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Sample records for acute oral toxicity

  1. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji; Somkuwar Arju Parnu

    2011-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant) on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/...

  2. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    Parekar Sushant Shahaji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/ kg. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of M. pruriens and thus the findings of this study provide scientific validation on the use of the M. pruriens as a medicine for treating various ailments.

  3. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae) has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control g...

  4. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... justification and reasoning for its selection. (B) Age. Young adult rats between 8- and 12-weeks-old at the... Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i) Preparations. Healthy young adult...) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section. Acute oral toxicity is the adverse...

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Wuen Yew Teoh; Kae Shin Sim; Jaime Stella Moses Richardson; Norhanom Abdul Wahab; See Ziau Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarci...

  6. ECVAM's ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Bulgheroni, Anna; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-12-01

    The 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (2003/15/EC) set up timelines for banning animal testing and marketing of cosmetic products and their ingredients tested on animals. For most of the human health effects, including acute toxicity, the deadline for these bans was in March 2009. Moreover, the new Regulation EC 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) provided a strong impetus towards the application of alternative approaches to reduce the number of animals used for toxicological testing. Therefore, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is currently putting considerable effort into developing and validating alternative methods in the field of acute toxicity. The main activities in this area include: (1) the Integrated Project ACuteTox, funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme in 2005 with the aim to develop and pre-validate a testing strategy to fully replace acute oral toxicity testing in vivo; (2) a follow-up validation study to assess the predictive capacity of the validated BALB/3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay to discriminate between toxic/hazardous (LD(50)2,000 mg/kg); (3) an approach to identify compounds with LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg using information from 28-days repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:19591916

  7. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

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    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  9. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

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    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control group which received distilled water (vehicle while second and third group were orally treated with single daily dose of 0.9 g/kg and 1.8 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans, respectively. All the animals were closely observed for 14 days. Body weight for each mouse was recorded at day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. Relative organ weights for liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart were also determined. All the results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using Dunnett’s Test after ANOVA test. From the results obtained, no mortality was observed in both treatment groups either post 24 hours or 14 days of oral administration of C. nutans. Body weight for each mouse and relative organ weight showed insignificant difference when compared to the control group. In conclusion, acute exposure of 1.8 g/kg of C. nutans was safe in male mice without causing any adverse effects or mortality. The oral LD50 of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans was suggested to be greater than 1.8 g/kg bw in male mice.

  10. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC) in mice and rats respectively. Methods: In acute toxicity study, mice were assessed to any alteration of general behavior and mortality rate within 24 h. Further, in sub-acute toxicity study, rats were used for assessment of mortality, body weight, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Results: Single oral administrations of the HAE-AC 2500-10000 mg/kg induced increase in general behavioral abnormalities in mice. The mortality rate also increased with increasing dosage (median lethal dose; LD50 = 5 070.59 mg/kg). Daily single oral doses of HAE-AC 200, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were observed to be well tolerated behaviorally after 28 days of dosing and induced no significant changes in body and organs weights of rats. Further, a mild rise in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and histopatholological changes in liver tissue was noted at 1000 mg/kg dose of HAE-AC. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study indicate that, HAE-AC is non-toxic and has at high dose, a mild but acceptable toxicity potential.

  11. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Yeng Chen; Lai Ngit Shin; Yee Ling Lau; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Yuet Ping Kwan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi

    2010-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal be...

  12. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  13. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats*

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Masran; Omar, Baharuddin; Taib, Izatus Shima; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4 000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecu...

  14. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  15. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  16. ACUTE AND SUB-CHORONIC ORAL TOXICITY OF ASIATICOSIDE TO MICE

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    Uvarajan Sampath

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The components in Centellaasiatica (gotukala, vallarai was reported to possess different biological activities in various in vitro and in vivo test models including gastric ulcer healing, wound healing, memory enhancing, immunomodulating effects along with cytotoxic, neuroprotective, antioxidant potential. Asiaticoside is one of the major triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centellaasiatica. Currently, there is no evidence for safety details of asiaticoside in experimental mice. The purpose of this study is to explore the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicities of asiaticoside. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted by giving 300-5000 mgkg-1 bodyweight of asiaticoside and the animals were observed after 1 h administration of the drug and also examined after 14 days of administration for mortality and morbidity.The lethal dose (LD50 was found to greater than 2000 mgkg⁻¹ bodyweight. In sub-chronic oral toxicity studies, the selected oral doses were 200, 500, 1000 mgkg⁻¹and the evaluation was carried out after 90 days of oral administration of asiaticoside. Biochemical, histopathological and hematological changes along with body and relative organ weights of the mice were analysed and significant changes were observed in the mice treated with 1000 mgkg-1 of asiaticoside.. The observed results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA which suggested that Asiaticoside does not possess any toxic effect up to 500mg/kg bodyweight and it is best suited for any kind of future application related to its efficacy.

  17. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

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    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  18. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  19. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

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    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

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    Deka Manalisha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were d...

  2. Acute benzodiazepine toxicity exacerbated by concomitant oral olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marc S; Overman, Michael J; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in antiemetic therapy constitute a major advance in oncology. A recent poll of the oncology community by the American Society of Clinical Oncology ranked it as one of the top 5 advances in cancer in the last 50 years. Emetogenicity of chemotherapy is defined by risk of emesis in the patient given no antiemetics; high-risk regimens cause nausea and vomiting in >90% of patients, moderate risk in 30%-90%, and low risk in <30%. This risk profile serves as the basis for empiric antiemetic prophylaxis and offers alternatives to refractory patients. Modern antiemetic prophylaxis is extremely effective for high-risk chemotherapy, reducing the risk for breakthrough nausea and vomiting to 0%-13% in the acute setting (<24 hours from receipt of chemotherapy) and to 25%-30% in the delayed setting (24-72 hours from receipt of chemotherapy). PMID:27152518

  3. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaotham, Chatchai; Chivapat, Songpol; Chaikitwattana, Anan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE) was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD₅₀ = 10.25 g/kg). The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11-1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550-1,100 mg/kg/day). These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans. PMID:24286075

  4. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

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    Chatchai Chaotham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD50=10.25 g/kg. The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans.

  5. Acute Oral Toxicity Study of GAL-57 (Bentazon + Dicamba Herbicide in Rats

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    Dragica Brkić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute oral toxicity study of the herbicide GAL-57 (Avalon, a mixture of bentazon and dicamba as active ingredients, was conducted to assess its acute oral toxicity to rats, using a new method that has been used in the past several years (2001. Clinical observations were performed for all animals after different time intervals, and gross necropsy was performed at termination of examination. Clinical symptoms (decreased activity, prone position, abnormal limb position, decreased righting reflex, decreased grip and limb tone, decreased body and abdominal tone and dyspnoea from mild to marked degree were noted after administration of 2000 mg/kg. Animals were found dead 30 minutes to one hour after the treatment. GAL-57 did not cause any clinical sings at single 300 mg/kg bw dose. The physical condition and behaviour of animals were normal during the 14-day observation period. The acute oral LD-50 value of the GAL-57 proved to be between 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight in rats and was ranked into Poison group III according to Serbian criteria, category 4 of the Global Harmonized Classification System and Category III of the EPA classification.

  6. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  7. Acute Toxicity Prediction in Multiple Species by Leveraging Mechanistic ToxCast Mitochondrial Inhibition Data and Simulation of Oral Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Bartels, Michael J; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Price, Paul S; Carney, Edward W

    2015-10-01

    There is great interest in assessing the in vivo toxicity of chemicals using nonanimal alternatives. However, acute mammalian toxicity is not adequately predicted by current in silico or in vitro approaches. Mechanisms of acute toxicity are likely conserved across invertebrate, aquatic, and mammalian species, suggesting that dose-response concordance would be high and in vitro mechanistic data could predict responses in multiple species under conditions of similar bioavailability. We tested this hypothesis by comparing acute toxicity between rat, daphnia, and fish and by comparing their respective acute data to inhibition of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast in vitro high-throughput screening data. Logarithmic scatter plots of acute toxicity data showed a clear relationship between fish, daphnia, and intravenous rat but not oral rat data. Similar plots versus MMP showed a well-delineated upper boundary for fish, daphnia, and intravenous data but were scattered without an upper boundary for rat oral data. Adjustments of acute oral rat toxicity values by simulating fractional absorption and CYP-based metabolism as well as removing compounds with hydrolyzable linkages or flagged as substrates for glucuronidation delineated an upper boundary for rat oral toxicity versus MMP. Mitochondrial inhibition at low concentrations predicted highly acutely toxic chemicals for fish and daphnia but not the rat where toxicity was often attenuated. This use of a single high-throughput screening assay to predict acute toxicity in multiple species represents a milestone and highlights the promise of such approaches but also the need for refined tools to address systemic bioavailability and the impact of limited absorption and first pass metabolism.

  8. Hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of chromium methionine complexes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hai-yan; Xiao, Qing-gui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of chromium methionine (CrMet) in alloxan-induced diabetic (AID) mice was investigated and compared with those of chromium trichloride hexahydrate (CrCl3·6H2O) and chromium nicotinate (CrNic) through a 15-day feeding experiment. The acute oral toxicity of CrMet was also investigated in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice by a single oral gavage. The anti-diabetic activity of CrMet was explored in detail from the aspects of body weight (BW), blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, liver glycogen levels, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. The obtained results showed that CrMet had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and might possess hepatoprotective efficacy for diabetes. Daily treatment with 500 and 1000μg Cr/kg BW of CrMet in AID mice for 15 days indicated that this low-molecular-weight organic chromium complex had better bioavailability and more beneficial effects on diabetics than CrCl3·6H2O. CrMet also had advantage over CrNic in the control of AST and ALT activities. Acute toxicity studies revealed that CrMet had low toxicity potential and relatively high safety margins in mice with the LD50 value higher than 10.0g/kg BW. These findings suggest that CrMet might be of potential value in the therapy and protection of diabetes.

  9. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  10. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  11. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  12. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots ofP. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  13. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02 using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT, chromosome aberration (CA, and micronucleus (MN tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin. The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9. In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight.

  14. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  15. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Pariyani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS Benth (Lamiaceae leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  17. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties.

  18. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties. PMID:27208746

  19. Sub-acute oral toxicity study of methanol leaves extract of Catharanthus roseus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYW Kevin; AH Hussin; I Zhari; JH Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the sub-acute (14 d) oral toxic effects of methanol leaves extract ofCatharanthus roseus (C. roseus) (Family: Apocynaceae) on liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty four female SD rats were used throughout the experiment. The first group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control, whereas the remaining three groups were orally treated with single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg of C. roseus extract, respectively for 14 d. Cage-side observations were done daily. Any animal died during the experiment was dissected for gross organ examination. Body weight changed, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-15 and used for determination of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M and analysed using Dunnett’s test. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 when compared to the control group. Results: Repeated oral administration of 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus caused mortality and diarrhoea in rats after few days of treatment. There were no significant changes observed in serum biochemical markers, body weight changed, water and food intake and relative organ weight in rats treated with a single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg of C. roseus extract treatment for 14 d when compared to control group. Conclusionds: Fourteen days repeated oral administration of 0.1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus was safe in female SD rats without causing any significant damages to liver and kidney.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz; Ahmad; Nahida; Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis(P.officinalis)L.Methods:Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures.Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines.The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P.officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)induced hepatic damage in rats.Aqueous extract of P.officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals.Liver injury was induced chemically,by CCl4 administration(1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum alkaline phosphatase(SALP),total bilirubin and total protein(TP)along with histopathological studies.Result:Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P.officinalis contain alkaloids,tannins,saponins,glycosides,carbohydrates,flavonoids,terpenes,steroids and proteins.The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg.In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg,the substantially elevated AST,ALT,SALP,total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered,respectively,in a dose dependent manner,along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups.Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal.Conclusions:The aqueous extract of P.officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  1. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  3. Acute Oral Toxicity Studies of Ethanol Leaf Extracts Of Derris Scandens & Pulicaria Wightiana In Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Sabbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to find out LD50 and to ascertain the safety of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scan dens and Pulicaria wightiana by acute oral toxicity study in female rats as per OECD guideline 425.Methods: Rats were sequentially administered with ethanol leaf extracts of Derris scandens (Ds & Pulicaria wightiana(Pw  in single dosages of 175, 550, and 2000 mg/kg of body weight. All the animals were individually studied for mortality, wellness parameters and body weight for 14 days.Results: No mortality and no significant changes were observed in body weight and wellness parameters at 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg body wt. doses of both Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana , which reveal the safety of these plants  in the doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight.Conclusion: Conclusively, LD50 value of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana were found to be more than 2000 mg/kg body weight.

  4. EURL ECVAM Recommendation on the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Cytotoxicity Assay for Acute Oral Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    PRIETO PERAITA Maria Del Pilar; GRIESINGER Claudius; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; Whelan, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Acute oral toxicity is currently being assessed by a suite of refinement test methods based on the traditional LD50 lethality test and is, besides skin sensitisation, the only remaining animal test required under REACH Annex VII. In view of assessing the use of alternatives for this health endpoint, EURL ECVAM conducted a study on the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method addressing the method's capacity to support specifically the identification substances not requiring classificat...

  5. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, Domain of Application and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-01-01

    International audience Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and...

  6. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

    OpenAIRE

    Chatchai Chaotham; Songpol Chivapat; Anan Chaikitwattana; Wanchai De-Eknamkul

    2013-01-01

    Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE) was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol re...

  7. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P<0.05 and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  8. Evaluation of the mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum (OciBest™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Srikanth, H S; Anand, M S; Allan, J Joshua; Viji, M M Hipolith; Amit, A

    2013-09-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) is found throughout India and in many parts of world. O. sanctum is used for the treatment of various health indications. In this lieu, it is of prime importance to investigate the safety aspects of the plant. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible genotoxic potential and acute oral toxicity of the extract of O. sanctum (OciBest™). The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, namely bacterial reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity. The results showed that OciBest™ (7.9-2500.0 µg/mL) did not increase the number of histidine revertant colonies in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98 and TAMix) with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9). OciBest™ (10.0-100.0 µg/mL) did not show structural chromosomal aberrations or increase in MN induction, with and without S9, at the tested dose range in both 4-h and 18-h exposure cell cultures. Thus, OciBest™ is not genotoxic in bacterial reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration and MN tests. In an acute oral toxicity test, rats were treated with 5 g/kg of OciBest™ and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days and the results did not show any treatment-related toxic effects to Wistar rats. PMID:23424203

  9. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramgopal Mopuri; Balaji Meriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T.paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results:Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions:Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  10. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasuli Farhang; Rafie Javad Nazemi; Sadeghi Amin

    2015-01-01

    The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (p...

  11. Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae seeds (SMS; commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg. Aim: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw in sprague dawley (SD rats. Materials and Methods: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats′ general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach; the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs were observed. Results: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period. Conclusion: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.

  12. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity and acute oral toxicity of standardized ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Sutha; Esfahani, Azadeh Sabetghadam; Ismail, Sabariah; Ramanathan, Surash; Yam, Mun Fei

    2010-04-22

    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.

  13. Acute and 28-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity of an Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (28 days of the ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes (EEZZ via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. In the acute toxicity study, Wistar rats were administered a single dose of 15 g kg−1 of body weight by gavage, and were monitored for 14 days. EEZZ did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the 50% lethal dose must be higher than 15 g kg−1. In the subchronic toxicity study, EEZZ was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks to Wistar rats. The subacute treatment with EEZZ did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups. Necropsy and histopathological examination, did not reveal any remarkable and treatment related changes. A no-observed adverse-effect level for EEZZ is 3000 mg kg−1 for rats under the conditions of this study. Hence, consumption of EEZZ for various medicinal purposes is safe.

  14. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides.

  15. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. PMID:26513561

  16. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats and their response to oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R; Satpute, R M; Hariharakrishnan, J; Tripathi, H; Saxena, P B

    2009-09-01

    Oral toxicity of several cyanogens and their reversal by alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG; oral) were studied in rats. LD(50) of acetonitrile (ATCN), acrylonitrile (ACN), malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and succinonitrile (SCN) was 4891, 143.3, 69.8, 122.9, 69.8 and 488.7 mg/kg, respectively while the protection index of A-KG (ratio of LD(50) of cyanogens in the presence or absence of A-KG) was>2.0 against MCN (7.6), PCN (2.7) and SNP (3.6) only. We further studied the efficacy of A-KG against acute toxicity of these three cyanogens (0.75 LD(50)) on various hematological and biochemical variables in blood and soft tissues 24h post-exposure. We observed increase in white blood cells (SNP), plasma alanine (PCN, SNP) and aspartate (PCN) aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), Na(+) (MCN, PCN) and cyanide (PCN), and decrease in K(+) (MCN, SNP) accompanied by an increase in brain, kidney and liver malondialdehyde (PCN), decrease in brain glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (PCN, SNP), reduced glutathione (MCN, PCN, SNP) and cytochrome oxidase (PCN), liver rhodanese (PCN, SNP), and kidney cytochrome oxidase (PCN). The study indicates that (i) PCN was most toxic among all the cyanogens and (ii) beside cyanide, A-KG could be considered as an effective antidote for cyanogens.

  17. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanol extract from Valeriana pavonii species in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Francisco Guerrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most frequent problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of clinical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. Valeriana pavonii is one of the species used in Colombia as an anxiolytic. Further study of this specie is rendered to add information in the toxicological area.Objective: The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of V. pavonii ethanolic extract was evaluated in Wistar rats of both sexes.Materials and methods: The rats were distributed into four groups: the control group received the vehicle (0.5 mL/100 g of corporal weight and the other three groups received increasing levels of the dosage for 90 days to evaluate characteristics like physical exam, laboratory test (blood chemistry and haematology, and anatomopathological findings.Results: This study reveals that there were no signs of toxicity, mortality, or significant alterations attributable to the ethanolic extract of V. pavonii.Conclusions: The Not Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL of V. pavonii ethanolic extract were 2000 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight for the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanol extract from Valeriana pavonii species in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Pilar Olaya

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most frequent problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of clinical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. Valeriana pavonii is one of the species used in Colombia as an anxiolytic.  Further study of this specie is rendered to add information in the toxicological area. Objective: The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of V. pavonii ethanolic extract was evaluated in Wistar rats of both sexes. Materials and methods: The rats were distributed into four groups: the control group received the vehicle (0.5 mL/100 g of corporal weight and the other three groups received increasing levels of the dosage for 90 days to evaluate characteristics like physical exam, laboratory test (blood chemistry and  haematology, and anatomopathological findings. Results: This study reveals that there were no signs of toxicity, mortality, or significant alterations attributable to the ethanolic extract of V. pavonii. Conclusions: The Not Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL of V. pavonii ethanolic extract were 2000 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight for the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, respectively.

  19. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the methanolic extract from leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purobi Nath

    2015-03-01

    Background: The leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae are used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea, to promote draining of abscesses and as analgesic agent in the traditional medicine of Cook Islands, Haiti, Japan and Mexico. Aim: The present study investigated the oral acute and subacute toxicity of methanol leaf extract of H. rosa-sinensis in mice. Methods: In the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract was given to five mice at 48 h intervals. Animals were observed individually for any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, mice were treated with 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses of extract for 14 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney of animals were studied at the end of experiment. Results: For acute treatment, the extract did not revealed any signs of toxicity or mortality in any animal, during the 14-days observation period. The LD50 of extract was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute toxicity study, administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses of extract to mice for two weeks did not revealed any marked adverse effects on haematological, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in the 400 mg/kg group. But, hepato-renal toxicity as evidenced by elevations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotranferase (AST, total and indirect bilirubin, urea and creatinine was seen in the animals that received 800 mg/kg doe of extract for 14 days. In addition, in the same group of animals, the histological assessments of liver and kidney also showed various adverse effects viz. dilated sinusoids, apoptotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltrate inside sinusoidal capillaries in the liver, and marked disorganization of tubules and glomeruli, and enlarged interstitial spaces in the kidney. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that for traditional medicine purpose only a low dose

  20. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement.

  1. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic–organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interes...

  2. Acute oral toxicity study of ethanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves as a glucose lowering agent in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Adamu Yusuf Kabiru; Musa Bola Busari; Abdullah Mann; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah; Abdulrazaq Taye Usman; Usman Adamu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of Ceiba pentandra (C. pentandra) as a glucose lowering agent and the attendant physiological changes in albino rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of the extract was carried out by the administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900, and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of C. pentandra to rats in their respective groups. Twenty healthy albino rats weighing between 140 and 150 g were randomly allotted to five groups of four rats each. 100 mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate was i.p. administered to rats and rats with blood glucose ? 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. 5 mg/kg body weight of standard drug, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of C. pentandra were orally administered to diabetic rats in their respective groups once daily for 12 days while the control groups received 0.1 mL of normal saline for the same period. The blood glucose was checked after every 4 days and the experiment was terminated on the 17th day. Results: The safe dose (LD50) of the extract was greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract treated groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in blood glucose [(87.72 ± 7.67) mg/dL for 200 mg/kg body weight dose and (86.33 ± 4.54) mg/dL for 400 mg/kg body weight dose] competitively with the normoglycemic group [(88.71 ± 4.56) mg/dL]. The body weight of the extract and standard drug treated groups appreciated significantly (P Conclusions: Ethanol extract of C. pentandra has glucose lowering effect and can ameliorate the biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Evaluation of the sub-acute oral toxic effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Wen P’ng; Gabriel Akyrem Akowuah; Jin Han Chin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possible sub-acute toxic effect after 14 d oral administration with 0.3 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg and 0.9 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) on liver and kidney functions in young male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: This study was carried out according to OECD 407 guideline. A total of 24 young healthy male SD rats aged between 8-12 weeks old were used throughout the experiments. Each group consisted of six rats (n=6). All animals were observed twice daily until day-14. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were measured on day-3, 7 and day-14. Blood samples were collected and used to analyse the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubins, urea and creatinine in rats. Relative organ weights for liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung were calculated. Results: From the results obtained, all the serum biochemical parameters, food and water intake, relative organs weight showed no significant changes when compared to the control group. No lethality and abnormal behavioural changes were seen in both control and treatment groups during experiment.Conclusions: For conclusion, repeatedly dosing of C. nutans extract at 0.3g/kg, 0.6g/kg and 0.9 g/kg up to 14 d was proven safe in male SD rats without causing any adverse effects and organ damages in male SD rats.

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute ...

  5. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase inhibition in soft tissues after sub-lethal oral intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Gujar, Niranjan L; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    Cyanogens include complex nitrile-containing compounds that can generate free cyanide of toxicological significance. Acute toxicity, time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX) inhibition in soft tissues, and urinary thiocyanate levels were measured after acute cyanogen intoxication in rats. Order of cyanogens in terms of LD₅₀ was: malononitrile (MCN)>propionitrile (PCN)≈sodium nitroprusside (SNP)>acrylonitrile (ACN)>succinonitrile (SCN)>acetonitrile (ATCN) for oral, and SNP>MCN>ACN>PCN>SCN>ATCN for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. MCN was most toxic by oral (LD₅₀=66.4 mg/kg) and SNP by intraperitoneal (LD₅₀=16.7 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (LD₅₀=11.9 mg/kg) routes. Minimum survival time (25 min) was recorded after 4.0 LD₅₀ ATCN. Order of cyanogens (0.75 LD₅₀; oral) on the basis of maximum blood cyanide and time of peak cyanide generation were: ATCN>SNP>SCN>PCN>MCN>ACN, and MCN (30 min)PCN≈ACN (8h)toxicity of different cyanogens, suitable therapeutic windows can be designed for their management.

  6. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  7. Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S; Wolff, I; Werner, N; Hoffmann, P; Herzschuh, R; Oemus, K; Rath, F W; Voigt, R

    1992-01-01

    In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ethanol soluble fraction contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the residue contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioral changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased P-R-intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and hematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyurie, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased. PMID:1386950

  8. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Chukwuma Ekeanyanwu; Obioma Uzoma Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods:Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results:The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions:The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe.

  9. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg-1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  10. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  11. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xue Aiqin [Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Road 2, Xiasha, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Yanli, E-mail: alancenxb@sina.com [Tianjin Children' s Hospital, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2010-03-26

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg{sup -1}, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO{sub 2} NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO{sub 2} NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  12. ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF MULBERRY FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the application of phytomedicine worldwide is substantial increase. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or fruits and vegetables used for medicinal purposes should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for the application as functional food. Despite the widely consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L, Maraceae family fruits both as fruit and as medicine, no systematic evaluation of the toxicity of mulberry fruits is available until now. This study aimed to determine the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of mulberry fruits in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute mulberry fruits extract dose of 2000 mg kg-1 dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 2, 10 and 500 mg kg-1 day-1 were also administered the same way for 90 days. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights and histopathological examinations. In addition, we also examined hematological and clinical chemistry values. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different BUN and glucose were also observed, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that mulberry fruits do not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Therefore mulberry fruits have the potential to be use as functional food. However, a chronic toxicity study should be further carried out to assure the safety for repetitive administration of this fruit before the application of functional food.

  13. Study on Acute Oral Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Protein Flour%蛋白粉急性经口毒性及致突变作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文婷; 王安

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the acute oral toxicity and mutagenesis of protein flour. Methods The maximum tolerated dose method was used to conduct acute oral toxicity test in rats and mice. The mutagenicity of protein flour was tested by the Ames test, micronucieus assay and mice sperm abnormality test. Results The acute toxicity of protein flour through mouth showed that the maximum tolerance dose (MTD) was >20.0 g/kg·bw for female and male mice and rats, and the protein flour was at the non - toxic level. In Ames tests, the number of revertant colonies of test sample group was no more than the twice of those in solvent control group, the test result represented negative. In mice marrow cell micronuclei test and mice sperm abnormality test, there was no statistically significant difference between test sample group and blank control group (P>0. 05). It was found that all of the tests that mentioned above were negative. Conclusions The results suggest that the protein flour belongs to non - toxic grade and has no mutagenic effect in this test.%目的 检测蛋白粉的急性经口毒性及致突变作用.方法 采用最大耐受量法进行大、小鼠急性经口毒性试验;应用鼠伤寒沙门菌回复突变试验(Ames 试验),小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验,小鼠精子畸形试验进行致突变作用研究.结果 受试蛋白粉对雌、雄大小鼠急性经口最大耐受剂量(MTD)大于 20.0 g/kg·bw,按急性毒性分级标准属无毒级;给予 8~5 000 μg/皿剂量受试蛋白粉,Ames 试验结果为阴性;雌、雄鼠给予 1.25~5.0 g/kg 受试蛋白粉,各剂量组的微核率与阴性对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),不引起小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞染色体断裂或整条染色体丢失;给予雌、雄鼠1.25~5.0 g/kg 受试蛋白粉,各剂量组的精子畸性率与阴性对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),未诱发小鼠精子畸形率增高.结论 研究结果表明:在本实验条件下,

  14. Experimental Research on Acute Oral Toxicity of Euphorbia Fischeriana Steud in Mice%狼毒大戟对小鼠经口急性毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2012-01-01

    To explore the acute oral toxicity of Compositions Ⅰ and Ⅱ in mice and calculate its 50% lethal dose ( LD50). Methods: Different doses of Compositions Ⅰ and Ⅱ were orally given to mice . The movement and the toxic symptoms were observed, and the number of death of mice was recorded for 14 days. The LD50 was calculated with Karber method. Results: Within the death peak time of 12 ~ 24 hours, it revealed that the activities of mice reduced, breathing rate increased and other toxic symptoms after Compositions I was given. Mice given by the Compositions I showed swelling in stomach. Dark color was showned in the duodenum of mice. No marked pathological change of other organs was found. The values of Compositions I LD50 in mice were 2. 05 g/kg ( 1. 77 ~2.37 g/kg) . Conclusion; Compositions I of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud is a pesticide with low rate toxicity.%目的:研究狼毒大戟受试药物Ⅰ和Ⅱ急性毒性作用,并计算其半数致死量( LD50).方法:给小鼠灌服不同剂量的狼毒大戟受试药物Ⅰ和Ⅱ,连续观察14 d,记录小鼠的急性毒性反应,以小鼠急性死亡率为指标,用改进寇氏法计算LD50.结果:灌胃给药狼毒大戟受试药物Ⅰ后部分小鼠出现中毒反应并死亡,计算LD50为2.05g/kg,LD50的95%可信限为1.77 ~2.37g/kg.死亡动物尸检,发现所有死亡小鼠均出现胃胀症状,十二指肠色黑,少数充血,其它主要脏器肉眼未见明显改变.结论:狼毒大戟有毒成分主要集中在受试药物Ⅰ中,且狼毒大戟受试药物Ⅰ属于小毒物质.

  15. Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of  ∙OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000 mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats.

  16. QSAR modeling of acute toxicity on mammals caused by aromatic compounds: the case study using oral LD50 for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Kusić, Hrvoje; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Koprivanac, Natalija

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the study was to predict toxicity in vivo caused by aromatic compounds structured with a single benzene ring and the presence or absence of different substituent groups such as hydroxyl-, nitro-, amino-, methyl-, methoxy-, etc., by using QSAR/QSPR tools. A Genetic Algorithm and multiple regression analysis were applied to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation models. The most predictive model is shown to be the 3-variable model which also has a good ratio of the number of descriptors and their predictive ability to avoid overfitting. The main contributions to the toxicity were shown to be the polarizability weighted MATS2p and the number of certain groups C-026 descriptors. The GA-MLRA approach showed good results in this study, which allows the building of a simple, interpretable and transparent model that can be used for future studies of predicting toxicity of organic compounds to mammals. PMID:21491673

  17. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Bagri; Vinod Kumar; Anil Kumar Sikka; Joginder Singh Punia

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes ...

  18. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  19. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicity of sucralose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, L A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of sucralose has been evaluated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity studies in male and female mice and male rats documented no deaths or treatment-related signs at doses of 16g/kg for mice and 10g/kg for rats. Sucralose was administered to male and female rats for 4 and 8 weeks at dietary concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0%. Achieved dose ranges (mg/kg/day) for the respective dietary levels were 737-1287, 1865-3218 and 2794-6406. There were no toxicologically significant effects observed at the 1.0% or 2.5% dietary levels. However, decreases in food consumption, body weight gain and selected organ weights and ratios as well as splenic and thymic histopathologic changes occurred in rats administered 5.0% for 4 or 8 weeks. A gavage study wherein doses of 0, 750, 1500 or 3000mg/kg/day were administered to male and female rats for 26 weeks investigated further the observations from the dietary study as well as general subchronic toxicity. The gavage study documented no sucralose-related toxicity. These results implicate the reduced palatability and digestibility of diets containing high concentrations of sucralose seen in the diet study as the cause for the decreased food consumption and other accompanying alterations. Dose selection for chronic toxicity studies in rats took into consideration the effect of high concentrations of sucralose on digestion and food consumption and the limitations that would be imposed on subsequent studies. In male and female dogs, no sucralose-related adverse effects were observed following the dietary administration of 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0% for 12 months achieving doses of approximately 90, 300 and 900mg/kg/day respectively. These studies establish that sucralose is non-toxic in rodents following acute oral administration. The rat no-observed-adverse-effect level ranged between 2.5 and 5.0% following subchronic dietary administration. A 3.0% dietary concentration equivalent to a dose of 900mg

  1. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  2. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaike, R N

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water.

  3. Acute oral toxicity and liver oxidant/antioxidant stress of halogenated benzene, phenol, and diphenyl ether in mice: a comparative and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqi; Feng, Mingbao; Zhang, Xuesheng; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Zunyao

    2013-09-01

    The lethal doses (LD50s) of fluorinated, chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated benzene, phenol, and diphenyl ether in mice were ascertained respectively under the consistent condition. The acute toxicity of four benzenes orders in fluorobenzene (FB) phenols orders in 4-iodophenol≈4-bromophenol phenols, as they had lower octanol-water partition coefficients. Pathological changes in liver and liver/kidney weight changes were also observed. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and malondialdehyde level were tested after a 28-day exposure, which reflects a toxicity order basically consistent with that reflected by the LD50s. By theoretical calculation and building models, the toxicity of benzene, phenol, and diphenyl ether were influenced by different structural properties.

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOMATO POMACE EXTRACT IN RODENT

    OpenAIRE

    Wathita Phachonpai; Supaporn Muchimapura; Terdthai Tong-Un; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Wipawee Thukhammee; Chonlathip Thipkaew; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Panakaporn Wannanon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and tomato products are considered to be healthy food for the human diet. Although tomatoes have been widely studied for their phenolic content, less emphasize has been laid on toxicological effect of this plant. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity effect of Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato, was administered orally in the form of dried tomato pomace extract in vivo. Adult male rats were orally administrated single dose of 1000 a...

  5. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kostianovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts.

  6. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  7. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  8. The Acute Oral Toxicity of 300 Formulated Pesticides to Apis mellifera%300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵帅; 袁善奎; 才冰; 姜辉; 王晓军; 林荣华; 瞿唯钢; 张招荣

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Honey bee is one of the most important insects for plant pollination, but the honey bees are underlying the phenomenon of colony collapse disorder (CCD), one of the factors causing this problem is the much use of pesticides in agricultural production. Totally 300 pesticides were tested for their acute omi toxicity to honey bee (Apis mellifera) by dietary method in the paper, the objective of this study is to understand the status of toxicity of common used pesticides.[Restults] The results indicated that the pesticides with very high toxicity, high toxicity, moderate toxicity and low toxicity pesticides accounted for 14.7, 35.6, 10.7, 39% respectively, the high toxic and very high toxic pesticide covered more than 50%, and these pesticides were mainly the insecticides, while the fungicides and herbicides with relative low toxicity.The toxicity of different pesticide formulations with the same active ingredients (AI) to zebra fish maybe varied for the difference in AI content, formulation type and processing technique. Regarding to the biological pesticides, some of them still have high toxicity to honeybee. [Conclusions] These results suggested that the pesticides with high toxicity to honey bee covered a large proportion of common used pesticides in China, therefore, some precautions should be involved as we used the pesticides, particularly for insecticides to reduce or avoid the side effects on honey bee.%[目的]蜜蜂是一种重要的传粉昆虫,近年来世界各地出现了严重的种群衰退现象,原因之一是农业生产过程中使用了大量农药.采用摄入法测定f300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性,旨在了解我国常用农药对蜜蜂的毒风险情况.[结果]结果表明:对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性表现剧毒、高毒、中毒、低毒的农药制剂分别占14.7%、35.6%、10.7%、39%,高毒和剧毒农药产品达50%以上,但这些制剂主要为杀虫剂,占整个杀虫剂的74.1%,杀菌剂和除草剂

  9. Acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum K25%植物乳杆菌K25对小鼠急性毒性和细菌移位实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉娟; 李盛钰; 牛春华; 张雪; 李达; 杨贞耐

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of Lactobacillus plantarum K25, we carried out the acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation in mice. Different dose of L. plantarum K25 were given to mice orally by gavage for 14 consecutive days. Compared with control, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) in general signs, organs index, and biochemistry parameters of serum and liver with different dose of L. plantarum K25. We don't detecte the treatment—associated bacterial translocation in blood and homogenate of liver, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The result of acute toxicity and bacterial translocation shows that L. plantarum K25 has no toxicity and side effects.%通过小鼠急性毒性和细菌移位实验,评价植物乳杆菌K25口服安全性.小鼠连续14d灌胃不同剂量的植物乳杆菌K25,各试验组小鼠在一般体征、脏器指数、血清和肝脏生化指标与对照组相比差异不显著(P>0.05).且各剂量组小鼠血液、肝脏、脾脏和肠系膜淋巴结匀浆液中均未检测到植物乳杆菌K25,说明未出现菌血症变化和细菌移位现象.上述结果均表明植物乳杆菌K25安全无毒副作用.

  10. Acute Toxicity Test of Oral Administration of Artequick in KM mice%青蒿素哌喹片对昆明种小鼠灌胃给药的急性毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勤; 李晓波; 刘婵; 袁征; 宋健平; 关业枝; 王琪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the acute toxicity of artequick after oral administration in mice. Methods By using the Bliss method,the LD50 and its 95 % confidence of artequick in mice were determined after single oral administration for evaluation of the toxicity within 14 days. The gross anatomy and histopathological examination for the dead mice were also carried out. Results After single oral administration,the mice showed various degrees of toxic reaction, showing as less spontaneous activities,closing eyes,face lying,incoordination,tremor,terror,forced paroxysmal spasm,and opisthotonus. The LD50 of artequick in mice was 2802.38 mg·kg-1 and its 95 % confidence was 2343.51~3520.11 mg·kg-1. No abnormal alteration was shown in the organs of all the postmortem mice after the gross anatomy. Conclusion Single oral administration of Artequick has some toxic effects in mice,and the target of toxic organs may be involved the central nervous system.%目的:研究青蒿素哌喹片(ATQ)对昆明种小鼠灌胃给药的急性毒性。方法按 Bliss 法设计试验,对小鼠单次灌胃 ATQ,测定 ATQ 对小鼠半数致死量(LD50)和 LD50的95%可信限,观察14 d 内小鼠的毒性反应和死亡情况,对小鼠进行大体解剖,肉眼观察并进行组织病理学检查。结果 ATQ 单次灌胃给药可使小鼠出现不同程度的毒性反应,包括自发活动减少、闭眼、俯卧、运动失调、震颤、惊跳、强制性-阵挛性抽搐、角弓反张。小鼠 LD50为2802.38 mg·kg-1,LD50的95%可信限为2343.51~3520.11 mg·kg-1,死亡小鼠肉眼观察未发现各脏器异常。结论 ATQ 对小鼠单次灌胃给药具有一定的毒性,涉及的毒性靶器官可能是中枢神经系统。

  11. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY FOR TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Sadashiv Pingale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to examine acute toxicity studies for decoction of aerial parts (leaves and stem as well as whole plant powder of Tinospora cordifolia in the form of aqueous slurry as per OECD guidelines in Swiss mice weighing 35 to 45gm. The dose of 3, 5, 7 and 9 ml per kg body weight of decoction and 2, 4, 6 and 8 gm/kg body weight of the whole plant powder were administered orally. All the groups of animals were almost continuously observed for mortality and behavioral changes during first 24 hrs and then daily for a fortnight. The observations of behavioral changes and changes in body weight, food and water intake as well as cage side observations were reported. There was no abnormality observed in all groups. The decoction of fresh leaves and stem as well as whole plant powder have no any significant toxic effect in Swiss mice and the plant material was found to be nontoxic.

  12. Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicological evaluation of Kuruthi Azhal Chooranam – a Siddha preparation on rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu Kannadasana; Ganesan Sumathy; Palanivel Thirusangu Sangeetha; Chidambaram Saravanababu; Kathirvelu Baskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of phytochemicals in acute and repeated dose of 28-day oral toxicity of Kuruthi Azhal Chooranam (KAC) in Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Methods: Acute oral toxicity was conducted with 2000 mg/kg body weight of KAC orally and the treated animals were observed for signs of toxicity at 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h and for up to 14 days. In repeated 28-day oral toxicity study, the KAC formulation was administered orally with 600, 900 and 1200 mg/k...

  13. ACUTE AND SUB ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SIDDHA DRUG VELVANGA PARPAM

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    K. Samraj*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiya Rajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH is a common progressive disease among men, with an incidence that is high among elderly. Velvanga parpam (VP has been employed as traditional remedy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of VP in rats and mice following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies, different doses of VP were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Sub-acute toxicity studies were carried in four different groups in which VP was administrated orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses ranging from 2.5, 5, 10 Mg/kg for mice respectively. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. The VP was well tolerated and no toxic manifestations were seen in any animal. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. Mortality observed in highdose. The VP was found to be safe in animals. No toxic effect was observed up to 5mg/kg of Velvanga parpam in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  14. Acute Oral Toxicity and Bacterial Translocation Evaluation of Lactobacillus Plantarum C88%植物乳杆菌C88对小鼠急性毒性和细菌易位实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽; 李盛钰; 赵玉娟; 张雪; 曾先鹏; 杨贞耐

    2012-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation of Lactobacillus plantanan C88, a potential new probi-otic, were studied in mice to provide evidence for safety application. Different dose of L, plantarum C88 were given to mice orally by gavage for 14 consecutive days. Compared with control, there were on significant differences (P>0.05) in general signs, organs index, or biochemistry parameters of serum and liver with different dose of L plantarum C88. No treatment-associated bacterial translocation was detected in any group. The result of acute toxieity and bacterial translocation showed that L plantarum C88 had no toxicity and side effects.%通过小鼠急性毒性和细菌移位实验,评价1株具有潜在益生特性的植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)C88的安全性,为该菌株的安全应用提供依据.对小鼠连续14d灌胃不同剂量的植物乳杆菌C88,结果表明C88各剂量组小鼠一般体征、脏器指数、血清和肝脏生化指标与对照组相比差异不显著(P>0.05).植物乳杆菌C88各剂量组小鼠血液和其它组织样本中均未检测到活的植物乳杆菌C88细胞,说明无细菌移位发生,植物乳杆菌C88安全,无毒副作用.

  15. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration. PMID:9805821

  16. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  17. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  18. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral e irritación sobre mucosa bucal de la solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente Oral acute toxicity and irritation on buccal mucosa evaluation of the CM-95 solution magnetically treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Díaz Bestard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente es un producto en desarrollo que mostró propiedades inmunoestimulantes en ensayos preclínicos, característica que la hacen adecuada como candidata a inmunopotenciador. En este trabajo se evaluaron los posibles efectos tóxicos preclínicos de la Solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente, por el método de las Clases de Toxicidad Aguda y el de irritación de la mucosa oral, adaptando las normas OECD 423 y la ISO 10993-10, respectivamente. En el método de las Clases de Toxicidad Aguda se utilizó el ensayo límite, en ratas Sprague Dawley hembras, en el cual la dosis estuvo relacionada con el nivel de inducción magnética, en este caso 0,16 T, aplicado a la Solución CM-95; y el volumen a administrar de la misma, calculado sobre la base de 2 ml de la solución por 100 g de peso corporal. La determinación de la irritación de la mucosa oral se llevó a cabo en hámster Sirios Dorados hembras mediante un ensayo a dosis repetidas durante 7 días de tratamiento en la bolsa gular derecha, con pellet de algodón impregnado con 0,5 ml de la solución tratada magnéticamente con la misma inducción. No se encontró mortalidad ni evidencias de signos tóxicos para el ensayo de toxicidad aguda, y se obtuvo un índice de irritación sobre mucosa oral de 0, por lo que la sustancia estudiada se enmarcó como "No clasificada" y "No irritante" según la metodología empleada. Estos resultados complementarán otros estudios toxicológicos para avalar la seguridad de esta Solución para su uso futuro como fármaco por vía oral.CM-95 solution magnetically treated is a product which showed immunologic properties in preliminary tests, characteristic that makes it adequate as inmunopotentiator candidate. In this study the possible preclinical toxic effects of CM-95 Solution magnetically treated were evaluated, by the Acute Toxicity Class method and oral mucosa irritation test, adapting guideline OECD 423 and ISO 10993

  19. Assessment of acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (Pariparoba Avaliação da toxidade oral aguda e subcrônica de extrato etanólico de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq. (Parapiroba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a high degree of concern regarding the secure use of plant extracts and, for this very reason, preclinical and clinic toxicological evaluation of these extracts are needed. With the aim to assure the quality and the safety of the extract and due to the scarcity of literature information about Pariparoba extract toxicity, our purpose was to investigate the acute and subchronic toxicity of the standardized ethanolic dried root extract of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq. This extract was administered orally to adult swiss mice and wistar rats and the mutagenic potencial of the extract was also evaluated. The extract showed to be non toxic.Existe uma grande preocupação quanto ao uso seguro de extratos vegetais e, por esta razão, a necessidade de estudos toxicológicos pré-clínicos e clínicos destes extratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a toxicidade aguda e subcrônica do extrato hidroalcoólico liofilizado de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq., administrado por via oral para animais de laboratório. O potencial mutagênico do extrato foi também avaliado pelo teste do micronúcleo. Os resultados dos estudos a curto e médio prazo demonstraram que o extrato não apresenta propriedades tóxicas.

  20. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  1. A Tutorial for Analysing the Cost-effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Assessing Chemical Toxicology: The Case of Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norlen, H.; Worth, A.P.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to permit a more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented tu

  2. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

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    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  3. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  4. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  5. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Juheini Amin; Berna Elya

    2010-01-01

    Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm.) could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 we...

  6. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOMATO POMACE EXTRACT IN RODENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathita Phachonpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato and tomato products are considered to be healthy food for the human diet. Although tomatoes have been widely studied for their phenolic content, less emphasize has been laid on toxicological effect of this plant. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity effect of Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato, was administered orally in the form of dried tomato pomace extract in vivo. Adult male rats were orally administrated single dose of 1000 and 5000 mg kg-1 dried tomato pomace extract. There were 10 rats in each group. All animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment. Seven parameters were tested: cage side observation, body weight gain measurement, food and water consumption, absolute organ weight, hematology, biochemical analysis and histopathology, to look for evidence of acute toxicity. No mortality was observed when varying doses of the extracts were administered per day for a period of 2 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight, behavior, food consumption, absolute organ weights between controls and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. In the biochemistry parameter measurement, no significant change occurred. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. These finding suggest that none of the organs appeared to be target and the data could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch clinical trial on standardized formulation of tomato pomace extracts to be the dietary supplement.

  7. Oral toxicity of fipronil insecticide against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Clara Tavares; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    For a better evaluation of the model using Apis mellifera in toxicology studies with insecticides, the oral acute toxicity of the insecticide fipronil against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris was determined. The results showed that fipronil was highly toxic to M. scutellaris, with a calculated LC(50) (48 h) value of 0.011 ng a.i./μL of sucrose solution and an estimated oral LD(50) (48 h) of 0.6 ng a.i./bee. Our results showed that M. scutellaris bee is more sensitive to fipronil than the model specie A. mellifera. PMID:22886451

  8. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  9. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  10. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  11. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  12. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkade, Parag R; Lim, Teh Aun

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year

  13. Oral toxicity of bacterial toxins against thrips species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Visser, J.H.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The oral toxicity of excretion products of several Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus strains was tested on two thrips species: Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci. Out of 46 Photorhabdus isolates and 6 Xenorhabdus isolates only 6 North American P. temperata isolates were toxic to the thrips spec

  14. Subchronic oral toxicity studies with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of six α-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl units with potential applications as a food ingredient, more specifically a water-soluble dietary fiber, was examined in a 4-week range finding study and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. In the 4-week st

  15. Acute toxicity and laxative activity of Aloe ferox resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. L. Celestino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aloe ferox Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, resin is the solid residue obtained by evaporating the latex that drains from the leaves transversally cut. Aloe ferox has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, laxative and to heal wounds and burns. The effects of the oral administration of A. ferox resin (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were evaluated on intestinal transit in mice and its acute toxicity (5.0 g/kg in Wistar rats. The hydroxyanthracene derivatives present in the resin were expressed as aloin, identified by thin layer chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. The aloin (Rf 0.35 was identified and the percentage of hydroxyanthracene derivates expressed as aloin was 33.5%. A. ferox resin extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the gastrointestinal motility at a 30 min interval at 93.5, 91.8 and 93.8%, respectively, when compared to control group (46.5%. A single oral dose of the A. ferox resin extract did not induce signs of toxicity or death. Thus, the results demonstrate that A. ferox has laxative activity and that it is nontoxic, since LD50 could not be estimated and it is possibly higher than 5.0 g/kg.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  17. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  18. 崖柏精油的急性经口毒性、皮肤刺激性和致敏性实验%Experimental Studies on Acute Oral Toxicity, Skin Irritation and Skin Allergy of Thuja Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭锦; 唐璐; 肖艳; 陈洋; 鲍美华

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价崖柏精油的急性经口毒性、皮肤刺激性和致敏性,为其临床安全用药提供依据。方法:急性经口毒性采用霍恩(Horn’s)法测定。选用昆明种小鼠40只随机分为4组,给予不同剂量崖柏精油(21.50,10.00,4.64,2.15 g· kg-1),观察14 d。记录死亡数,查表求得LD50,并记录死亡时间及中毒表现等。皮肤刺激性采用健康成年的白色家兔9只随机分为3组,分别给予崖柏精油100%浓度、50%浓度、25%浓度。采用食用植物油作为阴性对照。观察药物贴敷后1,24,48,72 h受试部位皮肤红斑、水肿的反应并评分。采用迟发型致敏反应最大剂量法进行崖柏精油致敏性测定。取健康白色豚鼠30只,随机平均分为3组:给药组,空白对照组(给予植物油基质)、阳性对照组(1%的2,4-二硝基氯苯)。经皮内诱导、局部诱导阶段后,观察崖柏精油激发24 h及48 h的皮肤变态反应情况并进行评分。结果:崖柏精油21.50 g· kg-1可使小鼠全部死亡,10.00,4.64 g· kg-1组可使动物部分死亡,2.15 g· kg-1组动物无死亡,查表求得崖柏精油对雌雄性小鼠的 LD50分别为7.94,9.26 g· kg-1。皮肤刺激性结果显示,崖柏精油(100%浓度)贴敷后1 h有强刺激性,而稀释后的药物刺激性逐渐减弱,25%浓度崖柏精油无明显刺激性。致敏性结果显示,阳性对照组可使豚鼠皮肤出现中度或重度融合性红斑及水肿,具有明显致敏性。而崖柏精油组未见明显红斑和水肿,显示无致敏性。结论:崖柏精油具有明显皮肤刺激性,急性经口毒性属实际无毒,未见致敏性。%Objective:To evaluate the acute oral toxicity , skin irritation and skin allergy of Thuja essential oil ( TEO) , and pro-vide experimental basis for the clinical use of TEO .Methods:The acute oral toxicity was measured by

  19. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  20. [Acute toxicity testing (LD50) of Chinese mineral drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, W; Liu, W H; Wang, L F; Fu, S X; Li, Y S; Kong, Z K; Tang, Z X; Chen, Z L

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxicity and LD50 of 62 mineral drugs were determined by ig, ip or iv in mice, in order to provide some guidelines for safety in clinical use, as well as for pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present investigation, the difference in the acute toxicity and LD50 between raw drugs and medicines prepared by roasting is explained. PMID:2506896

  1. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  2. Study on alternative methods for the acute oral toxicity in detection of chemicals%急性经口毒性替代方法在化学品检验中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭剑斌; 赵敏; 杨杏芬; 周轶琳; 陈壁锋; 陈瑞仪; 黄建康

    2011-01-01

    ,the concordance rates of FDP,ATC and UDP was 91.7%(11/12),75.0%(9/12) and 83.0%(10/12),respectively.The number of animals required in three alternative methods was significantly lower than that in traditional test (P<0.05),but the time required in three alternative methods was significantly higher than that in traditional test (P<0.05 ).Conclusions High consistency and correlation were found between each alternative method and LD50 test.FDP may be more potential when applied to assess acute oral toxicity of cosmetic raw materials.

  3. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SPERMATOGENIC SIDDHA DRUG ‘ISAPPUKOL CHOORANAM’ (IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thillaivanan*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiyarajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been broadly used in developed countries hence they are natural and comparatively safe. They contain plant materials as their pharmacologically active components. Infertility is one of the most extremely tragic all over the world. Despite recent advances in the treatment of male infertility, the problem has not been satisfactorily tackled. The male infertility is mainly due to an inadequate number of spermatozoa in the semen, the failure of the spermatozoa to move with sufficient vigor towards their goal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the spermatogenic siddha drug Isappukol Chooranam (IC (siddha drug.For acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Forsub-acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses at 50,100,200 mg/kg of body weight. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and Histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. No impairment in hepatic, renal, haemopoietic functions were observed throughout the study. No mortality was observed up to 200 mg/kg of body weight in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  4. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  5. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah; Mohd. Shahimi Mustafa; Pinaki Senguptha; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Arindam Das; Sreemoy Kanti Das

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety dose range of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Pericampylus glaucus(Lam.) Merr. by acute and sub-acute oral toxicity study on animal model. Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicity study was carried out as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423 and 407. In acute toxicity study, the oral dose (300, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg) of tested plant extract was administered to three groups in single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 h and compared to normal group. In sub-acute study, the tested crude plant extract was administered orally at doses of 600 and 1 000 mg/kg for 28 days to the two animals groups and their body weight, hematological, serum hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared to normal group by sacrificing all group animals. Results: In acute toxicity, all treated groups’ revealed neither mortality nor any significant alteration in behavior only drowsiness, sedation and lethargy were observed in two group, i.e. 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg of the tested plant extract. In sub-acute toxicity study no change in hematological, biochemical parameter and organ body weight were observed during study compared to the normal group. The kidney function parameters [serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate transaminase), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine transaminase)] were significantly increased following administration of tested crude plant extract (600, 1 000 mg/kg). Conclusions:The result indicates that the oral administration ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Evaluation of the acute and sub acute toxicity ofAnnona senegalensis root bark extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theophine C Okoye; Peter A Akah; Adaobi C Ezike; Maureen O Okoye; Collins A Onyeto; Frankline Ndukwu; Ejike Ohaegbulam; Lovelyn Ikele

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the safety profile ofAnnona senegalensis (A. senegalensis).Methods:Dried powdered root-bark of A. senegalensis was prepared by Sohxlet extraction using methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) solution and concentrated to obtain the methanol-methylene chloride extract (MME).MME was fractionated to obtain then-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. Acute toxicity (LD50) test was performed withMME, HF, EF andMF in mice by oral route. The sub acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after14 days ofMME administration while haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored.Results:Medium lethal (LD50) values of1 296, 3 808, 1 265 and 2 154mg/kg were obtained for theMME, MF, HF andEF, respectively. The sub-acute toxicity studies indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight of both the treated rats and the control. The haematological tests indicated no change in the packed cell volume values but a significant (P<0.05) increase in the totalWBC count at100and 400 mg/kg doses. The differential analysis showed a decrease in the nutrophils and a non-significant increase in the lymphocyte counts. The liver transaminase enzymes, alanin transaminase and aspartate transaminase showed no significant increase compared to the control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections also indicted no obvious signs of hepatotoxicity except with the400 mg/kg dose that showed degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes.Conclusions:These results indicated that the root bark extracts ofA. Senegalensis are safe at the lower doses tested, and calls for caution in use at higher doses in treatment.

  7. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  8. Acute toxicity tests on raw leachate from a Malaysian dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujá, Fatihah; Yusof, Arij; Osman, Md Anuar

    2010-01-01

    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  10. Subacute (90 Days) Oral Toxicity Studies of Kombucha Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  11. A New Method for Determining Acute Toxicity in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Fidelis Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intake of pharmacological substances by man has solely increased and this may be in the form of food, medicines and beverages, other industrial and household products. These substances are capable of eliciting chronic and acute toxicity, which may be mild or severe, depending upon their nature. Acute toxicity is defined as the unwanted effect(s) that occurs either immediately or at a short time interval after a single or multiple administration of such substance within 24 hour...

  12. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz.) Swingle in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjana Jaijoy; Nadthaganya Suwanlikhid; Anongnad Ngamjariyawat; Amornnat Thuppia; Nirush Lertprasertsuke; Umarat Srisawat; Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female) did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 ma...

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  14. Assessing delayed and acute toxicity of five formulated fungicides to Osmia lignaria Say and Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Ladurner, Edith; Bosch, Jordi; P. Kemp, William; Maini, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    International audience The delayed and acute toxicity of benomyl (Benlate®), captan (Captan 50WP), iprodione (Rovral®), propiconazole (OrbitTM), and neem oil (Trilogy®) to two crop pollinators, A. mellifera and O. lignaria, was evaluated. Survival after contact and oral single exposure to high doses of the pesticides was compared to survival of controls with the dosing vehicle. LD50 values at 24, 48 and 72 h from exposure were determined. Contact and oral exposure to benomyl and iprodione ...

  15. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P>0.05 in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  17. EURL ECVAM Recommendation on the Zebrafish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test Method (ZFET) for Acute Aquatic Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    HALDER MARIA ELISABETH; GRIESINGER Claudius; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; ZUANG Valerie; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Acute fish toxicity testing is an important component of the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals. Since many years, (zebra-)fish embryo-based methods have been proposed as alternatives to the acute fish toxicity test carried out with juvenile or adult fish. On behalf of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) coordinated during 2008-2012 the validation of the zebrafish em...

  18. Intravenous Versus Oral Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Acute Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Raymond W.; Abaza, Hadeel; Mehta, Priyesh; Bauer, Jennifer; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Gilmore, Allison

    2013-01-01

    The optimal route (oral versus intravenous) of antibiotic administration for pediatric acute osteomyelitis is not well established. Seventy-eight children from our university hospital and 17 children at our county hospital were treated for acute osteomyelitis. The rates of intravenous antibiotics upon discharge were 95% versus 65% (P=0.002), respectively. The recurrence rate and line complication rates were 10% and 24% at the university hospital, compared to 0% (P=0.34) and 6% (P=0.29) at the...

  19. Subacute(90Days) Oral Toxicity Studies of Kombucha Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN; MANINDERSINGH; 等

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha tes(KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy,KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment,The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria.KT is consumed in several coutries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments,viz.,intestinal disorders,arthritis,ageing and stiumulation of immunological system.Though KT is used in several parts of the world its eneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated.Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT,subacute oral toxicity study was carried out.Five goups of rats were maintained:(a) control group given tap water orally,(b) KT given 2ml/kg orally,(c)plain tea(PT) given 2ml/kg orally,(d)KT given in drinking water,1%(v/v)and (e)PT given indrinking water,1%(v/v).The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days,Weekly records of weight,feed intake,water intake and general behaviour were monitored.There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progrssive body weight change.The organ to body weight ration and histologuical evaluation did not show any toxic signs.The haematological and biochemical variables,were within the clinical limits.The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 day showed no toxic effects.

  20. Oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadalagere Lakshmana Girish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood. It is the most common childhood cancer in India. Advances in the treatment regimens have greatly increased the chances of survival. Both the disease and its treatment change the oral environment. In some cases, oral manifestations are the presenting feature of the disease and it will be the dentist′s responsibility to identify the underlying disorder and guide the diagnosis of the patient. Hence, the aim of present article is to review the literature concerning the oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography for Quantitative Assessment of Microstructural and Microvascular Alterations in Late Oral Radiation Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Bahar

    More than half of head-and-neck cancer patients undergo radiotherapy at some point during their treatment. Even though the use of conformed therapeutic beams has increased radiation dose localization to the tumor, resulting in more normal tissue sparing, still, in many head-and-neck cancer patients, the healthy tissue of the oral cavity still receives a sizeable amount of radiation. This causes acute and / or late complications in these patients. The latter occur as late as several months or even years after the completion of treatment and are typically associated with severe symptoms. Currently, the clinical method for diagnosing these complications is visual examination of the oral tissue surface. However, it has been well established that such complications originate in subsurface oral tissue layers including its microvasculature. Therefore, to better understand the mechanism of these complications and to be able to diagnose them earlier, there exists a need for subsurface monitoring of the irradiated oral tissue. Histology has been used as such a tool for research purposes; however, its use in clinical diagnosis is limited due to its invasive and hazardous nature. Therefore, in this thesis, I propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a subsurface, micron-scale resolution optical imaging tool that can provide images of oral tissue subsurface layers down to a depth of 1-2 mm (structural OCT), as well as images demonstrating vessel morphology (speckle variance OCT) and blood flow information (Doppler OCT). This thesis explains the development of an OCT setup and an oral probe to acquire images in-vivo. Moreover, it introduces a software-based quantification platform for extracting specific biologically-meaningful metrics from the structural and vascular OCT images. It then describes the application of the developed imaging and quantification platform in a feasibility clinical study that was performed on 15 late oral radiation toxicity patients and 5 age

  2. Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1990-06-01

    The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

  3. Preclinical studies on safety of fullerene upon acute oral administration and evaluation for no mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerenes characterized as an antioxidant are believed to reduce various reactive chemical species, such as free radicals, and their characteristic features have been disclosed to furnish many useful medical technologies. Despite the numerous applications for the biological efficacy of fullerenes, less is known about the toxicity of fullerenes in mammals. Hence, the protocol was designed to determine the acute oral median lethal dose and evaluate the acute toxicity of fullerenes when administrated as a single dose to Sprague-Dawley rats. In an acute toxicity test, fullerenes were administered once orally to a single group of male and female at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. No deaths were observed and the body weights in both sexes of 2000 mg/kg group increased in a similar pattern to the control group. Genotoxicity of fullerenes was also assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the chromosomal aberration test in cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) cells. Although structural chromosomal aberrations were induced at up to 5000 μg/mL, there was no significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations at any dose level regardless of presence of S9. Fullerenes did not cause genetic damage in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA98 and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA/pKM101. These results indicate that fullerenes are not of high toxicological significance

  4. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  5. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  6. Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifovski Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although radical radiotherapy has proved to be a successful method in prostate cancer treatment, the conventional (box technique can result in significant adverse events. Objective. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods. In a clinical retrospective study, we included 283 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. All our patients received radical, conventional radiotherapy using the four-field technique. The study was performed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between January 1991 and December 2005. During regular follow-up, we analyzed the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity. Results. Two thirds (71% of our patients had acute toxicity of at least one organ within the radiation field. Most frequent complication was radiation dermatitis (10.5%, and enteritis (9%, cystitis (6% and proctitis (2.5%. Acute adverse events were mostly low grade (I and II, 28-61%. Late complications were registered in 20.5% of patients. Skin fibrosis was most frequent (12%. Chronic proctitis was detected in 4% and urethral stricture in 4.5% of our patients. All late complications were low grade. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance of radical radiotherapy is relatively good. Although most patients develop acute toxicity, it is commonly low grade and requires the interruption of radiotherapy treatment in 20% of patients only. Late toxicity is rarer than acute and, in most cases, it does not affect the quality of life.

  7. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  8. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION OF TALISADYA CHURNA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARAG JAIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Talisadya churna includes several herbal drugs which have been traditionally by ethnic groups for treating vomiting, flatulence with gurgling sound, cough, asthma, fever, anorexia, indigestion, diarrhoea, cachexia, splenic disease, malabsorption syndrome and anaemia. Object: The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Talisadya churna, a polyherbal formulation, in experimental animal models. Material and methods: In an acute toxicity study, Talisadya churna was administered orally at groups of animals of a single sex are dosed in a stepwise procedure using the fixed doses of 5, 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg a period of at least 24 hours were allowed between the dosing of each animal and then were observed for 14 days. Result: The results indicated there were no toxic symptoms up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg p.o. In a subacute toxicity study, Talisadya churna was tested at different dose level of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 28 days. There were no adverse effects on general condition, growth, feed and water consumption, clinical chemistry values and hematological parameters. The vital organs of animals treated with Talisadya churna for 28 days did not show any histopathological evidence of pathological lesions. Conclusion: The result obtained in this study allowed us to conclude that the Talisadya

  9. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Silva, J H; Lima, C R; Silva, E J R; Araújo, A V; Fraga, M C C A; Ribeiro E Ribeiro, A; Arruda, A C; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2008-03-28

    Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as Andiroba in Brazil, has been used by Amazon Rainforest indigenous communities for treatment of coughs, convulsions, skin diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, ear infections, to heal wounds and bruises and as an insect repellent. Carapa guianensis seed oil (SO) was evaluated for its acute and subacute toxicity (30 days) by the oral route in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity test, SO (0.625-5.0g/kg, n=5/sex) did not produce any hazardous symptoms or deaths. The subacute treatment with SO (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5g/kg, n=10/group) failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Hematological analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. However, in the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum level (29%) in the group SO 1.5g/kg. In addition, absolute and relative liver weights were increased at the doses of 0.75g/kg (23.4 and 19.1%) and 1.5g/kg (18.7 and 33.1%). In conclusion, acute and subacute administration of Carapa guianensis seed oil did not produce toxic effects in male Wistar rats. However, the increase in the ALT serum level and in both absolute and relative liver weights may indicate a possible hepatic toxicity. PMID:18281172

  10. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  11. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, R.I.F. van der; Waal, I. van der [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veerman, A.J.P. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Snow, G.B. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs.

  13. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs

  14. Management of acute stroke in patients taking novel oral anticoagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Hankey, Graeme J; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 1·0–2·0% of individuals with atrial fibrillation and 0·1–0·2% of those with venous thromboembolism who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) can be expected to experience an acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, 0·2–0·5% of individuals with atrial fibrillation who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants can be expected to experience an intracranial hemorrhage. This opinion piece addresses the current literature and offer...

  15. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of an aqueous stem bark extract of Sclerocarya birrea using a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Tariro Mawoza; Dexter Tagwireyi; Charles Nhachi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sclerocarya birrea, a plant that is commonly available in many communities, is used as a source of food and for ethnomedicinal and cultural practices. Stem-bark toxicity studies for the plant are however lacking. This study was therefore conducted in an effort to determine its toxic effects using a rat model. Methods: Acute toxicity was performed using a single oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea to determine the lethal dose. ...

  16. INVESTIGATION ON THE ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY OFALHAGI GRAECORUM IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Gargum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the acute and subacute toxicity of Alhagi Graecorum (Camel Thorn in mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the acute toxicity (LD50 and sub acute toxicity of camel thorn in mice. For determination of LD50, mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into nine groups each of 6 animals and received 130, 330, 660, 1300, 2600, 4200, 5000, 5900 and 6900 mg/kg orally of camel thorn water extract respectively. The sign and symptoms of toxicity and the number of died animals in each group were registered and the LD50 was calculated.Another group of Male albino mice weighed 25-30 g were divided into control and different treated group each of 6 mice and placed in the metabolism cages that allowed daily measurement of food and water consumption. The control received normal saline whereas the other groups received 130, 660, 1300 mg/kg (i.p, daily of camel thorn extract (CTErespectively, for two weeks.. The animals were weighed daily for any sign of reduction or gain of body weight. The food and water consumption were daily calculated. At the end of this experiment, the mice were killed and blood was collected and used for the determination of glucose and the serum creatinine,urea, aspartate, aminotransferase, (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.The liver of the animals were removed,fixed in 10%formaline for histopathological investigation. The LD50 was equal to 5400mg/kg.Results of sub acute toxicity studies revealed that no significant weight reduction were observed in treated groups as compared to control, however the food consumption was significantly increased in the mice received 660mg/kg of CTE . Also the water consumption was significantly decreased in the animal receiving 1300mg/kg of CTE.

  17. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  18. Preliminary studies of acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J. Leonard stem barks (Caesalpiniaceae) in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noreen Orianna Koumba Madingou; Aristide Traore; Alain Souza; Raissa Reine Aworet Samseny; Sylvin Ouedraogo; Alfred Sababenedyo Traore

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J. Leonard (G. tessmannii) and evaluate its safety. Methods: NMRI mice were used to determine the acute toxicity of G. tessmannii. Increasing concentrations of the plant extracts were administered intraperitoneally or by force-feeding. General behavior and death were monitored and recorded daily for 7 days. In order to determine the sub-acute toxicity of the extract, several doses were adminis-tered by oral gavage daily for 28 days in adult Wistar rats. Different parameters were assessed including body weight, food and water intake, biochemical parameters and several vital organ weights. Results: LD50 of 328.78 mg/kg was obtained by i.p. route and more than 5 000 mg/kg was obtained in acute toxicity by oral route. In sub-acute toxicity, no significant alteration was observed in body weight or vital organs, food and water intake, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: The results showed that the aqueous extract of G. tessmannii has low toxicity intraperitoneally and no sub-acute toxicity via oral intake.

  19. ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY STUDIES OF TROISTM IN NEWZEALAND WHITE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  20. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hassan, Zurina; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim; Hussein, Nor Fuzina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant ( p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant ( p brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in orally administered levodopa intercalated nanocomposite; it is also dose-dependent that needs further assessment.

  1. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the 18F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of 18F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  2. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  3. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF6 and UO2F2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF6, UO2F2, and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro; Fernanda S. B. Barroqueiro; Mayara T. Pinheiro; Márcia C. G. Maciel; Priscila S. Barcellos; Silva, Lucilene A.; Adelson de S. Lopes; Flávia R.F. Nascimento; Rosane N. M. Guerra

    2011-01-01

    The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae), which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME) was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group) in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including gluco...

  5. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  6. Acute toxicity and metabolomics analysis of hypocholesterolemic effect of Mentha piperita aqueous extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zaini Johari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oral acute toxicity of the aqueous peppermint extract (APE was assessed and the bio and/or chemo markers for hypocholesterolemic activity of APE were identified through metabolomics approach. No mortality resulted from the present oral acute toxicity study in which the histological changes observed in the selected organs and the biochemical deviation of blood compared to the normal range level were minimal. This study also explored the effect of 290 mg-1 kg body weight of APE against 5% cholesterol-enriched diet within 14 days treatment. Whereby after the treatment, there were reductions exhibited in plasma total cholesterol (44.32%, LDL-cholesterol (69.19% and total triglycerides (55.77%. 1H NMR-metabolomics approach was, employed for better sensitivity and accuracy in evaluating the  potential plasma biomarkers of hyper-and hypo-cholesterolemic properties. β-Hydroxybutarate and α-D-glucose have been identified as the possible hypercholesterolemic markers, whereas taurine, betaine, alanine, glycine and L-leucine were suggested to be the hypocholesterolemic markers of APE.  Industrial relevance. Due to various reports on the side effects of conventional drug-lowering cholesterol available in the market, aqueous peppermint extract at its recommended consumption dosage has been investigated over its toxicity of oral consumption and its efficacy against elevation of cholesterol level in blood. The evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity of aqueous peppermint extract (APE, from which the potential biomarkers could be established, might be useful in the  development of new anti-cholesterol drug and also for quality control of peppermint-based products. Keywords. Mentha piperita; peppermint; hypercholesterolemia; metabolomics; 1H NMR; multivariate data analysis

  7. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  8. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja; Thelma Ebele Ihedioha; Gabriel Ifeanyi Eke; Iheanyi K Peter-Ajuzie; Samuel Ekere Okezie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of...

  9. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao William WL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections. Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals.

  10. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: danielle_2705@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaossoj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: apaulasp2008@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  12. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  13. Subchronic and acute preclinical toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Petiveria alliacea, leaves were tested on acute and sub-chronic toxicity, hematocrit and blood glucose level and intestinal motility of male albino NGP mice, of 20 to 25 g mean weight. Treatments were in all cases doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg animal weight and a control treatment with 0.5 ml distilled water, using 10 animals per treatment and administered orally every day (5 days per week). Experimental periods were 18 and 70 days for acute and sub chronic toxicity, respectively. No mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed in both tests. A slight but significant increase in the glucose levels during the first three weeks was observed with the 1000 mg/kg dose but not for the higher 2000 mg/kg doses. After administering the dose once after a starving period of six hours, no significant differences in intestinal motility could be found. (author)

  14. 微囊藻毒素-LR对SD大鼠的短期毒效应研究%The Acute Toxic Effects of Oral Aministration of Microcystin LR in SD Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娣; 毛光明

    2013-01-01

      To explore the damage and possible toxicological mechanisms of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in SD rats. Low and high toxic dose pure MC-LR were added to the drinking water of SD rats. Body weight ,organ index,liver and renal function and oxidative stress indicators were examined at 1,7 and 14 d after feeding. The body weights of high toxic group were significantly lower than low toxic group and control group. In high toxic group,a significant increase in liver and renal index,aspartate aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alkaline phosphatase (ALP),Creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were observed 7 and 14 days after feeding. A significant increase in blood catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) at 1,7d and a significantly decrease in CAT and SOD at 14d were observed. The malonaldehyde (MDA) significantly increased at 7 and 14 d compared to low toxic group and control group. In low toxic group ,a significant increase of CAT and SOD were observed at 7 d compared to control group ,and maintain this level. The MDA significantly increased at 7 and 14 d compared to control group. After short-term continuous drinking water with 80μg/L MC-LR,the antioxidant systems of SD rats were inhibited,the cells were attacked followed with liver damage and kidney insufficiency. After short-term continuous drinking water with 8μg/L MC-LR,the antioxidant systems of SD rats were impaired but there were no significant liver damage or kidney insufficiency. MC-LR can accumulate in the body.%  探讨微囊藻毒素-LR污染饮用水后,对大鼠机体的损伤和可能的作用机制。通过对大鼠的饮用的蒸馏水中添加低毒和高毒剂量的纯MC-LR,测定其在饲养1、7、14 d的体重、脏器系数、肝肾功能和氧化应激相关指标。高毒组饲养后体重显著低于对照组和低毒组。第7天和第14天肝脏系数、肾脏系数、ALT、AST、ALP、Cr、BUN均显著升高。CAT和SOD先显著升高再显著下

  15. Acute toxicities of six manufactured nanomaterial suspensions to Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Xiaoshan; Zhu Lin [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Nankai University), Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering (China); Chen Yongsheng, E-mail: yschen@asu.ed [Arizona State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Tian Shengyan [Tianjin University of Science and Technology, College of Marine Science and Technology (China)

    2009-01-15

    The rapid growth of nanotechnology is stimulating research on the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). This paper summarizes a comprehensive study on the 48-h acute toxicity of water suspensions of six MNMs (i.e., ZnO, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, C{sub 60}, SWCNTs, and MWCNTs) to Daphnia magna, using immobilization and mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results show that the acute toxicities of all MNMs tested are dose dependent. The EC{sub 50} values for immobilization ranged from 0.622 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 114.357 mg/L (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs), while the LC{sub 50} values for mortality ranged from 1.511 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 162.392 mg/L (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs). In these tests, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and carbon-based nanomaterials were more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, D. magna were found to ingest nanomaterials from the test solutions through feeding behaviors, which indicates that the potential ecotoxicities and environmental health effects of these MNMs cannot be neglected.

  16. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  17. Intestinal toxicity of oral warfarin intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Demenesku, Jelena; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Subota, Vesna; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2016-08-01

    Though warfarin is extensively used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic processes in humans, adverse effects of warfarin therapy have been recognized. Intestinal hemorrhage is one of the hazards of anticoagulant therapy, but the mechanisms of warfarin toxicity are virtually unknown. In this work, the effects of 30 days oral warfarin (0.35 mg/l and 3.5 mg/l) intake on rat's gut were examined. Both doses resulted in prolongation of prothrombin time. Systemic effects of higher warfarin dose (increases in plasma AST, proteinuria, hematuria, changes in peripheral blood hematological parameters) were seen. Warfarin intake resulted in histologically evident tissue damage, leukocyte infiltration and intestinal inflammation [increases in myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, proinflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-17) concentrations in intestinal homogenates]. In contrast, suppression of gut-draining mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cell activity [proliferation responsiveness, production of IFN-γ and IL-17 to T lymphocyte mitogen Concanavalin A stimulation] was noted. Inhibition of regulatory cytokine IL-10 production by MLN cells, suggests commitment of MLN to the suppression of all inflammatory activities and creation of the microenvironment which is non-permissive for induction of potentially harmful immune response. These novel findings indicate the need of staying alert for (adverse) effects of warfarin therapy. PMID:27181730

  18. Treatment of recurrent toxic shock syndrome with oral contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Levin, M L

    1982-09-01

    The case of a 20-year old woman who was hospitalized for toxic shock syndrome (TSS) for 4 consecutive months despite use of conventional therapy for prevention of recurrence is described. Following discharge after the 4th episode she was started on oral contraceptives (OCs), and her next 8 menstrual cycles were uneventful despite continued use of tampons. She since discontinued use of tampons and remains asymptomatic. TSS recurrences occur in 30-64% of patients and can follow the initial episode by up to 41 months. The experience of this patient demonstrates the limitations of using antistaphyloccal antibiotics at the end of each menstrual cycle but suggests that hormonal manipulation may be an effective alternative therapy for TSS recurrences. Epidemiological studies show TSS patients use OCs less frequently than controls. Whether OCs suppress the vaginal flora, as some evidence suggests, or make conditions less favorable for the development of TSS in some other way is unknown. OC therapy for recurrences of TSS should receive further study. PMID:7144265

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from the fruits of Piper chaba Hunter in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaijoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The water extract from the fruits of Piper chaba Hunter was evaluated for acute and subchronic toxicity in both male and female rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight was administered in rats (five females, five males. The results showed no signs of toxicity such as general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs. Subchronic toxicity was studied by daily oral doses (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for consecutive 90 days. The satellite group was treated with the extract at the dose of 1,200 mg/kg/day for 90 days and kept for other 28 days after treatment. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that P. chaba extract does not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are popular and extensively used in the developing world. In many places, they offer a more wide available and more affordable alternative to pharmaceutical drugs and natural food supplements. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or preparations derived from them should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for use in the development of pharmaceutical.

  20. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  1. Phase I study of oral clofarabine consolidation in adults aged 60 and older with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Meagan A; Martin, Michael G; Uy, Geoffrey L; Westervelt, Peter; Dipersio, John F; Cashen, Amanda; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith; Vij, Ravi; Luo, Jingqin; Reineck, Teresa; Bernabe, Noel; Abboud, Camille N

    2014-05-01

    Clofarabine has shown activity and tolerability in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated the safety and tolerability of an oral formulation of clofarabine for consolidation therapy of patients aged 60 and older with AML. In this phase I study, twenty-two patients older than 60 years with AML in first complete remission were treated once daily with oral clofarabine for 14 or 21 days of a 28-day cycle, for up to five cycles. Dose escalation from 1 mg to 6 mg daily using a 3 + 3 design was used to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and tolerability of oral clofarabine. No DLTs or Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. The primary toxicities were hematologic, including uncomplicated grade 3-4 neutropenia (50%) and thrombocytopenia (50%). Given that myelosuppression necessitating dose delays/reductions was observed more commonly at higher doses, the recommended phase II dose is 2 mg daily for 21 of 28 days. At doses equal to or greater than 2 mg, the median relapse-free survival was 28.35 months. Oral clofarabine was well-tolerated with encouraging activity in patients older than 60 years. Further investigation of oral clofarabine as a consolidation and/or maintenance therapy in AML for older individuals is warranted. (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00727766). PMID:24415560

  2. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.

  3. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  4. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  5. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Single dose oral flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Asquad; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Background Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions. The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25

  8. Use of a custom RT-PCR array to analyze toxicity pathways at different life stages in Brown Norway Rat Brain following acute Toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we utilized a custom designed RT-PCR array to examine the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.65 or 1.0 glkg) in the brains of ma1e Brown Norwa...

  9. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marco Antonio; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Kaneshima, Edílson Nobuyoshi; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-01-01

    Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2) from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg · kg(-1). In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg · kg(-1)). In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered.

  10. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg·kg−1. In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg·kg−1. In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered.

  11. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P;

    2001-01-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.......To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome....

  12. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Acute and repeated dose (28 days) oral safety studies of ALIBIRD in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María A; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria R; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustin; Montilla, Antonia; Recio, Isidra; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Miralles, Beatriz; Fornari, Tiziana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Gonzalez, Monserrat; Reglero, Guillermo

    2013-07-01

    ALIBIRD, a test substance composed of oligosaccharides derived from lactulose, a hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate, and a supercritical extract of rosemary (1:0.5:0.05), was prepared in the laboratory and evaluated for its safety as a multifunctional food additive. In oral toxicity studies (acute and 28 days repeated dose) using Wistar rats, ALIBIRD was administered in a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight and resulted in no adverse events or mortality; a daily dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight for 28 days by gavage also resulted in no adverse effects or mortality. No abnormal clinical signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or changes in food and water consumption occurred in either study. There were no changes in hematological and serum chemistry values, organ weights, or gross or histological characteristics. Based on test results, it is concluded that ALIBIRD is well tolerated in rats at an acute and subchronic (28 days) dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. PMID:23834798

  14. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit;

    2016-01-01

    toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall......Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis...

  15. Role of glutamine versus placebo in prevention of acute gastrointestinal toxicity in pelvic radiotherapy: A randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Sazzad Manir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, ano-proctitis are common acute gastrointestinal (GI toxicities during pelvic radiotherapy (RT, having important impact on treatment outcome. Glutamine has a major role in mucosal growth and function. This phase III study is conducted to evaluate the role of prophylactic glutamine supplementation in prevention of acute GI toxicities during pelvic RT. Materials and Methods: Eighty five nonmetastatic patients with pelvic malignancy needing pelvic RT are included in this double blind randomized control trial. During RT 42 patients (Arm A received 10 g glutamine oral supplementation 1 h before every RT fraction. Forty three patients received glycine as placebo (Arm B in same schedule. Patients were assessed weekly for common acute RT induced GI toxicities. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. Results: Two arms were well balanced with all baseline parameters. Median age was 57. 56.47% (n = 48 patients had cervical cancer. There was no significant difference between two arms in grade wise incidence of any of the GI toxicities. Trends of diarrhoea during weekly assessments also similar in both arms. Conclusion: There is no significant beneficial effect of glutamine during pelvic RT. As per our study data and our dose schedule glutamine should not be indicated in pelvic RT.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Jeena, Kottarapat; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt.) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO.

  17. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  18. The Impact of Oral Health on Taste Ability in Acutely Hospitalized Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Solemdal, Kirsten; Sandvik, Leiv; Willumsen, Tiril; Mowe, Morten; Hummel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. Background Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. Materials and Methods The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 ...

  19. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  20. Acute Toxicity and the Effect of Andrographolide on Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Al Batran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were significantly increased in these groups (. Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats.

  1. Acute toxicity and the effect of andrographolide on Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle) and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of 1.5 ×10(12) bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)) five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly increased in these groups (P < 0.05). Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats. PMID:23844365

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  3. Antihyperglycaemic effect and acute toxicity of Securigera Securidaca L. seed extracts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, H; Ramezani, M; Danaei, A R

    2002-12-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of a Securigera securidaca aqueous infusion and an ethanol maceration extract of seeds was studied in normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract was more than that of the aqueous one. The phytochemical analysis showed that the seed extracts were rich in flavonoids. The intraperitoneal and oral administration of the aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly reduced blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, the blood glucose levels were not significantly different from the control. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycaemic mice. The results indicate that S. securidaca seed extracts significantly reduce blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. PMID:12458478

  4. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary test...

  5. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  6. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Iacopo; Tacconi, Danilo; Grotti, Simone; Brandini, Rossella; Salvadori, Claudia; Caremani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2011-05-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug. Its long-term use may, however, lead to several adverse effects, with pulmonary toxicity being the most serious. The article presents the case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgery, who after 2 years of amiodarone therapy for prophylactic treatment of atrial fibrillation developed amiodarone pneumonitis mimicking an acute pulmonary edema. The patient failed to respond to diuretic therapy and several courses of anti-infective therapy. Differential diagnosis of different causes of pulmonary infiltrates did not demonstrate any other abnormality. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of amiodarone pneumonitis. Given the widespread use of amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic agent, pneumologists and cardiologists should consider this important adverse effect as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary distress refractory to therapy in all patients treated with amiodarone who present with respiratory symptoms and pneumonia-like illness. PMID:19924000

  7. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  8. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  9. Acute toxicity profile of radiotherapy in 690 children and adolescents: RiSK data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The 'Registry for the evaluation of side effects after radiation in childhood and adolescence' (risk) was introduced to characterize adverse effects of radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence prospectively. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the pattern of acute side effects. Materials and methods: Since 2001, patients receiving radiotherapy in one of the German pediatric therapy trials have been registered in RiSK with detailed information regarding radiation doses to organs at risk and characterization of acute toxicities. Results: From 2001 to May 2009, 690 patients have been characterized for acute toxicity in primary therapy. Acute toxicity ≥ grade 1 was observed in 506 patients. In patients irradiated in their lung and liver, patients with grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities showed higher organ volumes exposed to radiation doses <20 Gray (Gy) compared to patients without toxicities. For the salivary glands, there was a positive correlation between the acute toxicity grade and the maximum radiation dose to the organ; the lower GI tract showed a similar trend. The impact of different chemotherapy regimens on these acute side effects remains unclear. Age did not have any impact on side effects. Conclusion: This analysis gives a comprehensive overview of the acute toxicities of radiotherapy in children and adolescents. With prolongation of follow-up, detailed analyses regarding late toxicities will be possible with the characterization of dose-volume-effect relationships.

  10. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  11. Feasibility and acute toxicities of radioimmunoguided prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present a technique that fuses pelvic CT scans and ProstaScint images to localize areas of disease within the prostate gland to customize prostate implants. Additionally, the acute toxicity results from the first 43 patients treated with this technique are reviewed. Methods and Materials: Between 2/97 and 8/98, 43 patients with clinical stage II prostate adenocarcinoma received ultrasound-guided transperineal implantation of I-125 or Pd-103 seeds. The median patient age was 70 years (range 49-79). Prior to treatment, the median Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were 6 (range 3-8) and 7.5 (range 1.8-16.6 ng/mL), respectively. The median follow-up was 10 months (range 2.9-20.4 months). Results: The median PSA value at 10 months is 0.7 ng/mL. Significant acute complications within the first month following implantation included 13 Grade I urinary symptoms, 24 Grade II urinary symptoms, 6 Grade III symptoms, and no Grade IV complications. Beyond 4 months, complications included 12 Grade I urinary symptoms, 17 Grade II urinary symptoms, 1 Grade III, and 1 Grade IV complications. Conclusions: The image fusion of the pelvic CT scan and ProstaScint scans helped identify regions within the prostate at high risk of local failure, which were targeted with additional seeds during implantation

  12. Efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Valérie J; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara; Vail, David M; Straw, Rodney C

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common feline oral tumor. Standard radiation protocols have been reported to achieve tumor control durations of 1.5-5.5 months (45-165 days). The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral SCC. Twenty-one cats with histologically confirmed oral SCC and T1-3N0M0 were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 4.8 Gy. Seventeen cats had macroscopic disease and four were microscopic after incomplete excision. Acute toxicity consisted of grade 2 mucositis in all cats and this was effectively managed using esophageal or gastric tube feeding, pain medication, and antibiotics. Late toxicity effects for cats with available follow-up data included alopecia (4 cats), leukotricia (6), tongue ulceration (1), and oronasal fistula (1). Response could be assessed in 17 cats (seven complete response and five partial response). Four cats (19%) developed metastatic disease without evidence of local progression. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 105 days (1 year PFS of 23%), median local progression-free survival (LPFS) was 219 days (1 year LPFS of 41%), and median overall survival (OS) was 174 days (1 year OS of 29%). Only tumor stage was prognostic, with T1 having a median PFS of 590 days. Findings indicated that this accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol was well tolerated in cats with oral SCC, with manageable adverse events. Tumor response was observed in most cats and long tumor control durations were achieved in some cats.

  13. Acute toxicity study of stone-breaker (Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Campos de Lima e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. is a herbaceous plant native to Brazil and appears frequently in humid environments. This plant is used to treat urolithiasis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and hepatitis B. The acute toxicity and LD50 of an aqueous extract of P. tenellus were determined in laboratory mice and their behavior was analyzed. The intraperitoneal LD50 was calculated by the Karber & Behrens (1964 method, for which a 96% alcoholic extract was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Male albino mice (Mus musculus were divided into three batches of six animals and observed for 24 hours after administration of the extract, diluted in 0.9% saline, at doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg / kg. Short-term studies have demonstrated this plant to be non-toxic; however, we found that this species induced agitation in animals, with stereotyped movements, spasms and increased respiratory frequency, as well as signs of depression, such as sleepiness, prostration, dyspnea and a reduction in respiratory frequency.

  14. Prophylaxis of mucosal toxicity by oral propantheline and cryotherapy in children with malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucosal toxicity is an incapacitating complication of intensive chemo-radiotherapy for children with malignant disorders, and is physically and psychologically distressful. It is therefore important to minimize mucosal toxicity in those patients. In this report, the effects of the combined prophylaxis of oral cooling (cryotherapy) and administration of propantheline, an anticholinergic drug, were studied in patients (aged 2-16 year) with acute leukemias or solid tumors, who underwent myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue from 1993 to 1997. Patients were pretreated with the combined prophylaxis (n=12) or single prophylaxis (n=5), or left untreated (n=7). The combined prophylaxis significantly reduced the severe mucositis (combined, 8.3%; single, 20.0%; and untreated, 42.9%) and severe diarrhea (combined, 16.7%; single, 60.0%; and untreated, 57.1%). Moreover, the combined prophylaxis tended to shorten the periods of febrile episodes defined as temperature >38 deg C (combined, 3.8 days; single, 4.6 days; and untreated, 5.6 days). Therefore, the combination of propantheline and oral cryotherapy may be feasible and effective for reduction of mucosal toxicity in patients with malignancy who undergo high-dose chemotherapy. (author)

  15. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity induced by methanol extract ofTerminalia citrina leaves in Sprague Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narhari Das; Durajan Goshwami; Md. Sharif Hasan; Sheikh Zahir Raihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of methanol extract ofTerminalia citrina leaves (family: Combretaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The acute toxicity studies were conducted where the limit test dose of 3 200 mg/kg body weight used. Observations were made and recorded systemically on 1, 2, 4, 24 and 48 h after dose administration for behavior, breathing, cutaneous effects, sensory nervous system response or gastrointestinal effects. For the subacute toxicity, four groups of 10 female rats were received; distilled water (control), 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg of extracts respectively every 24 h orally for 28 days. Results: No significant variation in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated group was observed after 28 days of treatment. Haematological analysis and biochemical parameters revealed no toxic effects of the extract. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. No mortality was recorded in 28 days. Conclusions: It was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  17. A 90 day repeated oral toxicity study on plantamajoside concentrate from Plantago asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Chung-Oui; Won, Hye-Jin; Park, Ho-Young; Ryu, Yung-Sun; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyoung-Heon; Park, Kuen-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2007-12-01

    Plantago asiatica is distributed widely in East Asia. Since ancient times it has been used as a diuretic to treat acute urinary infections, and as an antiinflammatory, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatitis drug. The major compound, plantamajoside from P. asiatica, which is used as a marker compound in chemotaxonomic studies, was reported to have antibacterial activity, inhibition activity against cAMP phosphodiesterase and 5-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activity. However, there are no reports on the safety of plantamajoside. This study assessed the toxic effects of plantamajoside concentrate (PC), the purity of which was above 80%, in rats following administration at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks, as recommended by the OECD guidelines. The results showed that there were no differences in body weight, food intake, water consumption, relative organ weight or the hematological and serum biochemical values among the different dosage groups. No death or abnormal clinical signs were observed during the experimental period. Therefore, the results suggested that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the PC in rats after oral administration is considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg in rats under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:17622978

  18. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  19. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L. Cronquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. S. Dutok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L. Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25% Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5, while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4. Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating.

  20. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sean Peach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials.

  1. Sub-acute toxicity studies of acetaminophen in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Pachaiyappan Sampath; Deecaraman, Munuswamy; Vijayalakshmi, Melanathuru; Sakthivelan, Sigamany Masilamani

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute oral toxicity of acetaminophen in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats at 250 to 1000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.). The following observations were noticed during the study. No mortality in male and female rats, at and up to the dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. There were abnormal clinical signs observed on female animals at 1000 mg/kg b.wt. dose level. There were no difference in body weight gain and no effect on the daily feed consumption. No toxicologically significant effect on the haematological parameters but liver and kidney related biochemical parameter showed significant difference at 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in females. No toxicologically significant effect on the urinalysis parameters, absolute and relative organ weights and gross pathological alterations; whereas histopathological alterations were observed in female liver at dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. were observed. Based on the findings of this study, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of acetaminophen in SD rats, following oral administration at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg on daily basis was found to be 500 mg/kg b.wt.

  2. The impact of oral health on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Solemdal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. BACKGROUND: Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 (55 men acutely hospitalized elderly, coming from their own homes and with adequate cognitive function, were included. Dental status, decayed teeth, oral bacteria, oral hygiene, dry mouth and tongue changes were recorded. Growth of oral bacteria was assessed with CRT® Bacteria Kit. Taste ability was evaluated with 16 taste strips impregnated with sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste solutions in 4 concentrations each. Correct identification was given score 1, and maximum total taste score was 16. RESULTS: Mean age was 84 yrs. (range 70-103 yrs.. Total taste score was significantly and markedly reduced in patients with decayed teeth, poor oral hygiene, high growth of oral bacteria and dry mouth. Sweet and salty taste were particularly impaired in patients with dry mouth. Sour taste was impaired in patients with high growth of oral bacteria. CONCLUSION: This study shows that taste ability was reduced in acutely hospitalized elderly with caries activity, high growth of oral bacteria, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Our findings indicate that good oral health is important for adequate gustatory function. Maintaining proper oral hygiene in hospitalized elderly should therefore get high priority among hospital staff.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity.

  4. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  5. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    weight were recorded. In conclusion, these findings indicate toxicity of 9 mg/kg bw/day ionic silver but not of an equimolar Ag- NP dose. This is in accordance with previously reported data showing that oral Ag-acetate, in comparison with an equimolar dose of Ag-NP, resulted in higher silver plasma......Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  6. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima Methanol Extract on Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity of E. pulcherrima methanol extract. Mean lethal dose (LD50 and subchronic toxicity were determined using Lorke’s method to assess the effect of the extract on kidney and liver functions along histopathology assessment of the liver and kidney, respectively. The LD50 determined was 3807.89 mg/kg both orally and intraperitoneally. The kidney function parameters indicated elevation of the serum urea above the normal value in both control and the group treated with 10 mg/kg of the extract with mean values of 7.92 ± 1.19 and 7.86 ± 1.14 mMol/L, respectively. The creatinine and electrolytes were within the normal values. The results of ALAT, ASAT, ALP, T protein albumin, and bilirubin in all cases were within the normal values. Kidney, liver function parameters, and relative organ weight were statistically insignificant across all groups. This shows that various concentrations of E. pulcherrima extract did not influence negatively the liver and kidney function parameters. Further studies are required to rule out the observed mild hepatic histological changes among a few members of the groups treated with 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day and any possible hepatoprotective and nephron-protective potential the extract may possess.

  7. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  8. Acute toxicity evaluation of aminomethylnaphthoquinone (AMNQ 1 in BALB/c mice

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    Valeria Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first preclinical tests showing that aminomethylnaphthoquinone - 3-[N-(n-butyl amino-2,4-diclorobenzyl]-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (AMNQ 1 has low cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro in Vero cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of AMNQ 1 in BALB/c mice. We used BALB/c female mice to evaluate the median lethal dose (LD50 of AMNQ 1 with 2000 mg/kg body weight and other three concentrations using 550, 175 and 55 mg/kg. We compared this to acyclovir (ACV-50 mg/kg and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (10% DMSO over a 14-day period. The BALB/c mice received a single oral dose by gavage. There were no deaths in either group and no change in the murine clinical signs. The hematological and biochemical analyses showed some changes that returned to reference levels without impairment of hemostasis. The AMNQ 1 treatment did not induce untoward changes in organs as shown by histological studies. The in vivo results showed that AMNQ 1 has low toxicity. In conclusion, AMNQ 1 is safe and can be potentially used as an anti-HSV-1 agent in future studies.

  9. Metronomic therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine in elderly acute myeloid leukemia: A prospective pilot study

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    Akhil Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in elderly patients differs biologically from that in younger patients and is known to have unfavorable chromosomal rearrangements, higher resistance, and lower tolerance to chemotherapy. In such circumstances, instead of giving full-blown chemotherapy, palliative metronomic chemotherapy (MCT could be a treatment option. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective pilot study of old AML patients (age >60 years not amenable to curative treatment. Thirty-two patients were enrolled into the study and were treated with daily oral 6-mercaptopurine 75 mg/m 2 . The following inclusion criteria were used: age >60 years, nonpromyelocytic AML, the absence of uncontrolled comorbidities, and patient not amenable to curative treatment. Overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the hazards ratio of significant factors. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (range: 61-86 years with male: female ratio of 2.5:1. About 59.4% of patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 while rest had the status of 3. The median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.6. Males had median OS of 7 months (95% CI: 5.4-8.6 versus females with OS of 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.4; P = 0.008. There was no survival difference on the basis of baseline hemoglobin or French-American-British class. There were no Grade 4 toxicities and no episode of febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: MCT with oral 6-mercaptopurine is an attractive treatment option in elderly AML patients who are not amenable to curative therapy with minimal toxicities.

  10. A Comparative Efficacy of Oral Prednisone with Intramuscular Triamcinolone in Acute Exacerbation of Asthma

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    Ebrahim Razi Gholam Abbass Moosavi

    2006-03-01

    We conclude that in adults with acute asthma, oral prednisone is more effective than intramuscular triamcinolone LA in improvement of FEV1, but although efficacy of oral prednisone in improvement of FVC is more than intramuscular triamcinolone LA group, this effect is not significant.

  11. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METHOMYL ON POECILIA LATIPINNA (LESUEUR 1821 (POECILIDAE

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    Napan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a chemical compound acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that acts by contact system and is one of the most widely used chemicals such as insecticide-acaricide for control of a wide range of agricultural pests. The following study aims to assess the acute toxicity of methomyl on introduced fish Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821 (Poecilidae at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Bioassays were carried out with 5 levels and 4 treatments, temperature was 21.8 ° C ± 1, pH 7.34 ± 0.31, conductivity 0.54 mS ± 0.03, and average dissolved solutes in the middle 267.39 mg.L-1. The data obtained during tests were evaluated using the statistical method analytic Probit ver. 1.5. The results of the median Lethal Concentration (LC of methomyl on P. latipinna were: 2 h = 13.95 mg IA.L-1, 4 h 50 =10.39 mg IA.L-1, 6 h = 8.12 mg IA.L-1, 8 h = 5.81 mg IA.L-1, 24 h 3.99 mg IA.L-1, 48 h = 2.61 mg IA.L-1, 72 h = 2.24 mg IA.L-1 and finally 96 h = 2.08 IA.L mg-1. At the highest concentration was observed a change of skin color intensity of silver to black.

  12. Medical image of the week: acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

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    Mazursky K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 71 year old man with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease with post-operative status coronary artery bypass grafting, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (25% and atrial fibrillation/flutter underwent an elective ablation of the tachyarrhythmia at another facility and was prescribed amiodarone post procedure. He started complaining of cough and dyspnea one day post procedure and was empirically treated with 2 weeks of broad spectrum antibiotics. He subsequently was transferred to our facility due to worsening symptoms. He also complained of nausea, anorexia with resultant weight loss since starting amiodarone, which was stopped 5 days prior to transfer. Infectious work up was negative. On arrival to our facility, he was diagnosed with small sub-segmental pulmonary emboli, pulmonary edema and possible acute amiodarone toxicity. His was profoundly hypoxic requiring high flow nasal cannula or 100% non-rebreather mask at all times. His symptoms persisted despite ...

  13. Acute Toxic Study on Tinidazole and Spironolactone Cream%替硝唑螺内酯乳膏的急性毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志立; 彭贤东; 谭正怀; 龙凤; 张浩玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究替硝唑螺内酯乳膏对动物的急性毒性作用.方法 分别测定小鼠口服替硝唑螺内酯混合物的半数致死量(LD_(50))和替硝唑螺内酯乳膏经皮肤给药对完整皮肤、破损皮肤大鼠的急性毒性作用.结果 小鼠口服替硝唑螺内酯混合物的半数致死量为1.7177 g/kg,替硝唑螺内酯乳膏经皮给药对完整皮肤的或破损皮肤大鼠的体重以及心、肝、脾、肺及肾脏均无明显影响.结论 口服替硝唑螺内酯混合物对小鼠有一定的急性毒性作用,替硝唑螺内酯乳膏外用无明显的急性毒性作用.%To study acute toxicity effect of Tinidazole and Spironolactone Cream on animal. Methods The Ldso of mice oral administration tinidazole and spironolactone mixture and the acute toxic effects of the Tinidazole and Spironolactone Cream transdermal drug delivery in the intact and broken skin rats were determined. Results The LD-oral administration tinidazole and spironolacione mixture was 1. Ill 1 g/kg. The Tinidazole and Spironolactone Cream through intact or broken skin on body weight, heart, liver, spleen,lung and kidney had no significant acute toxicity. Conclusion The mice oral administration tinidazole and spironolactone mixture had some acute toxic effects. The Tinidazole and Spironolactone Cream transdermal drug delivery had no significant acute toxicity.

  14. THE IMPORTANCE TO RECOGNIZE ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF ACUTE LEUKEMIA (CASE REPORT)

    OpenAIRE

    Anandina Irmagita; Siti Aliyah Pradono

    2015-01-01

    Dentists could be the first health providers who detect the oral manifestation of early symptoms of leukemia. The management of three cases of acute leukemia, which had intra oral manifestations that were unnoticed by the dentists, are discussed. Before being referred to the Oral Medicine Department, these patients had undergone invasive dental treatment by their dentist, which had caused complication such as bleeding. After being referred, the patients had undergone non-invasive dental exami...

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  16. Sub-acute toxicity of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L Gaertn in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adjei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Synedrella nodiflora (L Gaertn (family Asteraceae is traditionally used in Ghana for the management of epilepsy, hiccup and threatened abortion. The anticonvulsant and other related neuro-pharmacological effects of a hydro-ethanolic extract in murine models have been established. To this end, we evaluated a sub-acute toxicity of the hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract in rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of a continuous 14-day oral administration of the extract (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg on haematological and serum biochemical parameters were measured. Results: The extract produced no mortality in the rats treated during the study period. The extract also did not significantly affect any of the haematological and serum biochemical indices measured. Conclusion: This result suggests that a 14-day oral administration of the hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora is relatively safe in Sprague-Dawley male rats under the present laboratory conditions.

  17. Impaired homeostatic mechanism of potassium handling after acute oral potassium load in diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    H.J. Kim; Ahn, Y. H.; Park, C H; Kang, C M; Park, H C; Bae, H. Y.; Choi, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic stable diabetic patients (n = 6) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 5) after acute oral intake of 50 mEq of potassium chloride (KCl) to investigate for possible derangements of homeostatic responses for acute term (3 hrs) to acute potassium load. Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) known as a useful semiquantative index of distal nephron potassium secretion were measured. All the baseline paramete...

  18. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: A comparison of the oral and inhalation route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Muijser, H.; Appel, M.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 d

  19. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  20. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  1. Transcytosis, Antitumor Activity and Toxicity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 as an Oral Administration Protein Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenbin; Li, Yangyang; Liu, Wenhui; Ding, Ding; Xu, Yingchun; Pan, Liqiang; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) is a classical superantigen (SAg), which can tremendously activate T lymphocytes at very low dosage, thus exerting its powerful antitumor activity. As an intravenous protein drug and a bacterial toxin, SEC2 has some limitations including poor patient compliance and toxic side effects. In this research, we devoted our attention to studying the antitumor activity and toxicity of SEC2 as a potential oral administration protein drug. We proved that His-tagged SEC2 (SEC2-His) could undergo facilitated transcytosis on human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and SEC2-His was detected in the blood of rats after oral administration. Furthermore, oral SEC2-His caused massive cytokine release and immune cell enrichment around tumor tissue, leading to inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, although SEC2-His was dosed up to 32 mg/kg in mice, no significant toxicity was observed. These data showed that SEC2 can cross the intestinal epithelium in an immunologically integral form, maintaining antitumor activity but with reduced systemic toxicity. Therefore, these results may have implications for developing SEC2 as an oral administration protein drug. PMID:27322320

  2. Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study of α-cyclodextrin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The oral toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in a 13-week feeding study in which groups of Beagle dogs received α-CD in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20% (4dogs/sex/group). No treatment-related changes were noted in behavior or appearance of the dogs and no mortalit

  3. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  4. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this report is to summarize the development and status of the fish acute toxicity syndrome (FATS) research effort. hus far, FATS associated with nonpolar narcotics, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, respiratory membrane irritants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhi...

  5. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving vin

  6. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  7. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  8. Understanding how data triangulation identifies acute toxicity of novel psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs"). There is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. Gold standard evidence, such as animal studies or human clinical trials, is rarely available to users or healthcare professionals. However, it is possible to use triangulation of data on the acute toxicity from multiple sources to describe the overall pattern of toxicity associated with a novel psychoactive substance. In this review, we will describe these potential data sources, which include self-reported toxicity on internet discussion fora, data from sub-population user surveys, data from regional and national poisons information services and published case reports and case series. We will then describe how pattern of acute toxicity associated with the use of the cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was established using triangulation of these different data sources.

  9. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  10. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  11. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  12. Oral Ambulatory Treatment of Acute Osteomyelitis in Children: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roul-Levy, Antoine; Looten, Vincent; Bachy, Manon; Grimprel, Emmanuel; Carbajal, Ricardo; Vialle, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis has evolved in recent years to a shorter parenteral treatment with an early switch to the oral route. Current publications recommend a 2- to 4-day parenteral treatment before the oral switch. We retrospectively analyzed a series of 45 children aged 1 to 11 years and treated in our department for acute osteomyelitis without severity criterion. Nineteen of 45 patients were treated by an exclusive ambulatory oral treatment by amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Twenty six of 45 patients had a 2- to 4-day parenteral treatment before the oral switch. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. The primary endpoint was a clinical, radiographic, and biologic healing, 6 months after the beginning of the treatment. The secondary endpoints evaluated were the length of hospitalization, the total duration of treatment, and the type of antibiotic used. On the primary endpoint, we did not find any significant difference between the 2 treatments (P = 0.38). On the duration of treatment, we found a significant difference (P = 0.049) in favor of oral treatment. The ambulatory oral treatment by amoxicillin and clavulanic acid seems to be a valid alternative to the classical parenteral then oral sequence in the treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children without severity criterion. PMID:26928094

  13. Correlation of oral health of children with acute leukemia during the induction phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan P. Dholam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of acute leukemia′s- a common childhood malignancy, involves intensive and powerful multi-drug chemotherapeutic regime. Oral lesions are a common complication in these patients affecting oral health status. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and assess the oral health status of newly diagnosed leukemic pediatric patients during induction phase and its correlation to outcome of induction therapy. Material Methods: Oral examinations was done in 33 children between the age group of 5-15 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myloblastic leukemia (AML, who were undergoing chemotherapy. Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified, (OHI-S decayed missing filled teeth index (def/DMFT, Loe and Sillness index for gingiva, and complete blood count at first and fourth week of induction phase were recorded for each patient. The changes in the oral health status were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: During an induction phase it was observed that level of OHI-S (P = 0.002, Loe and Sillness index (P = 0.003, def/DMFT index (P = 0.076, platelet count (P = 0.00 increased significantly and no significant difference was noted in hemoglobin (P = 0.4 and total leucocytes count (P = 0.11. Conclusion: It was observed that, although oral health status had significantly worsened, the induction outcome was not affected.

  14. 微囊藻毒素-RR产毒藻株的分离培养及经口急性毒性研究%Isolation and cultivation of a wild microcytin-RR-producing cyanobacterium and verification of its toxin by high performance liquid chromatography and acute oral toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雯晴; 张永路; 高敏; 黄夏宁; 钟晴; 王卫光; 谷康定

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attempting to isolate and cultivate the microcytin-RR-producing cyanobacteria from natural blooms as well as to further investigate some characteristics of their growth and metabolite toxicity.Methods Capillary-pipette method was used to isolate wild Microcystis strains collected from eutrophicated lakes.The isolated strains were cultured in BG11 media at (25 ± 1) ℃,under 2 000 lx illumination of fluorescent light with a light-dark rhythm of 12-12 h.The growth curve was observed by measuring optical density of culture suspension,toxin-related genes and the metabolite toxins were identified separately by PCR and HPLC,and its acute toxicity was carried out by orally administered toxins to Kunming (KM) mice.Results One of five toxigenic strains from 198 collected samples was confirmed to be a MCRR producing blue-green alga by existing two specific toxin-synthesized enzyme genes and showing specific chromatographic peak of the toxin compared with standard MC-RR through both PCR and HPLC methods.The toxic strain was classified as Microcystin aeruginosa by morphologic and phylogenetic tree analysis.The growth length of the strain lasted nearly 81 days with 55-60 days' exponential phase and the maximal concentration of 5.52 × 107 cell/ml.The LD50 of the MC-RR to the KM mice ranged from 10.75 mg/kg to 13.45 mg/kg of body weight.As a result of the acute toxicity,the enzymatic indexes in serum such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alkaline phosphatase (ALP),lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) were significantly higher than those in the control group.The levels of ALT,AST,ALP and LDH in the treated group at 45 min were (157.08 ± 20.38),(333.00 ± 68.53),(392.70 ±89.59) and (1 071.13 ±160.22) U/L respectively,and at 4 h were (514.68±156.87),(593.15 ±40.41),(618.55 ± 208.76) and (2 281.72 ± 866.67) U/L respectively,and meanwhile the values of ALT,AST,ALP and LDH in the control group were (40.30 ±4.89),(142.70 ±26.59),(56.90 ±11

  15. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  16. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  17. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity

  18. Large-scale Purification and Acute Toxicity of Hygromycin B Phosphotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN ZHUO; JIAN-HUA PIAO; YUAN TIAN; JIE XU; XIAO-GUANG YANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide the acute toxicity data of hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) using recombinant protein purified from E. coli. Methods Recombinant HPT protein was expressed and purified from E. coli. To exclude the potential adverse effect of bacteria protein in recombinant HPT protein, bacterial control plasmid was constructed, and bacteria control protein was extracted and prepared as recombinant HPT protein. One hundred mice, randomly assigned to 5 groups, were administrated 10 g/kg, 5 g/kg, or 1 g/kg body weight of HPT or 5 g/kg body weight of bacterial control protein or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) respectively by oral gavage. Results All animals survived with no significant change in body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of HPT was 10 g/kg body weight in mice and could be regarded as nontoxic. Conclusion HPT protein does not have any safety problems to human health.

  19. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of an aqueous stem bark extract of Sclerocarya birrea using a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariro Mawoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sclerocarya birrea, a plant that is commonly available in many communities, is used as a source of food and for ethnomedicinal and cultural practices. Stem-bark toxicity studies for the plant are however lacking. This study was therefore conducted in an effort to determine its toxic effects using a rat model. Methods: Acute toxicity was performed using a single oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea to determine the lethal dose. Test animals in the sub-chronic study received 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea for 28 days. Results: No animal mortality occurred during acute toxicity testing, suggesting that the lethal dose is probably higher than 2000mg/kg body weight. Behavioural and posture changes were however observed with the higher doses. During the sub-chronic test, animals in the 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg groups showed a significantly (p<0.05 smaller growth rate as compared to the animals in the other groups. Significant organ to body weight ratio changes were observed only in the livers and kidneys of animals that received 800, 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea suggesting possible toxicity. This was supported by increases in direct bilirubin, total protein, albumin, AST and ALT. In addition, histopathological changes to the liver and kidneys were observed with increasing dosages of the plant extract. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that at doses of ≥1000mg/kg, the extract affects growth rate as well as liver and kidney function. Therefore, high doses should be used with caution.

  20. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abu Basma Rajeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae, which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC 50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control had LC 50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (% and absolute (g organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05. Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions : E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice.

  1. THE RATE OF CLINICAL RESPONSE OF ORAL LOADING SODIUM VALPROATE IN ACUTELY MANLC PATIENT

    OpenAIRE

    K SHAFIEE; M BAREKATEYN; N BASHARDOOST; Mahmoudi, J

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Acheiving accelerated clinical response is desirable in patients with acute manic episode. We conducted a prospective study to compare the rate of clinical response of oral loading sodium valproate versus standard dose titration. Methods: Fourty - two patients who met DSM - IV critevia for current manic episode and who had a "Young mania rating scale "score between 20 and 50 were randomly assigned on a double blind basis to recieve valproate oral "loading"(N = 21) at a dose...

  2. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  3. Acute Toxicity Evaluation, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melastoma malabathricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum (MM is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC, and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia. The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC50 values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g, flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g, with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones. Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC viability was increased in response to MM, IC50 values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses.

  4. Ninety-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Senecio scandens Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Kun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Ting; Yi, Yan; Li, Chun-Ying; Wang, Hong-Jie; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Ye, Zu-Guang; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the safety/toxicity of Senecio scandens, a well-known Chinese herb that is used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiosis, and antipyretic drug. A 90-d subchronic oral toxicity study of S. scandens was performed in Wistar rats. The extract of S. scandens was administered orally to male and female rats at a single dose of 225, 450, and 900 mg/kg/d. There was no obvious toxicity. Certain changes in hematology and coagulation parameters (red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count (PLT), monocyte percentage (Mo%), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT)) were observed in some administration groups. In regards to the blood biochemical parameters, the levels of creatinine (CRN), potassium, and chloride were increased in a number of the treated rats. There were no significant changes in other hematology, coagulation, or biochemical parameters in rats orally administered S. scandens. S. scandens has a slight effect on rat coagulation and metabolism systems. The herb was safe at all doses tested, but caution should be taken when administering S. scandens at higher doses. PMID:26195160

  5. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  6. Acute toxicity of commonly used forestry herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Vickie L; Borton, Dennis L; Streblow, William R; Louch, Jeffrey; Shepard, James P

    2012-12-01

    Because many herbicides selectively control specific species or types of vegetation, they are often applied as mixtures to achieve better control over undesirable vegetation. When herbicides are applied in forest ecosystems, streams, ponds, and other bodies of water are typically protected by buffer zones in which no herbicide is applied. However, in some landscapes, small wetlands and streams are difficult to see and avoid, thus the potential acute toxicity of herbicide mixtures to aquatic organisms is of interest, yet it has not been well-studied. We examined the acute toxicity of 23 different herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at environmentally relevant concentrations, and, where possible, characterized mixture interactions using Marking's Additive Index. Maximum exposure concentrations were equivalent to applying the maximum allowable rate for each component directly to the surface of a 6-in. deep pond with no dissipation following application. Under the conditions of this study, herbicide formulations containing Accord Concentrate (glyphosate), Arsenal AC (imazapyr), Chopper (imazapyr), Escort (metsulfuron methyl), Oust XP (sulfometuron methyl), and Velpar L (hexazinone) were not associated with appreciable acute toxicity to fathead minnows or C. dubia when used alone or in mixtures with each other and various surfactants and adjuvants. Herbicide mixtures for which Additive Indexes could be calculated exhibited primarily antagonistic or simple additive toxicity. In the few cases where synergistic toxicity was observed, the degree of synergism was slight, never exceeding approximately twice the effect estimated based on additive toxicity. Based on the results of this study, neither acute toxicity nor enhanced acute aquatic toxicity due to synergistic mixture effects appears to be a significant concern for applications of the herbicide mixtures most commonly used in forestry.

  7. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Vermilionum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok Kwon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Methods : In order to measure the acute and subacute toxicity of Vermilionum and it's anti-cancer effects, Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cells were injected intravenously. The following results were obtained after measuring the survival rate, toxicity of the NK cells, and IL-2 productivity. Results : 1. It was impossible to measure LD50 value in the acute toxicity test and no toxic effects were witnessed in the clinical observation. 2. No significant differences were shown in the weight changes between the experiment groups and the control group in the acute toxicity test. 3. No peculiar toxic effects were shown in the subacute toxicity test and the weight changes were insignificant between the experiment groups and the control group. 4. In measuring the survival rate after inducing abdominal cancer by Sarcoma-180, the experiment groups showed increased of 9,52% compared to the control group. 5. In measuring the activity of NK cells, no significant changes were shown between the experiment groups and the control group. 6. In measuring the productivity of IL-2, significant reduction was shown in the experiment groups compared to the normal group, but no significance was witnessed compared to the control group.

  8. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Oral Reading in Acute Left Hemispheric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutman, Lauren L.; Newhart, Melisssa; Davis, Cameron L.; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral reading is a complex skill involving the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic processes. Functional imaging studies with nonimpaired adult readers have identified a widely distributed network of frontal, inferior parietal, posterior temporal, and occipital brain regions involved in the task. However, while functional…

  9. In vivo toxicity of orally administrated silicon dioxide nanoparticles in healthy adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Ramin; Esmaeillou, Mohammad; Tehrani, Ali Asghar; Nasirzadeh, Keyvan; Khadir, Fatemeh; Maadi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in various applications including industrial, agriculture, and medicine has raised concerns about their potential risks to human health. Various nanotoxicity researches have been done on the assessment of SiNPs' toxic effects; however, a few in vivo investigations exist. In this investigation, an in vivo study was done in order to evaluate the oral toxicity of SiNPs. The biochemical levels of 19 different serum parameters were assessed. Moreover, the histopathological changes have been examined as well. We showed that SiNPs with diameters of 10-15 nm in size can cause significant changes in albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, urea, HDL, and LDL as well as in alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activity. In addition, histopathological examinations demonstrated that SiNPs have toxic effects on various tissues including liver, kidney, lung, and testis.

  10. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  11. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  12. The use of oral nutritional supplements in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2016-06-23

    Oral nutritional supplements offer support to patients in acute care who are undernourished or at risk of malnutrition. Yet doubts remain over cost and compliance. Omorogieva Ojo, Senior Lecturer in Primary Care at University of Greenwich weighs up the evidence. PMID:27345066

  13. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims We have established that acute intraduodenal infusion of the fatty acid, lauric acid (“C12”), markedly reduces energy intake in healthy subjects in the absence of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that increasing doses of orally ingested C...

  14. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  15. Acute and substantive action of antimicrobial toothpastes and mouthrinses on oral biofilm in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.; Abbas, Frank; Hoogmoed, G.G. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare acute action by killing or disrupting oral biofilms through the use of antimicrobial toothpastes and mouthrinses in vitro and to investigate substantive action by absorption of antimicrobials in a biofilm. Biofilms from freshly collected human saliva were grown i

  16. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of oral vs intravenous therapy for the clinically diagnosed acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2009-11-01

    Despite the high prevalence of hospitalization for left iliac fossa tenderness, there is a striking lack of randomized data available to guide therapy. The authors hypothesize that an oral antibiotic and fluids are not inferior to intravenous (IV) antibiotics and \\'bowel rest\\' in clinically diagnosed acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

  18. Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: ameliorative effect of α-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Upadhyay, Preeti; Malla, Sandhya; Gujar, Niranjan Laxman; Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with α-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure.

  19. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  20. Characterisation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress posed by textile effluent on zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan Zhang; Wei Liu; Jing Zhang; Huimin Zhao; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yihe Jin

    2012-01-01

    Textile industries are important sources of toxic discharges and contribute enormously to water deterioration,while little attention has been paid to the toxicity of textile effluents in discharge regulation.Bioassays with zebrafish were employed to evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples collected from different stages at a textile factory and sewage treatment plants (STPs).Physico-chemical parameters,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed.The wastewater samples from bleaching,rinsing and soaping of the textile factory exhibited high acute toxicity and genotoxicity.The coexisting components of dye compounds,as assistants and oxidants,seemed to cause some effect on the toxic response.After treatment employing the anoxic-oxic (A/O) process in STPs,the color and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reduced by 40% and 84%,respectively,falling within the criteria of the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard.In contrast,increases in acute toxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the anaerobic tank,indicating the formation of toxic intermediates.The genotoxicity of the effluent of the STP was not significantly different from that of the influent,suggesting the wastewater treatment processes were not effective in removing the genotoxicity of the dye wastewater.Results indicated that the effluent contains pro-oxidants since the activities of glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) were all elevated.In addition,decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities observed can be interpreted as a cytotoxicity sign due to an over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).The results of the present study suggest that the STPs were not capable of reducing the toxicity of wastewater sufficiently.Further treatment is needed to remove the potential risks posed by textile effluent to ecosystems and human health,and employing a toxicity index is necessary for

  1. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  2. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  3. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Basak Ozlem Perk; Sinem Ilgin; Ozlem Atli; Hale Gamze Duymus; Basar Sirmagul

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According t...

  4. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  5. Oral toxicity of Miglyol 812(®) in the Göttingen(®) minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, G; Dion, S; Gauthier, B; Mhedhbi, S; Pohlmeyer-Esch, G; Comby, P; Vivan, N; Ruty, B

    2015-12-01

    Miglyol 812(®), a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, has been identified as an oral vehicle that could improve the solubility and possibly the bioavailability of orally administered drugs during the non-clinical safety assessment. The toxicity of Miglyol was assessed in Göttingen(®) minipigs upon daily oral administration (gavage) for six weeks, at dosing-volumes of 0.5 and 2 mL/kg/day, compared to controls receiving 0.5% CarboxyMethylCellulose/0.1% Tween(®) 80 in water at 2 mL/kg/day. The control vehicle did not induce any findings. Miglyol at 0.5 and 2 mL/kg/day induced transient tremors, abnormal color of feces and increase in triglycerides. Miglyol at 2 ml/kg/day also induced reduced motor activity, decreased food intake, respiratory signs (2/6 animals) and increased total and LDL-cholesterol. At necropsy, the lung of 3/6 animals treated at 2 mL/kg/day presented abnormal color and/or irregular surface correlated with a chronic bronchiolo-alveolar inflammation. This finding is probably due to aspiration pneumonia in relation to the administration method and the high viscosity of Miglyol. Overall, the oral administration of pure Miglyol 812(®) for six weeks up to 2 mL/kg was less tolerated than that of the control vehicle. Miglyol as vehicle for sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in minipigs should be used with a limited dosing-volume. PMID:26408152

  6. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...

  7. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  8. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  9. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  10. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  11. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effect of L-carnitine as an antioxidant agent against acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Four rat groups (N=7 in each group. Group I is the control, group II received 500 mg/kg/ body weight of L-carnitine for 7 days by oral route, group III received 640/kg/ bw of acetaminophen by oral route, group IV acute acetaminophen group pretreated with L-carnitine for 7 days by gastric tube gavage tube. The liver of all rats were removed for investigation using light and electro microscopic studies. Results: Acetaminophen caused massive centrilobular necrosis and massive degenerative changes. The electron-microscopic study showed few mitochondria, increased fat droplets and scanty smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER.These changes were reduced by L-carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: those results suggest that acetaminophen results damage in the liver as an acute effect and L-carnitine ameliorated the adverse effects of acetaminophen via its antioxidant role

  12. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  13. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]). PMID:21960667

  14. [Role of ABC efflux transporters in the oral bioavailability and drug-induced intestinal toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokooji, Tomoharu

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the organ that absorbs nutrients and water from foods and drinks. This organ is often exposed to various harmful xenobiotics, and therefore possesses various detoxification/barrier systems, including metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters. Intestinal epithelial cells express ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and breast cancer resistance protein, in addition to various solute carrier (SLC) influx transporters. These transporters are expressed site- and membrane-specifically in enterocytes, which affects the bioavailability of ingested substrate drugs. Expression and/or function of transporters can be modulated by various compounds, including therapeutic drugs, herbal products, some foods, and by disease states. The modulation of transporters could cause unexpectedly higher or lower blood concentrations, marked inter- and intra-individual variations in pharmacokinetics, and unreliable pharmacological actions in association with toxicities of substrates. Recently, we found that hyperbilirubinemia, which occurs in some disease states, increased intestinal accumulation and toxicity of methotrexate, an MRP substrate, because of the suppression of MRP function by high plasma concentrations of conjugated bilirubin. We also attempted to ameliorate the intestinal toxicity of irinotecan hydrochloride by modulating the hepatic and intestinal functions of MRP2. This review summarizes our findings regarding the role of ABC transporters, especially MRPs, in oral bioavailability and in drug-induced intestinal toxicity. Our approach to treat intestinal toxicity using an MRP2 modulator is also described. PMID:23811769

  15. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  16. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE TO RECOGNIZE ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF ACUTE LEUKEMIA (CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandina Irmagita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentists could be the first health providers who detect the oral manifestation of early symptoms of leukemia. The management of three cases of acute leukemia, which had intra oral manifestations that were unnoticed by the dentists, are discussed. Before being referred to the Oral Medicine Department, these patients had undergone invasive dental treatment by their dentist, which had caused complication such as bleeding. After being referred, the patients had undergone non-invasive dental examination and hematologic examination, which revealed leukemia, and instruction of non-invasive daily oral hygiene procedure, were performed on the patients. Dentist should work in a team with physicians who treat the systemic conditions of the leukemic patients with dental problems. This report stresses the need in increasing dentists’ awareness on the importance of noticing and reviewing systemic condition of their patients prior to dental treatment.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  19. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  20. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause. PMID:27364782

  1. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  2. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kean Tatt Lim; Vuanghao Lim; Jin Han Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods:Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results: It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions:In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions.

  3. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  4. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  5. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... histopathology. 799.9135 Section 799.9135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... histopathology. (a) Scope. This section is intended to meet the testing requirements under section 4 of the Toxic... the gross pathology and histopathology resulting from acute inhalation exposure to a...

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  7. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  8. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A se

  9. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in acute reversible toxic leukoencephalopathy: A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy may be caused by endogenous or exogenous toxins. It may reverse clinically if the offending agent is withdrawn or the underlying condition is treated. However, demonstration of reversibility on imaging, especially with diffusion-weighted MRI, has been reported only very recently. We report two such cases

  10. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  11. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L-1, 2.34 mg.L-1, 2.35 mg.L-1 and 1.80 mg.L-1, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  12. Swallowing a bitter pill-oral arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torka, Pallawi; Al Ustwani, Omar; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Parenteral arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been firmly established as a standard therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Despite widespread use of oral arsenicals in medicine historically, they had disappeared from modern pharmacopeia until oral ATO was redeveloped in Hong Kong in 2000. Since then, over 200 patients with leukemia (predominantly APL) have been treated with oral ATO in Hong Kong and China. Oral arsenic trioxide and other formulations of arsenic appear to have a clinical efficacy comparable to that of IV formulations. These drugs given orally also appear to have a slightly better safety profile, lower operational costs and improved convenience for patients. The clinical experience with oral ATO has previously been reported piecemeal as case series, pilot studies or subgroup analyses rather than in a comprehensive cohort. In this report we attempt to synthesize the published English language literature on oral arsenicals and present the argument for further development of these compounds. Systematic study of this drug with well-designed randomized multi-center clinical trials is needed to accelerate its development and incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:26709030

  13. Failure of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion to Reduce Diazinon-induced Acute Toxicity: a Pilot Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Etemad, Leila; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphorus (OPs) insecticide widely used in agricultural and household applications. OPs, particularly DZN, are highly lipid soluble liquids. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to reduce toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. We evaluated the antidote effect of ILE on acute toxicity of DZN. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats weighting 200-250 g were treated orally with dose of 480 mg/ kg of DZN gavaged at the volume of 0.5 mL/kg. Thirty minutes after administration of DZN, two groups were treated by either ILE 10% (ILE10) or normal saline (NS) (16 mL/kg) (NS16) that were infused for the duration of 15 minutes. Another two groups were also treated by either ILE 20% (ILE20) or NS (10 mL/kg: NS10) as above. The changes in body weight, diarrhea score, muscular power, fasciculation, convulsions and mortality rate of the animals were all monitored immediately after infusions and then every 6 h up to 48 h. There was no significant difference in animals mean weight between different groups during the observation period. In addition, during the 48-hour observation we could not find any difference in muscular power and diarrhea score between groups of ILE20-NS10 and ILE10-NS16 in comparison with each other, and neither ILE 10% nor ILE %20 could not reduce mortality rate of animals or increase the survival time of rats. In conclusion, ILE seems to be unable to reverse DZN acute toxicity and it might be due to conversion of DZN to potent and less lipid soluble agent. PMID:24523769

  14. Acute toxicity and vascular properties of seed of Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) R. Br Gift (Mimosaceae) on rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Sylvin; Somé, Noya; Ouattara, Sounkalo; Kini, Félix B; Traore, Aristide; Bucher, Bernard; Guissou, I Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The authors report here the results of study on Parkia biglobosa seeds used in Burkina Faso for arterial hypertension treatment. Investigations were done on acute toxicity and vascular properties of fermented and roasted seeds. Acute toxicity test using mice, revealed by the intraperitoneal route a lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 1800 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg of body weight for aqueous extract from roasted and fermented seeds respectively. According to the scale of Hodge and Sterner and that of the World Health Organization, such drugs would be classified lightly toxic. Oral administration (up to 3000 mg/kg) did not induce any death of animal. For the vascular properties, the effects of these products were tested on the aorta isolated from rats. The cumulative administration of extract from roasted and fermented seeds (0.1-10 mg/mL) in an organ bath induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the aorta pre contracted by phenylephrine, with or without functional endothelium. The extracts (10 mg/mL) inhibited for 100% the contraction induced by phenylephrine. The EC50 values in presence and absence of endothelium were respectively of 5.37 ± 0.12 and 4.19 ± 1.02 mg/mL for fermented seeds; for roasted seeds these values were respectively, 5.39 ± 1.12 and 5.93 ± 0.95 mg/mL. Nevertheless, low concentration of roasted seeds (1-4 mg/mL) induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and this effect was inhibited by indomethacin (10⁻⁵M), and not by L-NAME (310⁻⁴M). These experimental results revealed a vasorelaxant effect of P. biglobosa seeds. P. biglobosa seems to act directly on the smooth muscle and via endothelium involving the generation of vasodilatating prostaglandins. This vasodilator effect would be in favor of an anti hypertensive property of P. biglobosa seeds.

  15. [Acute oral suicidal intoxication with captan--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Waldman, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    According to the best of our knowledge the second case of acute intoxication with captan was described. In this paper a 22-year old female was admitted to the Department of Toxicology with a nausea, weakness, numbness of upper limbs and substernal pain. She said that these symptoms began two hours after suicidal ingestion of 5.0 g of captan. At admission the patient was alert. Temperature was 37 degrees C, heart rate 100-120 b/min., BP 100-120/60-70 mm Hg and breathing rate 17/min. WBC were slightly elevated 12.4 x 10(3)/microl as well as the creatine kinase activity 329 U/L. ECG showed inversion of a T segment in V1-V4 leads. ECHO-sound made in 4th and 120th day after the onset of intoxication showed no changes, with EF--70%. Temporary increase of creatine kinase activity as well as the presence of inverted T segment in V1-V4 leads may suggest cardiotoxic effects of captan during acute intoxication.

  16. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  17. Effect of Oral Ondansetron on Decreasing the Vomiting Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in Iranian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshekan, Kioomars; Badeli, Hamidreza; Rezaieian, Saman; Mohammadpour, Haniyeh; Hassanzadehrad, Afagh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral ondansetron in decreasing the vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis in children. Methods In a single center, randomized, double blind, controlled trial, the effect of oral ondansetron was compared with placebo on 176 patients between 1 and 10 years old with acute gastroenteritis. 30 minutes after drug administration, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was initiated. Severity of vomiting was evaluated during emergency department (ED) stay and 48 hours follow up. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS16. Findings Fifty two of children (58.5%) were males with the mean age of 3.12 (±2.30) years. Ten patients in ondansetron and 14 in placebo group had persistent vomiting during ED stay. After analyzing, there was no significant relation between vomiting in 4 and 48 hours and need for intra venous fluid therapy between the two groups although ondansetron generally decreased ORT failure (P=0.03). Conclusion Although administrayion of oral ondansetron in gastroenteritis could decrease failure of ORT, it seems that further well-conducted clinical studies are needed to determine effects of oral ondansetron precisely. PMID:24800017

  18. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrensmeier Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and organ tracking. Methods From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU was 29 months. Results Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU morbidity (PGUM was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025, absence of HT (P = .016 and higher PGUM (P Discussion GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.

  19. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies with a Newly Synthesized Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Ketuly, Kamal; A. Hadi, A. Hamid; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Synthetic steroids, such as 9α-bromobeclomethasonedipropionate, have shown gastroprotective activity. For example, the potent glucocorticoid steroid, beclomethasone dipropionate, has been used for treatment of bowel ulcerations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a synthetic steroid, (20S)-22-acetoxymethyl-6β-methoxy-3α,5-dihydro-3′H-cyclopropa[3α,5]-5α-pregnane (AMDCP), on ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injuries in rats. Methodology/Principal Finding Rats were divided into 8 groups. The negative control and ethanol control groups were administered Tween 20 (10%v/v) orally. The reference control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg), was administrated orally. The experimental groups received 1, 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg of the AMDCP compound (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg). After 60 min, Tween 20 and absolute ethanol was given orally (5 mL/kg) to the negative control group and to the rest of the groups, and the rats were sacrificed an hour later. The acidity of gastric content, gastric wall mucus and areas of mucosal lesions were assessed. In addition, histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also measured. The ethanol control group exhibited severe mucosal lesion compared with the experimental groups with fewer mucosal lesions along with a reduction of edema and leukocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining of Hsp70 and Bax proteins showed over-expression and under-expression, respectively, in the experimental groups. The experimental groups also exhibited high levels of PGE2 as well as a reduced amount of MDA. AMDCP decreased the acidity and lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion/Significance The current investigation evaluated the gastroprotective effects of AMDCP on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. This study also suggests that AMDCP might be useful as a

  20. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  1. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  2. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, van den, R.B.A.; Smeden, Van, J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, de, B.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to C. dipterum and 5 other invertebrate species. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam showed equal acute and chronic toxicity to a winter generation of C. dipterum, whereas thiacloprid was approximately twice ...

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  5. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL. We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77% and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74% to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  6. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  7. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saneim@yahoo.com; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  8. Experimental Basis for the High Oral Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin 1: A Comparative Study of DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and its analogues, dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1 and dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2, are lipophilic and heat-stable marine toxins produced by dinoflagellates, which can accumulate in filter-feeding bivalves. These toxins cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP in humans shortly after the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Studies carried out in mice indicated that DSP poisonous are toxic towards experimental animals with a lethal oral dose 2–10 times higher than the intraperitoneal (i.p. lethal dose. The focus of this work was to study the absorption of OA, DTX1 and DTX2 through the human gut barrier using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we compared cytotoxicity parameters. Our data revealed that cellular viability was not compromised by toxin concentrations up to 1 μM for 72 h. Okadaic acid and DTX2 induced no significant damage; nevertheless, DTX1 was able to disrupt the integrity of Caco-2 monolayers at concentrations above 50 nM. In addition, confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that the tight-junction protein, occludin, was affected by DTX1. Permeability assays revealed that only DTX1 was able to significantly cross the intestinal epithelium at concentrations above 100 nM. These data suggest a higher oral toxicity of DTX1 compared to OA and DTX2.

  9. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  10. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  11. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  12. Prediction of acute in vivo toxicity of some amine and amide drugs to rats by multiple linear regression, partial least squares and an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Mohamad Khayatzadeh; Chaloosi, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohamad Ghanadi; Khanchi, Ali Reza; Afzali, Daryoush

    2007-09-01

    The oral acute in vivo toxicity of 32 amine and amide drugs was related to their structural-dependent properties. Genetic algorithm-partial least-squares and stepwise variable selection was applied to select of meaningful descriptors. Multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least square (PLS) models were created with selected descriptors. The predictive ability of all three models was evaluated and compared on a set of five drugs, which were not used in modeling steps. Average errors of 0.168, 0.169 and 0.259 were obtained for MLR, ANN and PLS, respectively.

  13. Effects of SiC nanoparticles orally administered in a rat model: Biodistribution, toxicity and elemental composition changes in feces and organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@fundp.ac.be [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Department of Pharmacy, NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Rolin, Stéphanie [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Department of Pharmacy, NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Department of Pharmacy, NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); and others

    2012-10-15

    Background: Silicon carbide (SiC) presents noteworthy properties as a material such as high hardness, thermal stability, and photoluminescent properties as a nanocrystal. However, there are very few studies in regard to the toxicological potential of SiC NPs. Objectives: To study the toxicity and biodistribution of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in an in vivo rat model after acute (24 h) and subacute (28 days) oral administrations. The acute doses were 0.5, 5, 50, 300 and 600 mg·kg{sup −1}, while the subacute doses were 0.5 and 50 mg·kg{sup −1}. Results: SiC biodistribution and elemental composition of feces and organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) have been studied by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). SiC and other elements in feces excretion increased by the end of the subacute assessment. SiC did not accumulate in organs but some elemental composition modifications were observed after the acute assessment. Histopathological sections from organs (stomach, intestines, liver, and kidneys) indicate the absence of damage at all applied doses, in both assessments. A decrease in the concentration of urea in blood was found in the 50 mg·kg{sup −1} group from the subacute assessment. No alterations in the urine parameters (sodium, potassium, osmolarity) were found. Conclusion: This is the first study that assesses the toxicity, biodistribution, and composition changes in feces and organs of SiC nanoparticles in an in vivo rat model. SiC was excreted mostly in feces and low traces were retrieved in urine, indicating that SiC can cross the intestinal barrier. No sign of toxicity was however found after oral administration. -- Highlights: ► SiC nanoparticles were orally administered to rats in acute and subacute doses. ► SiC was found in low traces in urine. It is mostly excreted in feces within 5 days. ► SiC excretion rate, feces and organ elemental composition change with time. ► No morphological alteration were found on GI tract, liver, kidneys

  14. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  15. Oral methotrexate is as effective as intramuscular in maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chessells, J M; Leiper, A D; Tiedemann, K.; Hardisty, R. M.; Richards, S.

    1987-01-01

    It has been postulated that variations in methotrexate absorption may influence the outcome of treatment in lymphoblastic leukaemia. One hundred and forty four children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia not of the T cell type were randomised to receive continuing treatment with daily 6-mercaptopurine, vincristine, and prednisolone six weekly and methotrexate once weekly, either as a single oral dose or an intramuscular injection. Analysis of results with a minimum follow up of three and a ha...

  16. Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are required for full reflex cutaneous vasodilation and are attenuated in primary aging. Acute, locally administered BH4 increases reflex vasodilation through NO-dependent mechanisms in aged skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, shelf-stable pharmaceutical formulation of BH4) would augment reflex vasodilation in aged human skin during hyperthermia. Nine healthy human subjects (76 ± 1 y...

  17. Surface engineering of silica nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery: characterization and cell toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Tatiana; Kiill, Charlene P; de Souza, Ana Luiza R; Fangueiro, Joana F; Fernandes, Lisete; Doktorovová, Slavomira; Santos, Dario L; Garcia, Maria L; Gremião, Maria Palmira D; Souto, Eliana B; Silva, Amélia M

    2014-11-01

    The present work aimed at studying the interaction between insulin and SiNP surfaced with mucoadhesive polymers (chitosan, sodium alginate or polyethylene glycol) and the evaluation of their biocompatibility with HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines, which mimic in vivo the target of insulin-loaded nanoparticles upon oral administration. Thus, a systematic physicochemical study of the surface-modified insulin-silica nanoparticles (Ins-SiNP) using mucoadhesive polymers has been described. The surfacing of nanoparticle involved the coating of silica nanoparticles (SiNP) with different mucoadhesive polymers, to achieve high contact between the systems and the gut mucosa to enhance the oral insulin bioavailability. SiNP were prepared by a modified Stöber method at room temperature via hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Interaction between insulin and nanoparticles was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) studies. The high efficiency of nanoparticles' coating resulted in more stable system. FTIR spectra of insulin-loaded nanoparticles showed amide absorption bands which are characteristic of α-helix content. In general, all developed nanoparticles demonstrated high biocompatible, at the tested concentrations (50-500 μg/mL), revealing no or low toxicity in the two human cancer cell lines (HepG2 and Caco-2). In conclusion, the developed insulin-loaded SiNP surfaced with mucoadhesive polymers demonstrated its added value for oral administration of proteins. PMID:25466464

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  19. Intermittent use of amifostine during postoperative radiochemotherapy and acute toxicity in rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Semlin, S.; Pigorsch, S.; Mueller, A.C.; Reese, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiotherapie

    2000-09-01

    From September 1997 through October 1998, 30 patients with stage II/III rectal cancer underwent postoperative radiochemotherapy at our department. All patients had undergone curative (R0) resection and received 50.4 Gy to the pelvis with a 3-field technique using a belly board followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy to the presacral space in conventional fractionation with 1.8 Gy per fraction. 5-FU chemotherapy was administered as 120-hours continuous infusion in the first and fifth radiation week via a central venous catheter in a daily dosage of 1000 mg/m{sup 2}. All patients were offered to participate in a phase-II study using additional amifostine. Fifteen patients participated and received 500 mg amifostine daily on chemotherapy days (days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33) immediately prior to the daily radiation fraction. Fifteen patients did not participate and served as non-randomized control. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Martin-Luter-University and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Results: The distribution of patients' characteristics and prognostic parameters was comparable in both groups. Side effects of amifostine were mild and included hypotension (53% grade I, 7% grade II) and nausea (47% grade I, 13% grade II). Antiemetics were not routinely used. All patients completed radiochemotherapy plus amifostine without unplanned breaks or dose reductions. One patients developed a cerebral infraction which was considered to be not related to the use of amifostine. As compared to the non-randomized control group, patients with additional amifostine had less acute skin and bowel toxicity (maximum erythema score 1.47{+-}0.64 without vs 0.87{+-}0.52 with amifostine, p=0.009 and maximum diarrhea score 1.07{+-}1.03 vs 0.40{+-}0.63, p=0.044). Oral 5-FU-related mucositis and hematological toxicity were not significantly different. (orig.) [German] Zwischen September 1997 und Oktober 1998 wurden 15 Patienten mit postoperativer

  20. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsana, R; Chandrasehar, G; Deepa, V; Gowthami, Y; Chitrikha, T; Ayyappan, S; Goparaju, A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95% confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L(-1), respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L(-1). Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea. PMID:26350898

  1. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  2. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  3. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  4. Acute toxicity modeling of rainbow trout and silver sea bream exposed to waterborne metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Lin, M C

    2001-01-01

    Of three proposed acute toxicity models, the uptake-depuration (UD) model, the time-integrated concentration (TIC) model, and the concentration-time (CT) model are derived and verified with acute toxicity data to estimate the internal residues of waterborne metals in fish as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the depuration rate constant (k2). The UD model is based on the concept of residue levels at the cell membrane well correlating with the whole-body concentrations, whereas the TIC and the CT models are based on the idea of irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) governing the metal acute toxicity in that metals in the entire fish or in the aqueous phase can be described by the critical area under the time-concentration curve that is associated with a critical TIC of toxicant in the target tissue. A highly significant correlation (r2 > 0.9) was found between predictions and LC50(t) data for both the TIC and the CT models, indicating successfully describe 4- to 18-d LC50(t) data of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and Co/Cu mixture in rainbow trout (Oncorhyuchus mykiss) and of Cu in fingerlings and subadults of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba). The time-dependent lethal internal concentration at the site of action that causes 50% mortality is also predicted for a given compound and species. It concludes that the TIC and the CT models can be applied to regulate the acute toxicity and to estimate incipient LC50 values and internal residues of waterborne metals in fish. PMID:11501285

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  6. Kinetics, intermediates and acute toxicity of arsanilic acid photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Cun; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Arsanilic acid (4-amino phenyl arsenic acid, ASA) is widely used in poultry production as feed additives, while most of ASA in the feed is excreted in the animal manure and released into the environment. However, the environmental behaviors of ASA were not well understood. In the present study, the photolysis behaviors of ASA and the toxicity of its metabolites to luminescent bacterium were studied. The results showed that ASA could be photodegraded and this process was strongly affected by solution pH, humic acid and dissolved oxygen. Upon UV irradiation for 360 min, ASA could be completely eliminated, but the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was not significant. In addition, NH4(+) ions and inorganic arsenic including arsenite and arsenate were identified as the predominant end-products. The conversion of ASA included both direct and indirect photolysis involving radicals, and its possible photolysis pathways were proposed on the basis of the identified intermediates. Unfortunately, higher adverse effects of the conversion products of ASA on bacteria were observed during the photolysis reaction. The results of present study might be helpful for assessing the environmental persistence and risks of ASA. PMID:24405966

  7. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES ON SHODHANA PROCESSED GUGGUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Taru, Mukta Abhyankar*, Vaishali Undale and Ashok Bhosale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda– The science of life is known to the mankind since time immemorial. It prolongs life span, maintains positive health and cures diseases. Due to its high effectiveness, popularity and the socio-economic status it was recognized as an independent branch of learning and has been known as “Rasa Shastra” and “Rasa chikitsa” in the field of Ayurveda. After the development of rasa Shastra it was made possible for the minerals and metals, precious and semiprecious stones to pass through various pharmaceutical processes like shodhana, Marana etc. for several times so as to convert these in to a form or compound which may suit to the human body and could be observed and assimilated easily into the system without exhibiting any toxic symptom. There are two objectives to purify a natural herb. There are two objectives of purification. First is to remove the external and internal impurities. The second reason is to increase the medicinal value. The shodhana processes of guggul can be done by general purification and specific purification. Present work involves study of hematological, biochemical, Histopathological changes in mice treated with Guggul before and after shodhana process.

  8. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  9. Nephroprotective effect of jaggery against acute and subchronic toxicity of acetaminophen in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Kant; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was planned to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of jaggery against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced renal damage in rats. The protective activity of jaggery at different doses (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated against oxidative damage induced by APAP administration (2 g/kg, once orally in acute exposure; 20 mg/kg, orally for 21 days in subchronic exposure) in rats. APAP administration significantly increased the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and renal lipid peroxidation (LPO), whereas substantial decreases were observed in levels of glutathione (GSH), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymatic activities after APAP administration. Administration of jaggery significantly moved the studied parameters toward normal levels and also reversed the histopathologic alterations. Thus, jaggery can be used to reduce renal damage and may serve as an alternative medicine in the treatment of renal etiologies.

  10. Validation of the hepatocyte-like HPCT-1E3 cell line as an in vitro model for the prediction of acute in vivo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwachs, Sandra; Lakoma, Cathleen; Honscha, Walther

    2013-11-01

    In a pilot study, we tested 20 randomly-selected chemicals for their cytotoxicity toward the HPCT-1E3 cell model, in order to prove the ability of this in vitro model to predict human acute in vivo toxicity. The study revealed that, in contrast to most other in vitro models, results from the HPCT-1E3 cell-based system show better correlation with the more-relevant human acute lethal doses, whereas results from most other systems have a high predictivity for human lethal serum concentrations. For the prevalidation of the HPCT-1E3 model as a surrogate for regulatory acute in vivo toxicity tests, we have now expanded the list of tested chemicals to 57 substances, and have compared the results with data from the HepG2 cell assay. Again, a better correlation of HPCT-1E3 IC50 values with human oral lethal doses, as compared to correlation with human lethal serum concentrations, was observed after the pooling of all the tested substances (r(2) = 0.53 [P in vivo toxicity tests.

  11. Repeated dose oral toxicity of inorganic mercury in wistar rats: biochemical and morphological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Jegoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to find out the possible toxic effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 at the histological, biochemical, and haematological levels in the wistar rats for 28 days. Materials and Methods: The biochemical and hematological alteration were estimated in four groups of rat (each group contain ten animals, which were treated with 0 (control, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 through oral gavage. At the end of study all rats were sacrificed and subjected for histopathology. Result: A significantly (P < 0.05 higher level of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, gamma Glutamyle Transferase, and creatinine were recorded in treatment groups, while the level of alkaline phosphtase (ALP was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The toxic effect on hematoclogical parameter was characterized by significant decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes count, and total leukocyte count. Gross morphological changes include congestion, severe haemorrhage, necrosis, degenerative changes in kidneys, depletion of lymphocyte in spleen, decrease in concentration of mature spermatocyte, and edema in testis. It was notable that kidney was the most affected organ. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride (HgCl caused dose-dependent toxic effects on blood parameters and kidney. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 563-567

  12. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  13. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  14. Isolation and characterization of the acutely toxic compounds in oil sands process water from Syncrude and Suncor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. A study was carried out to assess the acute toxicity of wastewater from tailings ponds and to identify the acutely toxic fraction of the wastewater. The Microtox bacterial bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox effective concentration (EC50; analogous to the LC50, lethal concentration at which 50% mortality occurs) of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 265 and 460 ml of sample water per liter of test solution. Daphnia LC50 varied between 760-980 ml/l and rainbow trout LC50 was 125 ml/l. All, or part of the acute toxicity of the process water can be accounted for by the following classes of compounds. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, removed by solid phase extraction with C18 sorbent account for 100% of acute toxicity of all samples. Organic acids, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also account for 100% of acute toxicity except from pond 1A at Suncor. In this pond organic acids account for 55-60% of acute toxicity and non-polar organic volatile compounds account for 20-35% with the balance being composed of non-polar organic compounds that are neither volatile nor organic acids that precipitate at pH 2.5. 22 refs., 17 figs

  15. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  16. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (pneon shrimp.

  17. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender. PMID:24369482

  18. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  19. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2011-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  20. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  1. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  2. Acute Copper and Cupric Ion Toxicity in an Estuarine Microbial Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Copper was acutely toxic to the estuarine microbial community of Middle Marshes, N.C. Under ambient water quality conditions, 10 μg of added total copper [Cu(II)] liter−1 reduced the CFU bacterial abundance by up to 60% and inhibited the amino acid turnover rate (AATR) by as much as 30%. Copper toxicity, however, was a quantitative function of free cupric ion (Cu2+) activity that was not directly related to Cu(II) or ligand-bound copper. By using a nitrilotriacetic acid-cupric ion buffer to c...

  3. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  4. Treatment of 301 Infantile Acute Bronchitis Patients withQingre Lifei (清热利肺) Oral Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From December 1995 to May 1996, 4 hospitals in Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu had 301 patients with infantile acute bronchitis (IAB) treated with Qingre Lifei (清热利肺, QRLF) oral liquid and the results compared with that of similar cases treated with Shema (射麻, SM) oral liquid. Following is the report.

  5. A New Model for Predicting Acute Mucosal Toxicity in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy With Altered Schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Lidia, E-mail: strigari@ifo.it [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Pedicini, Piernicola [Department of Medical Physics, Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); D' Andrea, Marco [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Pinnaro, Paola; Marucci, Laura; Giordano, Carolina [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Department of Medical Physics, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei tumori, Meldola (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: One of the worst radiation-induced acute effects in treating head-and-neck (HN) cancer is grade 3 or higher acute (oral and pharyngeal) mucosal toxicity (AMT), caused by the killing/depletion of mucosa cells. Here we aim to testing a predictive model of the AMT in HN cancer patients receiving different radiotherapy schedules. Methods and Materials: Various radiotherapeutic schedules have been reviewed and classified as tolerable or intolerable based on AMT severity. A modified normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model has been investigated to describe AMT data in radiotherapy regimens, both conventional and altered in dose and overall treatment time (OTT). We tested the hypothesis that such a model could also be applied to identify intolerable treatment and to predict AMT. This AMT NTCP model has been compared with other published predictive models to identify schedules that are either tolerable or intolerable. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for all models, assuming treatment tolerance as the gold standard. The correlation between AMT and the predicted toxicity rate was assessed by a Pearson correlation test. Results: The AMT NTCP model was able to distinguish between acceptable and intolerable schedules among the data available for the study (AUC = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.92). In the equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) vs OTT space, the proposed model shows a trend similar to that of models proposed by other authors, but was superior in detecting some intolerable schedules. Moreover, it was able to predict the incidence of {>=}G3 AMT. Conclusion: The proposed model is able to predict {>=}G3 AMT after HN cancer radiotherapy, and could be useful for designing altered/hypofractionated schedules to reduce the incidence of AMT.

  6. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  7. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  8. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  9. Acute toxicity of whole-pelvis IMRT in 87 patients with localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Bicquart, Celine; Little, Michael; Chen, George; Berilgen, Jason (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (US)); Endres, Eugene J.; Parker, Brent C. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (US))

    2008-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the acute toxicity profile of whole pelvis IMRT (WP-IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. Materials. Eighty seven patients treated with definitive WP-IMRT at UTMB from May 2002 to November 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment consisted of two sequential phases, WP-IMRT to 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the pelvic nodes and seminal vesicles and 60 Gy at 2 Gy to the prostate, and a separate external beam boost, 3DCRT or IMRT, to bring the dose to the prostate to 76 Gy. Acute toxicity was prospectively scored weekly during treatment and at 3 month follow-up according to CTC v2.0 for 10 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) domains. The proportion of patients experiencing a given level of peak acute toxicity at a given point is reported. Results. Treatment was feasible with delivered doses to PTVs not significantly lower than planned ones and with only two patients experiencing treatment gaps longer than 5 days. About 2/3 and 1/10 of the patients experienced peak grade 2 and grade 3 reactions at least once during RT, respectively. Frequency/urgency (Grade 2+: 37.9%) and diarrhea (36.7%) were the most prevalent symptoms followed by proctitis (21.8%) and dysuria (16.1%). GI reactions were generally shorter lasting compared to GU ones which accumulated progressively during treatment. At 3 months, almost half of the patients were asymptomatic and most of observed reactions (89.2%) were mild, with GI ones more likely to be fully resolved (92.5%) than GU ones (68.7%, 2, p=0.001). Conclusion. Our approach is dosimetrically and clinically feasible with intense, but transient, acute toxicity

  10. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Fan Zhang; Kang Xiao; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Ying Xu; Ke Pan; Wen-Xiong Wang; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2011-01-01

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD's guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l(-1), which was among one of the h...

  11. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Mi Ko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP: 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995, 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for acute dermal toxicity, and 2 for irritation of mucous membrane. The following agents were tested: cosmetics and related substances (42.0%, chemicals used in industry (32.9%, plastics, rubber, and other polymers (15.9%, agrotoxics (4.0%, medicines (2.7%, and vaccines (2.5%. In the present description, emphasis was given to tests of dermal irritability and sensitization. This work was conducted entirely in animal facilities, according to our general belief that animal facilities at universities, while considering ethic principles and sanitary, genetic, nutritional, and pathophysiological controls, also require laboratories specialized in areas such as transgenics, cryopreservation, ambiental physiology, functional genomics, alternative models, and mainly activities and research on methods in toxicology, as focused in this study.Descrevemos os testes usados em ensaios biológicos de curta duração para estudo de toxicidade e inocuidade de cosméticos, fármacos e outras substâncias químicas, feitos no Biotério Central/Cedeme da Unifesp, de 1986 a 2000. Testamos 602 amostras nos seguintes ensaios: 385 de irritação cutânea, 90 de irritação ocular (até 1995, 31 de toxicidade sistêmica por injeção, 26 de toxicidade oral aguda, 15 de toxicidade por aplicação intracutânea, 15 de sensibilização da pele, 15 de toxicidade de soros e vacinas de uso humano, 14 de toxicidade por implantação intramuscular, 7 de pirogênio, 2 de toxicidade dérmica aguda e

  12. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.;

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates:  (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific ......On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates:  (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass......-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...

  13. Acute kidney injury in a preterm infant homozygous for the C3435T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene given oral morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Laura; Mameli, Chiara; Cattaneo, Dario; Clementi, Emilio; Meneghin, Fabio; Radice, Sonia; Bruno, Simona; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    A 34-week infant born from a mother with a history of drug abuse developed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the first hours of life. Urine drug screening was positive for cocaine and heroin. The infant developed acute kidney injury and bilateral hydronephrosis while receiving oral morphine for control of NAS. Cessation of morphine therapy and urinary catheterization resulted in a rapid and complete resolution of the symptoms. Our patient was homozygous for the C3435T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene, a polymorphism previously associated with impaired P-glycoprotein activity. We hypothesize that acute renal toxicity was related to accumulation of morphine within urothelial cells due to genetically determined impaired P-glycoprotein activity. PMID:26019822

  14. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan Cultivar E Sclerotium in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Boon-Hong; Tan, Nget-Hong; Fung, Shin-Yee; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus also known as "Tiger Milk Mushroom," is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia exhibited beneficial biomedicinal properties. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of L. tigris E sclerotia in a 28-day sub-acute oral administration in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. L. tigris E sclerotial powder was administered orally at three different doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg to the SD rats once daily, consecutively for 28-days. Body weight of the rats was recorded and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were observed daily throughout the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, blood hematology and biochemistry, relative organ weights, and histopathological analysis were performed. Results showed that there were no mortality nor signs of toxicity throughout the 28-day sub-acute toxicity study. Oral administration of the L. tigris E sclerotial powder at daily dose up to 1000 mg/kg had no significant effects in body weight, relative organ weight, blood hematological and biochemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology of the organs. L. tigris E sclerotial powder did not cause any treatment-related adverse effect in the rats at different treatment dosages up to 1000 mg/kg. As the lethal dose for the rats is above 1000 mg/kg, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose is more than 1000 mg/kg. PMID:27555822

  15. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan Cultivar E Sclerotium in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Boon-Hong; Tan, Nget-Hong; Fung, Shin-Yee; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus also known as "Tiger Milk Mushroom," is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia exhibited beneficial biomedicinal properties. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of L. tigris E sclerotia in a 28-day sub-acute oral administration in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. L. tigris E sclerotial powder was administered orally at three different doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg to the SD rats once daily, consecutively for 28-days. Body weight of the rats was recorded and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were observed daily throughout the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, blood hematology and biochemistry, relative organ weights, and histopathological analysis were performed. Results showed that there were no mortality nor signs of toxicity throughout the 28-day sub-acute toxicity study. Oral administration of the L. tigris E sclerotial powder at daily dose up to 1000 mg/kg had no significant effects in body weight, relative organ weight, blood hematological and biochemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology of the organs. L. tigris E sclerotial powder did not cause any treatment-related adverse effect in the rats at different treatment dosages up to 1000 mg/kg. As the lethal dose for the rats is above 1000 mg/kg, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose is more than 1000 mg/kg.

  16. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan Cultivar E Sclerotium in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Boon-Hong; Tan, Nget-Hong; Fung, Shin-Yee; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus also known as “Tiger Milk Mushroom,” is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia exhibited beneficial biomedicinal properties. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of L. tigris E sclerotia in a 28-day sub-acute oral administration in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. L. tigris E sclerotial powder was administered orally at three different doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg to the SD rats once daily, consecutively for 28-days. Body weight of the rats was recorded and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were observed daily throughout the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, blood hematology and biochemistry, relative organ weights, and histopathological analysis were performed. Results showed that there were no mortality nor signs of toxicity throughout the 28-day sub-acute toxicity study. Oral administration of the L. tigris E sclerotial powder at daily dose up to 1000 mg/kg had no significant effects in body weight, relative organ weight, blood hematological and biochemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology of the organs. L. tigris E sclerotial powder did not cause any treatment-related adverse effect in the rats at different treatment dosages up to 1000 mg/kg. As the lethal dose for the rats is above 1000 mg/kg, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose is more than 1000 mg/kg. PMID:27555822

  17. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  18. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

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    Xinyan Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+, zinc (Zn2+, potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  19. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

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    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  20. Comparison of oral montelukast with oral zileuton in acute asthma: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazine, Rahul; Shahul, Hameed Aboobackar; Chogtu, Bharti; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene modifiers have an established role in the management of chronic asthma but their role in acute asthma is still under evaluation. Objective: To study and compare the effects of oral montelukast with oral zileuton in acute asthma. Materials and Methods: This study included 120 asthmatics and was conducted from September 2012 to March 2014. Patients were randomized into three different groups to receive montelukast or zileuton or placebo in addition to standard treatment for asthma exacerbation. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) values, details of rescue medication and vital signs were recorded at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h of drug or placebo administration and at discharge. Additional recording was done in the morning (8–10 am) following admission. The primary endpoint was the mean PEFR of each group at these time points; the secondary end point being the need for rescue medications. Results: The mean PEFR recordings of the three study groups – placebo, montelukast, and zileuton – respectively, at various time points were as follows: at 6 h (223.25 ± 90.40, 199.00 ± 82.52, 233.75 ± 84.05; P = 0.240); at 12 h (271.00 ± 109.38, 251.50 ± 101.44, 309.50 ± 129.63; P = 0.048); at 24 h (288.25 ± 114.26, 269.00 ± 107.51, 324.50 ± 127.88; P = 0.080); and at 48 h (295.00 ± 114.80, 293.50 ± 113.24, 344.75 ± 119.91; P = 0.015); discharge (305.00 ± 118.56, 305.25 ± 119.51, 361.25 ± 119.70; P = 0.010). The mean PEFR for the three study groups at 8–10 am on the morning following admission was 268.75 ± 111.43, 252.50 ± 99.99, 306.75 ± 114.44; P = 0.047. Total rescue doses needed were 10, 1, and 0, respectively (P = 0.049). Conclusion: Zileuton is better than montelukast as an additional drug in acute asthma and results in significant improvement in lung function, and reduction in the need for rescue medications. PMID:27185992

  1. Comparison of oral montelukast with oral zileuton in acute asthma: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Magazine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukotriene modifiers have an established role in the management of chronic asthma but their role in acute asthma is still under evaluation. Objective: To study and compare the effects of oral montelukast with oral zileuton in acute asthma. Materials and Methods: This study included 120 asthmatics and was conducted from September 2012 to March 2014. Patients were randomized into three different groups to receive montelukast or zileuton or placebo in addition to standard treatment for asthma exacerbation. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR values, details of rescue medication and vital signs were recorded at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h of drug or placebo administration and at discharge. Additional recording was done in the morning (8-10 am following admission. The primary endpoint was the mean PEFR of each group at these time points; the secondary end point being the need for rescue medications. Results: The mean PEFR recordings of the three study groups - placebo, montelukast, and zileuton - respectively, at various time points were as follows: at 6 h (223.25 ± 90.40, 199.00 ± 82.52, 233.75 ± 84.05; P = 0.240; at 12 h (271.00 ± 109.38, 251.50 ± 101.44, 309.50 ± 129.63; P = 0.048; at 24 h (288.25 ± 114.26, 269.00 ± 107.51, 324.50 ± 127.88; P = 0.080; and at 48 h (295.00 ± 114.80, 293.50 ± 113.24, 344.75 ± 119.91; P = 0.015; discharge (305.00 ± 118.56, 305.25 ± 119.51, 361.25 ± 119.70; P = 0.010. The mean PEFR for the three study groups at 8-10 am on the morning following admission was 268.75 ± 111.43, 252.50 ± 99.99, 306.75 ± 114.44; P = 0.047. Total rescue doses needed were 10, 1, and 0, respectively (P = 0.049. Conclusion: Zileuton is better than montelukast as an additional drug in acute asthma and results in significant improvement in lung function, and reduction in the need for rescue medications.

  2. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

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    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  3. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188). Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174). Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271). The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179) and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027), ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033) and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088) in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment compared to patients treated with non-IGRT. Onset of these

  4. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LCLO, LC10 and LC50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  6. THE RATE OF CLINICAL RESPONSE OF ORAL LOADING SODIUM VALPROATE IN ACUTELY MANLC PATIENT

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    K SHAFIEE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acheiving accelerated clinical response is desirable in patients with acute manic episode. We conducted a prospective study to compare the rate of clinical response of oral loading sodium valproate versus standard dose titration. Methods: Fourty - two patients who met DSM - IV critevia for current manic episode and who had a "Young mania rating scale "score between 20 and 50 were randomly assigned on a double blind basis to recieve valproate oral "loading"(N = 21 at a dose of 20 mg/kg in divided doses for 7 days and valproate "non -loading" at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by standard titration which at day 6 , they recieved 20 mg/kg valproate. Patients were scored at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 by a blindraterusing YMRS. Results: There was no significat differences between the groups in advers events and useing of adjunctive tranquilizer .The efficacy of valproate in both two groups was similar but " the rate of improvement on YMRS" over the first 3 days was significantly greater in loading group. Conclusion: Valproate oral loading with sodium valproate can induced a more rapid clinical response in acutely manic patient.

  7. Acute Toxicity Test of Female Health Care Product from Tussah Female Moth%柞蚕雌蛾女性保健品的急毒试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芹; 孙继红; 刘隽彦; 田兰英

    2011-01-01

    为了测试柞蚕雌蛾女性保健品的人用安全范围,以最大给药浓度和最大给药剂量灌胃小鼠,进行急性毒性试验。结果表明,在每日最大给药剂量36g/kg情况下实验小鼠未出现毒性反应。%To study the acute toxicity of female health care product made of Tussah female moth and determine the scope of security,and to provide the experimental basis for practical application,the largest administration concentration and the maximum administration doses of the product were orally fed to mice.The results showed that when the maximum administration dose was 36g/kg per day,the mice failed to appear toxic reaction.

  8. Inadvertent provocative oral ondansetron use leading to toxic epidermal necrolysis in an HIV-infected patient

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    Punit P Saraogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction to drugs, characterized by extensive detachment of epidermis and mucous membranes with a mortality of 30-40%. An increased occurrence of cutaneous drug reactions is seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. We present this case of TEN caused by ondansetron in an HIV-infected patient. A 24-year-old HIV-1-infected man on antitubercular therapy and cotrimoxazole, presented with extensive and confluent erosions involving the face, trunk, extremities and mucous membranes following the intake of oral ondansetron, ofloxacin and ornidazole. All the drugs were withdrawn and he was treated with intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics with consequent healing of the erosions. However, the lesions recurred on inadvertent intake of oral ondansetron. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics, fluid resuscitation and supportive care. The skin lesions healed completely over 2 months with postinflammatory depigmentation and scarring, and the eye lesions healed with corneal opacities. We would like to emphasize that the drug most frequently associated with adverse drug reactions may be innocent in a given patient and the physician dealing with a suspected drug reaction must always remain unbiased regarding the causative drug.

  9. Inadvertent Provocative Oral Ondansetron use Leading to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in an HIV-infected Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Punit P; Nayak, Chitra S; Pereira, Rickson R; Dhurat, Rachita S

    2012-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction to drugs, characterized by extensive detachment of epidermis and mucous membranes with a mortality of 30-40%. An increased occurrence of cutaneous drug reactions is seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We present this case of TEN caused by ondansetron in an HIV-infected patient. A 24-year-old HIV-1-infected man on antitubercular therapy and cotrimoxazole, presented with extensive and confluent erosions involving the face, trunk, extremities and mucous membranes following the intake of oral ondansetron, ofloxacin and ornidazole. All the drugs were withdrawn and he was treated with intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics with consequent healing of the erosions. However, the lesions recurred on inadvertent intake of oral ondansetron. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics, fluid resuscitation and supportive care. The skin lesions healed completely over 2 months with postinflammatory depigmentation and scarring, and the eye lesions healed with corneal opacities. We would like to emphasize that the drug most frequently associated with adverse drug reactions may be innocent in a given patient and the physician dealing with a suspected drug reaction must always remain unbiased regarding the causative drug. PMID:23248379

  10. Oral N-acetylcysteine has a deleterious effect in acute iron intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Goldstein, Lee H; Weinbaum, Sarit; Bar-Haim, Adina; Alkan, Yoav; Petrov, Irena; Evans, Sandra; Siman-Tov, Yariv; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2010-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication is associated with depletion of reduced glutathione in hepatocytes and changes in the glutathione system enzymes. We hypothesized that treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione reducing agent and an antioxidant, would reduce mortality in acute iron intoxication. We used a rat model to test this hypothesis. Male rats were assigned to 4 groups. Group 1 received 400 mg/kg elemental iron by oral gavage, group 2 received the same dose of iron followed by NAC, group 3 received NAC only, whereas group 4 received distilled water. Iron and liver transaminases in the blood, and glutathione system enzymes in the liver and erythrocytes were measured. Mortality in group 2 was significantly higher after 2, 6, and 24 hours compared with group 1 (P iron levels were significantly higher in group 2 rats compared to group 1 rats (P iron through the gastrointestinal tract, causing higher serum iron levels with significant hepatic damage. These results indicate that in a rat model of acute iron intoxication, orally administered NAC may increase mortality. PMID:20006194

  11. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

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    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  12. Comparison of acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers

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    Geeta S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemo-radiotherapy has become the standard of care for loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancers. Platinum based regimens are the most effective. Although benefits are proven with chemo-radiation, acute toxicities are markedly increased. The dose and delivery schedules of Cisplatin have ranged from intermittent higher dose [100 mg/m2] every 3 weeks to low dose [6 mg/m2] daily administration. At present there is no data indicating which regimen is superior. Purpose: To compare acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 head and neck cancer patients treated with two schedules of concurrent chemo RT were analyzed, retrospectively, for treatment toxicity. In group A [51 patients], chemotherapy [CT] was administered on week 1, 4 and 7 [cisplatin 100 mg/m2] over a period of 2-3 days. In group B [32 patients], CT was delivered weekly [cisplatin 40 mg/m2]. Radiotherapy dose was 7000 cGy in 35 fractions for definitive concurrent chemo-radiation and 6600 cGy in 33 fractions for adjuvant treatment. Results: Group B patients had increased grade III skin and hematological toxicity, where as patients in group A had more pharyngeal toxicity. Treatment interruptions and percentage of weight loss were higher in group B. Weekly CT schedule had higher rate of severe mucositis, which was statistically significant on both univariate [ P =0.005] and multivariate [ P =0.007] analysis. Conclusions: Three weekly CT is less toxic than weekly. Weekly CT can be made more acceptable by reducing the dose and using feeding tubes for nutrition.

  13. Plant-derived compounds: acute toxicity, synergism, and effects on insect enzyme activity and flight motor responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Waliwitiya, Ranil

    2011-01-01

    Botanical extracts may contain compounds that have insecticidal properties that may be developed as inexpensive insecticides. In this thesis, I used a series of techniques to identify the acute toxicities and modes of action of plant-derived compounds against the Yellow Fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and the blowfly Phaenicia sericata. Initially I evaluated the acute toxicity of 16 phytochemicals on aquatic and terrestrial insects alone or with the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to quantify...

  14. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenlin; Zhang, Ziteng; Liu, Yangang; Zong, Ying; Chen, Yongchun; Du, Xiuming; Chen, Jikuai; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Jinlian; Cui, Shufang; Lu, Guocai

    2016-03-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and globally. The consumption of ST is associated with an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial infarction, and has led to many public health problems. It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE). The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose), 7.50 (mid-dose) and 15.00 (high-dose) mg · nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. Variables evaluated included body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights), and histopathology. Decreased body weights and organ weights (heart, liver and kidney) were found in animals in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung. PMID:26959038

  15. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats

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    Chenlin Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of smokeless tobacco (ST is growing rapidly and globally. The consumption of ST is associated with an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial infarction, and has led to many public health problems. It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE. The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose, 7.50 (mid-dose and 15.00 (high-dose mg·nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. Variables evaluated included body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights, and histopathology. Decreased body weights and organ weights (heart, liver and kidney were found in animals in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung.

  16. Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?

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    Maizura Mohd Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000 mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats.

  17. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  18. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the use of hydraulic fracturing has increased, concerns have been raised about potential public health effects that may arise if hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals were to impact drinking water resources. This study presents an overview of the chronic oral toxicity values—...

  19. Subchronic oral toxicity in guinea pigs of soot from a polychlorinated biphenyl-containing transformer fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCaprio, A.P.; McMartin, D.N.; Silkworth, J.B.; Rej, R.; Pause, R.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1983-04-01

    The soot was determined to contain polychlorinated biphenyls, biphenylenes, dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans. The present study evaluates soot toxicity in guinea pigs receiving 0, 0.2, 1.9, 9.3, or 46.3 ppm soot in the feed for 90 days or 231.5 ppm for 32 days. At 231.5 ppm, body weight loss, thymic atrophy, bone marrow depletion, skeletal muscle and gastrointestinal tract epithelial degeneration, and fatty infiltration of hepatocytes were observed. Mortality had reached 35% by Day 32 (when survivors were killed), with total soot consumption of approximately 400 mg/kg. At 46.3 or 9.3 ppm soot, a reduced rate of body weight gain was observed, and at 46.3 ppm, the mortality by Day 90 was 30%. Relative (to body) thymus weights were decreased in both groups, while relative spleen weights were increased at 46.3 ppm soot only. Salivary gland interlobular duct squamous metaplasia and focal lacrimal gland adenitis were detected histopathologically, while bone marrow depletion was noted only in females at the higher dose. Diminished serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in both sexes and decreased serum sodium levels in male and potassium levels in female animals were detected at both dose levels. No effectse were noted in animals receiving 0.2 ppm soot for 90 days. Salivary gland duct metaplasia has not been previously reported. Toxic effects of this subchronic exposure were observed at lower total doses than with acute exposure, although variations in absorption due to the effects of different vehicles (aqueous in the acute study versus the feed in this study) could account for some or all of this difference.

  20. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies.

  1. Oral manifestations leading to the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: oral complications may be leukemia′s first presentation. Aim: to present a case of a young girl with a swelling on the face that led to the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is reported. Results: a 10-year old anemic girl was referred for evaluation and treatment of a swelling at the left-nasolabial region. Symptoms reported (tiredness, poor appetite, fever, lethargy, and musculoskeletal pain and clinical findings (enlargement at the presternal region and brownish stain in the lumbar region led to the suspicion of a hematopoietic malignancy. The diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia was attained after specific examination conducted by the pediatric oncologist and hematologist. Conclusion: dentists must be able to clearly recognize oral physiological characteristics, and, when identifying changes of normalcy, to fully investigate it requesting additional tests or referring the patient to specialized professionals.

  2. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  3. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  4. Acute toxicity after a diverting stoma and spacer prior to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). For grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea there is a relationship between dose and irradiated small bowel volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined placement of a diverting stoma and sigmoid spacer (DSSS) led to reduced irradiated small bowel volume and less grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea in the treatment of LARC. Materials/methods: Between 2003 and 2010, 54 of 189 LARC patients treated with CRT in two institutions had a DSSS prior to CRT. Data on patient and treatment characteristics and outcomes were collected retrospectively. Delineation of small bowel was performed with planning CT-scans. CTCAE version 4.0 was used for acute toxicity. Results: Patients with a DSSS had significantly less small bowel volume irradiated up to doses of 20 Gy. This difference was not observed for the higher dose levels. CRT induced grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea was not different between the two groups (8.3% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.41). Conclusion: DSSS is not clearly beneficial to reduce grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea, and it must be considered whether placement of a DSSS is justified for this purpose

  5. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  6. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  7. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  8. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy

  9. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  10. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  12. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  13. Acute Exacerbations in COPD and their Control with Oral Immunisation with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eClancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD a term based on the demonstration of irreversible airways obstruction, introduced to unify a range of chronic progressive diseases of the airways consequent upon inhalation of toxins. While disease is initiated and progressed by inhaled toxins, an additional pathway of damage has emerged, with particular relevance to acute exacerbations. Exacerbations of disease due to an increase in the level of intra-bronchial inflammation have taken on a new significance as their role in determining both acute and chronic outcomes is better understood. This ‘second pathway’ of disease is a consequence of bacterial colonisation of damaged airways. Although bacteria have been linked to acute episodes in COPD over 50 years, only recently has quality data on antibiotic usage and the detection of ‘exacerbation isolates’ of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi provided strong argument in support of a pathogenic role. Yet a poor correlation between detection of colonising bacteria and clinical status remained a concern in attempts to explain a role for bacteria in a classical infection model. This presentation discusses a hypothesis that acute exacerbations reflect a T-cell dependent hypersensitivity response to colonising bacteria, with IL-17 dependent accumulation of neutrophils within the bronchus, as the main outcome measure. Critical protection against exacerbations following oral administration of NTHi, an immunotherapy that drives a TH17 Tcell response from Peyer’s patches, reduces the load of intrabronchial bacteria while preventing access of inhaled bacteria into small airways. Immunotherapy augments a physiological ‘loop’ based on aspiration of bronchus content into the gut. A second ‘hypersensitivity’ mechanism may cause bronchospasm – in both COPD and treatment-resistant asthma – due to specific IgE antibody directed against colonising bacteria, as oral NTHi abrogates wheeze in

  14. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer - Longer duration of acute genitourinary toxicity in patients with prior history of invasive urological procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odrazka, Karel; Vanasek, Jaroslav; Vaculikova, Miloslava; Petera, Jiri; Zouhar, Milan; Zoul, Zdenk; Stejskal, Jan; Skrabkova, Zuzana; Kadeka, David [Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    2001-11-01

    The incidence and predictors of acute toxicity were evaluated in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. Between December 1997 and November 1999, 116 patients with T1-T3 prostatic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. Ninety patients were treated with 70 Gy and 26 patients with T3 tumors received 74 Gy. Of the 116 patients 42 (36.2%) had a prior history of invasive urological procedure (IUP) (transurethral resection of the prostate or transvesical prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia). Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) symptoms were graded according to the EORTC/RTOG scoring system. Toxicity duration after the completion of 3D-CRT was recorded. The majority of patients experienced only mild or no (Grade 1) acute toxicities. Medications for GI and GU symptoms (Grade 2) were required by 28.4% and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Only one case of Grade 3 GI toxicity (0.9%) was observed. Seven patients (6.1%) experienced severe GU toxicity (Grade 3 or 4). No correlation was found between acute toxicity and age, stage, dose (70 Gy vs. 74 Gy), IUP and pelvic lymphadenectomy. A significant relationship was observed between the duration of acute GU toxicity and prior IUP. Symptoms persisted for more than 4 weeks in 51.9% and 26.0% of patients with and without a prior history of IUP, respectively (p = 0.02). The incidence of acute complications, associated with 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, was acceptable in our cohort of patients. A prior history of IUP resulted in a significantly longer duration of acute GU toxicity.

  15. Investigations of two oral rehydration solutions in treatment of piglets with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukavić Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic disorder in acute gastroenteritis is the disrupted transport of water and electrolytes, to a different degree. The objective of these investigations was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral rehydration solutions (ORS in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in suckling piglets. Fifty piglets, 20 with acute gastroenteritis and 30 healthy controls aged 10 days were chosen at random upon the incidence of diarrhea, for one of two ORS treatments (ORS-1 and ORS-2. The piglets with diarrhea were administered a probiotic per os on the first day and an antibiotic parenterally, until the diarrhea disappeared. All the piglets were followed clinically from days 1-6 of the investigations. Faeces samples were taken for bacteriological culture on the first day. Clinical signs of hydration were better, as well as the difference in body mass of piglets with diarrhea under the ORS-2 treatment which was significantly higher (p=0.036 in comparison with the difference in piglets under the ORS-1 treatment. All piglets with diarrhea had normally formed faeces on the sixth day. Escherichia coli was isolated from faeces of 48 piglets. Piglets with acute gastroenteritis, treated with ORS with a higher osmolarity and which contained instead of citrate, bicarbonates in higher concentrations, with less potassium, more sodium and more chlorine had a better state of hydration, with a significantly bigger difference in body mass, and the results of their control group were not significantly different against those of piglets treated with ORS of a different composition.

  16. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  17. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. PMID:27243931

  18. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  19. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy) and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years). Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67%) treatment courses, of which 2 (13%) were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%). Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58%) evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23%) were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42%) courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy

  20. A prospective randomized controlled trial to study the role of sulfasalazine in prevention of acute gastrointestinal toxicity associated with concurrent chemoradiation in carcinoma cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sulfasalazine in reducing the incidence of acute radiation-induced enteritis in carcinoma cervix patients receiving pelvic external beam radiotherapy along with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Between November 2011 and July 2012 a total of 98 patients of locoregionally advanced carcinoma of cervix (49 each in study and control arms were enrolled in this study. Patients in both the arms were treated with whole pelvis external beam radiotherapy with total dose of 50 Gy in conventional fractionation. Along with this inj. cisplatin was given concurrently at the dose of 40 mg/m 2 of body surface area every week during radiation for 5 weeks. Concurrent chemoradiation was followed by brachytherapy after a gap of 2 weeks. Patients in the study arm also received tablet sulfasalazine 1,000 mg orally twice daily from the day of starting of radiotherapy to 1 week after completion of treatment. Weekly follow-up of all patients to assess acute toxicities was done using common toxicity criteria version 4.0 (CTC v4.0 toxicity scores. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: Incidence of grade II or higher grade, lower gastrointestinal toxicity was 19.14% (09/47 in study arm and 41.66% (20/48 in control arm which was statistically significant (P = 0.017. Conclusion: The study shows that sulfasalazine can significantly reduce the acute radiation-induced diarrhea (ARID in patients undergoing whole pelvis external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix. The drug is safe, cheap, and readily available.

  1. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  2. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  3. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  4. Treatment-related toxicities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia predisposition syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) do not harbor germline mutations that strongly predispose them to development of this malignancy, large syndrome registries and detailed mapping of exomes or whole genomes of familial leukaemia kindreds have revealed that 3-5% of all...... anticancer agents, while others are not. This review summarises our current knowledge on the risk of acute toxicities for these ALL patients and provides guidance for treatment adjustments....... patients is important in order to adjust therapy and offer genetic counseling and cancer surveillance to mutation carriers in the family. In the coming years large genomic screening projects are expected to reveal further hitherto unrecognised familial ALL syndromes. The treatment of ALL cases harboring...

  5. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity after Drug Holiday: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is reported to cause a wide continuum of serious clinical effects. It is often challenging to detect Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT. Typically, the diagnosis is made based on the clinical settings and may be supported by histopathology results, if available. We describe a 57-year-old patient who developed severe rapidly progressive respiratory failure secondary to AIPT with acute bilateral infiltrates and nodular opacities on chest imaging. Interestingly, Amiodarone was discontinued 3 weeks prior to his presentation. He had normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated acute lung injury induced by Amiodarone, three weeks after therapy cessation, with adequate clinical improvement after supportive management and high dose steroid therapy.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time. PMID:22940740

  7. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  8. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  9. A Phase 2 Trial of Once-Weekly Hypofractionated Breast Irradiation: First Report of Acute Toxicity, Feasibility, and Patient Satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on early results of a single-institution phase 2 trial of a 5-fraction, once-weekly radiation therapy regimen for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Patients who underwent BCS for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0, I, or II breast cancer with negative surgical margins were eligible to receive whole breast radiation therapy to a dose of 30 Gy in 5 weekly fractions of 6 Gy with or without an additional boost. Elective nodal irradiation was not permitted. There were no restrictions on breast size or the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy for otherwise eligible patients. Patients were assessed at baseline, treatment completion, and at first posttreatment follow-up to assess acute toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-BR23). Results: Between January and September 2011, 42 eligible patients underwent weekly hypofractionated breast irradiation immediately following BCS (69.0%) or at the conclusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy (31.0%). The rates of grade ≥2 radiation-induced dermatitis, pain, fatigue, and breast edema were 19.0%, 11.9%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. Only 1 grade 3 toxicity—pain requiring a course of narcotic analgesics—was observed. One patient developed a superficial cellulitis (grade 2), which resolved with the use of oral antibiotics. Patient-reported moderate-to-major breast symptoms (pain, swelling, and skin problems), all decreased from baseline through 1 month, whereas breast sensitivity remained stable over the study period. Conclusions: The tolerance of weekly hypofractionated breast irradiation compares well with recent reports of daily hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation schedules. The regimen appears feasible and cost-effective. Additional follow-up with continued accrual is needed to assess late toxicity, cosmesis, and disease-specific outcomes

  10. A Phase 2 Trial of Once-Weekly Hypofractionated Breast Irradiation: First Report of Acute Toxicity, Feasibility, and Patient Satisfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragun, Anthony E., E-mail: aedrag01@louisville.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Quillo, Amy R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Riley, Elizabeth C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Roberts, Teresa L.; Hunter, Allison M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Rai, Shesh N. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Callender, Glenda G. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Jain, Dharamvir [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); McMasters, Kelly M. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Spanos, William J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report on early results of a single-institution phase 2 trial of a 5-fraction, once-weekly radiation therapy regimen for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Patients who underwent BCS for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0, I, or II breast cancer with negative surgical margins were eligible to receive whole breast radiation therapy to a dose of 30 Gy in 5 weekly fractions of 6 Gy with or without an additional boost. Elective nodal irradiation was not permitted. There were no restrictions on breast size or the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy for otherwise eligible patients. Patients were assessed at baseline, treatment completion, and at first posttreatment follow-up to assess acute toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-BR23). Results: Between January and September 2011, 42 eligible patients underwent weekly hypofractionated breast irradiation immediately following BCS (69.0%) or at the conclusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy (31.0%). The rates of grade ≥2 radiation-induced dermatitis, pain, fatigue, and breast edema were 19.0%, 11.9%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. Only 1 grade 3 toxicity—pain requiring a course of narcotic analgesics—was observed. One patient developed a superficial cellulitis (grade 2), which resolved with the use of oral antibiotics. Patient-reported moderate-to-major breast symptoms (pain, swelling, and skin problems), all decreased from baseline through 1 month, whereas breast sensitivity remained stable over the study period. Conclusions: The tolerance of weekly hypofractionated breast irradiation compares well with recent reports of daily hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation schedules. The regimen appears feasible and cost-effective. Additional follow-up with continued accrual is needed to assess late toxicity, cosmesis, and disease-specific outcomes.

  11. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n=60. Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P<0.05 at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P<0.05 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P<0.05 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  12. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  13. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn;

    2015-01-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore......, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120 h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear...... was not attributed to impaired swim bladder inflation, but rather to baseline toxicity. We conclude that silicone O-rings (1) produce a linear dilution series of phenanthrene in the 120 hpf FET test, (2) generate and maintain aqueous concentrations for reliable determination of effect concentrations, and allow...

  14. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  15. Acute Toxicity of Formalin to the Red-tide Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Schiller (Protozoa, Mastigophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; SONG Weibo; ZHU Mingzhuang; QIU Yantao; MA Honggang

    2005-01-01

    The acute toxic levels of formalin to a marine red-tide dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Schiller(Mastigophora,Dinoflagellida) were determined by linear regression analysis. The data obtained revealed that there is a close regression relationship between logarithmic concentrations of formalin and mortality probit scales of the organism whenexposure times are1, 2, 6, 12, 24 h. The median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) obtained from correlation analysis for these exposure times (with 95% confidence intervals), were 11.83, 6.76, 4.37, 4.27 and 3.98mgL-1, respectively. A toxicity curve was obtained to connect the exposure time and LC50 value from the correlation between them. The results indicated that P. minimum could be killed or fixed by formalin in the concentration range of 4-12 mgL-1 within 1-24 h.

  16. ROLE OF ORAL MONTELUKAST IN ACUTE ASTHMA EXACERBATIONS : A RANDOMIZED PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaude

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs are well established in the management of outpatient asthma. However, there is very little information as to their role in acute asthma exacerbations. The present study was done to evaluate the clinical efficacy of oral Montelukast as an add on therapy to the usual standard therapy of acute attack of bronchial asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized single blinded controlled study was conducted in a tertiary car e teaching hospital. A total of 320 patients with age >18 years of acute exacerbations due to bronchial asthma were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two study and control groups. The study group patients received oral Montelukast (1 0mg once daily for 2 weeks, while the control group received a placebo. All the patients received standard therapy according to GINA guidelines. Improvements in lung function tests, clinical symptoms and relapse rates were monitored at baseline, at discha rge and at 2 weeks. Side effects profile was also monitored. RESULTS: A total of 255 patients were finally assessed. One hundred thirty patients belonged to study group and 125 in the control group. Baseline characteristics were similar and well matched in both the groups. Mean age was 39.9±15.8 years in study group and 42.8±12.8 in the control group and majority were female patients in both the groups. At the end of 2 weeks, it was observed that there were no significant improvements in FEV 1 and FVC as com pared to the control group. However, there was significant improvement in PEFR at 2 weeks (0.4 L/sec, 12% as compared to the control group (p <0.0376. Length of hospital stay was similar in both the groups. No serious adverse effects were noted during th e course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In acute asthma exacerbations, the present study showed that additional administration of oral Montelukast resulted in significantly higher PEFR at 2 weeks as compared to the standard

  17. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6–79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of ≥2 were considered “sensitive” (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered “nonsensitive” (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70–82%) of the “nonsensitive” patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43–62%) of the “sensitive” patients (log–rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; “nonsensitive” 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74–86%) vs. “sensitive” BFFR was 68% (CI 58–76%; log–rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop ≥Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further study and, if validated

  18. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  19. Evaluation of acute toxicity of copper cyanide to freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosetti BASALING

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of copper cyanide to the juveniles of Indian major carp Catla catla (2±0.5 cm was evaluated under static renewal conditions. The concentrations of copper cyanide that killed 50% of the carp fingerlings within 96-h (96-h LC50 was found to be 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L. Fishes exhibited abnormal swimming activity, followed by frequent gill flapping, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, hyperactivity, convolutions. The respiratory rate of the fish got severely affected (-63.41%± 0.002 when exposed to copper cyanide.

  20. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL TO GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Manrique, W.; Machado-Neto, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    The fipronil is an insecticide that has broad-spectrum of action to insect's control. Due the great volume applied in agriculture, it has the possibility of the fipronil to be leached, to suffer to runoff or drift, being able to reach the aquatic way and to provide danger for the aquatic population. To determine the acute toxicity and fipronil environmental risk on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) 105 adult fishes were exposed at seven concentrations: 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.1...

  2. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  3. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesprini, Danny [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jacks, Lindsay; Lockwood, Gina [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network), Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Nichol, Alan; Skala, Marketa; Warde, Padraig [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bristow, Robert G., E-mail: robert.bristow@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6-79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of {>=}2 were considered 'sensitive' (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered 'nonsensitive' (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70-82%) of the 'nonsensitive' patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43-62%) of the 'sensitive' patients (log-rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; 'nonsensitive' 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74-86%) vs. 'sensitive' BFFR was 68% (CI 58-76%; log-rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop {>=}Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further

  4. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Tassanee Eamkamon; Sirawut Klinbunga; Kumthorn Thirakhupt; Piamsak Menasveta; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L) and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L) concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in sh...

  5. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  6. QSARS for Acute Toxicity of Halogenated Benzenes to Bacteria in Natural Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN-GHUA LU; CHAO WANG; YU-MEI LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To measure the acute toxicity of halogenated benzenes to bacteria in natural waters and to study quantitative relationships between the structure and activity of chemicals. Methods The concentration values causing 50% inhibition of bacteria growth (24h-IC50) were determined according to the bacterial growth inhibition test method. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the net charge of carbon atom of 20 halogenated benzenes were calculated by the quantum chemical MOPAC program. Results The log1/IC50 values ranged from 4.79 for 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to 3.65 for chlorobenzene. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was derived from the toxicity and structural parameters: log1/IC50 =-0.531(ELUMO)+1.693(Qc)+0.163(logP)+3.375. This equation was found to fit well (r2=0.860, s=0.106), and the average percentage error was only 1.98%. Conclusion Halogenated benzenes and alkyl halogenated benzenes are non-polar narcotics, and have hydrophobicity-dependent toxicity. The halogenated phenols and anilines exhibit a higher toxic potency than their hydrophobicity, whereas 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is electrophile with the halogen acting as the leaving group.

  7. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  8. Acute Toxicity of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Three Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungile P. Lukhele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxicity of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs to three aquatic organisms, namely, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia pulex, and Poecilia reticulata under the influence of exposure media properties specifically the ionic strength and organic matter represented by humic acid. Results indicated that ionic strength enhanced DWCNTs agglomeration whilst humic acid stabilized the CNTs and in turn inhibited the formation of aggregates. LC50s for D. pulex were higher at 2.81 and 4.45 mg/L for pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively; however, P. reticulata had lower values of 113.64 mg/L and 214.0 mg/L for the same CNTs correspondingly. P. subcapitata had EC50s of 17.95 mg/L and 10.93 mg/L for the pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from toxic effects of DWCNTs. Overall, our findings suggest that the toxicity of DWCNTs in the aquatic systems (i will be dependent on media properties and (ii is likely to proceed at different rates to organisms at different trophic levels.

  9. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  10. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  12. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  13. The epidemiology and patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with recreational ketamine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjeet S. Kalsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine was originally synthesised for use as a dissociative anaesthetic, and it remains widely used legitimately for this indication. However, there is increasing evidence of non-medical recreational use of ketamine, particularly in individuals who frequent the night-time economy. The population-level and sub-population (clubbers prevalence of recreational use of ketamine is not known but is likely to be similar, or slightly lower than, that of other recreational drugs such as cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine.The predominant features of acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of ketamine are neuro-behavioural abnormalities such as agitation, hallucinations, anxiety, and psychosis. Secondary to these, individuals put themselves at greater risk of physical harm/trauma. Cardiovascular features (hypertension and tachycardia occur less frequently and the risk of death from recreational use is low and is predominately due to the physical harm/trauma.Long-term recreational use of ketamine can be associated with the development of psychological dependence and tolerance. There are reports of gastro-intestinal toxicity, particularly abdominal pain and abnormal liver function tests, and of neuropsychiatric disorders, typically a schizophrenia-like syndrome, in long-term users. Finally, there are increasing reports of urological disorders, particularly haemorrhagic cystitis, associated with long-term use. The management of these problems associated with the long-term use of ketamine is largely supportive and abstinence from ongoing exposure to ketamine.In this review we will collate the available information on the epidemiology of recreational use of ketamine and describe the patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with its recreational use and the management of this toxicity.

  14. Hypofractionated radiotherapy after conservative surgery for breast cancer: analysis of acute and late toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunesi Sara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules has been proposed after breast conserving surgery in the attempt to shorten the overall treatment time. The aim of the present study is to assess acute and late toxicity of using daily fractionation of 2.25 Gy to a total dose of 45 Gy to the whole breast in a mono-institutional series. Methods Eighty-five women with early breast cancer were assigned to receive 45 Gy followed by a boost to the tumour bed. Early and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. For comparison, a group of 70 patients with similar characteristics and treated with conventional fractionation of 2 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a boost, was retrospectively selected. Results Overall median treatment duration was 29 days for hypofractionated radiotherapy and 37 days for conventional radiotherapy. Early reactions were observed in 72/85 (85% patients treated with hypofractionation and in 67/70 (96% patients treated with conventional fractionation (p = 0.01. Late toxicity was observed in 8 patients (10% in the hypofractionation group and in 10 patients (15% in the conventional fractionation group, respectively (p = 0.4. Conclusions The hypofractionated schedule delivering 45 Gy in 20 fractions shortened the overall treatment time by 1 week with a reduction of skin acute toxicity and no increase of late effects compared to the conventional fractionation. Our results support the implementation of hypofractionated schedules in clinical practice.

  15. Protective effect of berberine on doxorubicin‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyan; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Zhongning; Liu, Huanlong; Guo, Huicai; Xiong, Chen; Xie, Kerang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Su, Suwen

    2016-05-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent broad‑spectrum chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of several types of cancer, is largely limited due to its serious side effects on non‑target organs. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline alkaloid, could reduce DOX‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: i) Control group, ii) DOX group, iii) DOX+Ber (5 mg kg) group; iv) DOX+Ber (10 mg kg), and v) DOX+Ber (20 mg kg) group. In the tests, body weight, organ index, general condition and mortality were observed. In addition, the serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TCHO) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined to evaluate hepatorenal function. Hepatorenal toxicity was further assessed using hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Furthermore, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat serum or tissue homogenate were also assessed to determine the mechanisms of action. Results suggested that pretreatment with Ber ameliorated the DOX‑induced liver and kidney injury by lowering the serum ALT, AST, TCHO and BUN levels, and the damage observed histologically, such as hemorrhage and focal necrosis of liver and kidney tissues induced by DOX were also attenuated by Ber. Furthermore, Ber also exerted certain antioxidative properties through reversing the changes in the levels of MDA, SOD, GSH and MDA induced by DOX. These findings indicate that Ber has protective effects against DOX‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats. Combination of Ber with DOX is a novel strategy that has the potential for protecting against DOX‑induced hepatorenal toxicity in clinical practice. PMID:27035423

  16. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  17. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06–2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22–2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25–2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41–11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12–1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical

  18. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of oral versus intravenous mixed-micellar phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) in severe acute liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, S. P.; Rowbotham, D; Fitt, S.; Shearer, M J; Wendon, J; Williams, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background/Aims: In patients with severe acute liver dysfunction, i.v. phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) may be given to exclude vitamin K deficiency, rather than impaired hepatic synthesis of coagulation factors alone, as the cause of the coagulopathy. However, there have been no studies of the pharmacokinetics or efficacy of i.v. or oral K-1 in such patients.Methods: 49 adults with severe acute liver disease were randomised double-blind to a single 10 mg dose of i.v. or oral mixed-micellar K-1, o...

  19. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  20. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  1. Distribution, Metabolism and Toxic Effects of Beta-Cypermethrin in Lizards (Eremias argus) Following Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Li, Ruiting; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Beta-cypermethrin (BCYP), a synthetic pyrethriod (PYR) pesticide which is a mixture of the alpha- and theta- cypermethrin, have been reported various toxicological profiles to non-target organisms. But little is known about assimilation, accumulation and toxic effects of BCYP in reptiles. The present study firstly elucidated absorption, tissue distribution, excretion of BCYP in Eremias argus . Treated group were administered orally with BCYP 20mg/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in corn oil. Neurotoxicity was observed at 24h after gavage, and the poisoning symptom ameliorated at 72h. The changes of BCYP concentration depended on degradation time and tissues. Lizards had a strong capacity to eliminate BCYP with different tissue distribution. The tissues concentration of BCYP from high to low were intestine, stomach, heart, kidney, blood, lung, liver and brain. Bimodal phenomena were observed in lung, liver and kidney. These results may be due to the activities of enzymes, circadian rhythm, and enterohepatic circulation in lizards. Based on the results of organ coefficient and histopathology analysis in liver, the liver was confirmed as the main target organ.

  2. Oral Supplementation of Glucosamine Fails to Alleviate Acute Kidney Injury in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Marc; Späth, Martin Richard; Denzel, Martin S.; Göbel, Heike; Kubacki, Torsten; Hoyer, Karla Johanna Ruth; Hinze, Yvonne; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Antebi, Adam; Burst, Volker; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in the ageing population. Proteotoxic stress response pathways have been suggested to contribute to the development of acute renal injury. Recent evidence suggests that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway as well as feeding of animals with aminosugars produced in the hexosamine pathway may increase stress resistance through reducing proteotoxic stress and alleviate pathology in model organisms. As feeding of the hexosamine pathway metabolite glucosamine to aged mice increased their life expectancy we tested whether supplementation of this aminosugar may also protect mice from acute kidney injury after renal ischemia and reperfusion. Animals were fed for 4 weeks ad libitum with standard chow or standard chow supplemented with 0.5% N-acetylglucosamine. Preconditioning with caloric restriction for four weeks prior to surgery served as a positive control for protective dietary effects. Whereas caloric restriction demonstrated the known protective effect both on renal function as well as survival in the treated animals, glucosamine supplementation failed to promote any protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. These data show that although hexosamine pathway metabolites have a proven role in enhancing protein quality control and survival in model organisms oral glucosamine supplementation at moderate doses that would be amenable to humans does not promote protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury of the kidney. PMID:27557097

  3. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  4. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  5. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF PHENYL QUINOLINE ON WATER FLEA DAPHNIA MAGNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrando Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic ecotoxicological determination of phytonematicide products using the zooplanktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna is important for environmental risk assessment. Evaluations were made of the acute median lethal concentration (LC50 of phenyl quinoline on D. magna, that was 4.12 ug i.a. L-1 at 48 h of exposure. The chronic effects of phenyl quinoline in the mortality rate of the cladoceran D. magna at 17 d of exposure, with 0.18 ug ai L-1 of LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration and 0.072 ug ai L-1 of NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration were determined. Evaluations of the chronic effect of phenyl quinoline on three parameters of growth of D. magna (total length, antenna length and caudal length to 17 d of exposure, only showed significant differences in length of the antenna between the control and 0.072 ug ai L-1 been this the value of LOEC and thus the lower concentration 0.0288 ug ai L-1, the NOEC value for phenyl quinoline. The ratio between acute and chronic toxicity (RAC for the relationship showed acute 48 h exposure on mortality NOEC 17 d a value of 57.22, and for the ratio of acute NOEC on of the length of the antenna to 17 d was a value of 143. The environmental risk assessment (ERA shows that the PEC (Probable Effect Concentration / PNEC (Predicted No-Effect Concentration for acute assay was 582 524 and for the PEC / PNEC for chronic test was 83 333 333. These results demonstrate that phenyl quinoline has a high impact on aquatic biota represented by the trophic level that belongs to D. magna, and therefore shows that the substance is a candidate for a comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment.

  6. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Aluminium to the Fish (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamda Azmat*, Muhammad Javed and Ghazala Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity tests (96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of aluminium (Al were conducted with three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala of 60, 120 and 240 days age groups at constant water temperature (30oC, pH (7.50 and total hardness (300 mg.L-1 in the wet laboratory. At termination of each trial, the fish were dissected and their organs viz. bones, gills, gut, intestine, kidney, liver, scales, skin, muscles and fats isolated for the determination of Al concentrations. At 60 days, all the three fish species showed significantly (P<0.05 higher sensitivity to Al while 240 days fish were significantly least sensitive. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitivity to Al with the mean 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of 81.68±28.54 and 129.81±30.95 mg.L-1, respectively. Fish organs showed significantly variable ability to concentrate metal during acute exposure of Al. However, liver and kidneys exhibited significantly higher potentials for metals accumulation. From the study it was concluded that all the three fish species responded differently towards Al toxicity.

  8. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  9. Antibacterial, antioxidant and acute toxicity tests on flavonoids extracted from some medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akroum Souâd

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are well-known for their many therapeutic and pharmaceutical effects. In this study, we tested the antibacterial activity of 11 flavonoids extracted from some medicinal plants by the agar diffusion method. Then, we measured their antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and we also tested their acute toxicity effect on mice. The results showed that apigenin-7-O-glucoside was more active against the Gram-positive bacteria and quercetin was more active against the Gram-negative ones. Also, quercetin and diosmin showed the best antioxidant activity. Quercetin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-3′-O-glucuronide gave the best acute toxicity values. It can be concluded that quercetin was the most interesting compound for all the tested activities. Also, we observed that the presence or the absence of substitutions in flavonoids influenced significantly the results obtained, whereas the substitution type had a low impact.

  10. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  11. ACEPHATE, ALDICARB, CARBOPHENOTHION, DEF, EPN, ETHOPROP, METHYL PARATHION, AND PHORATE; THEIR ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY, BIOCONCENTRATION POTENTIAL, AND PERSISTENCE AS RELATED TO MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of the pesticides acephate, aldicarb, carbophenothion, DEF, EPN, ethoprop, methyl parathion, and phorate were determined for estuarine environments. Static acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the 96-h EC50 values for al...

  12. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Radiation Toxins (SRD-1)had been isolated from Central Lymph of irradiated animals (cows, sheep, pigs). Experiments to study toxicity of Radiation Neurotoxins had been performed. Intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of RT SRD-1 to radiation naive animals had induced acute toxicity which referred to the harmful effects generated by high doses of radiation. In-jection of toxic doses of RT SRD-1 (Toxic doses: 0,1 mg/kg, 0,5mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10mg/kg,30 mg/kg, 50mg/kg,70 mg/kg,100 mg/kg, 110mg/kg)were compared to the similar effects caused by high doses of radiation. Results: Injection of SRD-1 ( Neurotoxin Cv ARS)of all ten tested toxic doses had caused a death of radiation naive animals within the first hours after admin-istration of toxins. For all animals in all experiments, a short period of extreme agitation was replaced by deep coma, and suppression of blood circulation and breathing. The results of postmortem section had showed characteristics of intra-cortical hemorrhage. Conclusions: Acute radiation injury induces a disorder of blood supply of the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, administration of SRD-1 Radiation Toxins to radiation naive animals produces crit-ically important inflammatory reactions with hemorrhagic stroke development. Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity are two stages of the pathological processes resulted in damaging and killing nerve cells thorough apoptotic necrosis. Excitotoxicity is well known as a pathological process that occurs when important excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate, serotonin) over-activate the receptors -NMDA, AMPA, 5HT1, 5HT2, 5H3. Radiation Neurotoxins possibly act on the same receptors and activate the cell death mechanisms through direct or indirect excessive activation of same receptors.

  13. In vitro studies of acute toxicity mechanisms and structure-activity relationships of nonionic surfactants in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodishbauah, D.F. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In fish, gills are believed to be a primary target for a number of toxicants. Gills perform the essential systemic functions of gas exchange, waste elimination, and ion/pH balance, and are exposed to ambient environmental toxicant levels. Qualitative gill morphology changes are easily observed, but quantitative measures of impaired function are difficult. This in vitro technique utilizes the opercular epithelium of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as a surrogate for gill epithelium in mechanistic toxicity and structure-activity studies. This model has long been used by electrophysiologists studying osmoregulation in marine fish. Effects on trans-epithelial potential (TEP) and/or short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) across the opercular epithelium can be made for any pollutant of interest, using an epithelial voltage clamp and Ussing chamber. The nonionic synthetic surfactant class, alkylphenol ethoxylates, were chosen as a model toxicant class to test this experimental model. Synthetic surfactants are ubiquitous waterborne pollutants, with annual North American usage approaching eight billion pounds. Surfactants are recognized as potent, acute gill toxicants in fish. The exact mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated. These compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of both TEP and I{sub sc} in vitro, at dose levels comparable to those causing lethality, suggesting that impaired osmoregulation plays a role in their acute toxicity. Similar structure-activity relationships were found for the endpoints of acute lethality to F. heteroclitus and impaired in vitro epithelial transport.

  14. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    either size. In addition, no treatment-related clinical changes or histopathological findings were observed in any of the experimental groups. Moreover, no difference in toxic effects from chronic exposure to SiO2EN,20(- (20 nm or SiO2EN,100(- (100 nm was observed. The results of this study indicate that the NOAEL for SiO2EN,20(- and SiO2EN,100(- would most likely be 2,000 mg/kg, and no target organ was identified in rats of either sex. Keywords: silica nanoparticles, particle size, 90-day oral dose toxicity, no observed adverse effect level

  15. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD50 values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at ≥15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: → Oral LD50 (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. → Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at ≥5 mg/kg-d. → Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. → Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  16. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  17. Transformation pathways and acute toxicity variation of 4-hydroxyl benzophenone in chlorination disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Qi; Du, Yuguo

    2016-07-01

    Benzophenones compounds (BPs) are widely used as UV filters, and have been frequently found in multiple environmental matrices. The residual of BPs in water would cause potential threats on ecological safety and human health. Chlorination disinfection is necessary in water treatment process, in which many chemicals remained in water would react with disinfectant chlorine and form toxic by-products. By using ultra performance liquid phase chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the transformation of 4-hydroxyl benezophenone (4HB) with free available chlorine (FAC) was characterized. Eight major products were detected and seven of them were identified. Transformation pathways of 4HB under acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions were proposed respectively. The transformation mechanisms involved electrophilic chlorine substitution of 4HB, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, hydrolysis of esters and oxidative breakage of benzene ring. The orthogonal experiments of pH and dosages of disinfectant chlorine were conducted. The results suggested that pH conditions determined the occurrence of reaction types, and the dosages of disinfectant chlorine affected the extent of reactions. Photobacterium assay demonstrated that acute toxicity had significant increase after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. It was proved that 3,5-dichloro-4HB, one of the major transformation products, was responsible for the increasing acute toxicity after chlorination. It is notable that, 4HB at low level in real ambient water matrices could be transformed during simulated chlorination disinfection practice. Especially, two major products 3-chloro-4HB and 3,5-dichloro-4HB were detected out, implying the potential ecological risk after chlorination disinfection of 4HB.

  18. Transformation pathways and acute toxicity variation of 4-hydroxyl benzophenone in chlorination disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Qi; Du, Yuguo

    2016-07-01

    Benzophenones compounds (BPs) are widely used as UV filters, and have been frequently found in multiple environmental matrices. The residual of BPs in water would cause potential threats on ecological safety and human health. Chlorination disinfection is necessary in water treatment process, in which many chemicals remained in water would react with disinfectant chlorine and form toxic by-products. By using ultra performance liquid phase chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the transformation of 4-hydroxyl benezophenone (4HB) with free available chlorine (FAC) was characterized. Eight major products were detected and seven of them were identified. Transformation pathways of 4HB under acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions were proposed respectively. The transformation mechanisms involved electrophilic chlorine substitution of 4HB, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, hydrolysis of esters and oxidative breakage of benzene ring. The orthogonal experiments of pH and dosages of disinfectant chlorine were conducted. The results suggested that pH conditions determined the occurrence of reaction types, and the dosages of disinfectant chlorine affected the extent of reactions. Photobacterium assay demonstrated that acute toxicity had significant increase after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. It was proved that 3,5-dichloro-4HB, one of the major transformation products, was responsible for the increasing acute toxicity after chlorination. It is notable that, 4HB at low level in real ambient water matrices could be transformed during simulated chlorination disinfection practice. Especially, two major products 3-chloro-4HB and 3,5-dichloro-4HB were detected out, implying the potential ecological risk after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. PMID:27085063

  19. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  2. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  3. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality