs for inpatient treatment with vancomycin ranged from $5973 to $9885, depending on Charlson Comorbidity Index score and presence of systemic symptoms. Switching an individual patient from inpatient vancomycin treatment to outpatient oritavancin treatment was estimated to save $1752.46 to $6475.87 per patient, depending on Charlson Comorbidity Index score, presence of systemic symptoms, and use of observation status. Assuming some patients may be admitted to the hospital after treatment with oritavancin, it is estimated that up to 38.12% of patients could be admitted while maintaining budget neutrality. This cost-minimization model indicates that use of oritavancin in the emergency department or observation setting is associated with substantial cost savings compared with inpatient treatment with vancomycin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  3. Dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, A; Ghisalbert, D; Dimatou, S; Jin, C; Sethi, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate reports of a high rate of dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients. Subjects were 100 randomly selected women, 16-50 years old, who had recently been admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Diagnoses were made by two interviewers through use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. One percent (N = 1) of the interviewed subjects had dissociative identity disorder. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found a low rate of dissociative identity disorder, perhaps because of the different methodology used.

  4. When should governments increase the supply of psychiatric beds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S; Bastiampillai, T; Licinio, J; Fuller, D A; Bidargaddi, N; Sharfstein, S S

    2017-07-11

    Low numbers of hospital-based psychiatric beds create problems for people with severe mental illness (SMI), when they face extended emergency department (ED) waits, higher thresholds for admission to an acute bed, and short revolving-door stays with high rates of rehospitalisation. Limited access to inpatient treatment has been associated with higher suicide risk, premature mortality, homelessness, violent crime and incarceration. Ultimately, people with SMI can be transinstitutionalised to the criminal justice system. In the USA, for example, prisons have replaced mental hospitals as the largest institutions housing people with SMI. There is no international consensus on the safe minimum numbers of acute, forensic and rehabilitation beds needed to reduce these risks. As a consequence, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have wide variations in the mix of hospital beds with an average of 71 beds per 100 000 population. Policymakers face difficult choices with few studies to guide decisions on supplying beds. The UK Royal College of Psychiatrists offered a policy framework, which was adapted for Australia. The government of the State of South Australia increased the supplies of crisis, acute and forensic beds to meet a mandatory target to safely reduce mental health boarding in the EDs.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 11 July 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.139.

  5. Availability of treatment resources for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments among various types of hospitals in Palestine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Poisoning exposures continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of facilities, treatment resources, and antidotes in hospitals may affect the treatments provided and outcomes. This study aimed to determine the availability of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources, and antidotes for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments (EDs) among various types of governmental and private hospitals in Palestine. Methods A cross-sectional study using semi-structured questionnaire was performed. Data were collected based on hospital resources; GI decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources and antidotes from Palestinian hospitals. Results Eighteen hospitals (94.7%) have responded. Among them, paracetamol poisoning was the most frequently reported cases by EDs (mean frequency score = 7.6 ± 2.1), followed by bee stings (mean = 6.9 ± 2.7) and organophosphate poisoning (mean = 6.7 ± 2.7). The availabilities of most resources related to GI decontamination items varied substantially with hospital type, but these differences were not statistical significant. The availability of stabilisation resources was not significantly different between hospitals types. For the availability of techniques used to enhance the elimination of toxic substances, there were variations between the hospitals types. However, these differences were not statistical significant, except for haemodialysis (p = 0.003) which was more available in governmental hospitals. For the availability of antidotes, none of the hospitals had sufficient stock of all antidotes listed. In relation to hospital type, there was variability in the availability of antidotes, but this did not reach statistical significance, except for deferoxamine (p Palestine for the management of acute toxic exposure and poisoning. The implementation of a minimum

  6. Application of the TIMI risk score for unstable angina and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome to an unselected emergency department chest pain population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Charles V; Sites, Frank D; Shofer, Frances S; Sease, Keara L; Hollander, Judd E

    2006-01-01

    Patients presenting with chest pain or related symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia, without ST-segment elevation (NSTE) on their presenting electrocardiograms, often present a diagnostic challenge in the emergency department (ED). Prompt and accurate risk stratification to identify those patients with NSTE chest pain who are at highest risk for adverse events is essential, however, to optimal management. Although validated and used frequently in patients already enrolled in acute coronary syndrome trials, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score never has been examined for its value in risk stratification in an all-comers, non-trial-based ED chest pain population. An analysis of an ED-based prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 3,929 adult patients presenting with chest pain syndrome and warranting evaluation with an electrocardiogram. These patients had TIMI risk scores determined at ED presentation. The main outcome was the composite of death, acute myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization within 30 days. The TIMI risk score at ED presentation successfully risk-stratified this unselected cohort of chest pain patients with respect to 30-day adverse outcome, with a range from 2.1%, with a score of 0, to 100%, with a score of 7. The highest correlation of an individual TIMI risk indicator to adverse outcome was for elevated cardiac biomarker at admission. Overall, the score had similar performance characteristics to that seen when applied to other databases of patients enrolled in clinical trials and registries using a 14-day end point. The TIMI risk score may be a useful tool for risk stratification of ED patients with chest pain syndrome.

  7. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  8. Randomized clinical trial of hydrocodone/acetaminophen versus codeine/acetaminophen in the treatment of acute extremity pain after emergency department discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew K; Bijur, Polly E; Munjal, Kevin G; John Gallagher, E

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that hydrocodone/acetaminophen (Vicodin [5/500]) provides more efficacious analgesia than codeine/acetaminophen (Tylenol #3 [30/300]) in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Both are currently Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Schedule III narcotics. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of patients with acute extremity pain who were discharged home from the ED, comparing a 3-day supply of oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen (5 mg/500 mg) to oral codeine/acetaminophen (30 mg/300 mg). Pain was measured on a valid and reproducible verbal numeric rating scale (NRS) ranging from 0 to 10, and patients were contacted by telephone approximately 24 hours after being discharged. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in improvement in pain at 2 hours following the most recent ingestion of the study drug, relative to the time of phone contact after ED discharge. Secondary outcomes compared side-effect profiles and patient satisfaction. The median time from ED discharge to follow-up was 26 hours (interquartile range [IQR] = 24 to 39 hours). The mean NRS pain score before the most recent dose of pain medication after ED discharge was 7.6 NRS units for both groups. The mean decrease in pain scores 2 hours after pain medications were taken were 3.9 NRS units in the hydrocodone/acetaminophen group versus 3.5 NRS units in the codeine/acetaminophen group, for a difference of 0.4 NRS units (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.3 to 1.2 NRS units). No differences were found in side effects or patient satisfaction. Both medications decreased NRS pain scores by approximately 50%. However, the oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen failed to provide clinically or statistically superior pain relief compared to oral codeine/acetaminophen when prescribed to patients discharged from the ED with acute extremity pain. Similarly, there were no clinically or statistically important differences in side

  9. Perceived clinician-patient communication in the emergency department and subsequent post-traumatic stress symptoms in patients evaluated for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bernard P; Sumner, Jennifer A; Haerizadeh, Myrta; Carter, Eileen; Edmondson, Donald

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation for a potentially life-threatening cardiac event in the emergency department (ED) is a stressful experience that can result in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients. No study has tested whether good clinician-patient communication in the ED is associated with better psychological outcomes in these individuals and whether it can mitigate other risk factors for post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) such as perception of life threat and vulnerability in the ED. Data were analysed from 474 participants in the Reactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study, an observational cohort study of ED predictors of medical and psychological outcomes after evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome. Participants were recruited from November 2013 to January 2015 at a single-site academic medical centre (New York-Presbyterian-Columbia University Medical Center). Participants reported threat perceptions in the ED and provided information on their perceptions of clinician-patient communication using the Interpersonal Process of Care Survey. PSS were assessed using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale during follow-up. 474 subjects were enrolled in the study. Median length of follow-up was 3 days after ED presentation, range 0-30 days, 80% within 8 days. Perceptions of good clinician-patient communication in the ED were associated with lower PSS, whereas increased threat perception was associated with higher PSS. A significant interaction between clinician-patient communication and threat perception on PSS suggested that patients with higher threat perception benefited most from good clinician-patient communication. Our study found an association between good clinician-patient communication in the ED during evaluation of potentially life-threatening cardiac events and decreased subsequent post-traumatic stress reactions. This association is particularly marked for patients

  10. Psychiatric services in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  11. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  12. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  13. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  14. Hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: When hypoglycemic patients present in the emergency department, physicians should pay attention to the presence of infection, malignancy, liver diseases (liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infection, and acute renal failure.

  15. Use of high-flow nasal cannula support in the emergency department reduces the need for intubation in pediatric acute respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robyn; James, Catherine; Maranda, Louise S; Armsby, Carrie C

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is associated with a decreased need for intubation in patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (PED) and admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI). A retrospective study of all patients admitted from the PED to the PICU with ARI from January 2006 through December 2009. Patients admitted before the availability of HFNC (cohort 1) were compared with those admitted after the availability of HFNC but before implementation of an institution-wide guideline on pediatric HFNC usage (cohort 2) and those admitted after the implementation of a pediatric HFNC usage guideline (cohort 3). After controlling for age, month of admission, type of respiratory illness, and severity of illness, there was an 83% reduction in the odds of intubation in the PED in cohort 3 compared with cohort 1 (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.50; P = 0.001). There was no significant change in mortality or median PICU length of stay after the introduction of HFNC. High-flow nasal cannula used early in the development of pediatric ARI is associated with a decreased the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation.

  16. Modified thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score to risk stratify patients in the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffery, Zehra; Hudson, Michael P; Jacobsen, Gordon; Nowak, Richard; McCord, James

    2007-10-01

    To assess the prognostic utility of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score in patients in the emergency department (ED) evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The ability of the TIMI risk score to risk stratify patients at initial presentation in the ED with chest pain of unclear etiology is uncertain. We investigated the prognostic utility of the TIMI risk score in 947 consecutive patients evaluated in the ED for possible ACS. A multivariate analysis was done to evaluate the independent predictive power of the individual components of the TIMI risk score to predict an adverse event at 30 days (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization). There were 151 (16%) patients diagnosed with ACS. At 30 days there were 48 (5%) deaths, 84 (9%) myocardial infarctions, and 49 (5%) coronary revascularization procedures. The mean TIMI risk score was significantly higher in patients with an adverse event compared with those without (2.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 1.7 +/- 1.2, P TIMI risk factors (age > or = 65 years, ST segment deviation > or = 0.5 mm elevated troponin I, and coronary stenosis > or = 50%) were independently associated with adverse events. A simplified TIMI risk score was computed and was found to have similar prognostic ability as the 7 variable TIMI risk score. A modified TIMI risk score may simplify risk stratification of ED patients with undifferentiated chest pain.

  17. Emergency department crowding is associated with decreased quality of analgesia delivery for children with pain related to acute, isolated, long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Marion R; Fairclough, Diane L; Ranade, Daksha; Mitchell, Michael S; Kahn, Michael G

    2011-12-01

    The authors sought to determine which quality measures of analgesia delivery are most influenced by emergency department (ED) crowding for pediatric patients with long-bone fractures. This cross-sectional, retrospective study included patients 0-21 years seen for acute, isolated long-bone fractures, November 2007 to October 2008, at a children's hospital ED. Nine quality measures were studied: six were based on the timeliness (1-hour receipt) and effectiveness (receipt/nonreceipt) of three fracture-related processes: pain score, any analgesic, and opioid analgesic administration. Three equity measures were also tested: language, identified primary care provider (PCP), and insurance. The primary independent variable was a crowding measure: ED occupancy. Models were adjusted for age, language, insurance, identified PCP, triage level, ambulance arrival, and time of day. The adjusted risk of each timeliness or effectiveness quality measure was measured at five percentiles of crowding and compared to the risk at the 10th and 90th percentiles. The role of equity measures as moderators of the crowding-quality models was tested. The study population included 1,229 patients. Timeliness and effectiveness quality measures showed an inverse association with crowding-an effect not moderated by equity measures. Patients were 4% to 47% less likely to receive timely care and were 3% to 17% less likely to receive effective care when each crowding measure was at the 90th than at the 10th percentile (p children with fracture-related pain. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Mortality after an episode of acute heart failure in a cohort of patients with intermediate ventricular function: Global analysis and relationship with admission department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Òscar; Javaloyes, Patricia; Gil, Víctor; Jacob, Javier; Herrero-Puente, Pablo; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Salvo, Eva; Alonso, Héctor; Juan Gómez, María Ángeles; Parissis, John; Llorens, Pere

    2017-12-23

    To compare the outcome of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) with a mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF) with patients with a reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction. A prospective observational study included patients diagnosed with AHF in 41 emergency departments. Patients were divided into 3 groups: HFrEF<40%, HFmrEF 40-49% and HFpEF≥50%. We collected 38 independent variables and the adjusted and crude all-cause mortality at one-year in the HFmrEF group was compared with that of the HFrEF and HFpEF groups. The analysis was stratified according to patient destination following ED care. Three thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight patients were included: 580 HFmrEF (14.6%), 929 HFrEF (23.5%) and 2,449 HFpEF (61.9%). Global mortality at one year was 28.5%. The crude mortality of the HFmrEF group was similar to that of the HFpEF group (HR 1.009; 95% CI 0.819-1.243; P=.933) and lower than the HFrEF group (HR 0.800; 95% CI 0.635-1.008; P=.058), but after adjustment for discordant basal characteristics among groups, the mortality of the HFmrEF group did not differ from that of the HFpEF (HRa 1.025; 95% CI 0.825-1.275; P=.821) or HFrEF group (HRa 0.924; 95% CI 0.720-1.186; P=.535). Neither were significant differences found between the HFmrEF group and the other 2 groups in the analysis stratified according to admission or discharge direct from the emergency department. Mortality at one-year after an AHF episode in patients with HFmrEF does not differ from that of patients with HFpEF or HfrEF, either globally or based on the main destinations after emergency department care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 2 February 2012. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC. P. O. Ajiboye, FWACP, Senior Lecturer/ Consultant Psychiatrist, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin/. University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, ...

  20. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.184...

  1. Substance use and violence among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2015-03-01

    Nursing staff on psychiatric wards often attribute patient violence and aggression to substance use. This study examined incidents of alcohol and illicit drug use among acute psychiatric inpatients and associations between substance use and violence or other forms of aggression. A sample of 522 adult psychiatric inpatients was recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in England. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Only a small proportion of the sample was reported to have used or been under the influence of alcohol (5%) or drugs (3%). There was no physical violence during a shift when a patient had used alcohol or drugs. Substance using patients were also no more likely than others to behave violently at any point during the study period. However, incidents of substance use were sometimes followed by verbal aggression. Beliefs that substance using patients are likely to be violent were not supported by this study, and could impact negatively on therapeutic relationships between nurses and this patient group. Future studies are needed to examine how staff intervene and interact with intoxicated patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Randomized clinical trial of an intravenous hydromorphone titration protocol versus usual care for management of acute pain in older emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew K; Bijur, Polly E; Davitt, Michelle; Gallagher, E John

    2013-09-01

    Opioid titration is an effective strategy for treating pain; however, titration is generally impractical in the busy emergency department (ED) setting. Our objective was to test a rapid, two-step, hydromorphone titration protocol against usual care in older patients presenting to the ED with acute severe pain. This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial of patients 65 years of age and older presenting to an adult, urban, academic ED with acute severe pain. The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01429285). Patients randomized to the hydromorphone titration protocol initially received 0.5 mg intravenous hydromorphone. Patients randomized to usual care received any dose of any intravenous opioid. At 15 min, patients in both groups were asked, 'Do you want more pain medication?' Patients in the hydromorphone titration group who answered 'yes' received a second dose of 0.5 mg intravenous hydromorphone. Patients in the usual care group who answered 'yes' had their ED attending physician notified, who then could administer any (or no) additional medication. The primary efficacy outcome was satisfactory analgesia defined a priori as the patient declining additional analgesia at least once when asked at 15 or 60 min after administration of the initial opioid. Dose was calculated in morphine equivalent units (MEU: 1 mg hydromorphone = 7 mg morphine). The need for naloxone to reverse adverse opioid effects was the primary safety outcome. 83.0 % of 153 patients in the hydromorphone titration group achieved satisfactory analgesia compared with 82.5 % of 166 patients in the usual care group (p = 0.91). Patients in the hydromorphone titration group received lower mean initial doses of opioids at baseline than patients in the usual care group (3.5 MEU vs. 4.7 MEU, respectively; p ≤ 0.001) and lower total opioids through 60 min (5.3 MEU vs. 6.0 MEU; p = 0.03). No patient needed naloxone. Low-dose titration of intravenous hydromorphone in increments of

  3. Barometric pressure, emergency psychiatric visits, and violent acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schory, Thomas J; Piecznski, Natasha; Nair, Sunil; el-Mallakh, Rif S

    2003-10-01

    Associations between human behaviour and psychiatric decompensation and weather variables have been inconsistent. We studied the association of certain weather variables (specifically, humidity, wind speed, and barometric pressure) with emergent psychiatric presentations, psychiatric admissions, incidence of violent crimes, and suicides in a metropolitan area. We performed a retrospective study for the year 1999 in a mid-sized city. We included all documented emergent psychiatric visits to the city's psychiatric emergency room. We obtained violence data from the city police department and suicide data from the country medical examiner. The data suggest that total numbers of acts of violence and emergency psychiatry visits are significantly associated with low barometric pressure. Psychiatric inpatient admissions and suicides are not associated with any of the weather variables investigated. While alternate conclusions can be drawn, we propose that the data support the interpretation that low barometric pressure is associated with an increase in impulsive behaviours. Additional investigation is warranted.

  4. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  5. [Postpolio syndrome. Neurologic and psychiatric aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M-A; Schönknecht, P; Pilz, J; Storch-Hagenlocher, B

    2004-04-01

    Postpolio syndrome is defined as a clinical syndrome of new pareses in individuals who had been affected by acute paralytic poliomyelitis years before. The objective of this study was to describe neurologic and psychiatric signs of the disease. We evaluated the clinical signs and treatment of 16 patients with postpolio syndrome. Possible symptoms of depression were evaluated by the Hamilton and Geriatric Depression Scales. Postpolio syndrome manifested at a median age of 57.5 years (range 25-73) in a median of 41 years (range 16-70 years) after acute poliomyelitis. Muscles already affected during acute poliomyelitis were affected in all patients with postpolio syndrome. Six of 16 patients (37.5%) developed paresis in muscles formerly not affected by acute poliomyelitis. In eight of 15 patients (53%), depressive episodes were recognized according to the ICD-10 criteria. Symptoms of depression should be recognized in patients with postpolio syndrome and incorporated in therapy based on physiotherapy.

  6. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  7. Terminal delirium misdiagnosed as major psychiatric disorder: Palliative care in a psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligeti, Sabitha; Baig, Muhammad R; Barrera, Fernando F

    2016-06-01

    Delirium is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by acute change in cognition and disturbance of consciousness. A similar state during the final days of life is termed "terminal delirium." We present three cases with end-stage chronic medical problems without any significant psychiatric history who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit or a locked dementia unit for management of "depression," "dementia," or "psychosis." Early diagnosis of terminal delirium helps prevent patients, family members, and staff from undergoing severe emotional distress and facilitates appropriate end-of-life care.

  8. A comparison of albuterol administered by metered-dose inhaler and spacer with albuterol by nebulizer in adults presenting to an urban emergency department with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kenneth B; Milne, Scott; Hamilton, Cathy; Hall, Kent

    2002-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of albuterol by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer compared to a nebulizer. A prospective, open-label study. Large urban emergency department (ED). All consecutive adult asthma patients over a 2.5-year period. ED personnel used a standardized treatment algorithm, which included albuterol administered by nebulization, for patients presenting to the ED during the first 12 months of the study. The treatment algorithm then was switched to one that utilized albuterol administered by MDI/spacer as the primary mode of delivery for the following 18 months. As part of the conversion to MDI/spacer, ED staff counseled patients on self-management and supplied patients with a peak flowmeter, an MDI/spacer, and an inhaled steroid for home use. Pulmonary function, clinical outcome, laboratory data, and financial data were assembled and analyzed from 2,342 ED visits and 1,420 patients. While there was no significant difference in hospital admission rates between patients in the MDI/spacer group and the nebulizer group (13.2% and 14.6%, respectively), there was a statistically greater improvement in peak flow rates in the MDI/spacer group (126.8 vs 111.9 L/min, respectively; p = 0.002). The MDI/spacer group also spent significantly less time in the ED (163.6 and 175 min, respectively; p = 0.007), had a lower total albuterol dose (1,125 microg and 6,700 microg, respectively; p inhaled corticosteroid for patients' home use. Albuterol administered by MDI/spacer is an efficacious and cost-effective alternative to nebulization in adults with acute asthma who present at a large urban ED.

  9. Point-of-care troponin T is inferior to high-sensitivity troponin T for ruling out acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Avest, Ewoud; Visser, Anniek; Reitsma, Bram; Breedveld, Rob; Wolthuis, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) cardiac troponin (cTn) measurements are being used increasingly, despite the fact that evidence on the safety of their use is outdated, not taking into account current 'gold standard' high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays. In the present study, we aimed to compare the analytical and diagnostic performance of the AQT90-flex POCT cTnT assay (which is the POCT assay with the lowest reported 99th percentile cutoff currently available) with the laboratory-based Roche Modular E170 hs-cTnT assay. During a 4-month prospective observational cohort study, laboratory-based hs-cTnT and POCT cTn were measured simultaneously in 261 undifferentiated chest-pain patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of the Medical Centre Leeuwarden to determine the diagnostic accuracy of both assays in predicting acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at presentation. The POCT cTn assay had a lower sensitivity [68 (49-82) vs. 91 (75-98)] and a lower negative predictive value [95 (91-97) vs. 98 (95-100)%] for the prediction of AMI at presentation compared with the hs-cTnT assay. Furthermore, in three patients, the POCT cTnT assay yielded unexpectedly high results, whereas hs-cTnT results were negative. None of these patients had an AMI, and no possible explanation could be found. The AQT90-flex POCT cTnT assay is not yet sensitive and reliable enough to be used to exclude AMI in the ED with a single blood draw at the time of presentation in the ED, and therefore, may have limited applicability in the ED setting.

  10. Short-Term Outcomes and Factors Associated With Adverse Events Among Adults Discharged From the Emergency Department After Treatment for Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Dana R; Mark, Dustin G; Hsia, Renee Y; Tan, Thida C; Tabada, Grace H; Go, Alan S

    2017-12-01

    Although 80% of patients with heart failure seen in the emergency department (ED) are admitted, less is known about short-term outcomes and demand for services among discharged patients. We examined adult members of a large integrated delivery system who visited an ED for acute heart failure and were discharged from January 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014. The primary outcome was a composite of repeat ED visit, hospital admission, or death within 7 days of discharge. We identified multivariable baseline patient-, provider-, and facility-level factors associated with adverse outcomes within 7 days of ED discharge using logistic regression. Among 7614 patients, mean age was 77.2 years, 51.9% were women, and 28.4% were people of color. Within 7 days of discharge, 75% had outpatient follow-up (clinic, telephone, or e-mail), 7.1% had an ED revisit, 4.7% were hospitalized, and 1.2% died. Patients who met the primary outcome were more likely to be older, smokers, have a history of hemorrhagic stroke, hypothyroidism, and dementia, and less likely to be treated in a facility with an observation unit. In multivariable analysis, higher comorbidity scores and history of smoking were associated with a higher odds of the primary outcome, whereas treatment in a facility with an observation unit and presence of outpatient follow-up within 7 days were associated with a lower odds. We identified selected hospital and patient characteristics associated with short-term adverse outcomes. Further understanding of these factors may optimize safe outpatient management in ED-treated patients with heart failure. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Diagnostic values of chest pain history, ECG, troponin and clinical gestalt in patients with chest pain and potential acute coronary syndrome assessed in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Arash; Dryver, Eric; Söderholm, Martin; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In the assessment of chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED), physicians rely on global diagnostic impressions ('gestalt'). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the ED physician's overall assessment of ACS likelihood, and the values of the main diagnostic modalities underlying this assessment, namely the chest pain history, the ECG and the initial troponin result. 1,151 consecutive ED chest pain patients were prospectively included. The ED physician's interpretation of the chest pain history, the ECG, and the global likelihood of ACS were recorded on special forms. The discharge diagnoses were retrieved from the medical records. A chart review was carried out to determine whether patients with a non-ACS diagnosis at the index visit had ACS or suffered cardiac death within 30 days. The gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in ("Obvious ACS", LR 29) and at ruling out ("No Suspicion of ACS", LR 0.01) ACS. In the "Strong suspicion of ACS" group, 60% of the patients did not have ACS. A positive TnT (LR 24.9) and an ischemic ECG (LR 8.3) were strong predictors of ACS and seemed superior to pain history for ruling in ACS. In patients with a normal TnT and non-ischemic ECG, chest pain history typical of AMI was not a significant predictor of AMI (LR 1.9) while pain history typical of unstable angina (UA) was a moderate predictor of UA (LR 4.7). Clinical gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in and at ruling out ACS, but overestimated the likelihood of ACS when cases were assessed as strong suspicion of ACS. Among the components of the gestalt, TnT and ECG were superior to the chest pain history for ruling in ACS, while pain history was superior for ruling out ACS.

  12. Do immature platelet levels in chest pain patients presenting to the emergency department aid in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny-Lang, M A; Darling, C E; Frelinger, A L; Barnard, M R; Smith, C S; Michelson, A D

    2015-02-01

    Early and accurate identification of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) vs. noncardiac chest pain in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is problematic and new diagnostic markers are needed. Previous studies reported that elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) is associated with ACS and predictive of cardiovascular risk. MPV is closely related to the immature platelet fraction (IPF), and recent studies have suggested that IPF may be a more sensitive marker of ACS than MPV. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the measurement of IPF assists in the diagnosis of ACS in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. In this single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study, adult patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and/or suspected ACS were considered for enrollment. Blood samples from 236 ACS-negative and 44 ACS-positive patients were analyzed in a Sysmex XE-2100 for platelet count, MPV, IPF, and the absolute count of immature platelets (IPC). Total platelet counts, MPV, IPF, and IPC were not statistically different between ACS-negative and ACS-positive patients. The IPF was 4.6 ± 2.7% and 5.0 ± 2.8% (mean ± SD, P = 0.24), and the IPC was 10.0 ± 4.6 and 11.5 ± 7.5 × 10(3) /μL (P = 0.27) for ACS-negative and ACS-positive patients, respectively. In 280 patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and/or suspected ACS, no differences in IPF, IPC or MPV were observed in ACS-negative vs. ACS-positive patients, suggesting that these parameters do not assist in the diagnosis of ACS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Variation in chest pain emergency department admission rates and acute myocardial infarction and death within 30 days in the Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Philip G; Deb, Partha; Shrank, William H; Pines, Jesse M

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to assess the relationship between emergency department (ED) admission rates for Medicare beneficiaries with chest pain and outcomes, specifically 30-day rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality. Using a 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2009, 158,295 beneficiaries with a primary diagnosis of chest pain at the conclusion of their ED visits were selected to assess outcomes based on the decision to hospitalize or discharge home. The proportions of these patients admitted to inpatient or observation status at 2,219 U.S. hospitals were calculated, adjusting for differences in patient and hospital characteristics. Both bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate the effect of the adjusted admission rates (designed to be a measure of care intensity) on patient outcomes. Other covariates in the multivariable model included patient demographics, medical conditions, and hospital utilization in the 30 days prior to the ED visits. Results from the bivariate and multivariable analyses were compared for consistency. The adjusted Medicare admission rate for ED patients with chest pain averaged 63% for the middle quintile of the patient sample and ranged from 38% to 81% in the lowest and highest quintiles. The multivariable model yielded estimates of 3.6 fewer cases of AMI (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 5.1 cases) and 2.8 fewer deaths (95% CI = 0.6 to 4.1 deaths) per 1,000 chest pain patients associated with an admission rate of 81% versus 38%. The estimates from the bivariate analysis were of similar magnitude. Considerable variation exists across U.S. hospitals in ED admission rates for Medicare patients with chest pain. Hospitals that approach admissions more conservatively (i.e., higher admission rates) in this population have lower rates of AMI and mortality. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  15. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  16. How common are errors in the medication process in a psychiatric hospital?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Mainz, Jan; Lisby, Marianne

    How common are errors in the medication process in a psychiatric hospital? Background and purpose: Medication errors in psychiatric care is a problem in need of attention in Denmark. Studies are sparse and does not investigate all stages of the medication process. There is an urgent need...... for clarifying studies concerning prevalence and nature of medication errors in psychiatric care, as well as studies concerning associations related to medication errors. This is the basis for quality improving interventions in relation to medication safety in psychiatric care. The aim of this study was to asses...... frequency, type and potential clinical consequences of errors in all stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods and materials: A cross-sectional study in two general psychiatric wards and one acute psychiatric ward. Participants were eligible psychiatric in...

  17. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A retrospective chart review of the clinical and psychosocial profile of psychotic adolescents with co-morbid substance use disorders presenting to acute adolescent psychiatric services at Tygerberg Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Lachman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large number of adolescents meet criteria for ‘dual diagnosis’ (a psychiatric disorder plus co-morbid substance use disorder (SUD, which prolongs treatment response and complicates intervention strategies. The current service model in Cape Town divides the care of such patients into psychiatric treatment and a separate substance use intervention. Child and adolescent mental health services face the challenge of high rates of readmission of adolescents into psychiatric facilities before utilisation of community-based substance abuse services. Objective. There is a scarcity of available treatment guidelines for dual-diagnosis adolescents, and a lack of systematically documented epidemiological and clinical data in South African adolescent populations. Method. A retrospective chart review of adolescent psychiatric admissions to the Tygerberg Adolescent Psychiatric Unit during 2010 was conducted. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and demographic data for those presenting with a dual diagnosis (specifically psychotic disorders and SUD was recorded. Results. Results suggest a high prevalence of SUD among adolescents presenting with a first-episode psychosis. Statistically significant correlations with lower levels of education were found in those with ongoing substance abuse (specifically cannabis and methamphetamine, and a significant relationship between choice of debut drug and ongoing drug use was also demonstrated. Risk factors for SUD (psychosocial adversities, childhood trauma, family and community exposure to substances, early debut drug ages, risky sexual behaviours, and clinical psychiatric profiles of adolescents with dual diagnosis are described. Conclusions. This cohort had an enhanced risk as a result of genetic vulnerability and environmental availability of substances, and the findings emphasise the differences in presentation, choice of drugs of abuse and psychosocial difficulties of adolescents with a dual

  19. Psychiatric Disability in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  1. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  2. [Combined high-sensitivity copeptin and troponin T evaluation for the diagnosis of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquézar, Aitor; Santaló, Miguel; Rizzi, Miguel; Gich, Ignasi; Grau, Margarita; Sionis, Alessandro; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi

    2017-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic yield of a high-sensitivity copeptin (hs-copep) assay alone or in combination with a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnt) assay for the diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEMI) in patients with chest pain in the emergency department (ED). The secondary aim was to assess the 1-year prognostic utility of these biomarkers in this clinical context. Retrospective observational study of a series of patients attended for chest pain suggesting myocardial ischemia in 5 Spanish ED. The first blood drawn in the ED was used for hs-copep and hs-cTnt assays, which were processed in a single laboratory serving all centers. Diagnostic utility was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). We also performed a separate analysis with data for the subgroup of patients with early detection of symptoms (3 h of onset of symptoms). We recorded complications, mortality or reinfarction occurring within a year of the index event. We included 297 patients; 63 (21.2%) with NSTEMI. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range, 70-76 years), and 199 (67%) were men. The ROC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.85-0.94) for the hs-cTnt assay, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.51-0.66) for the hscopep assay, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86-0.94) for the 2 assays combined. The ROC for the 2 assays combined was not significantly better than the ROC for the hs-cTnt by itself (P=.89). We saw the same pattern of results when we analyzed the subgroup of patients who presented early. Sixty percent of the complications occurred in patients with elevated findings on both assays. Elevated hs-copep findings did not provide prognostic information that was not already provided by hs-cTnt findings (P=.56). The hs-copep assay does not increase the diagnostic or prognostic yield already provided by the hs-cTnt assay in patients suspected of myocardial infarction in

  3. Long Term Prognostic Value of a Negative Work-Up for Acute Coronary Disease in Emergency Department Chest Pain Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anne-Maree; Klim, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    To determine the rate of all cause and cardiac death, new myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularisation at over three years from index visit in emergency department chest pain patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) at index presentation who had a negative electrocardiogram (ECG) and biomarker workup for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An unplanned sub-study of a prospective observational study of consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED with atraumatic chest pain (or equivalents). The primary outcome of interest was the predictive performance of a negative ECG and biomarker work-up for ACS for all cause and cardiac mortality over more than three years' follow-up in patients not known to have pre-existing CAD presenting to the ED with chest pain. Secondary outcomes were rate of new MI or revascularisation not related to the index visit. 237 patients were studied. Median age was 52 years (IQR 42 - 62) and 55.3% were male. Median follow-up was 48 months. There were seven deaths (3%, 95% CI 1.4 - 6%), one of which was potentially cardiac in origin with cause of death given as pulmonary hypertension and cardiac failure (0.4%, 95% CI 0.02 - 2.3%). There was one confirmed MI (0.6%, 95% CI 0.03 - 3.8%). The rate of revascularisation not related to the index visit was 3.1% (95% CI 1.1 - 7.4%). Patients who present to ED with potentially cardiac chest pain but who do not have known CAD, and have non-ischaemic ECGs and troponin assays below the 99(th) percentile are at low risk of cardiac death or MI in long-term follow-up. This challenges the recommendation for routine functional or anatomic testing. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Usefulness of the Delta Neutrophil Index for Predicting Superimposed Pneumonia in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in the Emergency Department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sung Cha

    Full Text Available Although respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, have long been recognized as precipitators of exacerbation in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF, identifying signs of concomitant pneumonia in ADHF is a clinical diagnostic challenge. We evaluated the predictive value of the delta neutrophil index (DNI, a new indicator for immature granulocytes, for diagnosing superimposed pneumonia in patients presenting with ADHF in the emergency department (ED.This was a retrospective and observational study of consecutive patients (>18 years old diagnosed with an ADHF in the ED over a 7-month period. Patients were categorized into either the ADHF group or the ADHF with pneumonia group. DNI, serum white blood cell (WBC, C-reactive protein (CRP, and β-natriuretic peptide (BNP were measured upon ED arrival.The ADHF with pneumonia group included 30 patients (20.4%. Median initial DNI, WBC, and CRP were significantly higher in the ADHF with pneumonia group [0% vs. 1.8%, p<0.001, 8,200 cells/mL vs. 10,470 cells/mL, p<0.001, and 0.56 mg/dL vs. 6.10 mg/dL, p<0.001]. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that only initial DNI significantly predicted the presence of superimposed pneumonia in patients with ADHF. In the receiver operating characteristic curves for initial DNI, WBC, and CRP for differentiating superimposed pneumonia in ADHF patients, the area under curve (AUC of DNI (0.916 [95% confidence interval 0.859-0.955] was good. AUC of DNI was significantly higher than AUC of CRP and WBC [0.828 and 0.715] (DNI vs. CRP, p = 0.047 and DNI vs. WBC, p<0.001.Initial DNI, which was measured upon ED arrival, was significantly higher in the ADHF with pneumonia group than in the ADHF group. The initial DNI's ability of prediction for ADHF with superimposed pneumonia in the ED was good and it was better than those of serum WBC and CRP. Therefore, DNI may serve as a convenient and useful marker for early diagnosis of superimposed pneumonia in

  5. Validation of the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC in a naturalistic sample of 278 patients with acute psychosis and agitation in a psychiatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Luis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the wide use of the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC in a clinical setting to assess agitated patients, a validation study to evaluate its psychometric properties was missing. Methods Data from the observational NATURA study were used. This research describes trends in the use of treatments in patients with acute psychotic episodes and agitation seen in emergency departments. Exploratory principal component factor analysis was performed. Spearman's correlation and regression analyses (linear regression model as well as equipercentile linking of Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S, Agitation and Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES and PANSS-EC items were conducted to examine the scale's diagnostic validity. Furthermore, reliability (Cronbach's alpha and responsiveness were evaluated. Results Factor analysis resulted in one factor being retained according to eigenvalue ≥1. At admission, the PANSS-EC and CGI-S were found to be linearly related, with an average increase of 3.4 points (p Conclusions The factorial analyses confirm the unifactorial structure of the PANSS-EC subscale. The PANSS-EC showed a strong linear correlation with rating scales such as CGI-S and ACES. PANSS-EC has also shown an excellent capacity to detect real changes in agitated patients.

  6. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  7. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  8. [SEXUALITY IN PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION: REALITY VERSUS POLICY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Anat; Weil, Gabriel; Rubinstein, Ludmila

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will. In spite of its' importance, this subject receives little attention in policy guidelines and clinical practice and is largely ignored. The article reviews literature examining various aspects of sexual behavior in psychiatric facilities, revealing ethical dilemmas, risks and the role of policy guidelines to address this subject. We present viewpoints of practitioners, consumers and family members concerning sexual behavior in psychiatric hospitalization. We conclude with implications that emerge from accumulated knowledge with regard to policy making and proposed frameworks for change.

  9. Medical evaluation abnormalities in acute psychotic patients seen at the emergency department of Muhimbili national hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Yusuf*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: In our cohort, history and physical examination findings were not sufficient to rule out serious medical conditions among patients presenting with acute psychosis. The observed rate of laboratory abnormalities was higher than previously published rates from high-resource settings. Based on our findings, patients presenting with psychosis to an acute care facility in this region should be evaluated with physical examination and laboratory studies to rule out serious underlying medical pathology.

  10. Acute intermittent porphyria after right hemi-colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Alshammary

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Acute intermittent porphyria should be suspected in any patient, particularly young women, who develop diverse neuro-visceral and psychiatric manifestations and hyponatremia after surgery.

  11. Predictors and outcomes of acute pancreatitis in critically ill patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral centre in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy; Schoeman, Tom; Hughes, Lara; Edwards, Suzanne; Reddi, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    To provide a current review of the clinical characteristics, predictors and outcomes in critically ill patients presenting to the ED with acute pancreatitis and subsequently admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral centre in Australia. A retrospective single-centre study of adult patients admitted with pancreatitis. Severe acute pancreatitis defined by Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score ≥2. Eighty-seven patients fulfilled criteria for inclusion during the study period, representing 0.9% of all ICU admissions. The median age of patients was 54. Survival was independent of patients' age, sex, aetiology and comorbidities. Mortality was 30.8% for both inpatient referrals to the ICU and for direct referrals via the ED. Higher mortality was identified among patients requiring mechanical ventilation (74.2 vs 24.6% in survivors; P pancreatitis admitted to ICU, whereas APACHE II discriminates better in the cohort admitted from ED. Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with high mortality. Aetiology and comorbidity did not predict adverse outcomes in this population. BISAP score is non-inferior to APACHE II score as a prognostic tool in critically ill patients with acute pancreatitis and could be used to triage admission. Evidence of persistent organ dysfunction and requirements for organ support reliably identify patients at high-risk of death. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wayne K; Alterman, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has virtually replaced ablative neurosurgery for use in medication-refractory movement disorders. DBS is now being studied in severe psychiatric conditions, such as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Effects of DBS have been reported in ∼100 cases of OCD and ∼50 cases of TRD for seven (five common) anatomic targets. Although these published reports differ with respect to study design and methodology, the overall response rate appears to exceed 50% in OCD for some DBS targets. In TRD, >50% of patients responded during acute and long-term bilateral electrical stimulation in a different target. DBS was generally well tolerated in both OCD and TRD, but some unique, target- and stimulation-specific adverse effects were observed (e.g., hypomania). Further research is needed to test the efficacy and safety of DBS in psychiatric disorders, compare targets, and identify predictors of response.

  13. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  14. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  15. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.

  16. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  17. Prospective validation of a modified thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score in emergency department patients with chest pain and possible acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Erik P; Perry, Jeffrey J; Calder, Lisa A; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Body, Richard; Jaffe, Allan; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2010-04-01

    This study attempted to prospectively validate a modified Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score that classifies patients with either ST-segment deviation or cardiac troponin elevation as high risk. The objectives were to determine the ability of the modified score to risk-stratify emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain and to identify patients safe for early discharge. This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic ED over a 9-month period. Patients over 24 years of age with a primary complaint of chest pain were enrolled. On-duty physicians completed standardized data collection forms prior to diagnostic testing. Cardiac troponin T-values of >99th percentile (> or =0.01 ng/mL) were considered elevated. The primary outcome was acute myocardial infarction (AMI), revascularization, or death within 30 days. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the risk scores was compared by generating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and comparing the area under the curve. The performance of the risk scores at potential decision thresholds was assessed by calculating the sensitivity and specificity at each potential cut-point. The study enrolled 1,017 patients with the following characteristics: mean (+/-SD) age 59.3 (+/-13.8) years, 60.6% male, 17.9% with a history of diabetes, and 22.4% with a history of myocardial infarction. A total of 117 (11.5%) experienced a cardiac event within 30 days (6.6% AMI, 8.9% revascularization, 0.2% death of cardiac or unknown cause). The modified TIMI risk score outperformed the original with regard to overall diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve = 0.83 vs. 0.79; p = 0.030; absolute difference 0.037; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.004 to 0.071). The specificity of the modified score was lower at all cut-points of >0. Sensitivity and specificity at potential decision thresholds were: >0 = sensitivity 96.6%, specificity 23.7%; >1 = sensitivity 91.5%, specificity 54.2%; and >2 = sensitivity

  18. Understanding the management of people seeking voluntary psychiatric hospitalization who do not meet the criteria for inpatient admission: a qualitative study of mental health liaison nurses working in accident and emergency departments in the north of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Iain; McGowan, Linda

    2015-02-01

    Mental health liaison nurses assess people who self-present at accident and emergency departments seeking inpatient admission, however not all presentations meet the criteria for admission. Little is known about how liaison nurses manage this client group. This qualitative study explored how liaison nurses manage this client group. This study used the think aloud technique to recreate clinical scenarios of clients requesting admission who do not meet the criteria for such admission. Participants were then subsequently interviewed. Eighteen liaison nurses working in hospitals across the North of England participated. Data were analysed using framework analysis methods. Findings indicate that the liaison nurses use a variety of therapeutic skills and methods in managing this client group. Liaison nurses were found to 'sell' crisis and home-based treatment as an equivalent, or superior in quality, to hospital care. However, the existing evidence base does not fully support this assertion. Liaison nurses face numerous difficulties in this role. In the absence of any formalized training, liaison nurses rely on their own clinical knowledge and expertise. Implications for future service provision and further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea: management considerations in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taryn Heck,1 Monica Zolezzi21Pharmacy Department, University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, QatarAbstract: Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, psychotropic medications

  20. Medicare Program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system changes and FY2011 rates; provider agreements and supplier approvals; and hospital conditions of participation for rehabilitation and respiratory care services; Medicaid program: accreditation for providers of inpatient psychiatric services. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    : We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. We are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and setting forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS. In addition, we are finalizing the provisions of the August 27, 2009 interim final rule that implemented statutory provisions relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. We are making changes affecting the: Medicare conditions of participation for hospitals relating to the types of practitioners who may provide rehabilitation services and respiratory care services; and determination of the effective date of provider agreements and supplier approvals under Medicare. We are also setting forth provisions that offer psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs increased flexibility in obtaining accreditation to participate in the Medicaid program. Psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs will have the choice of undergoing a State survey or of obtaining accreditation from a national accrediting organization whose hospital accreditation

  1. Involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disruptive and aggressive behavior during their previous hospital stays; residential and vocational instability, family disruption, and higher premorbid dysfunction.9 Over two thirds of patients have a violent episode within the first 72 hours of admission to an acute psychiatric unit, suggesting that there is a relatively high ...

  2. Proactive and Reactive Aggression in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between proactive and reactive aggression and indicators of antisocial behavior (callous/unemotional traits and behavioral consequences) and negative affect (depression and suicidal behavior) in a sample of 105 children admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit. The majority of the children were male (69%)…

  3. Pattern of Urine Toxicology Screening in a Lagos Psychiatric Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicology screening has clinical and forensic applications in evaluating severe or life-threatening symptoms in patients presenting with signs and symptoms suggestive of intoxication or overdose. In both acute psychiatric and medical settings, urine toxicology has been found helpful in detection of substances of abuse.

  4. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex differences in the effectiveness of early coronary computed tomographic angiography compared with standard emergency department evaluation for acute chest pain: the rule-out myocardial infarction with Computer-Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT)-II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quynh A; Hayden, Douglas; Woodard, Pamela K; Kirby, Ruth; Chou, Eric T; Nagurney, John T; Wiviott, Stephen D; Fleg, Jerome L; Schoenfeld, David A; Udelson, James E; Hoffmann, Udo

    2013-06-25

    We evaluate sex-based differences in the effectiveness of early cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) and standard emergency department (ED) evaluation in patients with acute chest pain. In the Rule-Out Myocardial Infarction With Computer-Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT)-II multicenter, controlled trial, we randomized 1000 patients (47% women) 40 to 74 years of age with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome to an early CCTA or standard ED evaluation. In this prespecified analysis, women in the CCTA arm had a greater reduction in length of stay, lower hospital admission rates, and lesser increased cumulative radiation dose than men in a comparison of ED strategies (P for interaction ≤0.02). Although women had lower acute coronary syndrome rates than men (3% versus 12%; Pacute coronary syndrome rate (P for interaction acute coronary syndrome for either sex. No difference was observed in major adverse cardiac events between sexes and ED strategies (P for interaction =0.39). Women had more normal CCTA examinations than men (58% versus 37%; Pacute coronary syndrome. The findings may be explained by lower CAD prevalence and severity in women than men. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01084239.

  6. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  7. Assessment and Management of Bullied Children in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ryan, Mary; Foster, Carla Boutin; Peterson, Janey

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an important public health issue in the United States. Up to 30% of children report exposure to such victimization. Not only does it hurt bully victim, but it also negatively impacts the bully, other children, parents, school staff, and health care providers. Because bullying often presents with accompanying serious emotional and behavioral symptoms, there has been an increase in psychiatric referrals to emergency departments. Emergency physicians may be the first responders in the health care system for bullying episodes. Victims of bullying may present with nonspecific symptoms and be reluctant to disclose being victimized, contributing to the underdiagnosis and underreporting of bully victimization. Emergency physicians therefore need to have heightened awareness of physical and psychosocial symptoms related to bullying. They should rapidly screen for bullying, assess for injuries and acute psychiatric issues that require immediate attention, and provide appropriate referrals such as psychiatry and social services. This review defines bullying, examines its presentations and epidemiology, and provides recommendations for the assessment and evaluation of victims of bullying in the emergency department. PMID:23462401

  8. A Fatal Case of Acute Butane-Propane Poisoning in a Prisoner Under Psychiatric Treatment: Do These 2 Factors Have an Arrhythmogenic Interaction, Thus Increasing the Cardiovascular Risk Profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Sara; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro; Suadoni, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Sudden death due to inhalation of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as butane and propane is well described in the literature. The main mechanism involved is the induction of a fatal cardiac arrhythmia. This phenomenon is frequently associated with prisoners who accidentally die while sniffing these volatile substances with an abuse purpose. Furthermore, such prisoners are often under psychiatric treatment; specific drugs belonging to this pharmacological class lead to a drug-related QT interval prolongation, setting the stage for torsade de pointes. In this article, we present the case of a prisoner died after sniffing a butane-propane gas mixture from a prefilled camping stove gas canister. The man was under psychiatric drugs due to mental disorders. He was constantly subjected to electrocardiogram to monitor the QTc (corrected QT interval), which was 460 milliseconds long. Toxicological analysis on cadaveric samples was performed by means of gas chromatography (head space) and revealed the presence of butane and propane at low levels. The aim of this article was to discuss a possible arrhythmogenic interaction of QT interval prolongation induced by psychiatric drugs and butane-propane inhalations, increasing the cardiovascular risk profile. In other words, evidence may suggest that prisoners, under these circumstances, are more likely to experience cardiovascular adverse effects. We believe that this study underlines the need to take this hypothesis into account to reduce death risk in prison and any medical-related responsibilities. Further studies are needed to validate the hypothesis.

  9. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  10. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  11. Community emergency psychiatric service in Israel: a one-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaled, Razek; Bauer, Arie; Rosca, Paola; Helman, Dafna; Shai, Uzi; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Ponizovsky, Alexander M

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 the Forensic Psychiatry Department of Mental Health Services at the Ministry of Health launched a pilot project: the Community Emergency Psychiatric Service (CEPS). The purpose was to offer community-based emergency response to acute psychiatric conditions during after-hours periods, including Saturdays and holidays. The project was implemented in the Tel Aviv, Central and Southern districts. Advertisements were posted in mass circulating newspapers announcing the launching of the new program for the general public in the participating districts. The public was invited to call the hotline of the medical emergency service, Magen David Adom (MDA), in the event of psychiatric distress or emergency. MDA personnel were instructed to give the callers a telephone number of an on-call psychiatrist. The Ministry of Health engaged a pool of seven licensed psychiatrists to be available on-call one per shift. The psychiatrists offered crisis intervention over the phone or house visits when necessary. Data were obtained from the Tel Aviv, Central and Southern Districts. The results show that there were 1,472 calls between May 2005 and June 2006. In 198 cases (13.5%) clients were referred for treatment and follow-up to local outpatient clinics, while in 116 of the cases (7.8%) a home visit by the on-call psychiatrist was carried out, resulting in 50 voluntary and 16 involuntary hospitalizations. An examination of records of calls received by the on-call psychiatrists (N=97) during August 2006 suggests that most callers fit the following profile: female, ranging in age 19-35, unmarried, with diagnosis of schizophrenia, with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations, and presenting no danger to herself or others. A limited response team, comprised of one on-call psychiatrist per shift, can provide a viable service for psychiatric emergencies in a population center of approximately 2.7 million. The findings also suggest that such a service may increase the number of

  12. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  13. Acute effects of outdoor air pollution on emergency department visits due to five clinical subtypes of coronary heart diseases in shanghai, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan; He, Mingzhen; Zhu, Weiying

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution can be a contributing cause to the development and exacerbation of coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is little knowledge about the acute effects of air pollution on different clinical subtypes of CHD. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the association of air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter effects on sudden cardiac death, moderate effects on acute myocardial infarction and angina, weak effects on ischemic cardiomyopathy, and no effect on occult CHD. The associations were stronger among people aged 65 years or more than in younger individuals and in the cool season versus the warm one. Outdoor air pollution may have different effects of air pollution on 5 subtypes of CHD. Our results might be useful for the primary prevention of various subtypes of CHD exacerbated by air pollution.

  14. Epidemiological, clinical anf pathogenetic studies of acute intermittent porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Bylesjö, Ingemar

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders characterised by an impairment of heme biosynthesis. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common of the acute porphyrias in Sweden. Acute attacks of AIP are characterised by neuro-psychiatric symptoms, including epileptic seizures. Environmental and acquired factors are related to the induction of symptoms. Acute attacks of AIP are treated with high doses of glucose and/or hematin infusions. The pathogenesis of the neuro-psychiatric sympt...

  15. Psychiatric symptomatology after delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld

    2006-06-05

    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  17. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Lanthén

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine psychiatric patients’ experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients’ experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable.

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatric manifestations. Results: We report a case of a 44 year old female patient referred to the haematology unit with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state or delirium. Total resolution of the psychiatric symptoms

  19. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-03-02

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit.

  20. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Nanda, Satyan; Tripathi, Adarsh; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Himanshu, D; Verma, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but there is a paucity of data from India. Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines. This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University). A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in COPD patients (28.4%) as compared to controls (2.7%). As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  1. [Psychiatric complications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  2. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  3. [Psychiatric disorders in adult form of Niemann-Pick disease type C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubert, A; Hanon, C; Sedel, F

    2016-06-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disease with an extremely heterogeneous clinical presentation. The adult form of this disease is usually expressed with neurological symptoms; however, non-specific psychiatric disorders are often associated. This article presents a retrospective study on a cohort of NPC patients diagnosed in France with the objectives of researching the presence of psychiatric disorders and qualifying these disorders. After carrying out a research within hospital records, a questionnaire was sent to patients or their relatives and their doctors. The cohort was made up of 22 patients. Fifty-two questionnaires were sent to 47 different doctors. We received 67% of answers from the doctors, with 42% of positive answers. The answer rate of the families was 27%. Among the 22 patients, we found the presence of psychiatric disorders in 86% of cases. Seventy-three percent of the patients presented behavior disorders. Among them, 27% exhibited psychomotor excitation or agitation, 23% aggressiveness, 18% intolerance to frustration, 27% sleep disorders and 23% apathy, listlessness and/or clinophilia. Fifty-five percent of patients presented psychotic symptoms, with 45% with delusions and 36% with hallucinations. Seventy-seven percent of patients presented with mood disorders: 36% suffered from depression and 27% from emotional lability or mood swings. Of the 22 patients, a diagnosis of psychiatric disease was made in 50% of cases. The main diagnoses were schizophrenia (27%) and depression (23%). The other diagnoses identified were acute delirium, dysthymia, infantile psychosis, intellectual disharmonic disability and personality disorder. The average age of emergence of the troubles was 17.1 years old for neurological symptoms and 20.9 years old for psychiatric symptoms. The median age was 18 years old for neurological symptoms and 20 years old for psychiatric ones. In 45% of cases, psychiatric occurred after neurological symptoms

  4. Psychiatric aspects of dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J S; Ford, C V; Rimoin, D L

    1976-02-01

    Sixteen adult dwarfs - 11 with achondroplasia and 5 with hypopituitarism - were studied by means of psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. There were no significant differences between the two groups; in general, the subjects had achieved a satisfactory life adjustment despite the stress of having bodies uniquely different from those of the general population. They had secure identities as "little people" and successfully used coping mechanisms such as a sense of humor and a pleasant interpersonal style. Male dwarfs tended to experience more emotional distress than female dwarfs.

  5. Munchausen syndrome mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jaime; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Xavier, Miguel; Gusmão, Ricardo

    2010-11-29

    Munchausen syndrome is a disorder in which patients intentionally produce symptoms mimicking physical or psychiatric illnesses with the aim to assume the sick role and to gain medical attention. Once a patient receives a Munchausen syndrome diagnosis every complaint made thence tends to be regarded with scepticism by clinical staff. However, it is possible that a bona fide illness, which might be disregarded, may coexist in these patients. We report a case of MS mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine acute physical illness. Despite the initial doubts about the veracity of the latter, due to its prompt recognition, treatment was successful.

  6. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012: A 27-year psychiatric and demographic follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte; Larsen, Peter Lindorff; Reff, Kasper Thybo; Knop, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. We conducted a follow-up study to describe this development in the past 27 years by comparing 1985 variables with same measures in 2012. A random sample of all visits every 10 days in 2012 to three PEUs in Copenhagen were registered and compared with data collected, using the same study design in 1985. The number of visits has decreased significantly from 367 visits/year/10,000 inhabitants in 1985 to 225 in 2012. Apart from a considerable number (15.6%) of visitors with non-Danish background, the demographic variables have not changed significantly since 1985. Compared with 1985, the diagnostic distribution among the 2012 visitors shows an increased frequency of affective disorders and neurotic and stress disorders, while schizophrenia spectrum and personality disorders show almost the same frequencies in 1985 and 2012. Rates of alcoholism and organic mental disorders show a minor reduction during the 27-year follow-up period. In 1985, 20.7% of the visits ended up without any referrals, compared with 4.8% in 2012. The rate of acute admissions into a psychiatric ward was 60.8% in 2012 compared with 35.65% in 1985. The extension of the psychiatric outpatients' facilities since 1985 has reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient clinics is emphasized.

  7. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  8. Measurement of the interleukin family member ST2 in patients with acute dyspnea: results from the PRIDE (Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Investigation of Dyspnea in the Emergency Department) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januzzi, James L; Peacock, W Frank; Maisel, Alan S; Chae, Claudia U; Jesse, Robert L; Baggish, Aaron L; O'Donoghue, Michelle; Sakhuja, Rahul; Chen, Annabel A; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Lewandrowski, Kent B; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Wu, Alan H B

    2007-08-14

    The aim of this study was to examine the value of measurement of the interleukin-1 receptor family member ST2 in patients with dyspnea. Concentrations of ST2 have been reported to be elevated in patients with heart failure (HF). Five hundred ninety-three dyspneic patients with and without acute destabilized HF presenting to an urban emergency department were evaluated with measurements of ST2 concentrations. Independent predictors of death at 1 year were identified. Concentrations of ST2 were higher among those with acute HF compared with those without (0.50 vs. 0.15 ng/ml; p or =0.20 ng/ml strongly predicted death at 1 year in dyspneic patients as a whole (HR = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 14.2; p < 0.001) as well as those with acute HF (hazard ratio [HR] = 9.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 17.8; p = 0.03). This risk associated with an elevated ST2 in dyspneic patients with and without HF appeared early and was sustained at 1 year after presentation (log-rank p value <0.001). A multi-marker approach with both ST2 and NT-proBNP levels identified subjects with the highest risk for death. Among dyspneic patients with and without acute HF, ST2 concentrations are strongly predictive of mortality at 1 year and might be useful for prognostication when used alone or together with NT-proBNP.

  9. Coronary CT Angiography Versus Standard Emergency Department Evaluation for Acute Chest Pain and Diabetic Patients: Is There Benefit With Early Coronary CT Angiography? Results of the Randomized Comparative Effectiveness ROMICAT II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quynh A; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Zakroysky, Pearl; Chou, Eric T; Nagurney, John T; Fleg, Jerome L; Schoenfeld, David A; Udelson, James E; Hoffmann, Udo; Woodard, Pamela K

    2016-03-22

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) reduces emergency department length of stay compared with standard evaluation in patients with low- and intermediate-risk acute chest pain. Whether diabetic patients have similar benefits is unknown. In this prespecified analysis of the Rule Out Myocardial Ischemia/Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT II) multicenter trial, we randomized 1000 patients (17% diabetic) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome to CCTA or standard evaluation. The rate of acute coronary syndrome was 8% in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients (P=1.0). Length of stay was unaffected by the CCTA strategy for diabetic patients (23.9 versus 27.2 hours, P=0.86) but was reduced for nondiabetic patients compared with standard evaluation (8.4 versus 26.5 hours, Ppatients (P interaction=0.09). Both groups had more downstream testing and higher radiation doses with CCTA, but these were highest in diabetic patients (all P interaction≤0.04). Diabetic patients had fewer normal CCTAs than nondiabetic patients (32% versus 50%, P=0.003) and similar normalcy rates with standard evaluation (P=0.70). Notably, 66% of diabetic patients had no or mild stenosis by CCTA with short length of stay comparable to that of nondiabetic patients (P=0.34), whereas those with >50% stenosis had a high prevalence of acute coronary syndrome, invasive coronary angiography, and revascularization. Knowledge of coronary anatomy with CCTA is beneficial for diabetic patients and can discriminate between lower risk patients with no or little coronary artery disease who can be discharged immediately and higher risk patients with moderate to severe disease who warrant further workup. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01084239. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Thrombolysis for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot study comparing results from GP led small rural health emergency departments with results from a physician led sub-regional emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Robert; Radford, Peter; Cunningham, Chris; Krones, David; Haines, Helen M

    2012-01-01

    Urgent angiogram is best treatment for patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the first 90 min after contacting medical help. For Australian residents of inner and outer regional areas and remote or very remote areas, quick access to angiograms is not available. Numerous approaches have been developed to maximize reperfusion but delays due to systematic and patient factors persist. Diminishing confidence of some GPs in small rural health services to administer thrombolytics was one barrier to timely reperfusion identified in northeast Victoria, Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and outcomes of STEMI patients treated with thrombolysis by GPs in small rural emergency departments (EDs) with the outcomes from thrombolysis for STEMI in the physician-led, sub-regional ED in northeast Victoria. Data were gathered by a medical file audit. Outcome measures were the frequency of STEMI, symptom to presentation times, mode of transport to hospital, ambulance call to presentation at ED times, door to needle (DTN) times, subsequent percutanous intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG), physician follow up and death. In total 68 cases were audited. Univariate analysis showed no significant differences between the GP-led or physician-led EDs in time from onset of symptoms to presentation, DTN times, thrombolysis related complications or subsequent access to PCI or CABG. Follow-up care was similar in both groups. Transport to hospital differed between the groups with only half of all cases arriving at the ED by ambulance, almost all of which went to the sub-regional hospital. Thrombolysis for STEMI in the small GP-led EDs had similar results to thrombolysis administered by the physician-led ED. There is substantial time benefit to be gained by encouraging GP-led EDs to provide thrombolysis treatment, thereby improving patient prognosis and survival.

  11. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  12. The effect of daily small text message reminders for medicine compliance amongst young people connected with the outpatient department for child and adolescent psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Karsten; Christiansen, Erik; Attermann Stokholm, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with psychiatric illnesses have difficulty maintaining medication over time. Many take their medicine irregularly and studies show that it is the most vulnerable patients who have the greatest problems adhering to treatment. Often only 50% are still under medical treatment...... after 6 months. Aim: In this study we investigated whether text message reminders could improve medicine compliance amongst vulnerable young people with psychiatric disorders who were being treated in the outpatient department for child and adolescent psychiatry and who either are under or were...... to commence medicinal treatment. Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial including all non-acute referrals to an outpatient department for adolescent psychiatry within a group aged 15-20 years starting medical treatment. The patients were followed until the end of their treatment...

  13. Treating the disconfirmed psychiatric client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J

    1983-01-01

    Frequent disconfirmation behaviors have been documented in psychiatric clients. Individuals who demonstrate maladaptive patterns of disconfirmation can learn to understand and modify this dysfunctional sequence. Through one to one interactions and group discussions, psychiatric nurses can help clients learn more positive communication behaviors. This accomplishment will positively affect the client's interpersonal responsiveness and self-esteem.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  15. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  16. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  18. Psychiatric approach to the living kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Correia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Living donor transplantation has increased because of the shortage, the needs of cadaver donors.Based on existing literature the authors address ethical issues and major psychiatric aspects involved in the evaluation of living donor kidney transplant, and the interference of this procedure on quality of life for donors, and their contraindications. The authors further describe the evaluation procedures used in the Hospital S. João, as well as data related to the 32 patients evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry since 2004.

  19. Can the Preoperative Serum Lactate Level Predict the Extent of Bowel Ischemia in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Ambe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Early recognition of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI can be challenging. Extensive bowel necrosis secondary to AMI is associated with high rates of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative serum lactate level and the extent of bowel ischemia in patients with AMI. Methods. Data of patients with abdominal pain and elevated serum lactate undergoing emergency laparotomy for suspected AMI within 24 hours of presentation was retrospectively abstracted. The length of the ischemic bowel segment was compared with the preoperative serum lactate level. Results. 36 female and 39 male patients, with median age 73.1 ± 12.3 years, were included for analysis. The median preoperative lactate was 2.96 ± 2.59 mmol/l in patients with ≤50 cm, 6.86 ± 4.08 mmol/l in patients with 51–100 cm, 4.73 ± 2.76 mmol/l in patients with >100 cm ischemic bowel, and 14.07 ± 4.91 mmol/l in the group with multivisceral ischemia. Conclusion. Although elevated serum lactate might permit an early suspicion and thus influence the clinical decision-making with regard to prioritization of surgery in patients with suspected AMI, a linear relationship between serum lactate and the extent of bowel ischemia could not be established in this study.

  20. Can the Preoperative Serum Lactate Level Predict the Extent of Bowel Ischemia in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Peter C; Kang, Kai; Papadakis, Marios; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Early recognition of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) can be challenging. Extensive bowel necrosis secondary to AMI is associated with high rates of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative serum lactate level and the extent of bowel ischemia in patients with AMI. Methods. Data of patients with abdominal pain and elevated serum lactate undergoing emergency laparotomy for suspected AMI within 24 hours of presentation was retrospectively abstracted. The length of the ischemic bowel segment was compared with the preoperative serum lactate level. Results. 36 female and 39 male patients, with median age 73.1 ± 12.3 years, were included for analysis. The median preoperative lactate was 2.96 ± 2.59 mmol/l in patients with ≤50 cm, 6.86 ± 4.08 mmol/l in patients with 51-100 cm, 4.73 ± 2.76 mmol/l in patients with >100 cm ischemic bowel, and 14.07 ± 4.91 mmol/l in the group with multivisceral ischemia. Conclusion. Although elevated serum lactate might permit an early suspicion and thus influence the clinical decision-making with regard to prioritization of surgery in patients with suspected AMI, a linear relationship between serum lactate and the extent of bowel ischemia could not be established in this study.

  1. Metallurgy Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The activities of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1981 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Materials Research, Technology and Materials Development, Fuel Elements. Furthermore, a survey is given of the department's participation in international collaboration...

  2. Characteristics of chest pain and its acute management in a low-middle income country: analysis of emergency department surveillance data from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paichadze, Nino; Afzal, Badar; Zia, Nukhba; Mujeeb, Rakshinda; Khan, Muhammad; Razzak, Junaid A

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most frequent causes of emergency department (ED) visits in high-income countries. Little is known about chest pain patients presenting to EDs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of chest pain patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) of Pakistan and to determine the utilization of ED resources in the management of chest pain patients and their outcomes. This study used pilot active surveillance data from seven major EDs in Pakistan. Data were collected on all patients presenting to the EDs of the participating sites to seek emergency care for chest pain. A total of 20,435 patients were admitted to the EDs with chest pain. The majority were males (M 60%, F 40%) and the mean age was 42 years (SD+/- 14). The great majority (97%, n = 19,164) of patients were admitted to the EDs of public hospitals compared to private hospitals and only 3% arrived by ambulance. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were used in more than half of all chest pain patients (55%, n = 10,890) while cardiac enzymes were performed in less than 5% of cases. Chest X-rays were the most frequently performed radiological procedure (21%, n = 4,135); more than half of the admitted chest pain patients were discharged from the EDs and less than 1% died in the ED. Chest pain is a common presenting complaint in EDs in Pakistan. The majority received an ECG and the use of diagnostic testing, such as cardiac enzymes, is quite uncommon.

  3. Quality of psychiatric referrals to secondary-level care | Struwig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study examined the quality of referrals to secondary-level outpatient psychiatric services rendered by the. Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State. Referral letters were evaluated according to specific quality criteria. Aspects that would enable secondary-level doctors to make informed decisions ...

  4. Occupational disability on psychiatric grounds in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extra-ordinary levels of stress on people in many occupational sectors, including the teaching ... R Emsley, L Emsley, S Seedat. Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa ... Almost half had a family history of psychiatric disorder, and the majority (N = 66.

  5. The formation and design of 'The Acute Admission Database'- a database including a prospective, observational cohort of 6279 patients triaged in the Emergency Department in a larger Danish hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Charlotte; Lauritzen, Marlene Mp; Danker, Jakob K

    2012-01-01

    outcome. A likely explanation is the difficulty in retrieving all relevant information from one database. The objective of this article was 1) to describe the formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database', and 2) to characterize the cohort included. METHODS: All adult patients triaged...... at the Emergency Department at Hillerod Hospital and admitted either to the observationary unit or to a general ward in-hospital were prospectively included during a period of 22 weeks. The triage system used was a Danish adaptation of the Swedish triage system, ADAPT. Data from 3 different data sources was merged...... using a unique identifier, the Central Personal Registry number; 1) Data from patient admission, time and date, vital signs, presenting complaint and triage category, 2) Blood sample results taken at admission, including a venous acid-base status, and 3) Outcome measures, e.g. length of stay, admission...

  6. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Since October 1, 1983, most hospitals have been paid under the hospital inpatient prospective payment system (PPS). However, certain types of specialty hospitals and...

  7. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatric morbidity and pattern of dysfunctions in patients with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy, being a chronic infectious disease with profound social stigma, remains associated with high psychological mortidity. PURPOSES: To find out the pattern of psychiatric morbidity in leprosy patients and the relationship of various factors with the morbidity. METHODS: Ninty patients attending leprosy clinic were randomly chosen for the study group alongwith 40 patients suffering from acute skin problem other than leprosy as control group. The socio-demographic data were recorded in semi-structural proforma; all patients were given Goldbery Health Questioneaire (GHQ. Patients having GHQ score> 2 was assessed by Disability Assessent Questionaire (DAQ. The psychiatric diagnoses was made according to ICD-10 by W ho0 and physical deformity by W ho 0 Disability Scale. FINDINGS: The mean GHQ score of the study grant was 3.44 and that of control group was 1.62. The mean DAQ score was 45.13. Psychiatric disorder was seen in 44.4% and 7.5% of study group and control group respectively. The psychiatric illness was generalised anoxidy disorder (GAD (27.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosis highly associated with psychiatric mobidity. LIMITATIONS: The findings can not be generalised due to small sample size and clinic-based data.

  9. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms in youth following resolution of sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Talia; Sidell, Douglas; Gans, Hayley; Brown, Kayla; Farhadian, Bahare; Gustafson, Melissa; Sherr, Janell; Thienemann, Margo; Frankovich, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis. We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Sinusitis treatments, sinonasal imaging, and neuropsychiatric symptoms before, during, and after sinusitis onset were noted. Patients were included in the final review if they had a clear diagnosis of isolated sinusitis (without concurrent illness and/or immunodeficiency), and were evaluated during an episode of sinusitis. 10/150 (6.6%) patients had isolated sinusitis at the time of their neuropsychiatric deterioration. Eight patients received antibiotics to treat sinusitis, three of whom also received sinus surgery. Neuropsychiatric symptoms improved in all eight patients concurrent with resolution of sinusitis per parent report and clinician assessment. One patient did not follow through with recommended sinus surgery or antibiotics and her psychiatric symptoms persisted. One patient was lost to follow-up. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms correlated with resolution of sinus disease in this retrospective study. Identification, treatment, and resolution of underlying infections, including sinusitis, may have the potential to change the trajectory of some neuropsychiatric illnesses. Randomized clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of myocardial CT perfusion in patients presenting with acute chest pain to the emergency department: comparison with SPECT-myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuchtner, Gudrun Maria; Plank, Fabian; Pena, Constantino; Battle, Juan; Min, James; Leipsic, Jonathon; Labounty, Troy; Janowitz, Warren; Katzen, Barry; Ziffer, Jack; Cury, Ricardo C

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether evaluation of resting myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) from coronary CT angiography (CTA) datasets in patients presenting with chest pain (CP) to the emergency department (ED), might have added value to coronary CTA. 76 Patients (age 54.9 y±13; 32 (42%) women) presenting with CP to the ED underwent coronary 64-slice CTA. Myocardial perfusion defects were evaluated for CTP (American Heart Association 17-segment model) and compared with rest sestamibi single-photon emission CT myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). CTA was assessed for >50% stenosis per vessel. CTP demonstrated a sensitivity of 92% and 89%, specificity of 95% and 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% and 82% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98% and 99% for each patient and for each segment, respectively. CTA showed an accuracy of 92%, sensitivity of 70.4%, specificity of 95.5%, PPV 67.8%, and NPV of 95% compared with SPECT-MPI. When CTP findings were added to CTA the PPV improved from 67% to 90.1%. In patients presenting to the ED with CP, the evaluation of rest myocardial CTP demonstrates high diagnostic performance as compared with SPECT-MPI. Addition of CTP to CTA improves the accuracy of CTA, primarily by reducing rates of false-positive CTA.

  11. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

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    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  12. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  13. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  14. Relative risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption: modeling the dose-response relationship in emergency department data from 18 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Borges, Guilherme; Monteiro, Maristela

    2015-02-01

    To update and extend analysis of the dose-response relationship of injury and drinking by demographic and injury subgroups and country-level drinking pattern, and examine the validity and efficiency of the fractional polynomial approach to modeling this relationship. Pair-matched case-cross-over analysis of drinking prior to injury, using categorical step-function and fractional polynomial analysis. Thirty-seven emergency departments (EDs) across 18 countries. A total of 13 119 injured drinkers arriving at the ED within 6 hours of the event. The dose-response relationship was analyzed by gender, age, cause of injury (traffic, violence, fall, other) and country detrimental drinking pattern (DDP). Estimated risks were similar between the two analytical methods, with injury risk doubling at one drink [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3-2.7] and peaking at about 30 drinks. Although risk was similar for males and females up to three drinks (OR = 4.6), it appeared to increase more rapidly for females and was significantly higher starting from 20 drinks [female OR = 28.6; confidence interval (CI) = 16.8, 48.9; male OR = 12.8; CI = 10.1, 16.3]. No significant differences were found across age groups. Risk was significantly higher for violence-related injury than for other causes across the volume range. Risk was also higher at all volumes for DDP-3 compared with DDP-2 countries. There is an increasing risk relationship between alcohol and injury but risk is not uniform across gender, cause of injury or country drinking pattern. The fractional polynomial approach is a valid and efficient approach for modeling the alcohol injury risk relationship. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Automated Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Emergency Department Patients Undergoing 256-Slice Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashoul, Sharbell; Gaspar, Tamar; Halon, David A; Lewis, Basil S; Shenkar, Yuval; Jaffe, Ronen; Peled, Nathan; Rubinshtein, Ronen

    2015-10-01

    A 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an accurate method for detection and exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (OBS-CAD). However, accurate image interpretation requires expertise and may not be available at all hours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a fully automated computer-assisted diagnosis (COMP-DIAG) tool for exclusion of OBS-CAD in patients in the emergency department (ED) presenting with chest pain. Three hundred sixty-nine patients in ED without known coronary disease underwent 256-slice CCTA as part of the assessment of chest pain of uncertain origin. COMP-DIAG (CorAnalyzer II) automatically reported presence or exclusion of OBS-CAD (>50% stenosis, ≥1 vessel). Performance characteristics of COMP-DIAG for exclusion and detection of OBS-CAD were determined using expert reading as the reference standard. Seventeen (5%) studies were unassessable by COMP-DIAG software, and 352 patients (1,056 vessels) were therefore available for analysis. COMP-DIAG identified 33% of assessable studies as having OBS-CAD, but the prevalence of OBS-CAD on CCTA was only 18% (66 of 352 patients) by standard expert reading. However, COMP-DIAG correctly identified 61 of the 66 patients (93%) with OBS-CAD with 21 vessels (2%) with OBS-CAD misclassified as negative. In conclusion, compared to expert reading, automated computer-assisted diagnosis using the CorAnalyzer showed high sensitivity but only moderate specificity for detection of obstructive coronary disease in patients in ED who underwent 256-slice CCTA. The high negative predictive value of this computer-assisted algorithm may be useful in the ED setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of light pressure stroking massage with sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil on alleviating acute traumatic limbs pain: A triple-blind controlled trial in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Morteza; Farsi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Due to adverse effects of common medications used for traumatic pain management, it is crucial to use complementary methods to alleviate this pain. Present study aimed to assess the effect of light pressure stroking massage with topical sesame oil on pain severity of patients with limbs trauma. This triple-blinded randomized trial was conducted on 40 patients with upper or lower extremities trauma in emergency department of Busheher Amir Al-Momenian Hospital, Busheher, Iran, in 2015-2016. Patients received a 5min massage with either liquid paraffin (placebo) or sesame oil on trauma site twice a day for 9days duration. Pain severity was assessed by visual analogue scale in first day (baseline), 3th, 6th and 9th days of intervention in the both groups. Mean changes of pain severity between two groups was significant in the 6th (-0.20±1.36; P=0.036) and 9th (-0.36±1.12; Psesame oil and placebo groups during 9days of intervention (575.23±3.11 and 625.13±4.23 respectively, P=0.601). There were no adverse effects during the study in the both groups. Massage with topical sesame oil was associated with significant reduction in pain severity of patients with limbs trauma. Therefore, it is suggested to use this oil on complementary medicine for pain relief due to low cost, easy usage and lack of adverse effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  18. [Management of violent behaviour and rapid tranquillisation during acute psychotic episode: discrepancy between routine practice and evidence. The SIEP-DIRECT'S Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Antonio; Morganti, Carla; Erlicher, Arcadio; Burti, Lorenzo; Buscaglia, Giacinto; Pegoraro, Marco; Davide, Jacchetti; Cristofalo, Doriana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Domenico, Semisa

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of acute psychiatric care concerning the management of violent behaviour and rapid tranquilization. Data concerning 13 indicators, drawn from NICE recommendations, were collected in 19 Departments of Mental Health, in the frame of the SIEP-DIRECT'S Project, to evaluate the implementation of NICE recommendations in Italian Mental Health Services. In about two thirds of Departments of Mental Health (DMHs) professionals were trained in the management of violent behaviour, while written procedures existed only in one fourth of DMHs. About a half of the professionals working in Psychiatric Wards in General Hospital were trained in rapid tranquilization, while procedures on this topic are practically absent and specific care for monitoring intensively the heavily sedated patient was not frequent. Management of violent behaviour and rapid tranquilization are two critical areas in the care performed by Psychiatric Wards in General Hospital. Training on these topics is more frequent than implementation of procedures. NICE recommendations and SIEP indicators are useful tools for improving the quality of acute psychiatric care.

  19. Hashimoto encephalopathy: Neurological and psychiatric perspective

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE is an autoimmune disease with neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations and elevated titers of antithyroid antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Patients are mostly women. Age varies from 8 to 86 years. Prevalence of HE is estimated to be 2.1/100,000. Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms and signs constitute the clinical picture. The disease responds well to corticosteroid therapy, but sometimes other immunomodulatory therapies must be applied. Autoimmune mechanisms with antibodies against antigens in the brain cortex are suspected. The course of the disease can be acute, subacute, chronic, or relapsing/remitting. Some patients improve spontaneously, but a few died in spite of adequate therapy.

  20. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  2. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  4. A profile of acute care in an aging America: snowball sample identification and characterization of United States geriatric emergency departments in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Teresita M; Olade, Tolulope Oyeyemi; Carpenter, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    The aging of America poses a challenge to emergency departments (EDs). Studies show that elderly patients have poor outcomes despite increased testing, prolonged periods of observation, and higher admission rates. In response, emergency medicine (EM) leaders have implemented strategies for improved ED elder care, enhancing expertise, equipment, policies, and protocols. One example is the development of geriatric EDs gaining in popularity nationwide. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first research to systematically identify and qualitatively characterize the existence, locations, and features of geriatric EDs across the United States. The primary objective was to determine the number, distribution, and characteristics of geriatric EDs in the United States in 2013. This was a survey with potential respondents identified via a snowball sampling of known geriatric EDs, EM professional organizations' geriatric interest groups, and a structured search of the Internet using multiple search engines. Sites were contacted by telephone, and those confirming geriatric EDs presence received the survey via e-mail. Category questions included date of opening, location, volumes, staffing, physical plant changes, screening tools, policies, and protocols. Categories were reported based on general interest to those seeking to understand components of a geriatric ED. Thirty-six hospitals confirmed geriatric ED existence and received surveys. Thirty (83%) responded to the survey and confirmed presence or plans for geriatric EDs: 24 (80%) had existing geriatric EDs, and six (20%) were planning to open geriatric EDs by 2014. The majority of geriatric EDs are located in the Midwest (46%) and Northeast (30%) regions of the United States. Eighty percent serve from 5,000 to 20,000 elder patients annually. Seventy percent of geriatric EDs are attached to the main ED, and 66% have from one to 10 geriatric beds. Physical plant changes include modifications to beds (96%), lighting (90

  5. Stress CMR imaging observation unit in the emergency department reduces 1-year medical care costs in patients with acute chest pain: a randomized study for comparison with inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chadwick D; Hwang, Wenke; Case, Doug; Hoekstra, James W; Lefebvre, Cedric; Blumstein, Howard; Hamilton, Craig A; Harper, Erin N; Hundley, W Gregory

    2011-08-01

    This study sought to compare the direct cost of medical care and clinical events during the first year after patients with intermediate risk acute chest pain were randomized to stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) observation unit (OU) testing versus inpatient care. In a recent study, randomization to OU-CMR reduced median index hospitalization cost compared with the cost of inpatient care in patients presenting to the emergency department with intermediate risk acute chest pain. Emergency department patients with intermediate risk chest pain were randomized to OU-CMR (OU care, cardiac markers, stress CMR) or inpatient care (admission, care per admitting provider). This analysis reports the direct cost of cardiac-related care and clinical outcomes (myocardial infarction, revascularization, cardiovascular death) during the first year of follow-up subsequent to discharge. Consistent with health economics literature, provider cost was calculated from work-related relative value units using the Medicare conversion factor; facility charges were converted to cost using departmental-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Linear models were used to compare cost accumulation among study groups. We included 109 randomized subjects in this analysis (52 OU-CMR, 57 inpatient care). The median age was 56 years; baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. At 1 year, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p = 0.72) with 1 patient in each group experiencing a cardiac event after discharge. First-year cardiac-related costs were significantly lower for participants randomized to OU-CMR than for participants receiving inpatient care (geometric mean = $3,101 vs. $4,742 including the index visit [p = 0.004] and $29 vs. $152 following discharge [p = 0.012]). During the year following randomization, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p = 0.72). An OU-CMR strategy reduces cardiac

  6. Psychiatric characteristics of homicide defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Christine A; Mulvey, Edward P; Yang, Suzanne; Nemoianu, Andrei; Shugarman, Ryan; Soliman, Layla

    2013-09-01

    The authors examined the rate of mental disorders in an unselected sample of homicide defendants in a U.S. jurisdiction, seeking to identify psychiatric factors associated with offense characteristics and court outcomes. Defendants charged with homicide in a U.S. urban county between 2001 and 2005 received a psychiatric evaluation after arrest. Demographic, historical, and psychiatric variables as well as offense characteristics and legal outcomes were described. Bivariate analyses examined differences by age group and by race, and logistic models examined predictors of multiple victims, firearm use, guilty plea, and guilty verdict. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had at least one axis I or II diagnosis, most often a substance use disorder (47%). Axis I or II diagnoses were more common (78%) among defendants over age 40. Although 37% of the sample had prior psychiatric treatment, only 8% of the defendants with diagnosed axis I disorders had outpatient treatment during the 3 months preceding the homicide; African Americans were less likely than non-African Americans to be in treatment. African American males were more likely to use a firearm and to have a male victim. In exploratory analyses, psychiatric factors did not predict multiple victims, firearm use in the crime, or a guilty verdict. Rates of axis I disorders were lower than reported in previous studies. Few homicide defendants were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the crime, suggesting limited opportunities for prevention by mental health providers.

  7. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  8. [Short- and long-term results of a systematic benzodiazepine discontinuation programme for psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C C; Mickers, F C; Barnhoorn, D

    2006-01-01

    Although guidelines for the use of benzodiazepines emphasise that these drugs should only be prescribedfor short periods of time, in practice long-term usage persists and can be a serious problem. There is afear among patients and among doctors prescribing the drugs that symptoms will become more acute if attempts are made to terminate the regimen. To determine the short- and long-term results of a standardized method for discontinuing the use of benzodiazepines (BZD) and to test whether these results were related to the age and gender of the patients, the BZD dosage level and the treatment modality. A retrospective cohort study was performed at the Department of Psychiatry of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. A systematic BZD discontinuation programme was offered by the Department of Psychiatry to patients who had been using BZD for at least three months. By studying the medical records, by conducting telephone interviews and by examining the prescription data of the GP or the pharmacy it was ascertained how many patients managed to become abstinent in the short- and long-term. Upon termination of the discontinuation programme 65% of the patients had managed to stop taking BZD and at follow-up approximately 2 years later 37% of the patients interviewed had not used BZD for the last 3 months. Neither age, nor gender, nor treatment modality predicted BZD usage immediately after the end of the discontinuation programme or at the 2-year follow-up. A high dose of BZD was the only significant predictor of post-programme usage 2 years later. A systematic discontinuation programme seems to be just as effective for psychiatric patients as it isfor general practice patients and deserves to be included in the regular treatment programmes provided by psychiatric practices.

  9. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress

  10. Identifying adolescents at highly elevated risk for suicidal behavior in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G; Gipson, Polly Y

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14-19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior.

  11. Correlation between Anger and Job Motivation among Psychiatric Nurses in Kashan Psychiatric Hospital

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    Kouchaki E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In general, nurses who work in department of psychiatric are in fact interacting with emotional disorders of patients once providing their care services. higher levels of job motivation and satisfaction can markedly foster service improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anger and job motivation in nurses of a psychiatric hospital. Instrument & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive research in 2014, all 50 psychiatry nurses working at Kargarnejad Hospital of Kashan City, Iran, were entirely studied. A demographical questionnaire, the Anger Multiple Scale and the Job Motivation Scale were used for data gathering. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean score of anger was 3.01±0.36 and of job motivation was 1.70±0.86. There was a significant relationship between job motivation and the number of family members and conditions of employment of nurses (p=0.001. There was a significant inverse relationship between scores of anger and job motivation of psychiatry nurses of the hospital (r=-0.712; p=0.001. Conclusion: There is a relationship between anger and job motivation in nurses of Kashan Psychiatric hospital.

  12. Who’s Boarding in the Psychiatric Emergency Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Simpson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a “boarder.” The psychiatric emergency service (PES has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. Methods: We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student’s t-tests and multivariate regression. Results: 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7% resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/ seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:669-674

  13. PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS OF HUNTINGTON DISEASE – CASE REPORTS

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    Mirela Batta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huntington disease occurrs rarely, it can be encountered not only by neurologists and psychiatrists but also by other medical practitioners. Its characteristic features are involuntary movements, cognitive disorders and gradual development of dementia. Diagnosis is given on the basis of these clinical features, positive familial anamnesis, with the laboratory exclusion of other neuropsychiatric diseases and with the help of neuroimaging methods (in particular NMR. The disease can be only confirmed by means of genetic analysis.Patients and methods. In this article, four cases of patients with Huntington disease and diverse psychiatric disorders that were hospitalised at the psychiatric department of the Maribor General Hospital between October 2002 and March 2003 are described. All the patients fulfilled the valid criteria for the diagnosis of Huntington disease. However, they differed according to their accompanying psychiatric psychopathology, age and social problems.Conclusions. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to different psychiatric symptoms and clinical manifestations of Huntington disease that are often misleading in the diagnostic process. In addition, exigency of early diagnostics, guidelines for referrals to genetic testing and psychiatric monitoring of these patients are emphasised.

  14. A study of psychiatric morbidity in patients of peptic ulcer diseases

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    Jagpal Singh Klair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.

  15. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is a complex phenomenon moderated not only by the personal characteristics and behavioral traits of the individual but also by family rearing practices, as well as by situational factors such as the frequency and type of bullying. The phenomenon is also affected by group processes among the individuals present during the event. Bullying is a distressing experience that is often continuous over years and predicts both concurrent and future psychiatric symptoms and disorders, even in adulthood. At young ages, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression, as well as anxiety, are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. Later in young adulthood, male victims are at risk for anxiety, male bullies for personality disorders, and male bully-victims for both personality disorders and anxiety, and the risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Rarely does any single behavior predict future problems as clearly as bullying does, and additional assessment of psychiatric problems is always warranted, if the child is involved in bullying as a bully, victim or bully-victim. Based on our current knowledge, school-based interventions regulating the behavior of the child, increasing pro-social skills and promoting peer relationships are recommended for those without concurrent psychiatric disturbance, but those displaying psychiatric symptoms and disorders should be referred for psychiatric consultation and intervention.

  16. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

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    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  17. [Pharmaco- and psychotherapy in psychiatric ambulatory care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, M

    1983-01-01

    Our report describes the evolution of the outpatients' psychiatry in Lausanne. Here is mentioned the constant increase of consultations for new and former cases, and it is statistically shown that this augmentation is not only the result of the increasing population in the "Vaud District" (Canton de Vaud) but rather the consequence of the increasing number of patients with deeper investigations and treatments. It is true that the psychotherapeutic training was the most important in our outpatients' department, but the coming of psychotropic drugs has changed the treatment in certain cases and has developed mixed treatments. The creation of the Psycho-Social Center in the Psychiatric outpatients' department was the beginning of the social action in the institution, with the creation of an emergency department, consultations at the patients' home and treatment made by a team including doctors-outpatients' nurses-social assistants. We have checked that for many outpatients, very often in hard or psycho-reactive situations, there was no opposition between pharmaco-therapy or psychotherapy. So pharmaco-therapy and psychotherapy are often used separately or together in the outpatients' department through individual analytic psychotherapies, group or brief psychotherapies, relaxation, emergency treatments with perfusion of psychotropic and neuroleptic drugs.

  18. Stability of psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective study that aimed at studying the diagnostic stability of psychiatric diagnoses over a 4-year period. Three-hundred and twelve patients (n = 312) admitted more than once to Al Ain in-patient unit from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1993, were the subjects for this study. The sample included patients with the following index diagnoses: acute psychoses (n = 37), alcohol abuse (n = 15), bipolar disorder (n = 27), depressive disorders (n = 63), drug abuse (n = 21), hysteria (n = 23), neurotic disorders (n = 50) and schizophrenia (n = 76). Diagnoses on discharge for first admissions were considered the index diagnoses. The shift from index diagnoses to subsequent diagnoses was counted. Diagnostic stability was calculated as the percentages of index diagnoses that did not change over time. In nearly half of the patients the index diagnoses changed over the 4-year period. Highest diagnostic stability was found in patients with index diagnoses of alcohol abuse, schizophrenia and drug abuse (92%, 74% and 71% respectively), while the lowest stability was found in patients with neurotic, hysterical, depressive disorders, acute psychoses and bipolar disorders (38%, 48% and 45%, 42%, 52% respectively). Two distinct patterns of shifts were noted. First shift occurred between functional psychoses and second shift between depressive and neurotic disorders. This study provides further support to the notion that diagnostic stability in clinical practice is still far from being satisfactory.

  19. Satisfaction of patients hospitalised in psychiatric hospitals: a randomised comparison of two psychiatric-specific and one generic satisfaction questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléopas Agatta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is interest in measuring the satisfaction of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals, it might be important to determine whether surveys of psychiatric patients should employ generic or psychiatry-specific instruments. The aim of this study was to compare two psychiatric-specific and one generic questionnaires assessing patients' satisfaction after a hospitalisation in a psychiatric hospital. Methods We randomised adult patients discharged from two Swiss psychiatric university hospitals between April and September 2004, to receive one of three instruments: the Saphora-Psy questionnaire, the Perceptions of Care survey questionnaire or the Picker Institute questionnaire for acute care hospitals. In addition to the comparison of response rates, completion time, mean number of missing items and mean ceiling effect, we targeted our comparison on patients and asked them to answer ten evaluation questions about the questionnaire they had just completed. Results 728 out of 1550 eligible patients (47% participated in the study. Across questionnaires, response rates were similar (Saphora-Psy: 48.5%, Perceptions of Care: 49.9%, Picker: 43.4%; P = 0.08, average completion time was lowest for the Perceptions of Care questionnaire (minutes: Saphora-Psy: 17.7, Perceptions of Care: 13.7, Picker: 17.5; P = 0.005, the Saphora-Psy questionnaire had the largest mean proportion of missing responses (Saphora-Psy: 7.1%, Perceptions of Care: 2.8%, Picker: 4.0%; P P Conclusion Despite differences in the intended target population, content, lay-out and length of questionnaires, none appeared to be obviously better based on our comparison. All three presented advantages and drawbacks and could be used for the satisfaction evaluation of psychiatric inpatients. However, if comparison across medical services or hospitals is desired, using a generic questionnaire might be advantageous.

  20. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Liliana Foia,2 Cristina Birsan,1 Ancuta Goriuc,2 Caius Solovan3 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, Iaşi, Romania; 2Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 3Department of Dermatology, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, Romania Background: The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods: Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results: The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion: These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to

  1. Chest pain prevalence, causes, and disposition in the emergency department of a regional hospital in Pretoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyser, Mimi; Smith, Selma

    2016-06-10

    Chest pain is a common clinical syndrome. However, there is a paucity of African studies describing the causes, prevalence, aetiology, and disposition of patients with chest pain presenting in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this retrospective descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, demographics, and disposition of all adult patients with the main complaint of chest pain presenting at the ED of a regional hospital in South Africa. Records of all patients 18 years and older presenting with the complaint of chest pain from 1 December 2011 through 10 April 2012 were assessed. A data collection sheet capturing patient demographics and disposition from the ED was used. The diagnosis was subdivided into groups: cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, psychiatric/psychogenic, other, and unknown. Of the 312 patients presenting with chest pain, 210 patient files were retrieved. The prevalence of non-traumatic chest pain was 1.66%. Respiratory disease was the most common cause (36.19%), with pneumonia the most common diagnosis (24.40%). Logistic regression showed diagnoses of acute cardiovascular disease or respiratory disease, older age, and transport by ambulance as being associated with admission. The main cause of acute chest pain was found to be respiratory disease, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. In the African context, the aetiology of acute chest pain differs from that in first world countries. Health workers should therefore pay special attention to respiratory conditions during diagnosis and management in African patients with acute chest pain.

  2. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  3. Transposable elements and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Fallon, James H; Sobell, Janet; Potkin, Steven G; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Transposable Elements (TEs) or transposons are low-complexity elements (e.g., LINEs, SINEs, SVAs, and HERVs) that make up to two-thirds of the human genome. There is mounting evidence that TEs play an essential role in genomic architecture and regulation related to both normal function and disease states. Recently, the identification of active TEs in several different human brain regions suggests that TEs play a role in normal brain development and adult physiology and quite possibly in psychiatric disorders. TEs have been implicated in hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and cancer. With the advent of next-generation whole-genome sequencing approaches, our understanding of the relationship between TEs and psychiatric disorders will greatly improve. We will review the biology of TEs and early evidence for TE involvement in psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  5. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...

  6. [Social psychiatric service as a cornerstone of psychiatric community care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, P; Tiggemann, H G

    1991-12-01

    Psychiatric care has gradually been shifting in Germany from its original inpatient basis to outpatient and complementary treatment. This shift of emphasis resulted in a transfer of psychiatry-political responsibility to communal bodies and hence also to communal public health services. Sociopsychiatric service ranks high in communal psychiatric care setups, since it promotes cooperation and helps to coordinate efforts in individual cases in respect of focal points on which such care is centered. For the future, an expert commission has suggested that the various institutions actively engaged in community psychiatric care should team up in each region. This applies in particular to mobile services visiting the patients in their homes, and to the offices providing contracts to sociopsychiatric services of public health offices. Despite positive outlooks there are also quite a few negative aspects of present-day practice. One of them is poor definition of tasks and functions of communal sociopsychiatric services, whereas another one are the unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative means at their disposal. It is also too often overlooked that psychiatric patients and disabled persons are entitled to compensation insurance payments to promote their rehabilitation, as provided for by individual legislation in the various German laender. To tap these sources sufficiently well, sociopsychiatric services must be better equipped in every respect. The professional competence of social workers and physicians, as well as of the relevant staff, must be safeguarded by continuing education and specialist training measures.

  7. Self-harm induced somatic admission after discharge from psychiatric hospital - a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellesdal, L; Kroken, R A; Lutro, O; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Kjelby, E; Oedegaard, K J; Jørgensen, H A; Mehlum, L

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have examined rate and predictors of self-harm in discharged psychiatric patients. To investigate the rate, coding, timing, predictors and characteristics of self-harm induced somatic admission after discharge from psychiatric acute admission. Cohort study of 2827 unselected patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric acute ward during three years. Mean observation period was 2.3 years. Combined register linkage and manual data examination. Cox regression was used to investigate covariates for time to somatic admission due to self-harm, with covariates changing during follow-up entered time dependently. During the observation period, 10.5% of the patients had 792 somatic self-harm admissions. Strongest risk factors were psychiatric admission due to non-suicidal self-harm, suicide attempt and suicide ideation. The risk was increased throughout the first year of follow-up, during readmission, with increasing outpatient consultations and in patients diagnosed with recurrent depression, personality disorders, substance use disorders and anxiety/stress-related disorders. Only 49% of the somatic self-harm admissions were given hospital self-harm diagnosis. Self-harm induced somatic admissions were highly prevalent during the first year after discharge from acute psychiatric admission. Underdiagnosing of self-harm in relation to somatic self-harm admissions may cause incorrect follow-up treatments and unreliable register data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  9. Genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, D W; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T

    2001-04-01

    Like other medical conditions, some psychiatric disorders are inherited, whereas others are not. Human genetics research is moving at a rapid pace. Genes for over 450 genetic disorders have been cloned and many disease-causing mutations have also been identified. The explosion of this new knowledge has created many new exciting opportunities in the diagnosis of these heritable disorders. The rapid pace of gene discovery will aid the identification of susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders. Indeed, we can look forward to answers to many clinical and research questions. These are some of the gifts that the expanding field of human genetics research will continue to bring to medical science. However, as genetic tests for the detection of psychiatric disorders become available, many ethical, legal, and social implications will need to be considered. In this article, we review the principles of genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders, as well as the social and ethical dilemmas that genetic testing may bring. Although medical and scientific advances may bring many gifts, we should approach this new knowledge with caution, as one of the gifts may be a Pandora's box.

  10. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitvast, J.E.; Widdershoven, G.G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and

  11. Therapeutic abortion on psychiatric grounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... those with psychiatric disorder; severe reactive depression was found in 27,5% and 50% were considered to have personality disorders sufficient to be identified as pathological. Such assessments were based on a record of longstanding neurotic or habitually maladaptive behaviour characterized by ...

  12. Predictors of psychiatric readmissions to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification of early symptoms of relapse, application of immediate and appropriate measures, and adequate record-keeping by health institutions are ... hospitalization, resulting from the policy of de-institutionalization in. Nigeria has led to ..... adolescent psychiatric care Aust N Z ] Psychiatry 2005; 39: 600-606. 3. vaett C.

  13. Dyspepsia in chronic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Meijs, V.M.M.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on dyspeptic complaints among patients hospitalized in the long-stay ward of a general psychiatric hospital. Methods: A representative sample of the patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Eighty percent of the patients reported one or more

  14. The formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database'- a database including a prospective, observational cohort of 6279 patients triaged in the emergency department in a larger Danish hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barfod Charlotte

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management and care of the acutely ill patient has improved over the last years due to introduction of systematic assessment and accelerated treatment protocols. We have, however, sparse knowledge of the association between patient status at admission to hospital and patient outcome. A likely explanation is the difficulty in retrieving all relevant information from one database. The objective of this article was 1 to describe the formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database', and 2 to characterize the cohort included. Methods All adult patients triaged at the Emergency Department at Hillerød Hospital and admitted either to the observationary unit or to a general ward in-hospital were prospectively included during a period of 22 weeks. The triage system used was a Danish adaptation of the Swedish triage system, ADAPT. Data from 3 different data sources was merged using a unique identifier, the Central Personal Registry number; 1 Data from patient admission; time and date, vital signs, presenting complaint and triage category, 2 Blood sample results taken at admission, including a venous acid-base status, and 3 Outcome measures, e.g. length of stay, admission to Intensive Care Unit, and mortality within 7 and 28 days after admission. Results In primary triage, patients were categorized as red (4.4%, orange (25.2%, yellow (38.7% and green (31.7%. Abnormal vital signs were present at admission in 25% of the patients, most often temperature (10.5%, saturation of peripheral oxygen (9.2%, Glasgow Coma Score (6.6% and respiratory rate (4.8%. A venous acid-base status was obtained in 43% of all patients. The majority (78% had a pH within the normal range (7.35-7.45, 15% had acidosis (pH 7.45. Median length of stay was 2 days (range 1-123. The proportion of patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit was 1.6% (95% CI 1.2-2.0, 1.8% (95% CI 1.5-2.2 died within 7 days, and 4.2% (95% CI 3.7-4.7 died within 28 days after admission

  15. Role of urine drug screening in the medical clearance of pediatric psychiatric patients: is there one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabuddin, Bashar S; Hack, Clare M; Sivitz, Adam B

    2013-08-01

    Our primary objective was to investigate whether urine drug screen (UDS) results affected the medical management of pediatric psychiatric patients presenting to the pediatric emergency department (ED) for psychiatric evaluation and whether it affected the final disposition of these patients. This was a retrospective chart review of patients who presented to an urban pediatric ED in Newark, NJ, with psychiatric or behavior problems for medical clearance before psychiatric evaluation between June 3, 2008, and June 3, 2009. Inclusion criteria were any patient between the ages of 0 to 20 years who presented to the pediatric ED and had a UDS performed. Exclusion criteria were if the UDS was obtained for a primary medical workup such as altered mental status, known or admitted overdose, or accidental ingestions, or no psychiatric consultation was made from the ED. Abstracted descriptive data include patient's age, sex, race, and insurance status. Visit-specific data include patient's reason for visit, results of the UDS, psychiatric diagnosis if any, history of substance abuse if any, and management decisions other than psychiatric evaluation after medical clearance. A total of 875 charts were identified from laboratory records; 539 of those patients presented to the pediatric ED for psychiatric evaluation. A total of 62 patients had at least 1 substance detected on the UDS and were referred to psychiatry. All of the patients who had presented for psychiatric evaluation, including those with a positive result on the UDS, were medically cleared with no documented change in management or medical intervention in the pediatric ED. Obtaining a UDS on patients who presented to the pediatric ED for medical clearance before psychiatric evaluation did not alter medical decision for clearance nor necessitate any change in management or interventions before psychiatric evaluation.

  16. Psychiatric morbidity in dermatology patients: Frequency and results of consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Muammer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermatological patients quite commonly depict psychiatric morbidity. PURPOSES: To study the psychiatric morbidity among skin patients of our clinic. METHODS: In the present study, the patients who were treated in the Dermatology Clinic of Inonu University Medical Faculty were evaluated retrospectively. The age, gender, marital status, habits, dermatological and systemic diseases, previously used drugs, current therapy and psychiatric diagnosis of each patient were recorded. FINDINGS: Of 636 patients involved in the study, 15.3% had psychopathological problems, which were depression (32.0%, adjustment difficulty (15.5%, anxiety (13.4%, psychosomatic disorders (10.3%, obsessive-compulsive disorder and conversion (5.1%, dysthymic disorder (4.1%, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (2.1%, panic attack (1.0%, premenstrual syndrome, schizophrenia, somatization disorder, insomnia, alcohol dependency, bipolar affective disorder, mental retardation, agoraphobia, social phobia and dementia. The dermatological diseases defined for the patients with psychopathology diagnosis were chronic urticaria (25.8%; psoriasis (15.5%; alopecia areata, totalis and iniversalis (11.3%; acute urticaria, neurodermatitis and Behcet′s disease (5.1%; atopic dermatitis and drug eruptions (4.1%; pemphigus (3.1%; angioedema, contact dermatitis and generalized pruritus (2.1%; folliculitis and the others (1.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric morbidity has an affect on the course of dermatological diseases. When required, psychiatric consultation should be sought by dermatology clinics and patients should be followed with the cooperation of dermatologists and psychiatrists. LIMITATION: The indoor-based study had not included any control group and any domicillary patient.

  17. ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY AMONG ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshimi Borgohain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT among adolescent psychiatric patient is rarely used and studies in this regard are also rare, while its need is of great importance. Aim of this study was to study the prevalence of ECT in common psychiatric illnesses among adolescent age group, where it is indicated and outcome of ECT in those psychiatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS All data were collected retrospectively from the chart review for those adolescents aged between 12 to 18 years who received ECT during the period of 2008 - 2012. During the study period a total of 554 patients received ECT, among whom 104 were adolescents. RESULTS Adolescent patients were 18.77% in the whole ECT sample; the average age of the adolescents was 16.33 years and number of patients were more with older age. Among all the patients, 48.08% had positive family history of mental illness and 81.73% were from lower Socioeconomic Class. The use of ECT was more with schizophrenia (n= 63, 60.57% and acute and transient psychotic disorder (n= 30, 28.85%. The most common indication was agitation and aggression (n= 29, 27.88% followed by poor medication response (n= 19, 18.27%. Good response is found in most of the cases (n= 88, 84.62%, only a few percentage of cases showed minor and transient adverse event. CONCLUSION The result of our study suggests that prevalence of ECT among adolescent psychiatric patients is quite high and ECT is a safe and effective method of treatment in the adolescent psychiatric patients, especially those patients who are severely ill and poorly responding to medication.

  18. Attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoling, Zhong; Jun, Wang; Graham, Mellsop; Chen, Chen; Simei, Zhang; Qiguang, Li; Qun, Wang; Jiansong, Zhou; Xiaoping, Wang

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments. A questionnaire designed to record attitudes toward the current forensic psychiatric assessment procedures and the disposal of mentally ill offenders was developed and distributed via a mobile App. A total of 134 community members and 132 psychiatrists voluntarily completed the questionnaire. Most of responders agreed that the department of public-security has the right to apply for a forensic psychiatric assessment but should not be held solely by that department. Community members were less significantly confident in the validation of forensic psychiatric opinions than were the psychiatrists. A significantly higher proportion of community members than psychiatrists considered that offenders judged Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) should be punished as would be sane people. In addition, only a minority of responders supported that NCRMD should not be held criminally responsible. Our results indicate that both groups have comments on the current distribution of right of startup of forensic psychiatric assessments. Compared to psychiatrists, community members have lower confidence in the validation of forensic psychiatric assessment and have stricter attitudes toward the disposal of offenders with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregnant Adolescents Admitted to an Inpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit: An Eight-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa M; Markley, Laura A; Nelson, Dana; Crane, Stephen S; Fitzgibbon, James J

    2015-12-01

    To assess patient outcomes and describe demographic data of pregnant adolescents admitted to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit, as well as to determine if it is safe to continue to admit pregnant adolescents to such a unit. A descriptive retrospective chart review conducted at a free-standing pediatric hospital in northeast Ohio of all pregnant adolescents aged 13 to 17 years admitted to the inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit from July 2005 to April 2013. Data collection included details on demographic, pregnancy status, and psychiatric diagnoses. Eighteen pregnant adolescents were admitted to the psychiatric unit during the time frame. Sixteen of those were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy was found to be a contributing factor to the adolescent's suicidal ideation and admission in 11 of the cases. Admission to an inpatient psychiatric facility did not lead to adverse effects in pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents did not have negative pregnancy outcomes related to admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results of this study suggest that it is safe to continue to admit uncomplicated pregnant adolescents in their first trimester to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit for an acute stay. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Low-risk Patients for Early Discharge From Emergency Department Without Using Subjective Descriptions of Chest Pain: Insights From Providing Rapid Out of Hospital Acute Cardiovascular Treatment (PROACT) 3 and 4 Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrvand, Nariman; Zheng, Yinggan; Armstrong, Paul W; Welsh, Robert C; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2017-06-01

    Several accelerated diagnostic protocols (ADPs) have been developed to allow emergency department (ED) physicians to identify appropriate patients for safe early discharge after presentation with symptom of chest pain. Most ADPs require chest pain to be described and modify the algorithm based on the subjective chest pain characteristics. We investigated the performance of three established major ADPs simplified by eliminating the need for chest pain as a descriptor. We pooled patients from PROACT-3 and -4 trials, in which patients presenting to emergency medical services with chest pain or dyspnea were enrolled. The simplified Vancouver Chest Pain Rule (sVCPR), the simplified Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (sEDACS) ADP and the Accelerated Diagnostic protocol to Assess Patients with chest pain using contemporary troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT-ADP) were compared using the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (NPV). The primary outcome of interest was 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE); the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurring within 30 days after ED presentation was also explored. A total of 1,081 patients were included (median age = 67 years, 53% male, median GRACE score = 113) of which 222 ACS diagnoses and 150 cardiac events occurred within 30 days after index ED presentation. The sVCPR, sEDACS ≥ 3, and ADAPT-ADP, respectively, identified 9.7, 13.3, and 4.1% of patients as low risk with a sensitivity and NPV of 100% for the primary outcome of 30-day MACE. The sEDACS-ADP identified 24.2% of patients as low risk with a cut-point score of 4 (sensitivity of 98.0% and NPV of 98.8%). The sVCPR, sEDACS ≥ 3, and ADAPT-ADP, respectively, had NPVs of 98.1, 95.8, and 93.3% in identifying patients at higher risk of ACS diagnosis within 30 days after index ED visit. The diagnostic protocols performed well without their chest pain characteristics component. Further studies are

  1. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adol...

  2. Reconceptualizing Stabilization for Counseling Adolescents in Brief Psychiatric Hospitalization: A New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Roland, Catherine B.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined goal attainment as it is related to client stability in the process of counseling adolescents admitted to a crisis residence. Data were collected from licensed master's-level clinicians treating adolescent clients admitted to an acute care psychiatric program at 1 of 2 hospitals located in the mid-South. There was a…

  3. Nursing interventions in crisis-oriented and long-term psychiatric home care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.; Dassen, T.WN; Dingemans, T.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses in The Netherlands are moving out of residential mental health institutions and are pioneering home care for the acutely and chronically mentally ill. The purpose of this study was to identify the interventions nurses currently use and to describe the differences between

  4. A Q fever outbreak in a psychiatric care institution in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, R.P.M.; Schimmer, B.; Rensen, H.; Biesheuvel, M.; Bruin, A. de; Lohuis, A.; Horrevorts, A.; Lunel, F.V.; Delsing, C.E.; Hautvast, J.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In May 2008 the Nijmegen Municipal Health Service (MHS) was informed about an outbreak of atypical pneumonia in three in-patients of a long-term psychiatric institution. The patients had been hospitalized and had laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever infection. The MHS started active case finding

  5. The relationship between substance use and exit security on psychiatric wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, A.; Bowers, L.; Allan, T.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Merwe, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Aim. In this paper we report on the rates of drug/alcohol use on acute psychiatric wards in relation to levels and intensity of exit security measures. Background. Many inpatient wards have become permanently locked, with staff concerned about the risk of patients leaving the ward and harming

  6. Validity of tests performed to diagnose acute abdominal pain in patients admitted at an emergency department Validez de las pruebas diagnósticas realizadas a pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Navarro Fernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the real importance of anamnesis, physical examination, and various tests in the assessment of acute abdominal pain. Methods: a retrospective observational study with patients complaining of abdominal pain at the Emergency Department, Altiplano Health Area (Murcia was performed. In our study we considered the following variables: socio-demographic data, history of previous surgery, symptoms, place and type of pain. Imaging tests were labeled as positive, negative, or inconclusive for assumed diagnoses, which were retrospectively assessed by an external radiologist who was unaware of the patient's final diagnosis. Results: our study includes 292 patients with a mean age of 45.49 years; 56.8% of these patients were women. Regarding the frequency of the different acute abdomen diagnoses, appendicitis was the main cause (approx. 25%, followed by cholecystitis (10%. We found a significant diagnostic correlation between pain location in the right hypochondrium (RHC and a diagnosis with cholecystitis. This location was also significant for acute appendicitis (up to 74%. Regarding clinical signs, we only observed a significant correlation between fever and viscera perforation, and between Murphy's sign and cholecystitis. Sensitivity and specificity found in relation to the psoas sign were similar to those seen in other series, 16 and 95% respectively, and slightly lower than the Blumberg or rebound sign, which we found to be around 50 and 23%, respectively. Conclusions: a anamnesis and physical examination offer limited accuracy when assessing acute abdomen; b ultrasound scans offer a low diagnostic agreement index for appendicitis; and c laparoscopy may prove useful for diagnosis, and is also a possible treatment for acute abdominal pain despite its low diagnostic efficiency.Objetivo: determinar la importancia real que en sí tienen la anamnesis, la exploración física y las diferentes pruebas complementarias en la valoraci

  7. Bilateral thalamic infarction with psychiatric symptoms: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thalamus is a mass of gray matter, which plays a role in the transmission of sensory and motor information to the primary sensory and motor centers of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Vascular lesions of thalamus may occur in different syndromes depending on the affected nuclei. In this report, a case with acute evolving personality and behavior changes and detected bilateral thalamic infarction will be presented. Case: A 40-year-old male patient was brought to the psychiatric ER with complaints of acute excessive sleep and behavioral changing. His neurological examination was normal except for limited cooperation and dysarthria. There was hyperintensity in bilateral paramedian thalamic regions in diffusion MRI and hypointensity in the right side in the ADC. During clinical observation the patient occasionally had visual hallucinations and attempted suicide. The psychiatrist diagnosed the patient with psychotic disorder due to his general medical condition and olanzapine 10 mg / day was prescribed. Etiological tests were normal. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement on the tenth day of hospitalization. Conclusion: Bilateral thalamic infarcts are very rare in all ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and typically result in changing of consciousness, gaze palsy and memory. The most common etiological cause of bilateral thalamic infarct is cardioembolism and the prognosis is generally good. Thalamic infarcts have a clinical spectrum varying according to the location of the lesion and may even just be present with psychiatric symptoms. In acute or subacute personality and behavior changes in a patient with no history of psychiatric disorders, thalamic lesions should be considered.

  8. [Psychiatric consultation-liaison in Sweden surveyed: A patchwork of reimbursement schemes, organizational structures and levels of ambition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars

    2003-01-16

    In order to make a survey of consultation-liaison (c-l) psychiatric activity a questionnaire was distributed to all psychiatric departments in Sweden. Questions were asked concerning organization, reimbursement and indicators of the quality level of services. 42 of 72 possible responders returned the questionnaire (58%). The department-affiliated services work with few exceptions at a basic level of consultation, and existing liaison activities seldom have any organizational connection to the psychiatric departments. There is no commonly accepted organizational model and the use of professional categories other than psychiatrists is rare. Five psychiatric departments have special c-l units and research is pursued almost exclusively at these. A majority of respondents express a need for expansion. So far, the services have been working at a level of gentlemen's agreement between clinics, but a number of compensatory schemes are under way.

  9. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  10. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  11. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  12. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders