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Sample records for acute nipah virus

  1. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects against lethal disease in a new ferret model of acute nipah virus infection.

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    Katharine N Bossart

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a broadly tropic and highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus whose natural reservoirs are several species of Pteropus fruit bats. Nipah virus has repeatedly caused outbreaks over the past decade associated with a severe and often fatal disease in humans and animals. Here, a new ferret model of Nipah virus pathogenesis is described where both respiratory and neurological disease are present in infected animals. Severe disease occurs with viral doses as low as 500 TCID(50 within 6 to 10 days following infection. The underlying pathology seen in the ferret closely resembles that seen in Nipah virus infected humans, characterized as a widespread multisystemic vasculitis, with virus replicating in highly vascular tissues including lung, spleen and brain, with recoverable virus from a variety of tissues. Using this ferret model a cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, m102.4, targeting the henipavirus G glycoprotein was evaluated in vivo as a potential therapeutic agent. All ferrets that received m102.4 ten hours following a high dose oral-nasal Nipah virus challenge were protected from disease while all controls died. This study is the first successful post-exposure passive antibody therapy for Nipah virus using a human monoclonal antibody.

  2. Quantitative estimation of Nipah virus replication kinetics in vitro

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    Hassan Sharifah

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus isolated from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The virus causes infections in humans, pigs, and several other domestic animals. It has also been isolated from fruit bats. The pathogenesis of Nipah virus infection is still not well described. In the present study, Nipah virus replication kinetics were estimated from infection of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero using the one-step SYBR® Green I-based quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assay. Results The qRT-PCR had a dynamic range of at least seven orders of magnitude and can detect Nipah virus from as low as one PFU/μL. Following initiation of infection, it was estimated that Nipah virus RNA doubles at every ~40 minutes and attained peak intracellular virus RNA level of ~8.4 log PFU/μL at about 32 hours post-infection (PI. Significant extracellular Nipah virus RNA release occurred only after 8 hours PI and the level peaked at ~7.9 log PFU/μL at 64 hours PI. The estimated rate of Nipah virus RNA released into the cell culture medium was ~0.07 log PFU/μL per hour and less than 10% of the released Nipah virus RNA was infectious. Conclusion The SYBR® Green I-based qRT-PCR assay enabled quantitative assessment of Nipah virus RNA synthesis in Vero cells. A low rate of Nipah virus extracellular RNA release and low infectious virus yield together with extensive syncytial formation during the infection support a cell-to-cell spread mechanism for Nipah virus infection.

  3. Cluster of Nipah virus infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007.

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    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In March 2007, we investigated a cluster of Nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for Nipah infection in Bangladesh. METHODS: We defined confirmed Nipah cases by the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against Nipah virus in serum. Case-patients, who resided in the same village during the outbreak period but died before serum could be collected, were classified as probable cases. RESULTS: We identified three confirmed and five probable Nipah cases. There was a single index case. Five of the secondary cases came in close physical contact to the index case when she was ill. Case-patients were more likely to have physical contact with the index case (71% cases versus 0% controls, p = <0.001. The index case, on her third day of illness, and all the subsequent cases attended the same religious gathering. For three probable cases including the index case, we could not identify any known risk factors for Nipah infection such as physical contact with Nipah case-patients, consumption of raw date palm juice, or contact with sick animals or fruit bats. CONCLUSION: Though person-to-person transmission remains an important mode of transmission for Nipah infection, we could not confirm the source of infection for three of the probable Nipah case-patients. Continued surveillance and outbreak investigations will help better understand the transmission of Nipah virus and develop preventive strategies.

  4. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

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    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G. Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi. Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  5. Lessons from the Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia.

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    Looi, Lai-Meng; Chua, Kaw-Bing

    2007-12-01

    The Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia (September 1998 to May 1999) resulted in 265 cases of acute encephalitis with 105 deaths, and near collapse of the billion-dollar pig-farming industry. Because it was initially attributed to Japanese encephalitis, early control measures were ineffective, and the outbreak spread to other parts of Malaysia and nearby Singapore. The isolation of the novel aetiological agent, the Nipah virus (NiV), from the cerebrospinal fluid of an outbreak victim was the turning point which led to outbreak control 2 months later. Together with the Hendra virus, NiV is now recognised as a new genus, Henipavirus (Hendra + Nipah), in the Paramyxoviridae family. Efforts of the local and international scientific community have since elucidated the epidemiology, clinico-pathophysiology and pathogenesis of this new disease. Humans contracted the infection from close contact with infected pigs, and formed the basis for pig-culling that eventually stopped the outbreak. NiV targeted medium-sized and small blood vessels resulting in endothelial multinucleated syncytia and fibrinoid necrosis. Autopsies revealed disseminated cerebral microinfarctions resulting from vasculitis-induced thrombosis and direct neuronal involvement. The discovery of NiV in the urine and saliva of Malaysian Island flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus and Petropus vampyrus) implicated these as natural reservoir hosts of NiV. It is probable that initial transmission of NiV from bats to pigs occurred in late 1997/early 1998 through contamination of pig swill by bat excretions, as a result of migration of these forest fruitbats to cultivated orchards and pig-farms, driven by fruiting failure of forest trees during the El Nino-related drought and anthropogenic fires in Indonesia in 1997-1998. This outbreak emphasizes the need for sharing information of any unusual illnesses in animals and humans, an open-minded approach and close collaboration and co-ordination between the medical

  6. Comparison of the Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus Isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian Hamster

    OpenAIRE

    DeBuysscher, Blair L.; Emmie de Wit; Munster, Vincent J.; Dana Scott; Heinz Feldmann; Joseph Prescott

    2013-01-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, includi...

  7. Nipah virus in the fruit bat Pteropus vampyrus in Sumatera, Indonesia.

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    Indrawati Sendow

    Full Text Available Nipah virus causes periodic livestock and human disease with high case fatality rate, and consequent major economic, social and psychological impacts. Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus are the natural reservoir. In this study, we used real time PCR to screen the saliva and urine of P. vampyrus from North Sumatera for Nipah virus genome. A conventional reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR assay was used on provisionally positive samples to corroborate findings. This is the first report of Nipah virus detection in P. vampyrus in Sumatera, Indonesia.

  8. Nipah virus matrix protein: expert hacker of cellular machines.

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    Watkinson, Ruth E; Lee, Benhur

    2016-08-01

    Nipah virus (NiV, Henipavirus) is a highly lethal emergent zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for repeated human outbreaks of encephalitis in South East Asia. There are no approved vaccines or treatments, thus improved understanding of NiV biology is imperative. NiV matrix protein recruits a plethora of cellular machinery to scaffold and coordinate virion budding. Intriguingly, matrix also hijacks cellular trafficking and ubiquitination pathways to facilitate transient nuclear localization. While the biological significance of matrix nuclear localization for an otherwise cytoplasmic virus remains enigmatic, the molecular details have begun to be characterized, and are conserved among matrix proteins from divergent paramyxoviruses. Matrix protein appropriation of cellular machinery will be discussed in terms of its early nuclear targeting and later role in virion assembly.

  9. A treatment for and vaccine against the deadly Hendra and Nipah viruses.

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    Broder, Christopher C; Xu, Kai; Nikolov, Dimitar B; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Geisbert, Thomas W; Bossart, Katharine N; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2013-10-01

    Hendra virus and Nipah virus are bat-borne paramyxoviruses that are the prototypic members of the genus Henipavirus. The henipaviruses emerged in the 1990s, spilling over from their natural bat hosts and causing serious disease outbreaks in humans and livestock. Hendra virus emerged in Australia and since 1994 there have been 7 human infections with 4 case fatalities. Nipah virus first appeared in Malaysia and subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India. In total, there have been an estimated 582 human cases of Nipah virus and of these, 54% were fatal. Their broad species tropism and ability to cause fatal respiratory and/or neurologic disease in humans and animals make them important transboundary biological threats. Recent experimental findings in animals have demonstrated that a human monoclonal antibody targeting the viral G glycoprotein is an effective post-exposure treatment against Hendra and Nipah virus infection. In addition, a subunit vaccine based on the G glycoprotein of Hendra virus affords protection against Hendra and Nipah virus challenge. The vaccine has been developed for use in horses in Australia and is the first vaccine against a Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) agent to be licensed and commercially deployed. Together, these advances offer viable approaches to address Hendra and Nipah virus infection of livestock and people.

  10. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

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    Johnston, Sara C; Briese, Thomas; Bell, Todd M; Pratt, William D; Shamblin, Joshua D; Esham, Heather L; Donnelly, Ginger C; Johnson, Joshua C; Hensley, Lisa E; Lipkin, W Ian; Honko, Anna N

    2015-01-01

    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4) plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  11. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

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    Sara C Johnston

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  12. A BSL-4 High-Throughput Screen Identifies Sulfonamide Inhibitors of Nipah Virus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus is a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen that causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. To identify novel small molecules that target Nipah virus replication as potential therapeutics, Southern Research Institute and Galveston National Laboratory jointly developed an automated high-throughput screening platform that is capable of testing 10,000 compounds per day within BSL-4 biocontainment. Using this platform, we screened a 10,080-compound library using a cell-...

  13. Vaccine potential of Nipah virus-like particles.

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    Pramila Walpita

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV was first recognized in 1998 in a zoonotic disease outbreak associated with highly lethal febrile encephalitis in humans and a predominantly respiratory disease in pigs. Periodic deadly outbreaks, documentation of person-to-person transmission, and the potential of this virus as an agent of agroterror reinforce the need for effective means of therapy and prevention. In this report, we describe the vaccine potential of NiV virus-like particles (NiV VLPs composed of three NiV proteins G, F and M. Co-expression of these proteins under optimized conditions resulted in quantifiable amounts of VLPs with many virus-like/vaccine desirable properties including some not previously described for VLPs of any paramyxovirus: The particles were fusogenic, inducing syncytia formation; PCR array analysis showed NiV VLP-induced activation of innate immune defense pathways; the surface structure of NiV VLPs imaged by cryoelectron microscopy was dense, ordered, and repetitive, and consistent with similarly derived structure of paramyxovirus measles virus. The VLPs were composed of all the three viral proteins as designed, and their intracellular processing also appeared similar to NiV virions. The size, morphology and surface composition of the VLPs were consistent with the parental virus, and importantly, they retained their antigenic potential. Finally, these particles, formulated without adjuvant, were able to induce neutralizing antibody response in Balb/c mice. These findings indicate vaccine potential of these particles and will be the basis for undertaking future protective efficacy studies in animal models of NiV disease.

  14. Nipah病毒性脑炎的研究进展%Progression of Nipah Virus Encephalitis

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    左联; 徐霞红

    2012-01-01

    Nipah病毒是近年在东南亚新出现的一种人畜共患病病毒,导致Nipah病毒性脑炎的暴发流行,传染性强,死亡率高.本文主要就近年对Nipah病毒性脑炎的研究进展包括病毒分子生物学、发病机制、流行病学、临床及辅助检查等作一综述.%Nipah virus is a newly zoonotic disease virus emerged in Southeast Asia. Nipah virus infection mainly leads to the outbreak of encephalitis, with highly infectious and mortality. This article aim to review progression of Nipah virus in recent years which include viral molecular biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical and auxiliary examination,etc.

  15. Roosting behaviour and habitat selection of Pteropus giganteus reveals potential links to Nipah virus epidemiology.

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    Hahn, Micah B; Epstein, Jonathan H; Gurley, Emily S; Islam, Mohammad S; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter; Patz, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    1. Flying foxes Pteropus spp. play a key role in forest regeneration as seed dispersers and are also the reservoir of many viruses, including Nipah virus in Bangladesh. Little is known about their habitat requirements, particularly in South Asia. Identifying Pteropus habitat preferences could assist in understanding the risk of zoonotic disease transmission broadly, and in Bangladesh, could help explain the spatial distribution of human Nipah virus cases. 2. We analysed characteristics of Pteropus giganteus roosts and constructed an ecological niche model to identify suitable habitat in Bangladesh. We also assessed the distribution of suitable habitat in relation to the location of human Nipah virus cases. 3. Compared to non-roost trees, P. giganteus roost trees are taller with larger diameters, and are more frequently canopy trees. Colony size was larger in densely forested regions and smaller in flood-affected areas. Roosts were located in areas with lower annual precipitation and higher human population density than non-roost sites. 4. We predicted that 2-17% of Bangladesh's land area is suitable roosting habitat. Nipah virus outbreak villages were 2.6 times more likely to be located in areas predicted as highly suitable habitat for P. giganteus compared to non-outbreak villages. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat suitability modelling may help identify previously undocumented Nipah outbreak locations and improve our understanding of Nipah virus ecology by highlighting regions where there is suitable bat habitat but no reported human Nipah virus. Conservation and public health education is a key component of P. giganteus management in Bangladesh due to the general misunderstanding and fear of bats that are a reservoir of Nipah virus. Affiliation between Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and people is common throughout their range, and in order to conserve these keystone bat species and prevent emergence of zoonotic viruses, it is imperative that we

  16. Human neuronal cell protein responses to Nipah virus infection

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    Hassan Sharifah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV, a recently discovered zoonotic virus infects and replicates in several human cell types. Its replication in human neuronal cells, however, is less efficient in comparison to other fully susceptible cells. In the present study, the SK-N-MC human neuronal cell protein response to NiV infection is examined using proteomic approaches. Results Method for separation of the NiV-infected human neuronal cell proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE was established. At least 800 protein spots were resolved of which seven were unique, six were significantly up-regulated and eight were significantly down-regulated. Six of these altered proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS and confirmed using MS/MS. The heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP F, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein, voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2 and cytochrome bc1 were present in abundance in the NiV-infected SK-N-MC cells in contrast to hnRNPs H and H2 that were significantly down-regulated. Conclusion Several human neuronal cell proteins that are differentially expressed following NiV infection are identified. The proteins are associated with various cellular functions and their abundance reflects their significance in the cytopathologic responses to the infection and the regulation of NiV replication. The potential importance of the ratio of hnRNP F, and hnRNPs H and H2 in regulation of NiV replication, the association of the mitochondrial protein with the cytopathologic responses to the infection and induction of apoptosis are highlighted.

  17. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

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    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  18. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

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    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  19. A cohort study of health care workers to assess nosocomial transmissibility of Nipah virus, Malaysia, 1999.

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    Mounts, A W; Kaur, H; Parashar, U D; Ksiazek, T G; Cannon, D; Arokiasamy, J T; Anderson, L J; Lye, M S

    2001-03-01

    During 1998-1999, an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis occurred in Malaysia. To assess the possibility of nosocomial transmission, 338 health care workers (HCWs) exposed and 288 HCWs unexposed to outbreak-related patients were surveyed, and their serum samples were tested for anti-Nipah virus antibody. Needlestick injuries were reported by 12 (3%) HCWs, mucosal surface exposure to body fluids by 39 (11%), and skin exposure to body fluids by 89 (25%). No encephalitis occurred in either group. Three exposed and no unexposed HCWs tested positive by EIA for IgG antibodies. It is likely that these 3 were false positives; no IgM response occurred, and the serum samples were negative for anti-Nipah virus neutralizing antibodies. The risk of nosocomial transmission of Nipah virus appears to be low; however, given the high case-fatality rate and the presence of virus in respiratory secretions and urine of some patients, standard and droplet infection-control practices should be maintained with these patients.

  20. Molecular epidemiology and phylogeny of Nipah virus infection: A mini review.

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    Angeletti, Silvia; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae, characterized by high pathogenicity and endemic in South Asia. It is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) agent. The case-fatality varies from 40% to 70% depending on the severity of the disease and on the availability of adequate healthcare facilities. At present no antiviral drugs are available for NiV disease and the treatment is just supportive. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses can be used to help in understanding the epidemiology and the temporal origin of this virus. This review provides an overview of evolutionary studies performed on Nipah viruses circulating in different countries. Thirty phylogenetic studies have been published from 2000 to 2015 years, searching on pub-med using the key words 'Nipah virus AND phylogeny' and twenty-eight molecular epidemiological studies from 2006 to 2015 have been performed, typing the key words 'Nipah virus AND molecular epidemiology'. Overall data from the published study demonstrated as phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis represent promising tools to evidence NiV epidemics, to study their origin and evolution and finally to act with effective preventive measure.

  1. Chikungunya, Influenza, Nipah, and Semliki Forest Chimeric Viruses with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Actions in the Brain.

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    van den Pol, Anthony N; Mao, Guochao; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Rose, John K; Davis, John N

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein (G) gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain, including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya (CHIKV), and influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene. We also test a virus-like vesicle (VLV) in which the VSV glycoprotein gene is expressed from a replicon encoding the nonstructural proteins of Semliki Forest virus. VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV were all safe in the adult mouse brain, as were VSVΔG viruses expressing either the Nipah F or G glycoprotein. In contrast, a complementing pair of VSVΔG viruses expressing Nipah G and F glycoproteins were lethal within the brain within a surprisingly short time frame of 2 days. Intranasal inoculation in postnatal day 14 mice with VSVΔG-CHIKV or VLV evoked no adverse response, whereas VSVΔG-H5N1 by this route was lethal in most mice. A key immune mechanism underlying the safety of VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV in the adult brain was the type I interferon response; all three viruses were lethal in the brains of adult mice lacking the interferon receptor, suggesting that the viruses can infect and replicate and spread in brain cells if not blocked by interferon-stimulated genes within the brain.IMPORTANCE Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows considerable promise both as a vaccine vector and as an oncolytic virus. The greatest limitation of VSV is that it is highly neurotropic and can be lethal within the brain. The neurotropism can be mostly attributed to the VSV G glycoprotein. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses of VSV with glycoprotein genes from Nipah

  2. The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets

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    Clayton, Bronwyn A.; Middleton, Deborah; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Wang, Lin-Fa; Marsh, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease. PMID:27341030

  3. The mechanism by which the Nipah virus invades host cells%尼帕病毒侵入宿主细胞机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 王铁成; 杨松涛; 夏咸柱; 李天松; 王照; 刘玉秀; 冯娜; 王胜乐; 许薇薇; 姜雪; 高玉伟

    2012-01-01

    尼帕病毒属于副粘病毒科病毒,可以引起人和猪等多种动物中枢神经系统、呼吸系统病变的急性、高度致死性传染性病毒性疾病,首次报道于1999年的马来群岛,再次暴发于东南亚,病死率高达40%,并且怀疑可以在人与人之间进行传播.本文综述了尼帕病毒侵入宿主细胞及其F蛋白介导的细胞融合机制的研究进展.%Nipah virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses. Highly fatal and highly contagious, Nipah virus infection can cause acute symptoms of the central nervous system and respiratory system in animals such as pigs and humans. First reported in Malaysia in 1999, the viral infection broke out again in Southeast Asia with a mortality rate of over 40%. There are doubts as to whether the infection can be spread from person—to—person. This paper reviews research on the virus' mechanism of invading host ceils and cell fusion mediated by the F protein of the Nipah virus.

  4. 尼帕病毒研究进展%Research Progress of Nipah Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨飞; 陈昌海; 刘耀兴

    2012-01-01

    尼帕病毒(Nipah virus,NiV)是新近发现的引发脑部炎症或呼吸道疾病等重症的新型人畜共患病病毒,该病毒最初于1999年马来西亚尼帕镇的1名脑炎患者脑脊液中分离获得,至今已经历了数次大的流行,造成严重的经济损失和人员伤亡.该病毒可由动物传播给人,也可直接人与人传播,并且能够在猪等动物身上引起严重疾病,狐蝠科的果蝠是该病毒的天然宿主.NiV感染人后的病死率极高,并且目前还没有有效的疫苗和治疗措施,生物危害性极大,被列为生物安全4级病原(BSL4).笔者从NiV的分类及分型、基因和蛋白质组、流行和分布、疫苗研制、临床和病理变化以及实验室诊断技术等方面对NiV做简单的概述.%Nipah virus is a newly identified paramyxovirus that causes serious respiratory disease and encephalitis in humans and animals. Outbreaks and spreads of this virus have led to the severe economic losses and human deaths since the first isolation of Nipah virus in Malaysia, 1999. Bats in the genus Pteropus are natural hosts of this viruses, and contact with infected animals or human-to-human transmission were thought to be the major route of the virus spreading. As is highly contagious in human and swine with high case fatality rate, Nipah virus are classified as biosafety level 4 (BSL4) agents, for which there is still no available vaccination or effective antiviral treatment. This review provides a simple overview of Nipah virus in taxonomy, genomics and proteomics, epidemiology, vaccine development, clinical and pathological signs, diagnostic techniques.

  5. Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Jahangir; Gurley, Emily S.; Ameen, Kazi M.H.; Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M. Saiful; Faruque, Labib I.; Podder, Goutam; Banu, Sultana S.; Lo, Michael K.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Rota, Paul A.; Daszak, Peter; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Active Nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in Faridpur, Bangladesh, in January 2010. We identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. For 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patient’s exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. Among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic cases, 6 died, including a physician who had physically examined encephalitis patients without gloves or a mask. Nipah virus–infected patients were more likely than community-based controls to report drinking raw date palm sap and to have had physical contact with an encephalitis patient (29% vs. 4%, matched odds ratio undefined). Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on reducing caregivers’ exposure to infected patients’ bodily secretions during care and traditional burial practices. PMID:23347678

  6. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartl HM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hana M Weingartl National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV F and G proteins in hamsters against NiV; recombinant ALVAC–NiV F and G in swine against NiV; recombinant Hendra virus (HeV soluble G protein (sGHeV against HeV and NiV in cats, ferrets, horses, and African green monkeys (AGM; recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus-based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. The sGHeV was licensed for use in horses (Equivac HeV® in 2012. It is the first vaccine candidate licensed against a biosafety level 4 agent. With the development of suitable animal models (ferret, hamster and, importantly, AGM, progress can be made toward development of a human vaccine.Keywords: henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates

  7. Mission critical: mobilization of essential animal models for Ebola, Nipah, and Machupo virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrun, E E

    2015-01-01

    The reports for Ebola virus Zaire (EBOV), Nipah virus, and Machupo virus (MACV) pathogenesis, in this issue of Veterinary Pathology, are timely considering recent events, both nationally and internationally. EBOV, Nipah virus, and MACV cause highly lethal infections for which no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed vaccines or therapies exist. Not only are there concerns that these agents could be used by those with malicious intent, but shifts in ecological distribution of viral reservoirs due to climate change or globalization could lead to more frequent infections within remote regions than previously seen as well as outbreaks in more populous areas. The current EBOV epidemic shows no sign of abating across 3 West African nations (as of October 2014), including densely populated areas, far outpacing infection rates of previous outbreaks. A limited number of cases have also arisen in the United States and Europe. With few treatment options for these deadly viruses, development of animal models reflective of human disease is paramount to combat these diseases. As an example of this potential, a new treatment compound, ZMapp, that had demonstrated efficacy against EBOV infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs) received an emergency compassionate use exception from the FDA for the treatment of 2 American medical workers infected with EBOV, and they are currently virus free and recovering.

  8. A BSL-4 high-throughput screen identifies sulfonamide inhibitors of Nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigabu, Bersabeh; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E Lucile; Tower, Nichole; Saeed, Mohammad; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rockx, Barry; LeDuc, James W; Noah, James W

    2014-04-01

    Nipah virus is a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen that causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. To identify novel small molecules that target Nipah virus replication as potential therapeutics, Southern Research Institute and Galveston National Laboratory jointly developed an automated high-throughput screening platform that is capable of testing 10,000 compounds per day within BSL-4 biocontainment. Using this platform, we screened a 10,080-compound library using a cell-based, high-throughput screen for compounds that inhibited the virus-induced cytopathic effect. From this pilot effort, 23 compounds were identified with EC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 20.0 μM and selectivities >10. Three sulfonamide compounds with EC50 values BSL-4 containment changes the paradigm for drug discovery for highly pathogenic agents because this platform can be readily modified to identify prophylactic and postexposure therapeutic candidates against other BSL-4 pathogens, particularly Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses.

  9. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Benjamin A; Dawes, Brian E; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-06-03

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic, recently emerged paramyxovirus that has been responsible for sporadic outbreaks of respiratory and encephalitic disease in Southeast Asia. High case fatality rates have also been associated with recent outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Although over two billion people currently live in regions in which NiV is endemic or in which the Pteropus fruit bat reservoir is commonly found, there is no approved vaccine to protect against NiV disease. This report examines the feasibility and current efforts to develop a NiV vaccine including potential hurdles for technical and regulatory assessment of candidate vaccines and the likelihood for financing.

  10. Mutation of domain III and domain VI in L gene conserved domain of Nipah virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalani, Siti Aishah; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2016-11-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is the etiologic agent responsible for the respiratory illness and causes fatal encephalitis in human. NiV L protein subunit is thought to be responsible for the majority of enzymatic activities involved in viral transcription and replication. The L protein which is the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase has high sequence homology among negative sense RNA viruses. In negative stranded RNA viruses, based on sequence alignment six conserved domain (domain I-IV) have been determined. Each domain is separated on variable regions that suggest the structure to consist concatenated functional domain. To directly address the roles of domains III and VI, site-directed mutations were constructed by the substitution of bases at sequences 2497, 2500, 5528 and 5532. Each mutated L gene can be used in future studies to test the ability for expression on in vitro translation.

  11. Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: the past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Hamilton, Healy

    2013-02-26

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk.

  12. Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niño and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Chua, Beng Hui; Wang, Chew Wen

    2002-06-01

    In late 1998, a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus, emerged in Malaysia, causing fatal disease in domestic pigs and humans with substantial economic loss to the local pig industry. Pteropid fruitbats have since been identified as a natural reservoir host. Over the last two decades, the forest habitat of these bats in Southeast Asia has been substantially reduced by deforestation for pulpwood and industrial plantation. In 1997/1998, slash-and-burn deforestation resulted in the formation of a severe haze that blanketed much of Southeast Asia in the months directly preceding the Nipah virus disease outbreak. This was exacerbated by a drought driven by the severe 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. We present data suggesting that this series of events led to a reduction in the availability of flowering and fruiting forest trees for foraging by fruitbats and culminated in unprecedented encroachment of fruitbats into cultivated fruit orchards in 1997/1998. These anthropogenic events, coupled with the location of piggeries in orchards and the design of pigsties allowed transmission of a novel paramyxovirus from its reservoir host to the domestic pig and ultimately to the human population.

  13. The distribution of henipaviruses in Southeast Asia and Australasia: is Wallace's line a barrier to Nipah virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Breed

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV (Genus Henipavirus is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that causes severe disease in humans and has been found in bats of the genus Pteropus. Whilst NiV has not been detected in Australia, evidence for NiV-infection has been found in pteropid bats in some of Australia's closest neighbours. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of henipaviruses in fruit bat (Family Pteropodidae populations to the north of Australia. In particular we tested the hypothesis that Nipah virus is restricted to west of Wallace's Line. Fruit bats from Australia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia were tested for the presence of antibodies to Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus, and tested for the presence of HeV, NiV or henipavirus RNA by PCR. Evidence was found for the presence of Nipah virus in both Pteropus vampyrus and Rousettus amplexicaudatus populations from East Timor. Serology and PCR also suggested the presence of a henipavirus that was neither HeV nor NiV in Pteropus alecto and Acerodon celebensis. The results demonstrate the presence of NiV in the fruit bat populations on the eastern side of Wallace's Line and within 500 km of Australia. They indicate the presence of non-NiV, non-HeV henipaviruses in fruit bat populations of Sulawesi and Sumba and possibly in Papua New Guinea. It appears that NiV is present where P. vampyrus occurs, such as in the fruit bat populations of Timor, but where this bat species is absent other henipaviruses may be present, as on Sulawesi and Sumba. Evidence was obtained for the presence henipaviruses in the non-Pteropid species R. amplexicaudatus and in A. celebensis. The findings of this work fill some gaps in knowledge in geographical and species distribution of henipaviruses in Australasia which will contribute to planning of risk management and surveillance activities.

  14. Development of a neutralization assay for Nipah virus using pseudotype particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, Azaibi; Harcourt, Brian H; Lo, Michael K; Roth, James A; Wolf, Mike C; Lee, Benhur; Weingartl, Hana; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2009-09-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses capable of causing severe disease in humans and animals. These viruses require biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Like other paramyxoviruses, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) can be used to detect antibodies to the surface glycoproteins, fusion (F) and attachment (G), and PRNT titers give an indication of protective immunity. Unfortunately, for NiV and HeV, the PRNT must be performed in BSL-4 containment and takes several days to complete. Thus, we have developed a neutralization assay using VSV pseudotype particles expressing the F and G proteins of NiV (pVSV-NiV-F/G) as target antigens. This rapid assay, which can be performed at BSL-2, was evaluated using serum samples from outbreak investigations and more than 300 serum samples from an experimental NiV vaccination study in swine. The results of the neutralization assays with pVSV-NiV-F/G as antigen showed a good correlation with those of standard PRNT. Therefore, this new method has the potential to be a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic method, especially in locations that lack high containment facilities, and will provide a valuable tool for basic research and vaccine development.

  15. Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Ryo; Yoneda, Misako; Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21-24 and 110-139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60-75 and 72-75 were important for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more strongly than complete NiV-C. These results indicate that the IFN-antagonist activity of NiV-C occurs in the cytoplasm.

  16. Expression and purification of the matrix protein of Nipah virus in baculovirus insect cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Tan, Wen Siang; Tey, Beng Ti; Ooi, Chien Wei; Hussain, Siti Aslina

    2016-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans and animals. The matrix (M) protein of NiV plays an important role in the viral assembly and budding process. Thus, an access to the NiV M protein is vital to the design of viral antigens as diagnostic reagents. In this study, recombinant DNA technology was successfully adopted in the cloning and expression of NiV M protein. A recombinant expression cassette (baculovirus expression vector) was used to encode an N-terminally His-tagged NiV M protein in insect cells. A time-course study demonstrated that the highest yield of recombinant M protein (400-500 μg) was expressed from 107 infected cells 3 days after infection. A single-step purification method based on metal ion affinity chromatography was established to purify the NiV M protein, which successfully yielded a purity level of 95.67% and a purification factor of 3.39. The Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the purified recombinant M protein (48 kDa) was antigenic and reacted strongly with the serum of a NiV infected pig.

  17. A neutralization test for specific detection of Nipah virus antibodies using pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; McEachern, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-09-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a new zoonotic paramyxovirus that emerged in 1998 and is now classified in the genus Henipavirus along with the closely related Hendra virus (HeV). NiV is highly pathogenic in several vertebrate species including humans, and the lack of available vaccines or specific treatment restricts it to biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment. A serum neutralization test was developed for measuring NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and bearing the F and G proteins of NiV (VSV-NiV-GFP). The neutralization titers were obtained by counting GFP-expressing cells or by measuring fluorescence. The performance of this new assay was compared against the conventional test using live NiV with panels of sera from several mammalian species, including sera from NiV outbreaks, experimental infections, as well as HeV-specific sera. The results obtained with the VSV-NiV-GFP based test correlated with those obtained using live NiV. Using a 50% reduction in VSV-NiV-GFP infected cells as the cut-off for neutralization, this new assay demonstrated its potential as an effective tool for detecting NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 containment with greater speed, sensitivity and safety as compared to the conventional NiV serum neutralization test.

  18. Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-30

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014.  Created: 6/30/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/30/2016.

  19. Towards understanding of Nipah virus attachment protein assembly and the role of protein affinity and crowding for membrane curvature events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Hayden, Carl C.; Negrete, Oscar.; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic viruses are a primary threat to our national security and to the health and economy of our world. Effective defense strategies to combat viral infection and spread require the development of understanding of the mechanisms that these pathogens use to invade the host cell. We present in this report results of our research into viral particle recognition and fusion to cell membranes and the role that protein affinity and confinement in lipid domains plays in membrane curvature in cellular fusion and fission events. Herein, we describe 1) the assembly of the G attachment protein of Nipah virus using point mutation studies to define its role in viral particle fusion to the cell membrane, 2) how lateral pressure of membrane bound proteins induce curvature in model membrane systems, and 3) the role of membrane curvature in the selective partitioning of molecular receptors and specific affinity of associated proteins.

  20. The Nipah virus disease risk early warning and prevention and control measures in our country port%我国口岸尼帕病毒病风险预警及防控措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岳

    2015-01-01

    目的:尼帕病毒病是由尼帕病毒引起的主要侵害中枢神经系统和呼吸系统的急性高度致死性人畜共患传染病。目前该病在东南亚国家和地区流行蔓延,我国尚未有此病的报道,但是一旦传入将严重威胁人民生命安全和养殖业发展。方法为防范疫病传入,本文根据尼帕病毒的流行病学特性及国家质量监督检验检疫总局风险管理规定,对口岸尼帕病毒病的风险预警的重要性及防控措施进行初步的探讨。结果东南亚国家和地区与我国地理位置接近,同时我国是生猪养殖大国,从生物学角度来看我国具有疫病传入风险。结论根据风险等级进行管理,兽医主管部门和口岸检疫部门加强风险预警和管理,严格防控尼帕病毒进入我国境内。%Objective The Nipah virus disease is an acute highly fatal zoonotic infectious disease caused by Nipah virus which mainly invades the central nervous system and respiratory system. At present, the disease is popular in Southeast Asia countries and regions, and our country has not been reported with the disease. But once it is intro-duced to China, it will be a serious threat to the safety of people's life and the development cultivation industry. Methods To prevent the disease from introducing to our country, based on the epidemiological characteristics of Nipah virus and risk supervision regulations of AQSIQ, this article carries out a preliminary discussion on the im-portance of Nipah virus disease's early warning and prevention and its control measures. Results Southeast Asia countries and regions are geographically close to China. And at the same time, pig farming is a very important in-dustry in China, the risk of Nipah virus disease infection biologically exists. Conclusion The veterinary authori-ties and port quarantine departments should strengthen early warning and risk management, and carry out strict pre-vention and control of Nipah

  1. Acute bee paralysis virus [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acute bee paralysis virus [gbvrl]: 14 CDS's (15780 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequ...osomal protein / MAP kinase List of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage Acute bee paralysis virus ...

  2. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Juliet R C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A; Hyatt, Alex D; Field, Hume E; Dobson, Andrew P; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-07

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens.

  3. Unraveling a three-step spatiotemporal mechanism of triggering of receptor-induced Nipah virus fusion and cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion is essential for entry of the biomedically-important paramyxoviruses into their host cells (viral-cell fusion, and for syncytia formation (cell-cell fusion, often induced by paramyxoviral infections [e.g. those of the deadly Nipah virus (NiV]. For most paramyxoviruses, membrane fusion requires two viral glycoproteins. Upon receptor binding, the attachment glycoprotein (HN/H/G triggers the fusion glycoprotein (F to undergo conformational changes that merge viral and/or cell membranes. However, a significant knowledge gap remains on how HN/H/G couples cell receptor binding to F-triggering. Via interdisciplinary approaches we report the first comprehensive mechanism of NiV membrane fusion triggering, involving three spatiotemporally sequential cell receptor-induced conformational steps in NiV-G: two in the head and one in the stalk. Interestingly, a headless NiV-G mutant was able to trigger NiV-F, and the two head conformational steps were required for the exposure of the stalk domain. Moreover, the headless NiV-G prematurely triggered NiV-F on virions, indicating that the NiV-G head prevents premature triggering of NiV-F on virions by concealing a F-triggering stalk domain until the correct time and place: receptor-binding. Based on these and recent paramyxovirus findings, we present a comprehensive and fundamentally conserved mechanistic model of paramyxovirus membrane fusion triggering and cell entry.

  4. Piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent Nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of Nipah virus transmission to humans in Bangladesh. Bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. We conducted a study from November 2008 to March 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). We spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity intervention and half that amount of time in two other villages for the lower-intensity intervention. To evaluate the interventions we followed up all gachhis once a month for three months. A high percentage of gachhis (83% in higher-, 65% in lower-intensity interventions) prepared and used a skirt of bamboo or other materials - jute stalk, dhoincha (Sesbania aculeata), or polythene - at least once after intervention. In general, 15% of gachhis consistently used skirts throughout the sap collection season. The intensive nature of this intervention is very expensive for a large-scale programme. Future efforts should focus on developing a low-cost behaviour change intervention and evaluate if it reduces the human exposure to potentially contaminated fresh date palm sap.

  5. MRI findings in acute Hendra virus meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakka, P.; Amos, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Saad, N., E-mail: nivena100@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Jeavons, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To describe serial changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute human infection from two outbreaks of Hendra virus (HeV), relate these changes to disease prognosis, and compare HeV encephalitis to reported cases of Nipah virus encephalitis. Materials and methods: The MRI images of three human cases (two of which were fatal) of acute HeV meningoencephalitis were reviewed. Results: Cortical selectivity early in the disease is evident in all three patients, while deep white matter involvement appears to be a late and possibly premorbid finding. This apparent early grey matter selectivity may be related to viral biology or ribavirin pharmacokinetics. Neuronal loss is evident at MRI, and the rate of progression of MRI abnormalities can predict the outcome of the infection. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in the MRI picture mirrored the clinical course. Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive report of serial MRI findings in acute human cerebral HeV infection from two outbreaks. The cortical selectivity appears to be an early finding while deep white matter involvement a late, and possibly premorbid, finding. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in MRI mirrored the clinical course.

  6. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  7. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Negrete

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available EphrinB2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for Nipah virus (NiV, a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. Ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the Eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for NiV. Here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrinA1-A5 and ephrinB1-B3, only the soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB3, in addition to ephrinB2, bound to soluble NiV attachment protein G (NiV-G. Soluble NiV-G bound to cell surface ephrinB3 and B2 with subnanomolar affinities (Kd = 0.58 nM and 0.06 nM for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that the relatively lower affinity of NiV-G for ephrinB3 was largely due to a faster off-rate (K(off = 1.94 x 10(-3 s(-1 versus 1.06 x 10(-4 s(-1 for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. EphrinB3 was sufficient to allow for viral entry of both pseudotype and live NiV. Soluble ephrinB2 and B3 were able to compete for NiV-envelope-mediated viral entry on both ephrinB2- and B3-expressing cells, suggesting that NiV-G interacts with both ephrinB2 and B3 via an overlapping site. Mutational analysis indicated that the Leu-Trp residues in the solvent exposed G-H loop of ephrinB2 and B3 were critical determinants of NiV binding and entry. Indeed, replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ephrinB1. Thus, ephrinB3 is a bona fide alternate receptor for NiV entry, and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity.

  8. 浅谈马来西亚控制尼帕病毒病一些经验%Some Experiences in Control of Nipah Virus Disease in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继明; 王志亮

    2003-01-01

    1998-1999年马来西亚暴发尼帕病毒(Nipah virus)病,造成许多人畜伤亡,引起巨大的社会恐慌和经济损失,但疫情得到及时和有效的控制.这是人类成功控制烈性新传染病的范例.本文论述马来西亚在控制此病中在科学研究、行政管理、国际合作等方面值得我们学习和借鉴的一些经验.

  9. Prokaryotic expression of Nipah virus N gene%尼帕病毒N基因的原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁栋; 涂长春; 石清明; 张超雄; 陈锚锚; 邓成玉; 范泉水

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility of Nipah virus ( NiV) N protein as an antigen to detect the presence of NiV by using the prokaryotic expression of NiV N gene .Methods pET-28a (+) was used as an expression vector in order to construct the recombinant plasmid of pET-NivN, which was induced by IPTG to express the protein; and then, Western blot method was used to detect the prokaryotic expression of NivN protein .Results By means of PCR , enzyme digestion and ligation reaction , the recombinant plasmid of pET-NivN was constructed successfully , with a size of 1596 bp;IPTG was used to induce the recombinant plasmid of pET-NivN to express N protein in the host bacteria .SDS-PAGE results showed that 55 kD has a specific protein band with the expected protein size; according to the Bandscan software scanning and analysis , the amount of recombinant protein was 12% of the total bacteria protein .Western blot assay showed that the band of 55 kD has a good color , and this proved that it was just the protein to be obtained in the experiment .Conclusion The prokaryotic expression system can express N protein of NiV successfully , and this lays solid foundation for further antibody preparation , activity evaluation , and research application .%目的:利用尼帕病毒(NiV)的N基因进行原核表达,探讨NiV N蛋白作为检测NiV存在的抗原的可能性。方法利用pET-28a(+)作为表达载体,构建pET-NiV N重组质粒,通过IPTG诱导使其表达蛋白,并用Western blot方法进行原核表达NiV N蛋白的检测。结果通过PCR、酶切和连接反应,成功构建N蛋白的pET-NiV N重组质粒,大小为1596 bp;利用IPTG诱导pET-NiV N重组质粒在宿主菌中表达N蛋白,SDS-PAGE结果显示,55 kD有特异蛋白条带,与蛋白预计大小相符,经Bandscan软件扫描分析,重组蛋白量占菌体总蛋白量的12%;Western blot法检测显示,55 kD的条带显色良好,证明是本实验所需要得到的

  10. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    and re-emerging infectious diseases present a significant threat to the world today. These infectious pathogens include parasites , bacteria, viruses...19.2 million are women, and 3.2 million are children under 15 (11). Hemorrhagic fever caused by emerging viral zoonoses have been recognized in...I.H. Brown, Recent zoonoses caused by influenza A viruses. Rev Sci Tech, 2000. 19(1): p. 197-225. 10. Tatochenko, V. and I.L. Mitjushin

  11. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Uddin Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. METHODS: During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. RESULTS: During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control, dhoincha skirt (p<0.001 or polythene covering (p<0.001, but bats did contact sap during one night (7% with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

  12. Second generation of pseudotype-based serum neutralization assay for Nipah virus antibodies: sensitive and high-throughput analysis utilizing secreted alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; Barr, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV), Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus, is classified as a biosafety level (BSL) 4 pathogen, along with the closely related Hendra virus (HeV). A novel serum neutralization test was developed for measuring NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and pseudotyped with NiV F/G proteins (VSV-NiV-SEAP). A unique characteristic of this novel assay is the ability to obtain neutralization titers by measuring SEAP activity in supernatant using a common ELISA plate reader. This confers a remarkable advantage over the first generation of NiV-pseudotypes expressing green fluorescent protein or luciferase, which require expensive and specific measuring equipment. Using panels of NiV- and HeV-specific sera from various species, the VSV-NiV-SEAP assay demonstrated neutralizing antibody status (positive/negative) consistent with that obtained by conventional live NiV test, and gave higher antibody titers than the latter. Additionally, when screening sixty-six fruit bat sera at one dilution, the VSV-NiV-SEAP assay produced identical results to the live NiV test and only required a very small amount (2μl) of sera. The results suggest that this novel VSV-NiV-SEAP assay is safe, useful for high-throughput screening of sera using an ELISA plate reader, and has high sensitivity and specificity.

  13. The Role of the Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Attachment Glycoproteins in Receptor Binding and Antibody Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    outbreak, the virus has not reemerged in Malaysia but has spread to southern Asia , causing outbreaks in India and Bangladesh. Yearly outbreaks have...persistence without causing clinical disease (reviewed in (158)). It was originally assumed that henipaviruses were limited to Australia and southern Asia ...methods, and consumption of NiV- contaminated raw date palm sap is a leading factor (109; 124). NiV spillover from bats to humans via date palm sap

  14. Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Saiful; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Sultana, Sharmin; Hossain, M Jahangir; Hasan, Murshid; Rahman, Mahmudur; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L; Ströher, Ute; Daszak, Peter; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus, and Pteropus spp. bats are the natural reservoir. From December 2010 through March 2014, hospital-based encephalitis surveillance in Bangladesh identified 18 clusters of NiV infection. The source of infection for case-patients in 3 clusters in 2 districts was unknown. A team of epidemiologists and anthropologists investigated these 3 clusters comprising 14 case-patients, 8 of whom died. Among the 14 case-patients, 8 drank fermented date palm sap (tari) regularly before their illness, and 6 provided care to a person infected with NiV. The process of preparing date palm trees for tari production was similar to the process of collecting date palm sap for fresh consumption. Bat excreta was reportedly found inside pots used to make tari. These findings suggest that drinking tari is a potential pathway of NiV transmission. Interventions that prevent bat access to date palm sap might prevent tari-associated NiV infection.

  15. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  16. Prediction of Epitope-Based Peptides for the Utility of Vaccine Development from Fusion and Glycoprotein of Nipah Virus Using In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadman Sakib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design epitope-based peptides for the utility of vaccine development by targeting glycoprotein G and envelope protein F of Nipah virus (NiV that, respectively, facilitate attachment and fusion of NiV with host cells. Using various databases and tools, immune parameters of conserved sequence(s from G and F proteins of different isolates of NiV were tested to predict probable epitope(s. Binding analyses of the peptides with MHC class-I and class-II molecules, epitope conservancy, population coverage, and linear B cell epitope prediction were analyzed. Predicted peptides interacted with seven or more MHC alleles and illustrated population coverage of more than 99% and 95%, for G and F proteins, respectively. The predicted class-I nonamers, SLIDTSSTI and EWISIVPNF, superimposed on the putative decameric B cell epitopes, were also identified as core sequences of the most probable class-II 15-mer peptides GPKVSLIDTSSTITI and EWISIVPNFILVRNT. These peptides were further validated for their binding to specific HLA alleles using in silico docking technique. Our in silico analysis suggested that the predicted epitopes, either GPKVSLIDTSSTITI or EWISIVPNFILVRNT, could be a better choice as universal vaccine component against NiV irrespective of different isolates which may elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

  17. Receptor-Targeted Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Improve Cell-Type Selective Gene Delivery and Reveal a Preference for Membrane-Proximal Cell Attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben R Bender

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors (LVs can be an effective tool for selective transfer of genes into distinct cell types of choice. Moreover, they can be used to determine the molecular properties that cell surface proteins must fulfill to act as receptors for viral glycoproteins. Here we show that LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted Nipah virus (NiV glycoproteins effectively enter into cells when they use cell surface proteins as receptors that bring them closely enough to the cell membrane (less than 100 Å distance. Then, they were flexible in receptor usage as demonstrated by successful targeting of EpCAM, CD20, and CD8, and as selective as LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the current standard for cell-type specific gene delivery. Remarkably, NiV-LVs could be produced at up to two orders of magnitude higher titers compared to their MV-based counterparts and were at least 10,000-fold less effectively neutralized than MV glycoprotein pseudotyped LVs by pooled human intravenous immunoglobulin. An important finding for NiV-LVs targeted to Her2/neu was an about 100-fold higher gene transfer activity when particles were targeted to membrane-proximal regions as compared to particles binding to a more membrane-distal epitope. Likewise, the low gene transfer activity mediated by NiV-LV particles bound to the membrane distal domains of CD117 or the glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4 was substantially enhanced by reducing receptor size to below 100 Å. Overall, the data suggest that the NiV glycoproteins are optimally suited for cell-type specific gene delivery with LVs and, in addition, for the first time define which parts of a cell surface protein should be targeted to achieve optimal gene transfer rates with receptor-targeted LVs.

  18. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  19. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  20. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  1. Acute paralysis viruses of the honey bee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; Hou; Nor; Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    <正>The alarming decline of honey bee(Apis mellifera)colonies in the last decade drove the attention and research to several pathogens of the honey bee including viruses.Viruses challenge the development of healthy and robust colonies since they manage to prevail in an asymptomatic mode and reemerge in acute infections following external stresses,as well as they are able to infect new healthy colonies(de Miranda J R,et al.,2010a;de Miranda J R,et al.,2010b;Di Prisco G,et al.,2013;Nazzi F,et al.,2012;Yang X L,et al.,2005).

  2. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  3. Acute viral hemorrhage disease:A summary on new viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  4. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Yunus; Güven, Mehmet; Otlu, Bariş; Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Aladağ, Ibrahim; Eyibilen, Ahmet; Doğru, Salim

    2007-03-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical outcome, and etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children based on virologic and bacteriologic tests. The study group consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 144 months with AOM. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested for viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and for bacteria by gram-staining and culture. Clinical response was assessed on day 2 to 4, 11 to 13, 26 to 28. Respiratory viruses were isolated in 39 patients (32.5%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (46.5%) was the most common virus identified in MEF samples, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (25.6%), human coronavirus (HCV) (11.6%), influenza (IV) type A (9.3%), adenovirus type sub type A (AV) (4%), and parainfluenza (PIV) type -3 (2%) by RT-PCR. In total 69 bacterial species were isolated from 65 (54.8%) of 120 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Viral RNA was detected in 31 (56.3%) of 55 bacteria-negative specimens and in 8 (12.3%) of 65 bacteria-positive MEF samples. No significant differences were found between children representing viral infection alone, combined viral and bacterial infection, bacterial infection alone, and neither viral nor bacterial infection, regarding clinical cure, relapse and reinfection rates. A significantly higher rate of secretory otitis media (SOM) was observed in alone or combined RSV infection with S. pneumonia or Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) than in other viruses infection. Conclusion. This study provides information about etiologic agents and diagnosis of AOM in Turkish children. The findings highlight the importance of common respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens, particularly RSV, HRV, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, in predisposing to and causing AOM in children.

  5. Mayaro Virus in Child with Acute Febrile Illness, Haiti, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-11-01

    Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections.

  6. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  7. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-04-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  8. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  9. Acute kidney injury in dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Muhammad A.M.; Sarwar, Sarfaraz; Chaudry, Muhammad A.; Maqbool, Baila; Khalil, Zarghoona; Tan, Jackson; Yaqub, Sonia; Hussain, Syed A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a growing public health problem in Pakistan and acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the least studied complications of dengue virus infection (DVI). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, severity and predictors of AKI in patients with DVI and to study the impact of AKI on the length of hospital stay and mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients aged ≥14 years hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of DVI at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi between January 2008 and December 2010. Binary logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with the development of AKI and to study the impact of AKI on hospital stays of more than 3 days. Results Out of 532 patients, AKI was present in 13.3% (71/532). Approximately two-thirds (64.8%) of these patients had mild AKI and a third (35.2%) had moderate to severe AKI. Independent predictors for AKI were male gender [odds ratio (OD) 4.43; 95% CI 1.92–10.23], presence of dengue hemorrhagic and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, OD 2.14; 95% CI 1.06–4.32), neurological involvement (OD 12.08; 95% CI 2.82–51.77) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, OD 1.81; 95% CI 1.003–3.26). AKI was associated with a length of stay ≥3 days when compared with those who did not have AKI (OD 2.98; 95% CI 1.66–5.34). Eight patients (11.3%) with AKI died whereas there were no mortalities in patients without AKI (P < 0.001). Only 5 patients (7%) had persistent kidney dysfunction at discharge. Conclusions AKI in DVI is associated with neurological involvement, prolongation of aPTT, greater length of hospital stay and increased mortality. PMID:26019813

  10. Acute flaccid paralysis incidence and Zika virus surveillance, Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle T; Pastore, Roberta; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain–Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. Approach We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 years. Using a Poisson probability test, we tested the significance of unexpected increases in AFP in years correlating with Zika virus emergence. Data were analysed separately for each Pacific Island country and territory. Local setting In most Pacific Island countries, early warning surveillance for acute public health threats such as Zika virus is hampered by poor health infrastructure, insufficient human resources and geographical isolation. Relevant changes Only one example was found (Solomon Islands in 2015) of a significant increase in reported AFP cases correlating with Zika virus emergence. Lessons learnt We found no conclusive evidence that routinely reported AFP incidence data in children were useful for detecting emergence of Zika virus in this setting. More evidence may be needed from adult populations, who are more likely to be affected by Guillain–Barré syndrome. Reporting of AFP may be deficient in regions certified as polio-free. PMID:28053366

  11. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  12. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated who

  13. Human monoclonal antibodies as candidate therapeutics against emerging viruses and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyu; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Chen, Weizao; Broder, Christopher C; Gong, Rui; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2013-04-01

    More than 40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for a number of disease indications with only one of these (Synagis) - for a viral disease, and not for therapy but for prevention. However, in the last decade novel potent mAbs have been discovered and characterized with potential as therapeutics against viruses of major importance for public health and biosecurity including Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus (EBOV), West Nile virus (WNV), influenza virus (IFV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here, we review such mAbs with an emphasis on antibodies of human origin, and highlight recent results as well as technologies and mechanisms related to their potential as therapeutics.

  14. Human Monoclonal Antibodies as Candidate Therapeutics Against Emerging Viruses and HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyu Zhu; Ponraj Prabakaran; Weizao Chen; Christopher C.Broder; Rui Gong; Dimiter S.Dimitrov

    2013-01-01

    More than 40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for a number of disease indications with only one of these (Synagis)-for a viral disease,and not for therapy but for prevention.However,in the last decade novel potent mAbs have been discovered and characterized with potential as therapeutics against viruses of major importance for public health and biosecurity including Hendra virus (HeV),Nipah virus (NiV),severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV),Ebola virus (EBOV),West Nile virus (WNV),influenza virus (IFV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).Here,we review such mAbs with an emphasis on antibodies of human origin,and highlight recent results as well as technologies and mechanisms related to their potential as therapeutics.

  15. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkuri, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-05-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children.

  16. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  17. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  18. Respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate

  19. 尼帕病的流行与防控技术研究现状%Epidemic Status and Prevention Technology of Nipah Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永刚; 樊晓旭; 刘学东; 赵明; 吴晓东; 王志亮

    2016-01-01

    The first outbreak of Nipah disease was found in Malaysia. It was not only a serious harm to the pig industry, but also a serious impact on human health. There were numerous reports of Nipah disease outbreaks in Bangladesh and India every year. Phylogenetic analysis of viral N gene sequences revealed that the evolution of the virus was divided into two developmental directions. The effective anti Nipah virus drugs and vaccines havet not been developed yet. Chi-na has initially established detective methods of Nipah virus such as real-time quantitative RT-PCR and indirect ELISA. Although China is free of Nipah,the risk of introduction is not negligible. It is suggested that Nipah should be brought into the scope of comprehensive prevention and control management.%尼帕病首次暴发于东南亚地区的马来西亚,不但严重危害养猪业,而且严重影响着人类的健康。目前,孟加拉国、印度每年都有尼帕病暴发的报道。通过病毒N基因序列的系统进化分析发现,尼帕病毒进化分为两个发展方向。目前还没有研制出有效的抗尼帕病毒药物、疫苗。我国已经初步建立了实时定量RT-PCR和间接ELISA检测尼帕病毒的方法,虽然还没有发现该病的报道,但存在传入的风险。提议我国应将尼帕病纳入综合防控管理范围,积极开展尼帕病防控的宣传与培训,加强尼帕病的技术研究和监测,并制订相关的应急预案。

  20. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  1. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection.

  2. Varroa destructor, a potential vector of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the role of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, as a vector in transmission of viruses between honey bees is well established, no study has shown that it can similarly transmit Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus that was found to be associated with Colony Collapse Disorder (CC...

  3. Acute hepatitis due to dengue virus in a chronic hepatitis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, L J; Coelho, J.M.C. de O.; Silva,E. J.; Abukater,M.; Almeida,F.C.R.; A. S. Fonte; L.A Souza

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of acute hepatitis caused by dengue virus, with a significant increase in aspartate transferase and alanine transferase levels in a chronic hepatitis patient attended at the Cane Sugar Planters Hospital of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.

  4. The role of respiratory syncytial virus and other viral pathogens in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B S; Dollete, F R; Yolken, R H

    1982-07-01

    We utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. Viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. In addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. Seven of these children had RSV identified as the sole middle ear pathogen, whereas six children had otitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as either the sole middle ear pathogen or in combination with RSV. Similarly, all three children with respiratory infections caused by influenza virus had ear infections caused by bacterial pathogens, either alone or in combination with influenza virus. These findings suggest that, in patients with viral respiratory infection, coexisting acute otitis media may be associated with the recovery of either viruses or bacteria from the middle ear exudates.

  5. Hemolytic uremic syndrome as a primary manifestation of acute human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A M; Ventura, A; Almeida, C; Correia, M; Tavares, V; Mota, M; Seabra, J

    2009-05-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection but it occurs in advanced stages of human immunodeficiency virus disease. As in other forms of hemolytic uremic syndrome plasmapheresis seems to be the treatment of choice. The authors present an unusual case of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection in a 38 year-old black male. The patient was admitted with fever, asthenia, nausea, diarrhea, and reduced urinary output. He was found to have anemia, thrombocytopenia and severe renal failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome was diagnosed and he was started on plasmapheresis and hemodialysis. Serological tests were consistent with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection: the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus was weakly positive, Western Blot test was negative and human immunodeficiency virus RNA quantification was positive, with > 1,000,000 copies/microl. After 4 daily treatment sessions, patient's clinical condition improved and hemoglobin, platelets, lactic dehydrogenase and renal function normalized.

  6. Associations between co-detected respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kohdera, Urara; Togawa, Masao; Amo, Kiyoko; Shiomi, Masashi; Ohyama, Minori; Goto, Kaoru; Hase, Atsushi; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age virus positive (1,414 viruses were detected), and 388 of the virus-positive specimens (43.5%, 388/891) were positive for multiple viruses. The ratio of multiple/total respiratory virus-positive specimens was high in children aged 0-35 months. Statistical analyses revealed that human bocavirus 1 and human adenovirus were synchronously co-detected. On the other hand, co-detections of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) with HPIV-3, HPIV-3 with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), hMPV with respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), hMPV with influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 (FLUA (H1N1) 2009), RSV A with RSV B, and human rhinovirus and FLUA (H1N1) 2009 were exclusive. These results suggest that young children (viruses, and some combinations of viruses are synchronously or exclusively co-detected.

  7. Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes : prevalences of bacteria and viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruohola, Aino; Meurman, Olli; Nikkari, Simo; Skottman, Tuukka; Salmi, Aimo; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Eerola, Erkki; Allander, Tobias; Niesters, Hubert; Heikkinen, Terho; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria are found in 50%-90% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) with or without otorrhea, and viruses are found in 20%-49% of cases. However, for at least 15% of patients with AOM, the microbiological etiology is never determined. Our aim was to specify the full etiology of acute midd

  8. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Jan C. Wilschut; Stephen G.S. Vreden; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission ...

  9. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  10. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Zonneveld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  11. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  12. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

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    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  13. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  14. Similar virus spectra and seasonality in paediatric patients with acute respiratory disease, Ghana and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, A; Ebach, F; Corman, V M; Krumkamp, R; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Kruppa, T; Simon, A; May, J; Evans, J; Panning, M; Drosten, C; Drexler, J F

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions regarding viruses causing acute respiratory infection are poorly understood. This is in part because methodological differences limit the comparability of data from these two regions. Using identical molecular detection methods, we tested 1174 Ghanaian and 539 German children with acute respiratory infections sampled over 12 months for the 15 most common respiratory viruses by PCR. A total 43.2% of the Ghanaian and 56.6% of the German children tested positive for at least one respiratory virus. The pneumoviruses respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus were most frequently detected, in 13.1% and 25.1% within the Ghanaian and German children, respectively. At both study sites, pneumoviruses were more often observed at younger ages (p Ghana, virus spectra, age associations and seasonal fluctuation showed similarities between sites. Neither respiratory viruses overall, nor environmentally stable (non-enveloped) viruses in particular were more frequent in tropical Ghana. The standardization of our sampling and laboratory testing revealed similarities in acute respiratory infection virus patterns in tropical and temperate climates.

  15. Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Ivan; de Miranda, Joachim R; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wäckers, Felix; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) together with Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Kashmir bee virus (KBV) constitute a complex of closely related dicistroviruses. They are infamous for their high mortality after injection in honeybees. These viruses have also been reported in non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators such as bumblebees, which got infected with IAPV when placed in the same greenhouse with IAPV infected honeybee hives. Here we orally infected Bombus terrestris workers with different doses of either IAPV or KBV viral particles. The success of the infection was established by analysis of the bumblebees after the impact studies: 50days after infection. Doses of 0.5×10(7) and 1×10(7) virus particles per bee were infectious over this period, for IAPV and KBV respectively, while a dose of 0.5×10(6) IAPV particles per bee was not infectious. The impact of virus infection was studied in micro-colonies consisting of 5 bumblebees, one of which becomes a pseudo-queen which proceeds to lay unfertilized (drone) eggs. The impact parameters studied were: the establishment of a laying pseudo-queen, the timing of egg-laying, the number of drones produced, the weight of these drones and worker mortality. In this setup KBV infection resulted in a significant slower colony startup and offspring production, while only the latter can be reported for IAPV. Neither virus increased worker mortality, at the oral doses used. We recommend further studies on how these viruses transmit between different pollinator species. It is also vital to understand how viral prevalence can affect wild bee populations because disturbance of the natural host-virus association may deteriorate the already critically endangered status of many bumblebee species.

  16. Detection of respiratory viruses and the associated chemokine responses in serious acute respiratory illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924

  17. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  19. Infección aguda por el VHC Acute hepatitis C virus infection

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    A. Martínez Echeverría

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección aguda por el virus C de la hepatitis produce un cuadro clínico y bioquímico no específico e indistinguible de los causados por otros virus hepatotropos. El diagnóstico específico de la hepatitis aguda por virus C se basa en la detección en sangre del RNA-VHC mediante una técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuyo resultado será positivo a partir de 1-2 semanas tras el contacto inicial con el virus. Los anticuerpos frente al VHC se detectan más tardíamente (a las 7-8 semanas por término medio no siendo útiles, como determinación aislada, para distinguir infección aguda de infección crónica o aclaramiento del virus (espontáneo o tras tratamiento. El 55-85% de los pacientes con infección aguda por el VHC no aclaran el virus y desarrollan una infección crónica con riesgo de evolución a cirrosis y de desarrollo de hepatocarcinoma. Por ello, la tendencia actual es tratar con interferón a todos aquellos pacientes en los que el RNA-VHC se mantenga positivo más allá de 3-4 meses tras el diagnóstico de la infección aguda.Acute hepatitis C virus infection produces clinical and biochemical features that is non-specific and indistinguishable from those caused by other hepatotropic viruses. The specific diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus infection is based on the detection of serum RNA-HCV through a technique of PCR whose result will be positive after 1-2 weeks of the initial contact with the virus. The anti-bodies against HCV are detected later (after 7-8 weeks on average, and are not useful, as an isolated determination, in distinguishing acute infection from chronic infection or in clearing the virus (spontaneous or following treatment. Fifty-five to eighty-five percent of patients with acute HCV infection do not clear the virus and develop a chronic infection with risk of evolution to cirrhosis and of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. For this reason, the present tendency is to treat with interferon

  20. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome.

  1. A molecular epidemiological study of respiratory viruses detected in Japanese children with acute wheezing illness

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    Noda Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is not exactly known. Methods Using PCR technology, we attempted to detect various respiratory viruses from 115 Japanese children. Furthermore, the detected viruses were subjected to homology, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic analysis. Results Viruses were detected from 99 (86.1% patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV alone and human rhinovirus (HRV alone were detected in 47 (40.9% and 36 (31.3% patients, respectively. Both RSV and HRV were detected in 14 (12.2% patients. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV alone and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV alone were detected in 1 (0.9% patient each, respectively. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the RSV and HRV strains were classified into genetically diverse species or subgroups. In addition, RSV was the dominant virus detected in patients with no history of wheezing, whereas HRV was dominant in patients with a history of wheezing. Conclusions The results suggested that these genetically diverse respiratory viruses, especially RSV and HRV, might be associated with wheezing in Japanese children.

  2. Risk factors and molecular characterization of acute sporadic symptomatic hepatitis E virus infection in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kittiyod Poovorawan; Salyavit Jitmitrapab; Sombat Treeprasertsuk; Thanunrat Thongmee; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Pisit Tangkijvanich; Piyawat Komolmit; Yong Poovorawan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report clinical outcomes and viral genotypes of acute symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection inThailand.Methods:Forty patients with acute symptomaticHEV infection were recruited during2009-2013.Clinical, demographic and laboratory data were collected.Diagnosis was accomplished by detection of anti-HEVIgM and/orHEVRNA in the serum or stool.HEV genotypes were classified by direct sequencing ofRT-PCRproducts and phylogenetic analysis. Results:The high risk group, comprising immune-compromised, liver cirrhosis and very elderly (>80 years) patients(17 cases), had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase at presentation compared with the low risk group.Two fatal cases resulted from acute hepatitisE in the high risk group.Initial clinical presentation did not show statistically significant differences.In six cases (6/40), the virus could be detected in serum or stool byRT-PCR and sequencing.Upon molecular characterization, the viruses were classified asHEV genotype3f and were in the same cluster as Thai swineHEV.Conclusions:Our data showed that acuteHEV infection has various clinical presentations and outcomes.Higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase were observed in high risk patients.All isolated viruses were identified asHEV genotype3f possibly originating from swine.

  3. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  4. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  5. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Austral...

  6. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O

    1990-05-01

    We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.

  7. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  8. Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease.

  9. Role of viruses in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T

    2000-05-01

    To date there is ample evidence suggesting a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of AOM. Respiratory viral infection appears to initiate the cascade of events that finally leads to development of AOM (Fig. 1). The pathogenesis of AOM is complicated, involving a network of factors, some probably not yet identified, which affect each other in a time-dependent manner. Increased knowledge of the detailed mechanisms of viral infection, the host inflammatory response during URI and the interaction between viruses and bacteria could lead to major advances in the prevention of AOM.

  10. Varroa destructor is an effective vector of Israeli acute paralysis virus in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Pennacchio, Francesco; Caprio, Emilio; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a significant marker of honeybee colony collapse disorder (CCD). In the present work, we provide the first evidence that Varroa destructor is IAPV replication-competent and capable of vectoring IAPV in honeybees. The honeybees became infected with IAPV after exposure to Varroa mites that carried the virus. The copy number of IAPV in bees was positively correlated with the density of Varroa mites and time period of exposure to Varroa mites. Further, we showed that the mite-virus association could possibly reduce host immunity and therefore promote elevated levels of virus replication. This study defines an active role of Varroa mites in IAPV transmission and sheds light on the epidemiology of IAPV infection in honeybees.

  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

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    Jose L Nieto-Torres

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV envelope (E gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS

  12. Epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children and inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hu; Yan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate of epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children, and to discuss the inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms, in order to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods: Five hundred and sixty-two cases of children with acute diarrhea treated in our center were selected as the research subjects, whose epidemiological data were analyzed. The fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and identification, and the distribution characteristics of pathogenic bacteria were collected, then their relative characteristics were analyzed.Results:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old,and the incidence of time was more concentrated in June-August. There were four hundred and eighty-nine strains in the five hundred and sixty-two cases of children, among which the rate of viruses was the most, and the human rotavirus accounted for 30.67%, and the Shigella bacterium accounted for 20.65% in the total microorganisms, which was the highest detection rate of pathogenic bacterium. Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Winter, but the bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer.Conclusions:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old , and the rate of viruses in the detection of microorganisms is the highest, so targeted treatment should be taken according to the type of infection.

  13. Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Faulk, Kristina N

    2010-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B) causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. We compared evolutionary features in acute resolving and persistent GBV-B infection. We detected no evidence of evolution in four animals with clearance during weeks 9-12, whereas three animals with clearance during...... weeks 13-26 had several substitutions in their polyprotein sequence. A single tamarin had long-term GBV-B viraemia; analysis of virus recovered at weeks 2, 5, 12, 20, 26, 52 and 104 demonstrated that mutations accumulated over time. Overall, the amino acid substitution rate was 3.5x10(-3) and 1.1x10......(-3) substitutions per site year(-1) during weeks 1-52 and 53-104, respectively. Thus, there was a significant decrease in evolution over time, as found for hepatitis C virus. The rate of non-synonymous substitution per non-synonymous site compared with that of synonymous substitution per synonymous site decreased...

  14. Infección aguda por el VHB Acute infection by Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alegre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El espectro clínico de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B es muy amplio, con cuadros que van desde una hepatitis anictérica y subclínica a una hepatitis ictérica aguda grave e incluso, en algunos casos, a una hepatitis fulminante. El diagnóstico depende en gran medida del grado de sospecha clínica de la hepatitis, estableciéndose el origen etiológico por el virus B mediante el estudio de marcadores serológicos y/o DNA en sangre. Aunque en la mayor parte de los casos la evolución de la hepatitis aguda por virus B es favorable, con resolución espontánea de la clínica en 4-8 semanas, no es infrecuente en ciertos casos, sobre todo en la infancia, la progresión a hepatitis crónica. No existe ningún tratamiento específico para la infección aguda por virus B que reduzca su gravedad o prevenga su evolución a hepatitis crónica. Se recomienda, no obstante, el reposo relativo, y la administración de una dieta hipercalórica. En las hepatitis agudas graves debe indicarse ingreso hospitalario; en casos de hepatitis fulminante ingreso en UCI para monitorización intensiva y valoración de trasplante hepático si no se produce mejoría espontánea. En el presente artículo se revisa, de forma breve y esquemática, la clínica, el diagnóstico, el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B.The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis B virus infection is very broad, with clinical manifestations that range from anicteric and sub-clinical hepatitis to severe acute icteric hepatitis and even, in some cases, to fulminant hepatitis. Diagnosis depends to a large extent on the degree of clinical suspicion of hepatitis, establishing the aetiological origin of the B virus through the study of serological markers and/or DNA in the blood. Although in the majority of cases there is a favourable evolution of acute hepatitis B virus infection, with spontaneous resolution of the clinical manifestations

  15. Feline immunodeficiency virus can be experimentally transmitted via milk during acute maternal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, R K; Jordan, H L; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Tompkins, M B; Tompkins, W A

    1994-01-01

    Postnatal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in neonates nursed by acutely infected mothers and infection resulting from oral inoculation of kittens with FIV were evaluated. Ten of 16 kittens nursed by four queens with FIV infection established immediately postpartum developed FIV infection. Five of 11 neonates orally administered cell-free FIV culture supernatant developed FIV infection. Kittens that developed FIV infection had greater proportions of CD4+ and Pan-T+ lymphocy...

  16. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few re...

  17. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic.

  18. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia.

  19. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus that was linked with honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), the sudden and massive die-off of honey bee colonies in the U.S. in 2006-2007. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence and genetic diversity of IAPV, host transcripti...

  20. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  1. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  2. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.

  3. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  4. lamivudine inhibits the replication of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus, its helper virus and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the antiviral effects of lamivudine on avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J and its inhibitory effect on the growth of fibrosarcomas caused by acute transforming ALV, a series of experiments were performed in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and 1-day-old chickens inoculated with an acutely transforming viral stock Fu-J (SDAU1005. This stock was prepared from an acutely fibrosarcoma of field cases in chicken farms and contained both the replication-defective virus Fu-J carrying v-fps oncogene and its helper virus ALV-J strain SDAU1005. The results from 3 different assays in cell cultures demonstrated the significant inhibitory effect of lamivudine on the replication of both SDAU1005 and Fu-J viruses. Furthermore, the effect was dose dependent in the concentration range of 1–4 μg/ml. In chicken experiments, lamivudine could decrease the viral loads of SDAU1005 and Fu-J in the plasma of inoculated chickens, delay the appearance of acute sarcomas, and decrease chicken mortality in the early stage. This model may be used to directly evaluate the inhibitory effects of lamivudine on such tumors and to understand the relationship between the replication-defective virus and its helper virus while also assessing tumor processes.

  5. False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceará state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture,an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

  6. Virus profile in children with acute respiratory infections with various severities in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Runan; Song Qinwei; Qian Yuan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Sun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children globally.This study aimed to determine the virus profile in children with ARI presenting with different severities.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARI in Beijing from September 2010 to March 2011 were investigated for 18 respiratory viruses using an xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast (RVP Fast) assay.The Pearson chisquare analysis was used to identify statistical significance.Results Of 270 cases from three groups of ARI patients,including Out-patients,In-patients and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU),viruses were detected in 176 (65.2%) specimens with the RVP Fast assay.The viral detection rate from the Out-patients group (50.0%) was significantly lower than that from the In-patients (71.1%) and ICU-patients (74.4%) groups.The virus distribution was different between the Out-patients group and the other hospitalized groups,while the virus detection rate and distribution characteristics were similar between the In-patients and ICU-patients groups.The coinfection rates of the Out-patients group,the In-patients group,and the ICU-patients group were 15.6%,50.0% and 35.8%,respectively.In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (ADV),human rhinovirus (HRV) was frequently detected from children with serious illnesses,followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV),human bocavirus (HBoV) and coronaviruses.Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was detected in children with lower respiratory illness,but rarely from those with serious illnesses in the ICU-patient group.Conclusion In addition to so-called common respiratory viruses,virus detection in children with ARI should include those thoucht to be uncommon respiratory viruses,especially when there are severe ARI-related clinical illnesses.

  7. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  8. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Christodoulou, I; Rohde, G

    2011-01-01

    and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE systematic review. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02505.x. ABSTRACT: A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections....... Respiratory viruses and bacteria are therefore possible treatment targets. To have a reasonable estimate of the burden of disease induced by such infectious agents on asthmatic patients, it is necessary to understand their nature and be able to identify them in clinical samples by employing accurate...... less or not clearly associated. Mycoplasma and Chlamydophila pneumoniae seem to be involved more with asthma persistence rather than with disease exacerbations. Recent data suggest that common bacteria may also be involved, but this should be confirmed. Although current information is considerable...

  9. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  10. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization. PMID:28018450

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus associated acute hepatitis with cross-reacting antibodies to other herpes viruses in immunocompetent patients: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ekta; Bhatia, Vikram; Choudhary, Aashish; Rastogi, Archana; Gupta, Naveen L

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM) which is characterized by the triad of fever, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. Self-limited, mild liver function test abnormalities are seen in IM. Acute hepatitis in primary EBV infection is uncommon. Serum transaminases are elevated but are less than fivefold the normal levels in most cases and rarely exceed 10 times the normal levels in primary EBV infections especially in elderly. Laboratory diagnosis of acute EBV infection is by serological assays confirming the presence of EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies. Due to antigenic cross-reactivity with Herpes viruses, serological assays lack specificity; hence specific molecular diagnostic methods are required for confirmation of the etiology. The present report describes two cases of acute hepatitis caused by infection with EBV which had indistinguishable clinical features and biochemical markers from acute hepatitis caused by hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis viruses A-E. The diagnosis of infection by EBV was confirmed by detection of EBV DNA in blood of both the patients and EBV DNA in the liver tissue of one of the patients.

  13. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ping Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV-host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.

  14. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases.

  15. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  16. Identification of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus Fu-J carrying complete v-fps oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Transduction of oncogenes by ALVs and generation of acute transforming viruses is common in natural viral infections. In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid oncogenicity of Fu-J, an acutely transforming avian leukosis virus isolated from fibrosarcomas in crossbreed broilers infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in China, complete genomic structure of Fu-J virus was determined by PCR amplification and compared with those of Fu-J1, Fu-J2, Fu-J3, Fu-J4, and Fu-J5 reported previously. The results showed that the genome of Fu-J was defective, with parts of gag gene replaced by the complete v-fps oncogene and encoded a 137 kDa Gag-fps fusion protein. Sequence analysis revealed that Fu-J and Fu-J1 to Fu-J5 were related quasi-species variants carrying different lengths of v-fps oncogenes generated from recombination between helper virus and c-fps gene. Comparison of virus carrying v-fps oncogene also gave us a glimpse of the molecular characterization and evolution process of the acutely transforming ALV.

  17. Tick-borne encephalitis virus NS1 glycoprotein during acute and persistent infection of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, J V; Matveeva, V A; Dobrikova, E Y; Bykovskaya, N V; Korobova, S A; Bakhvalova, V N; Morozova, O V

    2001-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was propagated in porcine embryo kidney (PS) cells until 48 h whereas human kidney (RH) cells maintained the virus persistence during at least 2 months. One of possible reasons of flavivirus chronic infection might be abnormal NS1 gene expression. Immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) revealed the similarity of the intracellular and secreted NS1 nonstructural glycoprotein size and linear antigenic determinants in both the infected cell lines. However, according to the competitive binding of MAbs with the TBEV NS1 extracellular glycoprotein, its contiguous epitopes differed for acute or persistent infection. To map the TBEV NS1 glycoprotein antigenic determinants its recombinant analogues were used. All the studied MAbs could bind with the full-length NS1 recombinant protein. Deletion of the TBEV NS1 gene internal region resulted in defective NS1d1 protein without the region between 269 and 333 a.a. Lack of NS1d1 binding with 20B4 MAb and diminished binding with 22H8 and 17C3 MAbs permitted to map their antigenic determinants within or nearby deleted region, respectively. Interaction of other MAbs with the NS1 and NS1d1 recombinant proteins did not differ, suggesting that their epitopes were located in the region of N-terminal 268 a.a. or C-terminal 19 a.a. of the TBEV NS1 protein. The second NS1d2 truncated protein contained the first N-terminal 33 a.a. of the TBEV NS1 protein and was able to bind with 29G9 MAb. Taken together the data stand for the differences in the N-terminal structure of the TBEV NS1 multimers secreted from the acute and persistent infected cells whereas the intracellular and secreted monomer processing was the same. The modified NS1 protein oligomers in the RH cellular line might slow virus replication and could result in the TBEV persistence.

  18. Acute lung injury induced by H9N2 virus in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Shan Yunfeng; Chi Ying; Wen Tian; Han Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have repeatedly caused infections in mammals even humans in many countries.The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute lung injury (ALI) caused by H9N2 viral infection in mice.Methods Six-to eight-week-old female SPF C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1x104 MID50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK)] virus.Clinical signs,pathological changes,virus titration in tissues of mice,arterial blood gas,and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were observed at different time points after AIV infection.Results H9N2-AIV-infected mice exhibited severe respiratory syndrome,with a mortality rate of 50%.Lung histopathological changes in infected mice included diffuse pneumonia,alveolar damage,inflammatory cellular infiltration,interstitial and alveolar edema,and hemorrhage.In addition,H9N2 viral infection resulted in severe progressive hypoxemia,lymphopenia,and a significant increase in interleukin 1,interleukin 6,tumor necrosis factor,and interferon in BALF and serum.Conclusions The results suggest that H9N2 viral infection induces a typical ALl in mice that resembles the common features of ALl.Our data may facilitate the future studies of potential avian H9N2 disease in humans.

  19. The Impact of Specific Viruses on Clinical Outcome in Children Presenting with Acute Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Gagliardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and type of viral genomes have been suggested as the main etiology for inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. Information on the clinical implication of this finding in a large population of children is lacking. We evaluated the prevalence, type, and clinical impact of specific viral genomes in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB collected between 2001 and 2013 among 63 children admitted to our hospital for acute heart failure (median age 2.8 years. Viral genome was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Patients underwent a complete two-dimensional echocardiographic examination at hospital admission and at discharge and were followed-up for 10 years. Twenty-seven adverse events (7 deaths and 20 cardiac transplantations occurred during the follow-up. Viral genome was amplified in 19/63 biopsies (35%; PVB19 was the most commonly isolated virus. Presence of specific viral genome was associated with a significant recovery in ejection fraction, compared to patients without viral evidence (p < 0.05. In Cox-regression analysis, higher survival rate was related to virus-positive biopsies (p < 0.05. When comparing long-term prognosis among different viral groups, a trend towards better prognosis was observed in the presence of isolated Parvovirus B19 (PVB19 (p = 0.07. In our series, presence of a virus-positive EMB (mainly PVB19 was associated with improvement over time in cardiac function and better long-term prognosis.

  20. Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into chromosomal DNA during acute hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerald C Kimbi; Anna Kramvis; Michael C Kew

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the serum from black African patients with acute hepatitis B to ascertain if integrants of viral DNA can be detected in fragments of cellular DNA leaking from damaged hepatocytes into the circulation.METHODS: DNA was extracted from the sera of five patients with uncomplicated acute hepatitis B and one with fulminant disease. Two subgenomic PCRs designed to amplify the complete genome of HBV were used and the resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced.RESULTS: HBV and chromosomal DNA were amplified from the sera of all the patients. In one patient with uncomplicated disease, HBV DNA was integrated into host chromosome 7 q11.23 in the WBSCR1 gene. The viral DNA comprised 200 nucleotides covering the S and X genes in opposite orientation, with a 1 169 nudeotide deletion. The right virus/host junction was situated at nucleotide 1774 in the cohesive overlap region of the viral genome, at a preferred topoisomerase I cleavage motif. The chromosomal DNA was not rearranged.The patient made a full recovery and seroconverted to anti-HBs- and anti-HBe-positivity. Neither HBV nor chromosomal DNA could be amplified from his serum at that time.CONCLUSION: Integration of viral DNA into chromosomal DNA may occur rarely during acute hepatitis B and, with clonal propagation of the integrant, might play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. Patterns of hepatitis C virus RNA levels during acute infection: the InC3 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Hajarizadeh

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of HCV RNA levels during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection provides insights into immunopathogenesis and is important for vaccine design. This study evaluated patterns of HCV RNA levels and associated factors among individuals with acute infection.Data were from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts of acute HCV (InC3 Study. Participants with well-characterized acute HCV infection (detected within three months post-infection and interval between the peak and subsequent HCV RNA levels ≤ 120 days were categorised by a priori-defined patterns of HCV RNA levels: i spontaneous clearance, ii partial viral control with persistence (≥ 1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak and iii viral plateau with persistence (increase or <1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak. Factors associated with HCV RNA patterns were assessed using multinomial logistic regression.Among 643 individuals with acute HCV, 162 with well-characterized acute HCV were identified: spontaneous clearance (32%, partial viral control with persistence (27%, and viral plateau with persistence (41%. HCV RNA levels reached a high viraemic phase within two months following infection, with higher levels in the spontaneous clearance and partial viral control groups, compared to the viral plateau group (median: 6.0, 6.2, 5.3 log IU/mL, respectively; P = 0.018. In the two groups with persistence, Interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3 CC genotype was independently associated with partial viral control compared to viral plateau (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.08, 7.02. In the two groups with viral control, female sex was independently associated with spontaneous clearance compared to partial viral control (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.04, 7.83.Among individuals with acute HCV, a spectrum of HCV RNA patterns is evident. IFNL3 CC genotype is associated with initial viral control, while female sex is associated with ultimate

  2. Detection of respiratory viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction in outpatients with acute respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Bragança Martins Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs for all age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies for a large range of respiratory viruses using a sensitive molecular detection technique in specimens from outpatients of all ages with ARIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 162 individuals between August 2007-August 2009. Twenty-three pathogenic respiratory agents, 18 respiratory viruses and five bacteria were investigated using multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF. Through IIF, 33 (20.4% specimens with respiratory virus were recognised, with influenza virus representing over half of the positive samples. Through a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, 88 (54.3% positive samples were detected; the most prevalent respiratory viral pathogens were influenza, human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Six cases of viral co-detection were observed, mainly involving RSV. The use of multiplex real-time RT-PCR increased the viral detection by 33.9% and revealed a larger number of respiratory viruses implicated in ARI cases, including the most recently described respiratory viruses [human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 virus, human coronavirus (HCoV NL63 and HCoV HKU1].

  3. (18)F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena;

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on (18)F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after...

  4. Elevation of soluble VCAM-1 plasma levels in children with acute dengue virus infection of varying severity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, P.; Murgue, B.; Deparis, X.; Gorp, E. van; Setiati, T.E.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Groen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 million infections with dengue viruses are estimated to occur annually. The majority of the cases develop mild disease, whereas only small proportion of the infected individuals develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations at the end of the acute phase of illness. In this study, the

  5. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  6. Chandipura virus: a major cause of acute encephalitis in children in North Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandale, Babasaheb V; Tikute, Sanjaykumar S; Arankalle, Vidya A; Sathe, Padmakar S; Joshi, Manohar V; Ranadive, Satish N; Kanojia, Phoolchand C; Eshwarachary, D; Kumarswamy, M; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2008-01-01

    A hospital-based surveillance was undertaken between May 2005 and April 2006 to elucidate the contribution of Chandipura virus (CHPV) to acute viral encephalitis cases in children, seroconversion in recovered cases and to compare the seroprevalences of anti-CHPV IgM and N antibodies in areas reporting cases with those without any case of acute viral encephalitis. During this period, 90 cases of acute encephalitis were hospitalized in the pediatric wards of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial (MGM) Hospital, Warangal. There were 49 deaths (Case Fatality Rate, i.e., CFR of 54.4%). Clinical samples and records were obtained from 52 suspected cases. The cases were below 15 years, majority in 0-4 years (35/52, 67.3%). Computerized tomography (CT) scans and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) picture favored viral etiology. No neurological sequelae were observed. CHPV etiology was detected in 25 cases (48.1%, n = 52; RNA in 20, IgM in 3 and N antibody seroconversion in 2). JEV etiology was detected in 5 cases (IgM in 4 cases and seroconversion in 1 case). Anti-CHPV IgM seroprevalence in contacts (26/167, 15.6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in non-contacts (11/430, 2.6%); which was also observed in children <15 years (19/90, 21.1% vs. 3/109, 2.7%). Anti-CHPV N antibody seroprevalence in <15 years contacts (66/90, 73.3%) and non-contacts (77/109, 70.6%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in contacts (75/77, 97.4%) and non-contacts (302/321, 94.1%) more than 15 years respectively. CHPV appears to be the major cause of acute viral encephalitis in children in endemic areas during early monsoon months.

  7. Simultaneous investigation of influenza and enteric viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting in general practice for acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are not an uncommon manifestation of an influenza virus infection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting their general practitioner for uncomplicated acute diarrhea (AD and the proportion of concurrent infections by enteric and influenza viruses. Method A case-control study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Stool specimens were collected and tested for influenza viruses A (seasonal A/H3N2 and pandemic A/H1N1 and B, and for four enteric viruses (astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, norovirus of genogroups I – NoVGI - and genogroup II - NoVGII. Results General practitioners enrolled 138 cases and 93 controls. Of the 138 stool specimens collected, 92 (66.7% were positive for at least one of the four enteric viruses analysed and 10 (7.2% tested positive for one influenza virus. None of these 10 influenza positive patients reported respiratory symptoms. In five influenza-positive patients (3.6%, we also detected one enteric virus, with 4 of them being positive for influenza B (2 had co-detection with NoVGI, 1 with NoVGII, and 1 with astrovirus. None of the 93 controls tested positive for one of the enteric and/or other influenza viruses we investigated. Conclusions In this study we showed that the simultaneous detection of influenza and enteric viruses is not a rare event. We have also reported, for the first time in general practice, the presence of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting for uncomplicated AD. A simultaneous investigation of enteric and influenza viruses in patients complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms could be useful for future studies to better identify the agents responsible for AD.

  8. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

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    Chaoul Nada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi, and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun to 35% (ileum at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum or IgM (duodenum plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses

  9. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

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    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  10. Acute acalculous cholecystitis by Epstein-Barr virus infection: a rare association

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    Liliana Branco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient. Pediatricians should be aware of the possible association between EBV and AAC, in order to offer the patients an appropriate management strategy.

  11. Short communication. Presence, quantification and phylogeny of Israeli acute paralysis virus of honeybees in Andalusia (Spain

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    M. Vicente-Rubiano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between the presence of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV of honeybees and disease symptoms development at the colony level, to describe the IAPV load in field colonies and to illustrate phylogenetic relationships between IAPV isolates in Andalusia (Spain. Presence and load of IAPV was studied in 96 colonies from all provinces in Andalusia. Epidemiological surveys were performed in all the colonies to assess their sanitary status. IAPV was found in 13.5% of the sampled colonies, and no association was observed between the presence of IAPV and disease symptoms at the colony level. An average IAPV load was established in 4.9•105 genome equivalent copies per bee. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Andalusian isolates belong to a different lineage to a previously described isolate found in Valencia (2010. The results of this study will help us understand the epidemiology and effect of IAPV on Spanish colonies.

  12. Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

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    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Saito, Akatsuki; Katakai, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kurosawa, Terue; Hamano, Masataka; Higashino, Atsunori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection.

  13. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

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    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  14. Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase.

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    Tappe, Dennis; Pérez-Girón, José Vicente; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Rissland, Jürgen; Ferreira, Davis F; Jaenisch, Thomas; Gómez-Medina, Sergio; Günther, Stephan; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

  15. Establishment of realtime RT-PCR assay to detect polio virus in the Acute Flaccid Paralysis laboratory surveillance

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    Nike Susanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Virus polio indigenous terakhir ditemukan di Indonesia tahun 1995 tetapi ancaman viruspolio impor dan mutasi virus dari Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV menjadi Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (VDPVmasih berlanjut. Tahun 1991 WHO mengembangkan Surveilans Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP dan tahun2014, identifikasi virus polio dengan real-time reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRTPCRmulai digunakan di Laboratorium Nasional Polio Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan.Tujuan dari penggunaan rRT-PCR untuk mendapatkan metode yang cepat dan lebih baik dalam memantausirkulasi dan mutasi virus polio.Metode: Isolat polio positif diidentifikasi menggunakanan rRT PCR dengan kombinasi primer dan probeyang ditetapkan WHO. RNA virus di konversi ke cDNA menggunakan reverse transcriptase lalu diamplifikasimenggunakan taq polymerase. Produk PCR di deteksi dan diidentifikasi dengan hibridisasi menggunakanprobe spesifik. Sintesis cDNA dan reaksi PCR menggunakan primer yang dilekatkan di probe. Kombinasiprimer dan probe menghasilkan identifikasi serotipe dan intratypic differentiation (ITD dari isolat virus.Hasil: Selama tahun 2014, NPL Jakarta menerima 604 kasus AFP dari surveilans dan lima kasusterdeteksi positif mengandung virus polio. Semua spesimen positif mengandung virus polio yang berasaldari vaksin. Dua kasus positif virus polio tipe P2 (40%, satu kasus jenis virus polio P1 (20%, 1 kasusjenis virus polio P3 (20% dan satu kasus virus polio campuran jenis P1 + P2 (20%.Kesimpulan: Real-time PCR dapat digunakan di Laboratorium Polio Jakarta untuk membantu identifikasivirus Polio secara cepat. Tes ini dapat digunakan untuk memantau sirkulasi virus polio pada populasiyang rutin diimunisasi dengan OPV. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:27-31Kata kunci: ITD, Poliovirus, Identification, rRT-PCR AbstractBackground: The last indigenous polio was detected in 1995 but the threat of wild type polio viruses and themutation of Oral

  16. Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses.

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    Arnaud Chêne

    Full Text Available Human herpes viruses (HHVs are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8. We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0 and 14 days later (after treatment, or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.

  17. Presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen in acute infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2011-08-26

    Bluetongue virus, a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, is the causative agent of bluetongue, which is a non-contagious Culicoides mediated blood-borne disease. The present study characterizes the pathogenicity of a Taiwan prototype BTV2/KM/2003 in Corriedale sheep inoculated subcutaneously into the ear pinna. Histologically, multifocal petechiated hemorrhage, with mild to moderate inflammation and edema, were present in the contralateral ear pinna, tongue, and facial skin, without remarkable lesions in lymphoid organs. By days post-infection (DPI) 7, viral VP7 antigen, detected by immunohistochemistry, presented in the spleen, chiefly located in the outer rim of macrophages bordering the marginal zone and red pulp, and T lymphocytes of the red pulp. By DPI 11, viral signals shifted from the marginal zone to macrophages and small lymphocytes within follicles of the spleen. In situ hybridization with VP7 gene probe detected strong signals in the spleen, chiefly spanning the whole width of 5-10 cell thickness of the marginal zone, including the marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B cells, as well as macrophages of sheathed capillaries in the red pulp. This study demonstrates molecular as well as morphologic evidence of the presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen, most likely associated with viremia in acute infection, as previously demonstrated by the authors.

  18. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

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    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  19. Impact of combined acute rejection on BK virus-associated nephropathy in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Koo, Tai Yeon; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Han, Miyeun; Jeon, Hee Jung; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2013-12-01

    BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is one of the major causes of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant (KT) patients. We compared BKVAN combined with acute rejection (BKVAN/AR) with BKVAN alone in KT patients. We retrospectively analyzed biopsy-proven BKVAN in KT patients from 2000 to 2011 at Seoul National University Hospital. Among 414 biopsies from 951 patients, biopsy-proven BKVAN was found in 14 patients. Nine patients had BKVAN alone, while 5 patients had both BKVAN and acute cellular rejection. BKVAN in the BKVAN alone group was detected later than in BKVAN/AR group (21.77 vs 6.39 months after transplantation, P=0.03). Serum creatinine at diagnosis was similar (2.09 vs 2.00 mg/dL). Histological grade was more advanced in the BKVAN/AR group (P=0.034). Serum load of BKV, dose of immunosuppressants, and tacrolimus level showed a higher tendency in the BKVAN alone group; however it was not statistically significant. After anti-rejection therapy, immunosuppression was reduced in the BKVAN/AR group. Renal functional deterioration over 1 yr after BKVAN diagnosis was similar between the two groups (P=0.665). These findings suggest that the prognosis of BKVAN/AR after anti-rejection therapy followed by anti-BKV therapy might be similar to that of BKVAN alone after anti-BKV therapy.

  20. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

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    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  1. Epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Norway, 1992-2009

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    Blystad Hans

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway is classified as a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination is only recommended for risk groups (intravenous drug users (IDUs, Men who have Sex with Men (MSM, immigrants and contacts of known carriers. We describe the epidemiology of reported cases of hepatitis B in Norway, during the years 1992-2009 in order to assess the validity of current risk groups and recommend preventive measures. Methods We used case based data from the national surveillance system on acute and chronic hepatitis B. The Norwegian Statistics Bureau provided population and migration data and the Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research the estimated number of active IDUs between 2002-2007. Incidence rates (IR and incidence rate ratios (IRR for acute hepatitis B and notification rates (NR and notification rate ratios (NRR for chronic hepatitis B with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The annual IR of acute hepatitis B ranged from 0.7/100,000 (1992 to 10.6/100,000 (1999. Transmission occurred mainly among IDUs (64% or through sexual contact (24%. The risk of acquiring acute hepatitis B was highest in people aged 20-29 (IRR = 6.6 [3.3-13.3], and in males (IRR = 2.4 [1.7-3.3]. We observed two peaks of newly reported chronic hepatitis B cases in 2003 and 2009 (NR = 17.6/100,000 and 17.4/100,000, respectively. Chronic hepatitis B was more likely to be diagnosed among immigrants than among Norwegians (NRR = 93 [71.9-120.6], and among those 20-29 compared to those 50-59 (NRR = 5.2 [3.5-7.9]. Conclusions IDUs remain the largest risk group for acute hepatitis B. The observed peaks of chronic hepatitis B are related to increased immigration from high endemic countries and screening and vaccination of these groups is important to prevent further spread of infection. Universal screening of pregnant women should be introduced. A universal vaccination strategy should be considered, given the high cost of

  2. Hepatitis E virus quasispecies and the outcome of acute hepatitis E in solid-organ transplant patients.

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    Lhomme, Sebastien; Abravanel, Florence; Dubois, Martine; Sandres-Saune, Karine; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are responsible for chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients, and this can evolve to cirrhosis. Like all RNA viruses, HEV exists as a mixture of heterogeneous viruses defining quasispecies. The relationship between the genetic heterogeneity described as a quasispecies, cytokine secretion, and the outcome of acute hepatitis in immunocompromised patients remains to be elucidated. We cloned and sequenced the region encoding the M and P capsid domains of HEV from eight solid-organ transplant (SOT) patients with acute HEV infection who subsequently cleared the virus and from eight SOT patients whose infection became chronic. We analyzed the cytokines and chemokines in the sera of these SOT patients by multianalyte profiling. The nucleotide sequence entropy and genetic distances were greater in patients whose infections became chronic. A lower K(a)/K(s) ratio was associated with the persistence of HEV. The patients who developed chronic infection had lower serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist and soluble IL-2 receptor. Increased concentrations of the chemokines implicated in leukocyte recruitment to the liver were associated with persistent infection. Those patients with chronic HEV infection and progressing liver fibrosis had less quasispecies diversification during the first year than patients without liver fibrosis progression. Great quasispecies heterogeneity, a weak inflammatory response, and high serum concentrations of the chemokines involved in leukocyte recruitment to the liver in the acute phase were associated with persistent HEV infection. Slow quasispecies diversification during the first year was associated with rapidly developing liver fibrosis.

  3. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Chen Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Li Xing; Chong Tang; Xiangwu Ju; Feng Guo; Jiejie Deng; Yan Zhao; Peng Yang; Jun Tang; Penghui Yang; Huanling Wang; Zhongpeng Zhao; Zhinan Yin; Bin Cao; Xiliang Wang; Chengyu Jiang; Yang Sun; Taisheng Li; Chen Wang; Zhong Wang; Zhen Zou; Yiwu Yan; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus(S-OIV H1N1)that infected almost every country in the world.Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury.In this report,we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease.The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir(Tamiflu)administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model.Moreover,elevated levels of IL-17,Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing.IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice.These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.

  4. A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion.

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    Henderson, F W; Collier, A M; Sanyal, M A; Watkins, J M; Fairclough, D L; Clyde, W A; Denny, F W

    1982-06-10

    We analyzed data from a 14-year longitudinal study of respiratory infections in young children to determine the relative importance of viral respiratory infection and nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as factors influencing the occurrence of acute otitis media with effusion. The incidence of this disorder was increased in children with viral respiratory infections (average relative risk, 3.2; P less than 0.0001). Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus (type A or B), and adenovirus conferred a greater risk of otitis media than did infection with parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, or rhinovirus. Colonization of the nasopharynx with Str. pneumoniae or H. influenzae had a lesser effect on the incidence of the disease (average relative risk; 1.5; P less than 0.01). Infections with the viruses more closely associated with acute otitis media (respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and influenza A or B) were correlated with an increased risk of recurrent disease. Prevention of selected otitis-associated viral infections should reduce the incidence of this disease.

  5. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

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    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; KOBASHI, HARUHIKO; Takaki,Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa,Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; ISHIKAWA, SHIN; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake,Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  6. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  7. Efficacy of immunization against hepatitis B virus infection in acute leukemia

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    Tuphan Kanti Dolai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the antibody response to combined passive-active immunization versus active immunization against hepatitis B in 71 patients with acute leukemia with negative hepatitis B virus serology at presentation. Materials and Methods: The first group (n=28 received a double dose of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 2 and 6 months and immunoglobin (HBIG at 0 and 1 month concurrently with vaccine but at a different intramuscular site. The second group (n=43 received double dose of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months. HBsAg and anti-HBs titers were determined one month after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of vaccine. Results: In the vaccine-only group, 2.56%, 8.33%, 14.28% and 34.29% of patients developed anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of vaccine, respectively. In the HBIG group, 91.30%, 91.30%, 69.56% and 73.91% of patients developed anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of vaccine, respectively. Those in the vaccine-HBIG group maintained their anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L from the 1st to the 4th doses. In the vaccine-only group, 34.29% of patients gained protective antibody titer after receiving the 4th dose of vaccine. Subgroup analysis of age (pediatric vs adult and disease (acute lymphoblastic leukemia vs acute myeloid leukemia groups showed no effect of either on the development of protective antibody titer. The incidence of HBsAg positivity one month after the 4th dose of vaccine was 8.62%. No patient became positive for anti-HCV or HIV antibody before or after chemo therapy.Conclusion: Combined HBIG and vaccine may protect acute leukemia patients during the intensive chemotherapy period.

  8. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  9. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  10. Different cytokine profile and eosinophil activation are involved in rhinovirus- and RS virus-induced acute exacerbation of childhood wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Yoshizumi, Masakazu; Saitoh, Mika; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2011-02-01

    Because little information is available on eosinophil activation and cytokine response in virus-induced wheezing, we attempted to detect respiratory viruses and measure eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and 27 types of cytokines/chemokines in both serum and nasal secretions from children with wheezing. This study was an observational, case-control investigation of 267 subjects, who were visited and/or hospitalized with acute respiratory symptoms (with wheezing: men, 115; women, 59; mean/median age, 3.6/3.0 years) or who were visited for regular physical examination and treatment (non-symptomatic wheezing: men, 48; women, 31; mean/median, 5.0/4.7 years), and 14 control subjects (controls: men, 9; women, 5; mean/median, 3.6/3.7 years). We detected viruses in nasal secretions from 174 patients with acute exacerbations of wheezing using antigen detection kits or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by direct DNA sequencing analysis. We measured peripheral eosinophil counts, and serum concentrations of ECP and 27 cytokines/chemokines using a multiplex bead-based assay in patients with wheezing or non-symptomatic wheezing. We also examined nasal ECP and 27 cytokines/chemokines in patients with wheezing. Of 174 samples from wheezing exacerbations, rhinovirus was detected in 59; respiratory syncytial (RS) virus in 44; enterovirus in 17; other viruses in 19; and no viruses in 35. Serum concentrations of ECP, IL-5, IL-6, IL-1ra, and IP-10 were significantly elevated in rhinovirus-induced wheezing compared with non-symptomatic wheezing. Similarly, serum ECP, IL-5, and IP-10 were significantly higher in rhinovirus-induced wheezing than in controls. On the other hand, IL-1ra and IP-10, but not ECP and IL-5 were significantly higher in RS virus-induced wheezing than in controls. Furthermore, only IL-5 was significantly elevated in the rhinovirus group compared with the RS virus group in both serum and nasal secretions. Different cytokine profile and

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients with acute hepatitis and characterization of the detected genotype 4 hepatitis E virus sequences in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E is considered to be a worldwide public health problem. Although the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies in healthy individuals is noted to be 11%, no patients with acute hepatitis E have previously been identified in Mongolia. Three hundred two consecutive patients (183 males and 119 females; median age of 22.0 [Interquartile range: 18.3-25.0] years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis during 2012-2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. By serological and/or molecular approaches, 77 (25.5%), 93 (30.8%), 19 (6.3%), 48 (15.9%), and 12 (4.0%) of the patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis of types A, B, C, D (superinfection of hepatitis delta virus on a background of chronic hepatitis B virus infection) and E, respectively, while the cause of hepatitis was unknown in the remaining 53 patients (17.5%). The 12 hepatitis E patients had no history of travel abroad in the 3 months before the onset of disease, and lived separately in fixed or movable houses with water supplied via pipe, tank or well, denying transmission from a common water supply. The 12 HEV isolates obtained from the patients showed high nucleotide identities of 99.7-100%, and a representative HEV isolate, MNE13-227, was closest to the Chinese isolates of genotype 4, with the highest identity of 97.3% in the 304-nt ORF2 sequence and 92.1% over the entire genome. The present study revealed the occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Mongolia, caused by a monophyletic genotype 4 HEV strain.

  12. The Central Role of the Matrix Protein in Nipah Virus Assembly and Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-23

    Fields Virology , 4 ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 30. Conzelmann, K. K. 2004. Reverse genetics of mononegavirales. Curr Top...Howley, D. E. Griffin, R. A. Lamb, M. A. Martin, B. Roizman, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology , 5 ed, vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins...and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology , 4 ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 45. Goldsmith, C. S., T. Whistler, P. E. Rollin, T

  13. Analysis of the Molecular Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Symptomatic Acute Infections in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Belén; Mojsiejczuk, Laura Noelia; Torres, Carolina; Sevic, Ina; González López Ledesma, María Mora; Perez, Paula Soledad; Bouzas, María Belén; Galdame, Omar; Marciano, Sebastián; Fainboim, Hugo; Flichman, Diego Martín; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a globally distributed human pathogen that leads to both self-limited and chronic infections. At least eight genotypes (A-H) with distinct geographical allocations and phylodynamic behaviors have been described. They differ substantially in many virological and probably some clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to analyze full-length HBV genome sequences from individuals with symptomatic acute HBV infections using phylogenetic and coalescent methods. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in the following subgenotype distribution: F1b (52.7%), A2 (18.2%), F4 (18.2%) and A1, B2, D3 and F2a 1.8% each. These results contrast with those previously reported from chronic infections, where subgenotypes F1b, F4, A2 and genotype D were evenly distributed. This differential distribution might be related to recent internal migrations and/or intrinsic biological features of each viral genotype that could impact on the probability of transmission. The coalescence analysis showed that after a diversification process started in the 80s, the current sequences of subgenotype F1b were grouped in at least four highly supported lineages, whereas subgenotype F4 revealed a more limited diversification pattern with most lineages without offspring in the present. In addition, the genetic characterization of the studied sequences showed that only two of them presented mutations of clinical relevance at S codifyng region and none at the polymerase catalytic domains. Finally, since the acute infections could be an expression of the genotypes currently being transmitted to new hosts, the predominance of subgenotype F1b might have epidemiological, as well as, clinical relevance due to its potential adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases. PMID:27433800

  14. Analysis of the Molecular Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Symptomatic Acute Infections in Argentina.

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    María Belén Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a globally distributed human pathogen that leads to both self-limited and chronic infections. At least eight genotypes (A-H with distinct geographical allocations and phylodynamic behaviors have been described. They differ substantially in many virological and probably some clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to analyze full-length HBV genome sequences from individuals with symptomatic acute HBV infections using phylogenetic and coalescent methods. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in the following subgenotype distribution: F1b (52.7%, A2 (18.2%, F4 (18.2% and A1, B2, D3 and F2a 1.8% each. These results contrast with those previously reported from chronic infections, where subgenotypes F1b, F4, A2 and genotype D were evenly distributed. This differential distribution might be related to recent internal migrations and/or intrinsic biological features of each viral genotype that could impact on the probability of transmission. The coalescence analysis showed that after a diversification process started in the 80s, the current sequences of subgenotype F1b were grouped in at least four highly supported lineages, whereas subgenotype F4 revealed a more limited diversification pattern with most lineages without offspring in the present. In addition, the genetic characterization of the studied sequences showed that only two of them presented mutations of clinical relevance at S codifyng region and none at the polymerase catalytic domains. Finally, since the acute infections could be an expression of the genotypes currently being transmitted to new hosts, the predominance of subgenotype F1b might have epidemiological, as well as, clinical relevance due to its potential adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases.

  15. New Immunochromatographic Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Acute Puumala Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujakka, Helena; Koistinen, Vesa; Eerikäinen, Pekka; Kuronen, Ilpo; Mononen, Ilkka; Parviainen, Markku; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Närvänen, Ale; Vapalahti, Olli

    2001-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic rapid test, POC PUUMALA (Erilab Ltd., Kuopio, Finland), for detection of acute-phase Puumala virus (PUUV) infection was developed based on a highly purified baculovirus-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein antigen and lateral immunodiffusion techniques. After addition of sample (5 μl of serum, plasma, or fingertip blood) and buffer, PUUV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, if present, together with the gold-conjugated anti-human IgM, formed a specific colored line in 5 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated with 200 serum samples and 30 fingertip blood samples. The reference method for the serum samples was a μ-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgM and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for IgG antibodies. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100 and 99%, respectively, for unfrozen serum samples (n = 103; 12 PUUV IgM-positive samples). When freeze-thawed serum samples were used, the sensitivity and specificity were each 97.1% (n = 70; 35 PUUV IgM-positive samples). The specificity of the test was 96.2% for 27 serum samples with nonspecific IgM antibodies or rheumatoid factor (RF). The fingertip blood samples (n = 30) were negative, but they gave clear positive results when spiked with IgM-positive sera (n = 20). The results were in good agreement with the standard diagnostic methods. The rapid performance, the lack of need for refined laboratory equipment, and the high specificity with fresh serum and fingertip blood samples indicate that the developed POC PUUMALA rapid test is a useful tool for fast diagnosis of acute PUUV infection. PMID:11376049

  16. Full-Breadth Analysis of CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Early Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Georg M.; Lucas, Michaela; Timm, Joerg; Ouchi, Kei; Kim, Arthur Y.; Day, Cheryl L.; zur Wiesch, Julian Schulze; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Sheridan, Isabelle; Casson, Deborah R.; Reiser, Markus; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Li, Bin; Allen, Todd M.; Chung, Raymond T.; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D.

    2005-01-01

    Multispecific CD8+ T-cell responses are thought to be important for the control of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but to date little information is actually available on the breadth of responses at early time points. Additionally, the influence of early therapy on these responses and their relationships to outcome are controversial. To investigate this issue, we performed comprehensive analysis of the breadth and frequencies of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses on the single epitope level in eight acutely infected individuals who were all started on early therapy. During the acute phase, responses against up to five peptides were identified. During therapy, CD8+ T-cell responses decreased rather than increased as virus was controlled, and no new specificities emerged. A sustained virological response following completion of treatment was independent of CD8+ T-cell responses, as well as CD4+ T-cell responses. Rapid recrudescence also occurred despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses. Importantly, in vivo suppression of CD3+ T cells using OKT3 in one subject did not result in recurrence of viremia. These data suggest that broad CD8+ T-cell responses alone may be insufficient to contain HCV replication, and also that early therapy is effective independent of such responses. PMID:16189000

  17. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  18. Importance of brood maintenance terms in simple models of the honeybee - Varroa destructor - acute bee paralysis virus complex

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    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple mathematical model of the infestation of a honeybee colony by the Acute Paralysis Virus, which is carried by parasitic varroa mites (Varroa destructor. This is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the dependent variables: number of mites that carry the virus, number of healthy bees and number of sick bees. We study this model with a mix of analytical and computational techniques. Our results indicate that, depending on model parameters and initial data, bee colonies in which the virus is present can, over years, function seemingly like healthy colonies before they decline and disappear rapidly (e.g. Colony Collapse Disorder, wintering losses. This is a consequence of the fact that a certain number of worker bees is required in a colony to maintain and care for the brood, in order to ensure continued production of new bees.

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

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    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  20. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in a nurse trainee following a needlestick injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaggiante, Renzo; Chemello, Liliana; Rinaldi, Roberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after biological accident (needlestick injury) is a rare event. This report describes the first case of acute HCV infection after a needlestick injury in a female nursing student at Padua University Hospital. The student nurse was injured on the second finger of the right hand when recapping a 23-gauge needle after taking a blood sample. The patient who was the source was a 72-year-old female with weakly positive anti-HCV test results. Three months after the injury, at the second step of follow-up, a relevant increase in transaminases with a low viral replication activity (350 IU/mL) was observed in the student, indicating HCV infection. The patient tested positive for the same genotype (1b) of HCV as the injured student. A rapid decline in transaminases, which was not accompanied by viral clearance, and persistently positive HCV-RNA was described 1 mo later. Six months after testing positive for HCV, the student was treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for 24 wk. A rapid virological response was observed after 4 wk of treatment, and a sustained virological response (SVR) was evident 6 mo after therapy withdrawal, confirming that the patient was definitively cured. Despite the favourable IL28B gene (rs12979860) CC- polymorphism observed in the patient, which is usually predictive of a spontaneous clearance and SVR, spontaneous viral clearance did not take place; however, infection with this genotype was promising for a sustained virological response after therapy. PMID:23382640

  1. Survival and prognostic factors in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Huang; Jin-Hua Hu; Hui-Fen Wang; Wei-Ping He; Jing Chen; Xue-Zhang Duan; Ai-Min Zhang; Xiao-Yan Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the survival rates and prognostic ffactors in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver ffailure (HBV-ACLF).METHODS: Clinical data in hospitalized patients with HBV-ACLF admitted ffrom 2006 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Their general conditions and survival were analyzed by survival analysis and Cox regression analysis.RESULTS: A total off 190 patients were included in this study. The overall 1-year survival rate was 57.6%. Patients not treated with antiviral drugs had a significantly higher mortality [relative risk (RR) = 0.609, P = 0.014].The highest risk off death in patients with ACLF was associated with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) (RR = 2.084, P =0.026), while other significant factors were electrolyte disturbances (RR = 2.062, P = 0.010), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (RR = 1.879, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy has a strong effffect on the prognosis off the patients with HBV-ACLF by improving their 1-year survival rate. HRS, electrolyte disturbances,and HE also affffect patient survival.

  2. ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN THE AGE ASPECT

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    V. B. Rovny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.

  3. Acute flaccid paralysis due to West nile virus infection in adults: A paradigm shift entity

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    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV in the index patient. All three cases had a positive WNV immunoglobulin M antibody in serum/CSF and significantly high titer of WNV neutralizing antibody in serum, clearly distinguishing the infection from other Flaviviridae such as Japanese encephalitis. WNV has been recognized in India for many decades; however, AFP has not been adequately described. WNV is a flavivirus that is spread by Culex mosquitoes while they take blood meals from humans and lineage 1 is capable of causing a devastating neuro-invasive disease with fatal consequences or severe morbidity. We describe the first three laboratory confirmed cases of WNV induced AFP from Kerala and briefly enumerate the salient features of this emerging threat.

  4. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Fogg, Mark H; Orlova, Nina; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2012-12-01

    Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV), naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1). Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  5. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ohashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1 signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV, naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1. Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  6. Rescue of avian leukosis subgroup-J-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene and analysis of their tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-12-01

    In our previous study, six subgroup J strains of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J)-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene, designated as Fu-J and Fu-J1-5, were isolated and characterized from fibrosarcomas in ALV-J-infected chickens. In the present study, the oncogenic potential of Fu-J and Fu-J1-5 was investigated using a reverse genetics technique. Six replication-defective viruses, named rFu-J and rFu-J1-5, were rescued with the replication-competent rescued ALV-J strain rSDAU1005 as a helper virus by co-transfection of chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers with infectious clone plasmids. Experimental bird studies were performed, demonstrating that only the rescued rFu-J virus carrying the complete v-fps oncogene with rSDAU1005 as the helper virus could induce acute fibrosarcoma after inoculation in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. These results provide direct evidence that the replication-defective acutely transforming Fu-J virus, with the complete v-fps oncogene, was associated with acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with ALV-J in the field, as reported previously.

  7. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

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    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  8. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  9. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

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    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  10. Clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to 13 respiratory viruses detected by multiplex PCR in children

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    Jeong-Sook Lim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results : Viruses were identified in 270 children (83.1%. Co-infections with ?#242; viruses were observed in 71 patients (26.3 %. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most common virus detected (33.2%, followed by human rhinovirus (hRV (19.1%, influenza virus (Flu A (16.9%, human metapneumovirus (hMPV (15.4%, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs (8.3%, human bocavirus (hBoV (8.0%, adenovirus (ADV (5.8%, and human coronavirus (hCoV (2.2%. Clinical diagnoses of viral ALRIs were bronchiolitis (37.5%, pneumonia (34.5%, asthma exacerbation (20.9%, and croup (7.1%. Clinical diagnoses of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia were frequently demonstrated in patients who tested positive for RSV, hRV, hMPV, or Flu A. Flu A and hRV were most commonly identified in children older than 3 years and were the 2 leading causes of asthma exacerbation. hRV C was detected in 14 (4.3% children, who were significantly older than those infected with hRV A (mean±SD, 4.1±3.5 years vs. 1.7±2.3 years; P=0.009. hBoV was usually detected in young children (2.3±3.4 years with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Conclusion : This study described the features of ALRI associated with 13 respiratory viruses in Korean children. Additional investigations are required to define the roles of newly identified viruses in children with ALRIs.

  11. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.;

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response......The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine...

  12. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period.

  14. Acute infection with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles catalyzes a systemic antiviral state and protects from lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Jennifer L; Thompson, Joseph M; Whitmore, Alan C; Webb, Drue L; Johnston, Robert E

    2009-12-01

    The host innate immune response provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens, inducing an antiviral state to impede the spread of infection. While numerous studies have documented antiviral responses within actively infected tissues, few have described the earliest innate response induced systemically by infection. Here, utilizing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) to limit infection to the initially infected cells in vivo, a rapid activation of the antiviral response was demonstrated not only within the murine draining lymph node, where replication was confined, but also within distal tissues. In the liver and brain, expression of interferon-stimulated genes was detected by 1 to 3 h following VRP footpad inoculation, reaching peak expression of >100-fold over that in mock-infected animals. Moreover, mice receiving a VRP footpad inoculation 6, 12, or 24 h prior to an otherwise lethal VEE footpad challenge were completely protected from death, including a drastic reduction in challenge virus titers. VRP pretreatment also provided protection from intranasal VEE challenge and extended the average survival time following intracranial challenge. Signaling through the interferon receptor was necessary for antiviral gene induction and protection from VEE challenge. However, VRP pretreatment failed to protect mice from a heterologous, lethal challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus, yet conferred protection following challenge with influenza virus. Collectively, these results document a rapid modulation of the host innate response within hours of infection, capable of rapidly alerting the entire animal to pathogen invasion and leading to protection from viral disease.

  15. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hannah; Douthwaite, Sam; Newsholme, William; Horsfield, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  16. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Salter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  17. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  18. Epidemiological, immunological and virological aspects of acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, X.V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus classified as a member of the Hepacivirus genus in the family Flavirviridae, and was first described by Choo et al. in 1989 as the causative agent of non-A-non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. HCV is a major cause of blood-borne infe

  19. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  20. Follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza a (H1N1 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toufen Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on the long-term follow-up of patients with swine-origin influenza A virus infection that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Four patients were prospectively followed up with pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography for six months after admission to an intensive care unit. RESULTS: Pulmonary function test results assessed two months after admission to the intensive care unit showed reduced forced vital capacity in all patients and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in two patients. At six months, pulmonary function test results were available for three patients. Two patients continued to have a restrictive pattern, and none of the patients presented with abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. All of them had a diffuse ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography that improved after six months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the marked severity of lung disease at admission, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by swine-origin influenza A virus infection presented a late but substantial recovery over six months of follow-up.

  1. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  2. Nipah disease, a new zoonosis%一种新的人畜共患病--尼帕病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何成伟

    2001-01-01

    @@ 尼帕病(Nipah,有人翻译为宜麦病)是1998年在马来西亚首次发现的鲜为人知的一种人畜共患传染病,严重危害人和猪,发病急,致死率高.其特征性症状是严重的呼吸道和神经症状,患者颈部和腹部痉挛,公猪和母猪则表现为突然死亡[1].

  3. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  4. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam Sitrat dan Suhu Pengempaan terhadap Kualitas Papan Partikel Pelepah Nipah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Widyorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papan partikel tanpa perekat sintesis atau binderlessboard merupakan alternatif produk ramah lingkungan yang potensial dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kelemahan produk tersebut diantaranya adalah kestabilan dimensinya yang relatif rendah. Alternatif perbaikan produk bisa dilakukan dengan menambahkan bahan pengaktif komponen kimia. Asam sitrat memiliki tiga gugus karboksil dan diharapkan dapat membentuk ikatan ester dengan gugus hidroksil pada permukaan kayu. Penelitian menggunakan asam sitrat relatif baru dan belum banyak dikembangkan, oleh karena itu penelitian ini ditujukan untuk pengembangan produk biokomposit dengan menggunakan asam sitrat sebagai bahan pengikat. Bahan yang digunakan adalah pelepah nipah dengan ukuran partikel (halus dan kasar, konsentrasi asam sitrat (0% dan 10%, dan suhu pengempaan (180ºC dan 200°C. Pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika dilakukan berdasarkan Japanese Industrial Standard untuk papan partikel (JIS A 5908. Penambahan asam sitrat memperlihatkan kenaikan sifat fisika (penyerapan air dan mekanika papan partikel. Perbedaan ukuran partikel mempengaruhi sifat mekanika papan partikel dimana ukuran partikel kasar memberikan nilai mekanika yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan ukuran partikel halus. Kualitas papan partikel optimum diperoleh pada kondisi pengempaan 180ºC, penambahan asam sitrat 10% dari partikel ukuran kasar dengan nilai pengembangan tebal 2,4%, penyerapan air 41%, kekuatan rekat internal 0,2 MPa, modulus patah 5,5 MPa, dan modulus elastisitas 1,6 GPa. Kata kunci: asam sitrat, pelepah nipah, konsentrasi asam sitrat, suhu pengempa   Effect of Citric Acid Concentration and Pressing Temperature on the Quality of Particleboard from Nypa Frond Abstract Binderlessboard is one of the potential eco friendly products that can be developed in Indonesia. However, its boards usually have low in dimensional stability. Addition of the chemical agent, such as citric acid, that can improve the dimensional stability is

  5. Coexistence of IgM antihepatitis A virus and IgM antihepatitis E virus in acute viral hepatitis: a prospective, multicentre study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Jung, Y M; Kim, J S; Lee, S H; Kim, J-W; Hwang, S G; Rim, K S; Park, S J; Park, Y M; Kang, S-K; Lee, H S; Yun, H; Kim, J-H; Jeong, S-H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the clinical, serological and molecular characteristics of coexistence of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) antihepatitis A virus (HAV) and IgM antihepatitis E virus (HEV) in acute viral hepatitis using a prospective, multicentre design. Among a total of 771 symptomatic cases with acute viral hepatitis enrolled in a Korean city from September 2006 to August 2008, coexistence of IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV was found in 43 patients (A+E group; 6%), while the existence of IgM anti-HAV alone was found in 595 patients (A group; 77%) and that of IgM anti-HEV alone in 14 patients (E group; 2%). Clinical data analysis and measurement of IgM and IgG anti-HEV were performed using two different commercial kits, and HAV RNA and HEV RNA were detected in available serum or stool samples. The clinical features of the A+E group were similar to those of the A group. HAV RNA detection rates in the A+E and A group were similar, while HEV RNA was detected only in the stool samples of the E group, not in the A+E group. Comparative testing of anti-HEV using two different ELISA kits showed markedly discordant results for IgM anti-HEV positivity and consistently low positivity for IgG anti-HEV in the A+E group. Coexistence of IgM anti-HEV measured by the Genelabs ELISA kit in the setting of hepatitis A appears to yield false-positive results in nonendemic areas of HEV infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis E using IgM anti-HEV should be made with caution.

  6. Acute retinal necrosis results in low vision in a young patient with a history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Sanjeet K

    2016-08-31

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment. Clinical manifestations of this disease may include increased intraocular pressure, optic disc oedema, optic neuropathy and sheathed retinal arterioles. A complete work up is essential to rule out cytomegalovirus retinitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, herpes virus, syphilis, posterior uveitis and other conditions. Depending on the severity of the disease, the treatment options consist of anticoagulation therapy, cycloplegia, intravenous acyclovir, systemic steroids, prophylactic laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy with silicon oil for retinal detachment. An extensive history and clinical examination is crucial in making the correct diagnosis. Also, it is very important to be aware of low vision needs and refer the patients, if expressing any sort of functional issues with completing daily living skills, especially reading. In this article, we report one case of unilateral ARN 20 years after herpetic encephalitis.

  7. Multiploid CD61+ cells are the pre-dominant cell lineage infected during acute dengue virus infection in bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina B Clark

    Full Text Available Depression of the peripheral blood platelet count during acute infection is a hallmark of dengue. This thrombocytopenia has been attributed, in part, to an insufficient level of platelet production by megakaryocytes that reside in the bone marrow (BM. Interestingly, it was observed that dengue patients experience BM suppression at the onset of fever. However, few studies focus on the interaction between dengue virus (DENV and megakaryocytes and how this interaction can lead to a reduction in platelets. In the studies reported herein, BM cells from normal healthy rhesus monkeys (RM and humans were utilized to identify the cell lineage(s that were capable of supporting virus infection and replication. A number of techniques were employed in efforts to address this issue. These included the use of viral RNA quantification, nonstructural protein and infectivity assays, phenotypic studies utilizing immunohistochemical staining, anti-differentiation DEAB treatment, and electron microscopy. Cumulative results from these studies revealed that cells in the BM were indeed highly permissive for DENV infection, with human BM having higher levels of viral production compared to RM. DENV-like particles were predominantly observed in multi-nucleated cells that expressed CD61+. These data suggest that megakaryocytes are likely the predominant cell type infected by DENV in BM, which provides one explanation for the thrombocytopenia and the dysfunctional platelets characteristic of dengue virus infection.

  8. Analysis of plasma viral RNA levels during acute dengue virus infection using quantitative competitor reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiro, T M; Zivny, J; Ishiko, H; Green, S; Vaughn, D W; Kalayanarooj, S; Nisalak, A; Norman, J E; Ennis, F A; Rothman, A L

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the potential importance of viral burden in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There is little data available, however, describing the kinetics of viral replication in humans with natural dengue virus (DV) infection. Standard procedures for measuring titers of infectious virus in clinical specimens are either laborious or insensitive. We developed a method for measurement of DV RNA in plasma samples based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a mutant RNA target as a competitor. This technique was reproducible and accurate for samples containing any of the four DV serotypes, and could be applied to samples containing as few as 250 copies of RNA per reaction. We examined plasma viral RNA levels in 80 children with acute DV infection; sequential plasma samples were tested in 34 of these children. Plasma viral RNA levels ranged as high as 10(9) RNA copies/ml, and correlated with titers of infectious virus measured in mosquitoes (r= 0.69). Plasma viral RNA levels fell rapidly during the last several days of the febrile period. We did not find a significant difference in maximal plasma viral RNA levels between children with DHF and children with dengue fever, but peak viral RNA levels were identified in only 16 subjects. We conclude that this quantitative RT-PCR method will be valuable for further studies of natural DV infections.

  9. Sustained viral response of a case of acute hepatitis C virus infection via needle-stick injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Kogure; Yu Nakagome; Masashi Ninomiya; Tooru Shimosegawa; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Noriatsu Kanno; Koji Fukushima; Yoko Yamagiwa; Futoshi Nagasaki; Eiji Kakazu; Yasunori Matsuda; Osamu Kido

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old nurse with a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused by needle-stick injury was treated with interferon-beta starting about one year after the onset of acute hepatitis. The patient developed acute hepatitis C with symptoms of general fatigues, jaundice, and ascites 4 wk after the needle-stick injury. When these symptoms were presented, the patient was pregnant by artificial insemination. She hoped to continue her pregnancy.After delivery, biochemical liver enzyme returned to normal levels. Nevertheless, HCV RNA was positive and the pathological finding indicated a progression to chronicity. The genotype was 1b with low viral load.Daily intravenous injection of interferon-beta at the dosage of six million units was started and continued for eight weeks. HCV was eradicated without severe adverse effects. In acute hepatitis C, delaying therapy is considered to reduce the efficacy but interferon-beta therapy is one of the useful treatments for hepatitis C infection in chronic phase.

  10. Detection of respiratory virus antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions from patients with acute respiratory disease by radio-immunoassay and tissue culture isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlicher, L; Hoffmann, H G; Habermehl, K O

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the sensitivity and specificity of four-layer radio-immunoassays (RIA) in the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types A and B, as well as para-influenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 from nasopharyngeal aspirates of 146 patients with acute respiratory disease. The sensitivity of RIA was comparable with that of tissue culture isolation if the total number of positives is considered. The difference may have been caused both by a higher efficiency of the RIA for detection of inactivated or non-cultivable agents and by a higher efficiency of tissue culture methods if the samples contained only small amounts of antigen. Differences between the two antigen detection systems were found in particular with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza B virus. At present, the use of tissue culture isolation together with RIA is the optimal routine laboratory procedure for the diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  11. Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Infections among Young Febrile Adults Evaluated for Acute HIV-1 Infection in Coastal Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoi, Carolyne N.; Price, Matt A.; Fields, Barry; Bonventure, Juma; Ochieng, Caroline; Mwashigadi, Grace; Hassan, Amin S.; Thiong’o, Alexander N.; Micheni, Murugi; Mugo, Peter; Graham, Susan; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is common among patients seeking care in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), but causes other than malaria are rarely diagnosed. We assessed dengue and chikungunya virus infections among young febrile adults evaluated for acute HIV infection (AHI) and malaria in coastal Kenya. Methods We tested plasma samples obtained in a cross-sectional study from febrile adult patients aged 18–35 years evaluated for AHI and malaria at urgent care seeking at seven health facilities in coastal Kenya in 2014–2015. Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were amplified using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We conducted logistic regression analyses to determine independent predictors of dengue virus infection. Results 489 samples that were negative for both AHI and malaria were tested, of which 43 (8.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4–11.7) were positive for DENV infection. No participant was positive for CHIKV infection. DENV infections were associated with clinic visits in the rainy season (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3–6.5) and evaluation at a private health facility (AOR 5.2, 95% CI: 2.0–13.1) or research health facility (AOR = 25.6, 95% CI: 8.9–73.2) instead of a public health facility. Conclusion A high prevalence of DENV infections was found in febrile young adult patients evaluated for AHI. Our data suggests that DENV, along with AHI and malaria, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient seeking care for fever in coastal Kenya. PMID:27942016

  12. Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Larios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.

  13. Antioxidant and Atibacterial Activities of Nipah (Nypa fruticans against Vibrio sp. Isolated From Mud Crab (Scylla sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imra Imra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nipah (Nypa fruticans is the potential plant for source of active compound such as antioksidant and antibacterial substances. The plants are dispersed in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua Island. The aim of this research were determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity from of nipah (fruit and leaf that it extraction with methanol, and than determine toxicity and active compound contained in this extract. Diffusion agar and DPPH method were use for antibacterial and antioxsidant assay, respectively. Antioxsidant activity from nipah’s leaf extract was more effective (22,5 µg/mL than nipah’s fruit extract (415 µg/mL. This activity to be classified to the strong antioxidant activity (IC50<50 µg/mL. The antibacterial activity from leaf extract was strong to inhibited Vibrio sp. with inhibition zone 8,75 mm. The crude extract of nipah’s leaf was toxic with toxicity value is 663,598 µg/mL. Flavonoids, steroids, tanin, saponin and phenol hidroquinon were the active compounds contained in the extract of nipah’s leaf.

  14. Antioxidant and Atibacterial Activities of Nipah (Nypa fruticans against Vibrio sp. Isolated From Mud Crab (Scylla sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imra Imra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNipah (Nypa fruticans is the potential plant for source of active compound such as antioksidant and antibacterial substances. The plants are dispersed in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua Island. The aim of this research were determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity from of nipah (fruit and leaf that it extraction with methanol, and than determine toxicity and active compound contained in this extract. Diffusion agar and DPPH method were use for antibacterial and antioxsidant assay, respectively. Antioxsidant activity from nipah’s leaf extract was more effective (22,5 μg/mL than nipah’s fruit extract (415 μg/mL. This activity to be classified to the strong antioxidant activity (IC50<50 μg/mL. The antibacterial activity from leaf extract was strong to inhibited Vibrio sp. with inhibition zone 8,75 mm. The crude extract of nipah’s leaf was toxic with toxicity value is 663,598 μg/mL. Flavonoids, steroids, tanin, saponin and phenol hidroquinon were the active compounds contained in the extract of nipah’s leaf.

  15. Serological misdiagnosis of acute liver failure associated with echovirus 25 due to immunological similarities to hepatitis A virus and prozone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim, Susan K; Humphries, Romney M; Cherry, James D; Krogstad, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure caused by echovirus 25 (E25) in a previously healthy 2-year-old boy. Initial serological studies were consistent with hepatitis A virus (HAV), with prozone phenomenon. The similarity of E25 to HAV may obscure accurate diagnosis in some cases of hepatitis.

  16. Evaluation of sorivudine (BV-araU) versus acyclovir in the treatment of acute localized herpes zoster in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodsworth, NJ; Boag, F; Burdge, D; Genereux, M; Borleffs, JCC; Evans, BA; Modai, J; Colebunders, R; Thomas, M; DeHertogh, D; Pacelli, L; Thomis, J; Knight, E.L.; McNulty, AM; Delaney, C; VanHove, D; Sacks, S; Gage, L; McLeod, A; DiazMitoma, F; Fong, J; MacFadden, D; Martel, A; Rachlis, A; Salit, [No Value; Shafran, S; Szabo, J; Toma, E; Deschenes, L; Gill, J; Lalonde, R; Kaufhold, R; Molina, JM; Dellamonica, P; Rozenbaum, W; Kolsters, FP; Meenhorst, PL; Danner, S; Sprenger, HG; EllisPegler, RB; Moragas, J; Moyle, G; Colman, J; Parnell, A; McLean, KA; Holmes, DA; Kitchen, C.M.R.; Linde, A; Dahl, H; Dwyer, D

    1997-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of sorivudine as treatment for acute cutaneous tester in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults was compared with that of acyclovir in a double-blinded randomized study, A total of 125 patients with laboratory-confirmed tester rash present for less than or equa

  17. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  18. Prospective study of Chikungunya virus acute infection in the Island of La Reunion during the 2005-2006 outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Staikowsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a recently re-emerged arthropod borne virus responsible for a massive outbreak in the Indian Ocean and India, and extended to Southeast Asia as well as Italy. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, an anthropophilic mosquito species widely distributed in Asia, Europe, Africa and America. Our objective was to determine the clinical and biological features of patients at the acute phase of CHIKV infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective study enrolled 274 consecutive patients with febrile arthralgia recorded at the Emergency Department of the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion between March and May 2006. Three groups were defined: one group of 180 viremic patients (positive CHIKV RT-PCR, one group of 34 patients with acute post-viremic infection (negative CHIKV RT-PCR, positive anti-CHIKV IgM and negative IgG, and one group of 46 uninfected patients (negative CHIKV RT-PCR, anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG. Bivariate analyses of clinical and biological features between groups were performed. Patients with CHIKV viremia presented typically with asymmetrical bilateral polyarthralgia (96.5% affecting the lower (98% and small joints (74.8%, as well as asthenia (88.6%, headache (70%, digestive trouble (63.3%, myalgia (59%, exanthems (47.8%, conjunctival hyperhemia (23% and adenopathy (8.9%. Vertigo, cutaneous dysesthesia, pharyngitis and haemorrhages were seldom observed. So far unreported symptoms such as chondrocostal arthralgia (20%, entesopathies (1.6%, talalgia (14% were also noted. Prurit was less frequent during the viremic than post-viremic phase (13.9% vs. 41.2%; p<0.001, whereas lymphopenia was more frequent (87.6% vs. 39.4%; p<0.001. Others biological abnormalities included leukopenia (38.3%, thrombocytopenia (37.3%, increased ASAT and ALAT blood levels (31.6 and 7.3%, respectively and hypocalcemia (38.7%. Lymphopenia <1,000/mm(3 was very closely associated with viremic patients (Yule coefficient 0.82, positive

  19. Dynamics of Persistent and Acute Deformed Wing Virus Infections in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D. Evans

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of viruses are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Using honey bee Deformed wing virus (DWV as a model, we conducted field and laboratory studies to investigate the roles of abiotic and biotic stress factors as well as host health conditions in dynamics of virus replication in honey bees. The results showed that temperature decline could lead to not only significant decrease in the rate for pupae to emerge as adult bees, but also an increased severity of the virus infection in emerged bees, partly explaining the high levels of winter losses of managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, around the world. By experimentally exposing adult bees with variable levels of parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we showed that the severity of DWV infection was positively correlated with the density and time period of Varroa mite infestation, confirming the role of Varroa mites in virus transmission and activation in honey bees. Further, we showed that host conditions have a significant impact on the outcome of DWV infection as bees that originate from strong colonies resist DWV infection and replication significantly better than bee originating from weak colonies. The information obtained from this study has important implications for enhancing our understanding of host‑pathogen interactions and can be used to develop effective disease control strategies for honey bees.

  20. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of severe respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bo Zhang; Li-Juan Liu; Li-Ling Qian; Gao-Li Jiang; Chuan-Kai Wang; Pin Jia; Peng Shi; Jin Xu; Li-Bo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the clinical characteristics and analyze risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of infants with RSV-associated ALRIs between March 1st, 2011 and February 29th, 2012 was conducted. Subjects were followed up over the phone or by outpatient visit six and twelve months after discharge. Results: Among 913 RSV-associated ALRIs infants, 288 (31.5%) had severe infections, which accounted for 4.2% of hospitalized children. The hospital RSV mortality rate was 1.0%. The proportions of cases with tachypnea, apnea, cyanosis, and fine rales were significantly higher in the severe ALRIs group (all P Conclusions: Younger age, low birth weight and underlying disease are associated with severe RSVassociated ALRIs. Furthermore, severe RSV infections may be associated with a higher frequency of subsequent bronchitis, pneumonia and re-hospitalization in the following year.

  1. Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance in a Tertiary Hospital Emergency Department: Comparison of Influenza and Dengue Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Olga D.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Santiago, Luis Manuel; Acosta, Héctor; Galarza, Ivonne E.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz, Jorge; Bui, Duy M.; Oberste, M. Steven; Peñaranda, Silvia; García-Gubern, Carlos; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, an increased proportion of suspected dengue cases reported to the surveillance system in Puerto Rico were laboratory negative. As a result, enhanced acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance was initiated in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with fever of unknown origin for 2–7 days duration were tested for Leptospira, enteroviruses, influenza, and dengue virus. Among the 284 enrolled patients, 31 dengue, 136 influenza, and 3 enterovirus cases were confirmed. Nearly half (48%) of the confirmed dengue cases met clinical criteria for influenza. Dengue patients were more likely than influenza patients to have hemorrhage (81% versus 26%), rash (39% versus 9%), and a positive tourniquet test (52% versus 18%). Mean platelet and white blood cell count were lower among dengue patients. Clinical diagnosis can be particularly difficult when outbreaks of other AFI occur during dengue season. A complete blood count and tourniquet test may be useful to differentiate dengue from other AFIs. PMID:23382160

  2. Acute Morphine Administration Reduces Cell-Mediated Immunity and Induces Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in BALB/c Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Mojadadi; Abbas Jamali; Behzad Khansarinejad; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Taravat Bamdad

    2009-01-01

    Acute morphine administration is known to alter the course of herpes simplex virus infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine administration on the reactivation of latent herpes was investigated in a mouse model. Because of the important role of cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation, the effect of acute morphine administration on CTL responses was also evaluated. Furthermore, lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were evaluated for their roles in the induction of the CTL response. The findings showed that acute morphine administration significantly reduced CTL responses, lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ production. Furthermore, acute morphine administration has been shown to reactivate latent HSV-1. Previous studies have shown that cellular immune responses have important roles in the inhibition of HSV reactivation. These findings suggest that suppression of a portion of the cellular immune response after acute morphine administration may constitute one part of the mechanism that induces HSV reactivation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  3. Clinical features of acute renal failure associated with hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y J; Kim, W; Jeong, J B; Kim, B G; Lee, K L; Oh, K-H; Yoon, J-H; Lee, H-S; Kim, Y J

    2010-09-01

    Acute hepatitis A (AHA) is one of the most common infectious diseases; it is usually a self-limiting disease affecting the liver. Although extrahepatic manifestations are not common, some cases have been reported associated with acute renal failure. We reviewed the clinical features of patients with AHA complicated by acute renal failure (ARF group) and compared them with patients with noncomplicated AHA (non-ARF group). The medical records of 208 consecutive patients with AHA who were diagnosed between January 2003 and October 2008 were reviewed. We identified 15 patients (7.2%) with ARF associated with AHA. There were no differences between the ARF and non-ARF group with regard to gender and age. The peak value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median: 6060 IU/L vs 1792 IU/L, P hepatic failure, and two patients died because of fulminant hepatic failure. There were no deaths among patients with noncomplicated AHA in the non-ARF group. Five patients underwent kidney biopsy; two patients were diagnosed with acute tubular necrosis, two patients with acute interstitial nephritis with IgA nephropathy and one patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. All patients in the ARF group had microscopic haematuria and proteinuria (100%vs 31.1%, P < 0.001). Urine sodium levels were more than 10 mEq/L in 10 patients. The findings of high urinary sodium concentrations, microscopic haematuria and proteinuria did not support the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Patients with AHA with ARF had higher ALT levels, more prolonged PTs, and higher total bilirubin levels. The prognosis for these patients was poorer than for those without ARF. However, the patients with ARF and nonfulminant AHA had recovered with proper treatment and should not be confused with patients that have HRS.

  4. Cluster of cases of acute hepatitis associated with hepatitis E virus infection acquired in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdowson, MA; Jaspers, WJ; Poel, van der WH; Verschoor, F.; Husman, AM de Roda; Winter, HL; Zaaijer, H.L.; Koopmans, M

    2003-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection may occur in developed countries and that swine may act as a reservoir. We report a cluster of 2 confirmed cases and 1 presumptive case of hepatitis associated with HEV. The typed strain from 1 case was related to HEV strains found

  5. Plasma levels of inter-α inhibitor proteins in children with acute dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); Y.P. Lim; M.D. Shin (Michael); T.E. Setiati (Tatty); A.T.A. Mairuhu; E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); A. Soemantri (Augustinus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Inter-α inhibitor proteins (IaIp) belong to a family of protease inhibitors that are involved in the haemostatic and the vascular system. Dengue viruses (DENV) infections are characterized by coagulopathy and increased vascular permeability. In this study we measured the conc

  6. Studies on the role of mononuclear phagocytes in resistance to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    difficulty in eliminating. Adoptive transfer experiments with pre-irradiated recipients showed that T-cell-dependent virus clearance required interaction between donor-derived primary immune spleen cells and radiosensitive host cells. T cells did not seem to constitute the radiosensitive host component...

  7. Immune and acute phase response in pigs experimentally infected with H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) and immune responses in pigs after experimental infection with H1N2 swine influenza virus (SwH1N2) were studied. Eight piglets were infected intranasally with SwH1N2. Four served as controls. Antibodies against swine influenza virus (SIV)s were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The proliferation assay was used to measure influenza-specific cell-mediated response. Hematological parameters were measured on a hematology analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major APP (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. Antibodies against SwH1N2 in the serum of infected pigs were detected from 7 dpi. SwH1N2-specific T-cell response was observed from 5 dpi. A significant drop in lymphocyte numbers and an increase in medium-sized cell (MID) counts with no accompanying leukopenia was observed in all infected pigs from 3 to 7 dpi. In infected pigs, concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA increased significantly when the greatest amounts of virus were shed (from 1 to 3 dpi). The level of Pig-MAP remained unchanged during study. The significant positive correlation found between maximum concentrations of SAA in serum and lung scores, makes SAA a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, but to confirm this hypothesis more studies are needed.

  8. [Preliminary analysis on respiratory syncytial virus identified in children with acute respiratory infections in Tibet Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Wang, Fang; Wu, Hong; Shan, Min-Na; Deji, Mei-Duo

    2012-03-01

    To understand the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Tibet Autonomous Region and the contribution of two major groups of RSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from hospitalized children with ARI in Department of Pediatrics, Tibet People's Hospital in Lasa, Tibet from April to July in 2011 and tested for seven common respiratory viruses and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). Total RNAs were extracted from RSV positive samples by DFA and reverse transcripted to cDNA. Nested-PCR was employed to determine the genogroups of RSV, which were confirmed by real time-PCR and sequence analysis for G protein encoding gene. The Characteristics and variations of G genes from RSV in this project were identified by sequence comparison with those G genes in GenBank. Out of 167 samples, 65 were positive for respiratory viruses with a total positive rate of 38.9%, including 45 (69.2%, 45/65)positive samples for RSV. Among 42 samples that were positive for RSV and genotyped, 40 were identified as group A and 2 as group B. Sequence analysis of full-length G genes for 7 RSV of group A indicated that all of these belonged to subgroup GA2. The nucleotide identities between RSVs from Tibet and prototype A2 strain were 90.7%-91.8%, with 86.5%-87.2% identities of amino acid. The mutations of amino acids were mainly located in both ends of a highly conserved region in the ectodomain of the G proteins. The data indicated that RSV was the most important viral etiologic agent of ARI in spring of 2011 in Tibet and group A of RSV was predominant during the study period. High divergence existed in the ectodomain of G proteins of RSVs from Tibet.

  9. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  10. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with pegylated interferon 2a therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Khiani; Thomas Kelly; Adeel Shibli; Donald Jensen; Smruti R Mohanty

    2008-01-01

    The combination of pogylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin is the standard of care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment. In general, common side effects related to this combination therapy are mild and are very well tolerated. However, peripheral neuropathy including demyelinating polyneuropathy related to Peg-IFN is extremely rare. We present the first case of an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)associated with Peg-IFN-α 2a (Pegasys) after 16 wk of a combination therapy with Pegasys and ribavirin in a 65-year-old woman with chronic HCV infection.She developed tingling, numbness, and weakness of her upper and lower extremities and was hospitalized for acute neurological deficits. Her clinical course,neurological findings, an electromyogram (EHG), nerve conductions studies (NCS), muscle biopsy, and a sural nerve biopsy were all consistent with AIDP likely related to Pegasys use. The patient recovered completely with the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) including physical therapy and neurological rehabilitation. It is very important that gastroenterologists and/or hepatologists recognize this rare neurological complication related to Peg-IFN treatment very early, since it requires a prompt discontinuation of therapy including an immediate referral to a neurologist for the confirmation of diagnosis, management, and the prevention of long-term neurological deficits.

  11. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Norbeck, Oscar;

    2005-01-01

    and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral...

  12. Factors Associated with Death Due to 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Beijing, 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-qian; Zhang; Li-cheng; Zhang; Na; Ren; Ming; Zhang; Li-min; Guo; Xing-wang; Li; Jun; Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective Patients with H1N1 virus infection were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them developed into acute respiratory failure, and were transfered to the medical intensive care unit of Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University in Beijing, China. Methods The clinical features and preliminary epidemiologic findings among 30 patients with confirmed H1N1 virus infection who developed into acute respiratory failure for ventilatory support were investigated. Results A total of 30 patients(37.43 ± 18.80 years old) with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) related acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) received treatment with mechanical ventilation, 15 cases of whom were male and 17 cases died of ARDS. Fatal cases were significantly associated with an APACHE Ⅱ score(P = 0.016), but not with PaO 2 /FIO 2(P = 0.912) and chest radiograph(P = 0.333). The most common complication was acute renal failure(n = 9). Five patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO), 3 of whom died and the others survived. The major causes of death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome(MODS)(39%), intractable respiratory failure(27%) and sepsis(20%). Conclusions Most patients with respiratory failure due to influenza A(H1N1) virus infection were young, with a high mortality, particularly associated with APACHE Ⅱ score, secondary infection of lung or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Hepatitis E virus is a leading cause of acute-on-chronic liver disease:experience from a tertiary centre in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamun-Al Mahtab; Salimur Rahman; Mobin Khan; Md. Fazal Karim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is common in Bangladesh. Acute viral E hepatitis is sporadically encountered in this country each year, with a rising incidence in the rainy season. This study aimed to identify the etiology of ACLF in Bangladesh. METHODS:In this retrospective study, 69 ACLF patients were included. They presented to our department at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University in Dhaka. History of diseases was recorded and appropriate investigations were conducted in all patients. RESULTS:Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was positive in 21.7% (15/69) of the patients, while 14.5%(10/69) had septicemia. Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage was seen in 4.3% of the patients (3/69), while another 4.3% (3/69) had a positive history for alcohol or drugs. None of the patients tested positive for hepatitis A virus infection and no evidence of hepatitis B virus lfare was found in any patient. No speciifc cause for ACLF could be identiifed. CONCLUSIONS:Acute HEV infection is a leading cause of ACLF in Bangladesh. Many patients were thought to have decompensation of cirrhosis, but subsequently were recognized as having ACLF by a retrospective review according to the deifnition of the Asian Paciifc Association for the Study of the Liver Working Party Meeting on ACLF in New Delhi in early 2008.

  14. Hepatitis E virus as a Cause of Acute Hepatitis in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta T R Tholen

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that 27% of Dutch blood donors have evidence of past infection with HEV. However, the low number of diagnosed HEV infections indicates either an asymptomatic course or under diagnosis.We investigated whether HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in Dutch patients and which diagnostic modality (serology or PCR should be used for optimal detection.Serum samples were retrospectively selected from non-severely immuno-compromised patients from a university hospital population, suspected of having an infectious hepatitis. Criteria were: elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT> 34 U/l and request for antibody testing for CMV, EBV or Hepatitis A (HAV.All samples were tested for HEV using ELISA and PCR. Ninety patients/sera were tested, of which 22% were HEV IgG positive. Only one serum was IgM positive. HEV PCR was positive in two patients: one patient was both HEV IgM and IgG positive, the other patient was only IgG positive. Both HEV RNA positive samples belonged to genotype 3. Evidence of recent infection with CMV, EBV and HAV was found in 13%, 10% and 3% respectively.Although our study is limited by small numbers, we conclude that HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in hospital associated patients in The Netherlands. Moreover, in our study population the prevalence of acute HAV (3% was almost similar to acute HEV (2%. We propose to incorporate HEV testing in panels for acute infectious hepatitis. Negative results obtained for HEV IgM in a HEV PCR positive patient, indicates that antibody testing alone may not be sufficient and argues for PCR as a primary diagnostic tool in hospital associated patients. The high percentage of HEV IgG seropositivity confirms earlier epidemiological studies.

  15. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, K F; Grimwood, K; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M; Acworth, J P; Phillips, N; Goyal, V; Chang, A B

    2016-06-01

    Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized.

  16. Epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Norway, 1992-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Blystad Hans; Kløvstad Hilde; Nilsen Øivind; Rimšelienė Gražina; Aavitsland Preben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Norway is classified as a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination is only recommended for risk groups (intravenous drug users (IDUs), Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), immigrants and contacts of known carriers). We describe the epidemiology of reported cases of hepatitis B in Norway, during the years 1992-2009 in order to assess the validity of current risk groups and recommend preventive measures. Methods We used case based data from the nationa...

  17. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human...... cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein...... gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  18. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    leukocytter fra inficerede og ikke-inficerede mink ved flowcytometri. Vi fandt et tydeligt cytokinrespons (IFN-g, TNF-a og IL-4) i inficerede mink, selv i mink inficeret med den høj-virulente stamme, der udviklede udtalt immunsuppression med drastisk lymfopeni, forsinket eller udebleven virus neutraliserende...... (VN) antistofproduktion og alvorlig klinisk sygdom.  Den danske DK91 vildtype blev isoleret fra en akut dødelig syg hundehvalp under et hundesygeudbrud blandt den Københavnske hundepopulation i 1991. Både CDV og den nært beslægtede sælpest virus (PDV) har overlappende værtspektrum og har begge...... der registeret endnu et udbrud af sælpest og igen startede epidemien på øen Anholt i Kattegat. Vi udførte fylogenetiske analyser af vildtype virus isoleret direkte fra angrebne landlevende rovdyr (mink, grævling, ilder, husmår og mår) mellem 2000 og 2003 og fra spættede sæler (Phoca vitulina) fra 1988...

  19. Nipah Desease: A New Type of Zoonosis%一种新型的人畜互传病--立百病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉如; 佘锐萍; 李艺娟

    2001-01-01

    @@ 立百病(Nipah disease)是1998年在马来西亚首次发现的一种严重危害猪和人类的病毒性人畜共患病.1998年10月至1999年5月期间,立百病在马来西亚的猪群和人群中大规模暴发流行,并殃及到新加坡,导致105人死亡,116万头猪被捕杀.2000年2月以来,该病再度在马来西亚流行,到目前为止已有1人死亡,1728头猪被捕杀,引起该国和周边国家的广泛关注.

  20. Topical cidofovir-induced acute kidney injury in two severely immunocompromised patients with refractory multidrug-resistant herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ila M; Lahoti, Amit; Chemaly, Roy F; Trevino, Cynthia; Westmoreland, Michael; Hosing, Chitra

    2016-04-01

    Cidofovir, a nucleoside analog of deoxycytidine monophosphate, is a water-soluble polar molecule that exhibits antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA viruses. Cidofovir for injection is approved for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The safety and efficacy of topical cidofovir has been described in a limited number of patients. We present two cases of multidrug-resistant herpes simplex virus infections that responded to topical cidofovir therapy yet resulted in irreversible acute kidney injury.

  1. High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Chidlow, Glenys R; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Harnett, Gerald B; Richmond, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.

  2. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Suan Poo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA.

  3. Acute meningoencephalomyelitis due to varicella-zoster virus in an AIDS patient: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV meningoencephalomyelitis is a rare but severe neurological complication of VZV reactivation in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an HIV-infected individual who developed an acute and severe meningoencephalomyelitis accompanied by a disseminated cutaneous eruption due to VZV. The presence of VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The patient started undergoing an intravenous acyclovir therapy with a mild recovery of neurological manifestations. Varicella-zoster virus should be included as a cause of acute meningoencephalomyelitis in patients with AIDS. Early diagnosis followed by specific therapy should modify the rapid and fulminant course for this kind of patients.

  4. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorates acute lung injury induced by 2009 swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza pandemic affected people in almost all countries in the world, especially in younger age groups. During this time, the debate over whether to use corticosteroid treatment in severe influenza H1N1 infections patients resurfaced and was disputed by clinicians. There is an urgent need for a susceptible animal model of 2009 H1N1 infection that can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis and the therapeutic effect of corticosteroid treatment during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We intranasally inoculated two groups of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (using 4- or 6-to 8-week-old mice to compare the pathogenesis of several different H1N1 strains in mice of different ages. Based on the results, a very susceptible 4-week-old C57BL/6 mouse model of Beijing 501 strain of 2009 H1N1 virus infection was established, showing significantly elevated lung edema and cytokine levels compared to controls. Using our established animal model, the cytokine production profile and lung histology were assessed at different times post-infection, revealing increased lung lesions in a time-dependent manner. In additional,the mice were also treated with dexamethasone, which significantly improved survival rate and lung lesions in infected mice compared to those in control mice. Our data showed that corticosteroid treatment ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 virus in mice and suggested that corticosteroids are valid drugs for treating 2009 A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the established, very susceptible 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 mouse model, our studies indicate that corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic remedy that may address the increasing concerns over future 2009 A/H1N1 pandemics.

  5. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19 is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral infection inducing a persistent activated CD8+ T cell response. The likely explanation--analogous to that for cytomegalovirus infection--is that this persistent response is due to low-level antigen exposure. CD8+ T cells may contribute to the long-term control of this significant pathogen and should be considered during vaccine development.

  6. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi; Bazaraa, Hafez M; Hanan Zekri; Hanaa I. Rady

    2011-01-01

    We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patien...

  7. The expression of T-cell receptor Vβ subfamily in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of T-cell receptor(TCR)Vβsubfamily in hepatitis B virus(HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liverfailure(HBV-ACLF)patients.Methods Twenty-eight patients with HBV-ACLF(HBV-ACLF group)and 32patients with chronic hepatitis B flare(CHB-F group),who were treated in The Second People’s Hospital from

  8. Interactions between Hepatitis C Virus and the Human Apolipoprotein H Acute Phase Protein: A Tool for a Sensitive Detection of the Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefas, Ilias; Tigrett, Sylvia; Dubois, Grégor; Kaiser, Marco; Lucarz, Estelle; Gobby, Delphine; Bray, Dorothy; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Zarski, Jean Pierre; Veas, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exhibits a high global prevalence frequently associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, taking years to develop. Despite the standardization of highly sensitive HCV quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) detection methods, false-negative diagnoses may be generated with current methods, mainly due to the presence of PCR inhibitors and/or low viral loads in the patient's sample. These false-negative diagnoses impact both public health systems, in developing countries, and an in lesser extent, in developed countries, including both the risk of virus transmission during organ transplantation and/or blood transfusion and the quality of the antiviral treatment monitoring. To adopt an appropriate therapeutic strategy to improve the patient's prognosis, it is urgent to increase the HCV detection sensitivity. Based upon previous studies on HBV, we worked on the capacity of the scavenger acute phase protein, Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) to interact with HCV. Using different approaches, including immunoassays, antibody-inhibition, oxidation, ultracentrifugation, electron microscopy and RT-PCR analyses, we demonstrated specific interactions between HCV particles and ApoH. Moreover, when using a two-step HCV detection process, including capture of HCV by ApoH-coated nanomagnetic beads and a home-made real-time HCV-RT-PCR, we confirmed the presence of HCV for all samples from a clinical collection of HCV-seropositive patients exhibiting an RT-PCR COBAS® TaqMan® HCV Test, v2.0 (COBAS)-positive result. In contrast, for HCV-seropositive patients with either low HCV-load as determined with COBAS or exhibiting HCV-negative COBAS results, the addition of the two-step ApoH-HCV-capture and HCV-detection process was able to increase the sensitivity of HCV detection or more interestingly, detect in a genotype sequence-independent manner, a high-proportion (44%) of HCV/RNA-positive among the COBAS HCV-negative patients. Thus, the immune interaction between ApoH and

  9. Interactions between Hepatitis C Virus and the Human Apolipoprotein H Acute Phase Protein: A Tool for a Sensitive Detection of the Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Stefas

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection exhibits a high global prevalence frequently associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, taking years to develop. Despite the standardization of highly sensitive HCV quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR detection methods, false-negative diagnoses may be generated with current methods, mainly due to the presence of PCR inhibitors and/or low viral loads in the patient's sample. These false-negative diagnoses impact both public health systems, in developing countries, and an in lesser extent, in developed countries, including both the risk of virus transmission during organ transplantation and/or blood transfusion and the quality of the antiviral treatment monitoring. To adopt an appropriate therapeutic strategy to improve the patient's prognosis, it is urgent to increase the HCV detection sensitivity. Based upon previous studies on HBV, we worked on the capacity of the scavenger acute phase protein, Apolipoprotein H (ApoH to interact with HCV. Using different approaches, including immunoassays, antibody-inhibition, oxidation, ultracentrifugation, electron microscopy and RT-PCR analyses, we demonstrated specific interactions between HCV particles and ApoH. Moreover, when using a two-step HCV detection process, including capture of HCV by ApoH-coated nanomagnetic beads and a home-made real-time HCV-RT-PCR, we confirmed the presence of HCV for all samples from a clinical collection of HCV-seropositive patients exhibiting an RT-PCR COBAS® TaqMan® HCV Test, v2.0 (COBAS-positive result. In contrast, for HCV-seropositive patients with either low HCV-load as determined with COBAS or exhibiting HCV-negative COBAS results, the addition of the two-step ApoH-HCV-capture and HCV-detection process was able to increase the sensitivity of HCV detection or more interestingly, detect in a genotype sequence-independent manner, a high-proportion (44% of HCV/RNA-positive among the COBAS HCV-negative patients. Thus, the immune interaction

  10. Serological cross reactivity to CMV and EBV causes problems in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Catherine; Mabayoje, Diana A; Copping, Ruth; Maranao, Desmond; Patel, Mauli; Labbett, Wendy; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern as a major cause of enterically-transmitted hepatitis worldwide. The detectable window of viraemia is narrow, and HEV IgM and IgG rise simultaneously in acute infection. Furthermore, previous investigators have shown HEV IgM false positive reactions occur against EBV, CMV and potentially hepatitis A. A retrospective analysis of HEV serology testing was performed at a London tertiary referral hospital over a 3-year period. A thousand four hundred and twenty three serum samples were tested for HEV serology, with 33 samples HEV IgM positive and 28 HEV IgM equivocal. One hundred and eleven samples were HEV IgG positive but IgM negative suggesting past infection. No patients with HEV IgM positivity had false positive reactions against hepatitis A. A high degree of EBV and CMV cross reactivity was noted, with 33.3% and 24.2% of HEV IgM positive samples also testing positive for EBV and CMV IgM, respectively. HEV RNA was detected in four HEV IgM positive samples, indicating true positivity, although three demonstrated cross reactivity against EBV. Only 13.3% of samples with positive HEV IgM were HEV PCR positive, highlighting a low positive predictive value of serology testing. Overall a high level of HEV, EBV and CMV IgM cross reactivity was demonstrated, indicating that serology is unreliable in the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. It is concluded that that the diagnosis of viral hepatitis should be based on clinical features, raised transaminases, serology, and confirmatory PCR testing.

  11. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus-Like Particle Binding to Target Cells by Antiviral Antibodies in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Daniel; Barth, Heidi; Gissler, Bettina; Schürmann, Peter; Adah, Mohammed I.; Gerlach, J. Tilman; Pape, Gerd R.; Depla, Erik; Jacobs, Dirk; Maertens, Geert; Patel, Arvind H.; Inchauspé, Geneviève; Liang, T. Jake; Blum, Hubert E.; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis worldwide. The study of antibody-mediated virus neutralization has been hampered by the lack of an efficient and high-throughput cell culture system for the study of virus neutralization. The HCV structural proteins have been shown to assemble into noninfectious HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs). Similar to serum-derived virions, HCV-LPs bind and enter human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines. In this study, we developed an HCV-LP-based model system for a systematic functional analysis of antiviral antibodies from patients with acute or chronic hepatitis C. We demonstrate that cellular HCV-LP binding was specifically inhibited by antiviral antibodies from patients with acute or chronic hepatitis C in a dose-dependent manner. Using a library of homologous overlapping envelope peptides covering the entire HCV envelope, we identified an epitope in the N-terminal E2 region (SQKIQLVNTNGSWHI; amino acid positions 408 to 422) as one target of human antiviral antibodies inhibiting cellular particle binding. Using a large panel of serum samples from patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C, we demonstrated that the presence of antibodies with inhibition of binding activity was not associated with viral clearance. In conclusion, antibody-mediated inhibition of cellular HCV-LP binding represents a convenient system for the functional characterization of human anti-HCV antibodies, allowing the mapping of envelope neutralization epitopes targeted by naturally occurring antiviral antibodies. PMID:15308699

  12. Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Acute Hepatic Failure Model in Mice Infected with MHV-3 Virus Intervened by Anti-hepatic Failure Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiaquan; XIAO Fei; YU Haijing; HUANG Tiejun; HUANG Haiyan; NING Qin

    2007-01-01

    Differential gene expression profiles in Balb/cJ mouse model of acute hepatic failure in- fected with MHV-3 virus intervened by anti-hepatic failure compound (AHFC) and the changes of cytokines regulated by genes were investigated. The Balb/cj mice were divided into AHFC-intervened group and control group randomly. Acute hepatic failure model of Balb/cJ mice infected with MHV-3 virus was established. The survival rate in the two groups was observed. It was found that the survival rate in the AHFC-intervened group and control group was 90% and 50% re- spectively 48 h after intrapefitoneal injection of MHV-3 (P<0.05). Before and after the experiment, the cytokines in peripheral blood of the survival mice were determined, and RNA was extracted from survival mouse liver tissue for the analysis of the differential gene expression by a 36 kb mouse oli- gonuleotide DNA array. In all the genes of microarray there were 332 genes expressed differently in the two groups, in which 234 genes were up-regulated and 78 genes down-regulated. Through clustering analysis, the differential expression of immune related genes, including TNF receptor superfamily, Kctd9, Bcl-2, Fg12, IL-8, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α etc. might be related with the curative effectiveness of AHFC. It was suggested that AHFC can balance the immune state of mouse model of acute hepatic failure infected with MHV-3 virus mainly through regulating the expression of immune related genes, decrease the immune damage and inhibit liver cell apoptosis of mouse acute hepatic failure model obviously so as to increase the survival rate of mouse models of acute hepatic failure.

  13. Acute reactogenicity after intramuscular immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus is linked to production of IL-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Athearn

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on live viruses are attractive because they are immunogenic, cost-effective, and can be delivered by multiple routes. However, live virus vaccines also cause reactogenic side effects such as fever, myalgia, and injection site pain that have reduced their acceptance in the clinic. Several recent studies have linked vaccine-induced reactogenic side effects to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β in humans. Our objective was therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV vaccine vectors, and if so, to identify strategies by which IL-1β mediated pathology might be reduced without compromising immunogenicity. We found that an rVSV vaccine induced local and systemic production of IL-1β in vivo, and that accumulation of IL-1β correlated with acute pathology after rVSV immunization. rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R-/- mice were fully protected from lethal rechallenge with a high dose of VSV. This result demonstrated that IL-1 contributed to reactogenicity of the rVSV, but was dispensable for induction of protective immunity. The amount of IL-1β detected in mice deficient in either caspase-1 or the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC after rVSV immunization was not significantly different than that produced by wild type animals, and caspase-1-/- and ASC-/- mice were only partially protected from rVSV-induced pathology. Those data support the idea that some of the IL-1β expressed in vivo in response to VSV may be activated by a caspase-1 and ASC-independent mechanism. Together these results suggest that rVSV vectors engineered to suppress the induction of IL-1β, or signaling through the IL-1R would be less reactogenic in vivo, but would retain their immunogenicity and protective capacity. Such rVSV would be highly desirable as either vaccine vectors or

  14. Parainfluenza Virus Types 1, 2, and 3 in Pediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Beijing During 2004 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Lin-Qing Zhao; Ru-Nan Zhu; Jie Deng; Yu Sun; Ya-Xin Ding; Run Tian

    2015-01-01

    Background:Although human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) has been determined as an important viral cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in infants and young children,data on long-term investigation are still lacking to disclose the infection pattern of HPIV in China.Methods:Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 25,773 hospitalized pediatric patients with ARIs from January 2004 through December 2012 for respiratory virus screen by direct immuno-fluorescence assay.Results:Out of these specimens,1675 (6.50%,1675/25,773) showed HPIV positive,including 261 (1.01%,261/25,773) for HPIV1,28 (0.11%,28/25,773) for HPIV2,and 1388 (5.39%,1388/25,773) for HPIV3,2 of the samples were positive for both HPIV1 and HPIV3,and 36 were co-detected with other viruses.The positive rates of HPIVs were higher in those younger than 3 years old.HPIV3 was detected from all age groups,predominantly from patients under 3 years of age,and the highest frequency was found in those 6 months to 1-year old (352/4077,8.63%).HPIV3 was the dominant type in each of the years detected between May and July.HPIV1 showed a peak in every odd year,mainly in August or September.HPIV was detected most frequently from patients with upper respiratory infection (12.49%,157/1257),followed by bronchitis (11.13%,176/2479),asthma (9.31%,43/462),bronchiolitis (5.91%,150/2536),pneumonia (6.06%,1034/17,068),and those with underlying diseases (1.0%,15/1506).HPIV3 is the dominant type in these six disease groups referred above,especially in the asthma group.Conclusions:HPIV is one of the important viral causes of ARIs in infants and young children in Beijing based on the data from the hospitalized children covering a 9-year term.HPIV3 is the predominant type in all these years and in most of the disease groups.HPIVs with different types show different seasonality.

  15. Parainfluenza Virus Types 1, 2, and 3 in Pediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Beijing During 2004 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although human parainfluenza virus (HPIV has been determined as an important viral cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs in infants and young children, data on long-term investigation are still lacking to disclose the infection pattern of HPIV in China. Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 25,773 hospitalized pediatric patients with ARIs from January 2004 through December 2012 for respiratory virus screen by direct immuno-fluorescence assay. Results: Out of these specimens, 1675 (6.50%, 1675/25,773 showed HPIV positive, including 261 (1.01%, 261/25,773 for HPIV1, 28 (0.11%, 28/25,773 for HPIV2, and 1388 (5.39%, 1388/25,773 for HPIV3, 2 of the samples were positive for both HPIV1 and HPIV3, and 36 were co-detected with other viruses. The positive rates of HPIVs were higher in those younger than 3 years old. HPIV3 was detected from all age groups, predominantly from patients under 3 years of age, and the highest frequency was found in those 6 months to 1-year old (352/4077, 8.63%. HPIV3 was the dominant type in each of the years detected between May and July. HPIV1 showed a peak in every odd year, mainly in August or September. HPIV was detected most frequently from patients with upper respiratory infection (12.49%, 157/1257, followed by bronchitis (11.13%, 176/2479, asthma (9.31%, 43/462, bronchiolitis (5.91%, 150/2536, pneumonia (6.06%, 1034/17,068, and those with underlying diseases (1.0%, 15/1506. HPIV3 is the dominant type in these six disease groups referred above, especially in the asthma group. Conclusions: HPIV is one of the important viral causes of ARIs in infants and young children in Beijing based on the data from the hospitalized children covering a 9-year term. HPIV3 is the predominant type in all these years and in most of the disease groups. HPIVs with different types show different seasonality.

  16. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L.; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Keesler, Rebekah I.; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L.; Reader, J. Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M.; Allen, A. Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants. PMID:28141843

  17. Cellular immune activation in children with acute dengue virus infections is modulated by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin S; Endy, Timothy P; Mongkolsirichaikul, Duangrat; Manomuth, Choompun; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Vaughn, David W; Nisalak, Ananda; Green, Sharone; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Libraty, Daniel H

    2006-09-01

    Apoptosis is an important modulator of cellular immune responses during systemic viral infections. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) apoptosis and plasma soluble levels of CD95, a mediator of apoptosis, were determined in sequential samples from children participating in a prospective study of dengue virus (DV) infections. During the period of defervescence, levels of PBMC apoptosis were higher in children developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), the most severe form of illness, than in those with dengue fever (DF) and other, nondengue, febrile illnesses. CD8(+) T lymphocytes made up approximately half of the peak circulating apoptotic PBMCs in DHF and DF. Maximum plasma levels of soluble CD95 were also higher in children with DHF than in those with DF. The level of PBMC apoptosis correlated with dengue disease severity. Apoptosis appears to be involved in modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses to DV infection and is likely involved in the evolution of immune responses in other viral hemorrhagic fevers.

  18. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoh Mambu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV GP1 (sGP1 in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC gene 12. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV, a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90% fatality rates 345. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW, in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. Results It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for

  19. Elevated levels of cell-free circulating DNA in patients with acute dengue virus infection.

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    Tran Thi Ngoc Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of a Single-Tube Multiple RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of 13 Common Virus Types/Subtypes Associated with Acute Respiratory Infection.

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    Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses are among the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially for infants and young children. In the past years, a few commercial multiplex RT-PCR assays have been used to detect respiratory viruses in spite of the high cost. In the present study, an improved single-tube multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of 13 respiratory viruses was evaluated and compared with a previously reported two-tube assay as the reference method using clinical nasopharyngeal aspirates samples. Of 310 prospectively tested respiratory specimens selected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, 226 (72.90%, 226/310 and 214 (69.03%, 214/310 positive for one or more viruses were identified by the single-tube and the two-tube assays, respectively, with combined test results showing good concordance (Kappa value = 0.874. Individually, the single-tube assay for adenovirus (Adv, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, human rhinovirus (HRV, parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1, parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 and parainfluenza virus type 4 (PIV4 showed the significantly superior sensitivities to those of the two-tube assay. No false positives were found. In conclusion, our results demonstrates the one-tube assay revealed significant improvements over the two-tube assay in terms of the better sensitivity, more accurate quality control, less nonspecific amplification, more cost-effective and shorter turn-around time and will be a valuable tool for routine surveillance of respiratory virus infection in China.

  1. Molecular analysis of hepatitis A virus strains obtained from patients with acute hepatitis A in Mongolia, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Despite the high endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Mongolia, the genetic information on those HAV strains is limited. Serum samples obtained from 935 patients with acute hepatitis in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2004-2013 were tested for the presence of HAV RNA using reverse transcription-PCR with primers targeting the VP1-2B region (481 nucleotides, primer sequences at both ends excluded). Overall, 180 patients (19.3%) had detectable HAV RNA. These 180 isolates shared 94.6-100% identity and formed four phylogenetic clusters within subgenotype IA. One or three representative HAV isolates from each cluster exhibited 2.6-3.9% difference between clusters over the entire genome. Cluster 1 accounted for 65.0% of the total, followed by Cluster 2 (30.6%), Cluster 3 (3.3%), and Cluster 4 (1.1%). Clusters 1 and 2 were predominant throughout the observation period, whereas Cluster 3 was undetectable in 2009 and 2013 and Cluster 4 became undetectable after 2009. The Mongolian HAV isolates were closest to those of Chinese or Japanese origin (97.7-98.5% identities over the entire genome), suggesting the evolution from a common ancestor with those circulating in China and Japan. Further molecular epidemiological analyses of HAV infection are necessary to investigate the factors underlying the spread of HAV and to implement appropriate prevention measures in Mongolia.

  2. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Proteinuria and Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in Pregnancy Mimic HELLP Syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets

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    Wendy M. White

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated transaminases, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia in pregnancy are most often caused by a preeclampsia variant—HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets. In atypical cases, it is important to consider other causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV hepatitis. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN-induced proteinuria can make distinguishing HELLP from its mimics more difficult. A 43-year-old G4P3 gestational carrier at 28 weeks had abnormal laboratory findings consistent with HELLP, including proteinuria. However, she was normotensive and febrile, prompting an investigation into other possible causes of her signs and symptoms. She ultimately was diagnosed with disseminated HSV infection, started on definitive therapy, and allowed to continue her pregnancy to term. The proteinuria was attributed to AIN. AIN can cause proteinuria in the critically ill pregnant patient. When mimics of HELLP syndrome, such as disseminated HSV infection, are the cause of critical illness, the presence of AIN-induced proteinuria may falsely implicate a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, resulting in iatrogenic premature delivery of the fetus and failure to initiate definitive potential lifesaving treatment.

  3. Comparison of clinical features of acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4 in Sapporo, Japan.

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    Ohnishi, Sachiyo; Kang, Jong-Hon; Maekubo, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Toyota, Joji; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mishiro, Shunji

    2006-12-01

    In Japan, indigenous acute hepatitis E is not a rare disease, and is mainly caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4. Whether there is a difference in clinical features between the two genotypes remains unclear. This study compares the clinical features of patients infected with the two. From January, 1994, to December, 2003, 9 infected with HEV genotype 3 and 27 patients with genotype 4 were enrolled. Patients with genotype 4 had significantly higher peak alanine aminotransferase levels (median 3430IU/L, interquartile range 1747-4763 versus 1052IU/L, 845-2707; p=0.01). The lowest prothrombin time was lower in the genotype 4 group (61%, 42-77 versus 84%, 70-96; p=0.05). In our series, patients with genotype 4 had longer median duration of hospital stay (26.5 days, 18-31 versus 18 days, 12-23.5; p=0.06). The patients with genotype 4 infection tended to have more severe clinical manifestations than those with genotype 3 infection.

  4. Transient widespread cortical and splenial lesions in acute encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with primary Epstein–Barr virus infection

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    Shuo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is very common and usually occurs in childhood or early adulthood. Encephalitis/encephalopathy is an uncommon but serious neurological complication of EBV. A case of EBV-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy with involvement of reversible widespread cortical and splenial lesions is presented herein. An 8-year-old Chinese girl who presented with fever and headache, followed by seizures and drowsiness, was admitted to the hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensities on diffusion-weighted imaging in widespread cortical and splenial lesions. The clinical and laboratory examination results together with the unusual radiology findings suggested acute encephalitis/encephalopathy due to primary EBV infection. After methylprednisolone pulse therapy together with ganciclovir, the patient made a full recovery without any brain lesions. The hallmark clinical–radiological features of this patient included severe encephalitis/encephalopathy at onset, the prompt and complete recovery, and rapidly reversible widespread involvement of the cortex and splenium. Patients with EBV encephalitis/encephalopathy who have multiple lesions, even with the widespread involvement of cortex and splenium of the corpus callosum, may have a favorable outcome with complete disappearance of all brain lesions.

  5. Specificity of an anti-capsid antibody associated with Hepatitis B Virus-related acute liver failure.

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    Wu, Weimin; Chen, Zhaochun; Cheng, Naiqian; Watts, Norman R; Stahl, Stephen J; Farci, Patrizia; Purcell, Robert H; Wingfield, Paul T; Steven, Alasdair C

    2013-01-01

    Previously, the livers of patients suffering from acute liver failure (ALF), a potentially fatal syndrome arising from infection by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), were found to contain massive amounts of an antibody specific for the core antigen (HBcAg) capsid. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and molecular modeling to define its epitope. HBV capsids are icosahedral shells with 25Å-long dimeric spikes, each a 4-helix bundle, protruding from the contiguous "floor". Of the anti-HBcAg antibodies previously characterized, most bind around the spike tip while one binds to the floor. The ALF-associated antibody binds tangentially to a novel site on the side of the spike. This epitope is conformational. The Fab binds with high affinity to its principal determinants but has lower affinities for quasi-equivalent variants. The highest occupancy site is on one side of a spike, with no detectable binding to the corresponding site on the other side. Binding of one Fab per dimer was also observed by analytical ultracentrifugation. The Fab did not bind to the e-antigen dimer, a non-assembling variant of capsid protein. These findings support the propositions that antibodies with particular specificities may correlate with different clinical expressions of HBV infection and that antibodies directed to particular HBcAg epitopes may be involved in ALF pathogenesis.

  6. Comparison of viral Env proteins from acute and chronic infections with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 identifies differences in glycosylation and CCR5 utilization and suggests a new strategy for immunogen design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li-Hua; Joseph, Sarah B; Anderson, Jeffrey A; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F; Kincer, Laura P; Treurnicht, Florette K; Arney, Leslie; Ojeda, Suany; Zhang, Ming; Keys, Jessica; Potter, E Lake; Chu, Haitao; Moore, Penny; Salazar, Maria G; Iyer, Shilpa; Jabara, Cassandra; Kirchherr, Jennifer; Mapanje, Clement; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Seoighe, Cathal; Hoffman, Irving; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yuyang; Labranche, Celia; Lee, Benhur; Saville, Andrew; Vermeulen, Marion; Fiscus, Susan; Morris, Lynn; Karim, Salim Abdool; Haynes, Barton F; Shaw, George M; Korber, Bette T; Hahn, Beatrice H; Cohen, Myron S; Montefiori, David; Williamson, Carolyn; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Understanding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is central to developing effective prevention strategies, including a vaccine. We compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from subjects in acute/early infection and subjects with chronic infections in the context of subtype C heterosexual transmission. We found that the transmitted viruses all used CCR5 and required high levels of CD4 to infect target cells, suggesting selection for replication in T cells and not macrophages after transmission. In addition, the transmitted viruses were more likely to use a maraviroc-sensitive conformation of CCR5, perhaps identifying a feature of the target T cell. We confirmed an earlier observation that the transmitted viruses were, on average, modestly underglycosylated relative to the viruses from chronically infected subjects. This difference was most pronounced in comparing the viruses in acutely infected men to those in chronically infected women. These features of the transmitted virus point to selective pressures during the transmission event. We did not observe a consistent difference either in heterologous neutralization sensitivity or in sensitivity to soluble CD4 between the two groups, suggesting similar conformations between viruses from acute and chronic infection. However, the presence or absence of glycosylation sites had differential effects on neutralization sensitivity for different antibodies. We suggest that the occasional absence of glycosylation sites encoded in the conserved regions of env, further reduced in transmitted viruses, could expose specific surface structures on the protein as antibody targets.

  7. Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus subgenotype IA as an imported infectious disease from Indonesia.

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    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria I; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    A 25-year-old Japanese man was admitted with general malaise and fever, which had developed 12 days after coming back to Japan from Indonesia. Blood examination revealed elevated transaminase levels and positivity for the IgM anti-HAV antibody; therefore, he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. HAV-RNA was detected in his serum and phylogenetically classified as subgenotype IA. The partial genome in the VP1/P2A region was consistent with the strain recently isolated from Surabaya, which indicated that he had been infected during his stay in Indonesia. Thus, HAV vaccination is recommended before visiting HAV-endemic countries for a long period of time.

  8. [Acute renal failure after dengue virus infection: A pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolon, C; Broustal, E

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging, rapidly expanding disease, whose clinical and biological manifestations vary. Kidney injury is not usual but can be severe, and it is most often associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock. Guadeloupe, which is located in an endemic area, experienced an epidemic from 2013 to 2014. During this outbreak, a case of renal failure during dengue was observed in a 10-year-old child. No evidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome was found. The clinical and biological course improved with symptomatic treatment. The association of acute renal failure with hemolytic anemia suggested a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome. However, this could not be confirmed in the absence of thrombocytopenia and cytopathologic evidence. This case illustrates the diversity of clinical presentations of dengue, and the possibility of severe renal impairment unrelated to the usual factors encountered in dengue.

  9. Viability Reduction and Rac1 Gene Downregulation of Heterogeneous Ex-Vivo Glioma Acute Slice Infected by the Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain V4UPM

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    Zulkifli Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have been extensively evaluated for anticancer therapy because this virus preferentially infects cancer cells without interfering with normal cells. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV is an avian virus and one of the intensively studied oncolytic viruses affecting many types of cancer including glioma. Nevertheless, the capability of NDV infection on heterogeneous glioma tissue in a cerebrospinal fluid atmosphere has never been reported. Recently, Rac1 is reported to be required for efficient NDV replication in human cancer cells and established a link between tumourigenesis and sensitivity to NDV. Rac1 is a member of the Rho GTPases involved in the regulation of the cell migration and cell-cycle progression. Rac1 knockdown leads to significant inhibition of viral replication. In this work, we demonstrated that NDV treatment led to significant reduction of tumour tissue viability of freshly isolated heterogeneous human brain tumour slice, known as an ex vivo glioma acute slice (EGAS. Analysis of gene expression indicated that reduced tissue viability was associated with downregulation of Rac1. However, the viability reduction was not persistent. We conclude that NDV treatment induced EGAS viability suppression, but subsequent downregulation of Rac1 gene may reduce the NDV replication and lead to regrowth of EGAS tissue.

  10. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Dicistroviridae

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    Dicistroviridae is a family of small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of approximately 8-10 kilobases in length. All members infect arthropod hosts with some having devastating economic consequences, such as Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Israeli acute paralysis virus towar...

  11. Full-length genome characterization and genetic relatedness analysis of hepatitis A virus outbreak strains associated with acute liver failure among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Forbi, Joseph C; Xia, Guo-Liang; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Vazquez, Roberto; Khudyakov, Yury E; Montiel, Sonia; Waterman, Steve; Alpuche, Celia; Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Luna, Norma

    2014-02-01

    Clinical infection by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is generally self-limited but in some cases can progress to liver failure. Here, an HAV outbreak investigation among children with acute liver failure in a highly endemic country is presented. In addition, a sensitive method for HAV whole genome amplification and sequencing suitable for analysis of clinical samples is described. In this setting, two fatal cases attributed to acute liver failure and two asymptomatic cases living in the same household were identified. In a second household, one HAV case was observed with jaundice which resolved spontaneously. Partial molecular characterization showed that both households were infected by HAV subtype IA; however, the infecting strains in the two households were different. The HAV outbreak strains recovered from all cases grouped together within cluster IA1, which contains closely related HAV strains from the United States commonly associated with international travelers. Full-genome HAV sequences obtained from the household with the acute liver failure cases were related (genetic distances ranging from 0.01% to 0.04%), indicating a common-source infection. Interestingly, the strain recovered from the asymptomatic household contact was nearly identical to the strain causing acute liver failure. The whole genome sequence from the case in the second household was distinctly different from the strains associated with acute liver failure. Thus, infection with almost identical HAV strains resulted in drastically different clinical outcomes.

  12. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT.

  13. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Targeting by Myxoma Virus In Vivo Depends on Cell Binding But Not Permissiveness to Infection In Vitro

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    Madlambayan, Gerard J.; Bartee, Eric; Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Meacham, Amy; Scott, Edward W.; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Some oncolytic viruses, such as myxoma virus (MYXV), can selectively target malignant hematopoietic cells, while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. This capacity for discrimination creates an opportunity to use oncolytic viruses as ex vivo purging agents of autologous hematopoietic cell grafts in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses select malignant hematopoietic cells are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how MYXV specifi...

  14. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case report

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    Lahbabi Mounia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The combination of polyethylene glycol (PEGylated interferon (pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus. In general, common side effects related to this combination therapy are mild and are well tolerated. However, peripheral neuropathy including demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α2a (pegylated interferon alfa-2a is extremely rare. In the literature, only one case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α2a has been published previously. Case presentation To the best of our knowledge we present only the second case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α2a, occurring in a 63-year-old Caucasian man. He developed tingling, numbness, and weakness of his upper and lower extremities with acute neurological deficits after five weeks of a combination therapy with PEG-interferon α2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. His clinical course, neurological findings, and his electromyogram results were all consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Our patient recovered completely after interferon was stopped and symptomatic treatment and a further electromyogram showed a disappearance of neuropathy. Four weeks later, PEG-interferon α2a was reintroduced with a gradually increasing dose without any reappearance of neurological symptoms allowing hepatitis C seroconversion. Conclusions Recognition of this rare yet possible presentation is important for early and accurate diagnosis and treatment. This case report also suggests that the reintroduction of PEGylated interferon in patients who had presented with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to interferon α may be safe, but this must be confirmed by further studies.

  15. Hepatitis C virus reveals a novel early control in acute immune response.

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    Noëlla Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viral RNA structures by the intracytosolic RNA helicase RIG-I triggers induction of innate immunity. Efficient induction requires RIG-I ubiquitination by the E3 ligase TRIM25, its interaction with the mitochondria-bound MAVS protein, recruitment of TRAF3, IRF3- and NF-κB-kinases and transcription of Interferon (IFN. In addition, IRF3 alone induces some of the Interferon-Stimulated Genes (ISGs, referred to as early ISGs. Infection of hepatocytes with Hepatitis C virus (HCV results in poor production of IFN despite recognition of the viral RNA by RIG-I but can lead to induction of early ISGs. HCV was shown to inhibit IFN production by cleaving MAVS through its NS3/4A protease and by controlling cellular translation through activation of PKR, an eIF2α-kinase containing dsRNA-binding domains (DRBD. Here, we have identified a third mode of control of IFN induction by HCV. Using HCVcc and the Huh7.25.CD81 cells, we found that HCV controls RIG-I ubiquitination through the di-ubiquitine-like protein ISG15, one of the early ISGs. A transcriptome analysis performed on Huh7.25.CD81 cells silenced or not for PKR and infected with JFH1 revealed that HCV infection leads to induction of 49 PKR-dependent genes, including ISG15 and several early ISGs. Silencing experiments revealed that this novel PKR-dependent pathway involves MAVS, TRAF3 and IRF3 but not RIG-I, and that it does not induce IFN. Use of PKR inhibitors showed that this pathway requires the DRBD but not the kinase activity of PKR. We then demonstrated that PKR interacts with HCV RNA and MAVS prior to RIG-I. In conclusion, HCV recruits PKR early in infection as a sensor to trigger induction of several IRF3-dependent genes. Among those, ISG15 acts to negatively control the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, at the level of RIG-I ubiquitination.These data give novel insights in the machinery involved in the early events of innate immune response.

  16. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle. PMID:27977708

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in children under one year of age hospitalized for acute respiratory diseases in Pelotas, RS

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    Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory diseases (ARDs are a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The present case-controlled study investigated the hospitalizations by ARDs in children under one year of age and the association with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV in za Pelotas, RS. METHODS: All children under one year of age hospitalized due to ARDs from August 1997 to July of 1998 were followed-up in the four hospitals of the city. A standardized questionnaire was applied to the children's mother regarding symptoms of the actual illness in addition to social and demographic variables, nutrition, and previous morbidity. The final diagnosis of ARDs was performed by an arbiter (a pediatrician based on the hospital records of the children and the data on the questionnaire. Nasopharyngeal secretions were collected for RSV detection by direct immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The study included 650 children and the annual incidence rate of hospital admissions for ARDs was 13.9%. Admissions showed a seasonal pattern with most of the hospitalizations occurring from July to October. The main causes of admission were: pneumonia (43.7%, bronchiolitis (31.0%, asthma (20.3%, influenza (3.5%, otitis media (0.8% and laryngitis (0.6%. The overall prevalence of RSV was 30.7%, with 40.2% in bronchiolitis, 28.6% in influenza, 27.4% in asthma, 26.3% in pneumonia, and 25% in otitis media. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study confirm the high morbidity of ARDs in childhood and the seasonal pattern of ARDs hospitalizations and their association with RSV infection.

  18. Liver regeneration signature in hepatitis B virus (HBV-associated acute liver failure identified by gene expression profiling.

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    Oriel Nissim

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The liver has inherent regenerative capacity via mitotic division of mature hepatocytes or, when the hepatic loss is massive or hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, through activation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC. The dramatic clinical course of acute liver failure (ALF has posed major limitations to investigating the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration and the role of HSPC in this setting. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration in 4 patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV-associated ALF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Gene expression profiling of 17 liver specimens from the 4 ALF cases and individual specimens from 10 liver donors documented a distinct gene signature for ALF. However, unsupervised multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering identified two clusters of ALF that segregated according to histopathological severity massive hepatic necrosis (MHN; 2 patients and submassive hepatic necrosis (SHN; 2 patients. We found that ALF is characterized by a strong HSPC gene signature, along with ductular reaction, both of which are more prominent in MHN. Interestingly, no evidence of further lineage differentiation was seen in MHN, whereas in SHN we detected cells with hepatocyte-like morphology. Strikingly, ALF was associated with a strong tumorigenesis gene signature. MHN had the greatest upregulation of stem cell genes (EpCAM, CK19, CK7, whereas the most up-regulated genes in SHN were related to cellular growth and proliferation. The extent of liver necrosis correlated with an overriding fibrogenesis gene signature, reflecting the wound-healing process. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for a distinct gene signature in HBV-associated ALF whose intensity is directly correlated with the histopathological severity. HSPC activation and fibrogenesis positively correlated with the extent of liver necrosis. Moreover, we detected a tumorigenesis gene signature

  19. [Interaction of the Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus in mammals with mixed infection. Competition of the subtypes in acute and inapparent infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, S G; Pogodina, V V; Koliasnikova, N M; Karan', L S; Malenko, G V; Levina, L S

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of natural tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) populations could reveal the change of TBEV subtypes, the displacement of the Far Eastern (FE) subtype, and its substitution for the Siberian (Sib) subtype. Acute and inapparent mixed infections were studied in Syrian hamsters to understand this phenomenon. The animals were inoculated with the Sib subtype and then with the FE one of TBEV (JQ845440-YaroslavI-Aver-08 and Fj214132-Kemerovo-Phateev-1954 strains). The inapparent form developed more frequently in mixed infection. Viral progeny was genotyped by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hybridization fluorescence detection using genotype-specific probes. Independent reproduction of strains in the brain gave way to competition. The FE subtype dominated in hamster youngsters with acute infection. The Sib subtype had selective benefits in asymptomatic infection (adult hamsters infected intracerebrally and subcutaneously and youngsters infected subcutaneously). The competition of the subtypes was imperfect.

  20. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009 virus infection

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    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009 virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patients with severe H1N1 influenza infection.

  1. Deletion of the complement C5a receptor alleviates the severity of acute pneumococcal otitis media following influenza A virus infection in mice.

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    Hua Hua Tong

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that influenza A virus (IAV promotes adherence, colonization, and superinfection by S. pneumoniae (Spn and contributes to the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM. The complement system is a critical innate immune defense against both pathogens. To assess the role of the complement system in the host defense and the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection, we employed a well-established transtympanically-induced mouse model of acute pneumococcal OM. We found that antecedent IAV infection enhanced the severity of acute pneumococcal OM. Mice deficient in complement C1qa (C1qa-/- or factor B (Bf -/- exhibited delayed viral and bacterial clearance from the middle ear and developed significant mucosal damage in the eustachian tube and middle ear. This indicates that both the classical and alternative complement pathways are critical for the oto-immune defense against acute pneumococcal OM following influenza infection. We also found that Spn increased complement activation following IAV infection. This was characterized by sustained increased levels of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in serum and middle ear lavage samples. In contrast, mice deficient in the complement C5a receptor (C5aR demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced severity of OM. Our data support the concept that C5a-C5aR interactions play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection. It is possible that targeting the C5a-C5aR axis might prove useful in attenuating acute pneumococcal OM in patients with influenza infection.

  2. Apios americana Medik Extract Alleviates Lung Inflammation in Influenza Virus H1N1- and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Cui, Jun; Jang, Ho Hee; Kang, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kim, In-Kyoung; Lee, Deuk-Ki; Choi, Seulgi; Yoon, Il-Sub; Chung, Ji-Woo; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2015-12-28

    Apios americana Medik (hereinafter Apios) has been reported to treat diseases, including cancer, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. The therapeutic effect of Apios is likely to be associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Apios in animal models of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1). Mice were exposed to LPS or H1N1 for 2-4 days to induce acute lung injury. The treatment groups were administered Apios extracts via oral injection for 8 weeks before LPS treatment or H1N1 infection. To investigate the effects of Apios, we assessed the mice for in vivo effects of Apios on immune cell infiltration and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathological changes in the lung. After induction of acute lung injury, the numbers of neutrophils and total cells were lower in the Apios-treated groups than in the non-Apios-treated LPS and H1N1 groups. The Apios groups tended to have lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6 in BAL fluid. In addition, the histopathological changes in the lungs were markedly reduced in the Apios-treated groups. These data suggest that Apios treatment reduces LPS- and H1N1-induced lung inflammation. These protective effects of Apios suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in acute lung injury.

  3. Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil

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    Nara Rubia de Freitas

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG by ELISA. Positive samples were confirmed using immunoblot test. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. Of the 379 serum samples, one (0.3% and 20 (5.3% were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG, respectively. HEV RNA was not found in any sample positive for IgM and/or IgG anti-HEV. After multivariate analysis, low education level was independently associated with HEV seropositivity (p = 0.005, as well as living in rural area, with a borderline p-value (p = 0.056. In conclusion, HEV may be responsible for sporadic self-limited cases of acute hepatitis in Central Brazil.

  4. Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Nara Rubia; de Santana, Edna Braz Rocha; Silva, Ágabo Macedo da Costa e; da Silva, Sueli Meira; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Gardinali, Noemi Rovaris; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA. Positive samples were confirmed using immunoblot test. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. Of the 379 serum samples, one (0.3%) and 20 (5.3%) were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG, respectively. HEV RNA was not found in any sample positive for IgM and/or IgG anti-HEV. After multivariate analysis, low education level was independently associated with HEV seropositivity (p = 0.005), as well as living in rural area, with a borderline p-value (p = 0.056). In conclusion, HEV may be responsible for sporadic self-limited cases of acute hepatitis in Central Brazil. PMID:27759769

  5. PA-X-associated early alleviation of the acute lung injury contributes to the attenuation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiao; Mo, Yiqun; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Liang, Yanyan; Cheng, Xin; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxing; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-01

    PA-X is a novel discovered accessory protein encoded by the PA mRNA. Our previous study demonstrated that PA-X decreases the virulence of a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 in mice. However, the underlying mechanism of virulence attenuation associated with PA-X is still unknown. In this study, we compared two PA-X-deficient mutant viruses and the parental virus in terms of induction of pathology and manipulation of host response in the mouse lung, stimulation of cell death and PA nuclear accumulation. We first found that down-regulated PA-X expression markedly aggravated the acute lung injury of the infected mice early on day 1 post-infection (p.i.). We then determined that loss of PA-X expression induced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and complement-derived peptides (C3a and C5a) in the lung, especially at early time point's p.i. In addition, in vitro assays showed that the PA-X-deficient viruses enhanced cell death and increased expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. Moreover, we also found that PA nuclear accumulation of the PA-X-null viruses accelerated in MDCK cells. These results demonstrate that PA-X decreases the level of complement components, ROS, cell death and inflammatory response, which may together contribute to the alleviated lung injury and the attenuation of the virulence of H5N1 virus in mice.

  6. Interferon Alpha Production by Swine Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indic...

  7. Interferon Alpha Production by Circulating Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indica...

  8. Evaluation of two new commercial tests for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection using NS1 antigen detection in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dussart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared the performance of two new commercial tests for the detection of dengue NS1 protein during the clinical phase of dengue virus (DENV infection-an immunochromatographic test allowing rapid detection of the NS1 antigen, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP (Bio-Rad Laboratories - Marnes La Coquette, France, and a two-step sandwich-format microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, pan-E Dengue Early ELISA (Panbio - Brisbane, Australia-with a one-step sandwich-format microplate ELISA, the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag test (Bio-Rad. METHODS: We tested 272 serum samples from patients with dengue disease. Of these, 222 were from patients with acute infection of one of the four dengue serotypes, detected by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Forty-eight acute-phase serum samples from patients not infected with dengue virus were also included. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag test on acute serum samples (n = 222 was 87.4% (95% confidence interval: 82.3% to 91.5%; that of Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP was 81.5% (95% CI: 75.8% to 86.4% after 15 minutes and 82.4% (95% CI: 76.8% to 87.2% after 30 minutes. Both tests had a specificity of 100% (97.5% CI, one-sided test: 92.6% to 100.0%. The pan-E Dengue Early ELISA had a sensitivity of 60.4% (95% CI: 53.4% to 66.8% and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI: 88.9% to 99.9%. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the use of diagnostic tools based on the NS1 antigen detection for the diagnosis of acute DENV infection. The immunochromatographic test, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP-the first rapid diagnostic test for DENV infection-was highly sensitive and specific, and would therefore be a suitable first-line test in the field. The pan-E Dengue Early ELISA was less sensitive than the Platelia test; this two-step ELISA should be combined with DENV IgM antibody detection for the diagnosis of DENV infection.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  10. Acute myeloid leukemia targeting by myxoma virus in vivo depends on cell binding but not permissiveness to infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlambayan, Gerard J; Bartee, Eric; Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M; Meacham, Amy; Scott, Edward W; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2012-05-01

    Some oncolytic viruses, such as myxoma virus (MYXV), can selectively target malignant hematopoietic cells, while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. This capacity for discrimination creates an opportunity to use oncolytic viruses as ex vivo purging agents of autologous hematopoietic cell grafts in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses select malignant hematopoietic cells are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how MYXV specifically targets human AML cells. MYXV prevented chloroma formation and bone marrow engraftment of two human AML cell lines, KG-1 and THP-1. The reduction in human leukemia engraftment after ex vivo MYXV treatment was dose-dependent and required a minimum MOI of 3. Both AML cell lines demonstrated MYXV binding to leukemia cell membranes following co-incubation: however, evidence of productive MYXV infection was observed only in THP-1 cells. This observation, that KG-1 can be targeted in vivo even in the absence of in vitro permissive viral infection, contrasts with the current understanding of oncolytic virotherapy, which assumes that virus infection and productive replication is a requirement. Preventing MYXV binding to AML cells with heparin abrogated the purging capacity of MYXV, indicating that binding of infectious virus particles is a necessary step for effective viral oncolysis. Our results challenge the current dogma of oncolytic virotherapy and show that in vitro permissiveness to an oncolytic virus is not necessarily an accurate predictor of oncolytic potency in vivo.

  11. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (pcase farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (pclinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very high losses (>CHF 10,000, EUR 8333).

  12. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Rare Presentation of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Adults—Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Yesilbag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is almost always a self-limited disease characterized by sore throat, fever, and lymphadenopathy. Hepatic involvement is usually characterized by mild elevations of aminotransferases and resolves spontaneously. Although isolated gallbladder wall thickness has been reported in these patients, acute acalculous cholecystitis is an atypical presentation of primary EBV infection. We presented a young women admitted with a 10-day history of fever, nausea, malaise who had jaundice and right upper quadrant tenderness on the physical examination. Based on diagnostic laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasonographic findings, cholestasis and acute acalculous cholecystitis were diagnosed. Serology performed for EBV revealed the acute EBV infection. Symptoms and clinical course gradually improved with the conservative therapy, and at the 1-month follow-up laboratory findings were normal. We reviewed 16 adult cases with EBV-associated AAC in the literature. Classic symptoms of EBV infection were not predominant and all cases experienced gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one patient underwent surgery and all other patients recovered with conservative therapy. The development of AAC should be kept in mind in patients with cholestatic hepatitis due to EBV infection to avoid unnecessary surgical therapy and overuse of antibiotics.

  13. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Rare Presentation of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Adults—Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Asli; Kaya, Fatih Oner

    2017-01-01

    Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is almost always a self-limited disease characterized by sore throat, fever, and lymphadenopathy. Hepatic involvement is usually characterized by mild elevations of aminotransferases and resolves spontaneously. Although isolated gallbladder wall thickness has been reported in these patients, acute acalculous cholecystitis is an atypical presentation of primary EBV infection. We presented a young women admitted with a 10-day history of fever, nausea, malaise who had jaundice and right upper quadrant tenderness on the physical examination. Based on diagnostic laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasonographic findings, cholestasis and acute acalculous cholecystitis were diagnosed. Serology performed for EBV revealed the acute EBV infection. Symptoms and clinical course gradually improved with the conservative therapy, and at the 1-month follow-up laboratory findings were normal. We reviewed 16 adult cases with EBV-associated AAC in the literature. Classic symptoms of EBV infection were not predominant and all cases experienced gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one patient underwent surgery and all other patients recovered with conservative therapy. The development of AAC should be kept in mind in patients with cholestatic hepatitis due to EBV infection to avoid unnecessary surgical therapy and overuse of antibiotics. PMID:28194287

  14. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenfeldt Carolina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (HP, as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (IFN in serum of infected animals. Results were based on measurements from a total of 36 infected animals of which 24 were kept for observational periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals. There was a significant increase in serum concentrations of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD. There was a statistically significant difference in the HP response between carriers and non-carriers with a lower response in the animals that subsequently developed into FMDV carriers. It was concluded that the induction of SAA, HP and type 1 IFN in serum can be used as markers of acute infection by FMDV in cattle.

  15. Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.E. Lambers; M. Prins; X. Thomas; R. Molenkamp; D. Kwa; K. Brinkman; J.T.M. van der Meer; J. Schinkel

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate that seroprevalence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among MSM is stabilizing in Amsterdam. However, little is known about the incidence of HCV re-infection in MSM who have cleared their HCV infection. We, therefore, studied the incidence of re-infection

  16. European Bats as Carriers of Viruses with Zoonotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kohl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses. While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  17. European bats as carriers of viruses with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Claudia; Kurth, Andreas

    2014-08-13

    Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses). While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  18. Glycopeptide Antibiotics Potently Inhibit Cathepsin L in the Late Endosome/Lysosome and Block the Entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Pan, Ting; Zhang, Junsong; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Xue; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Feng; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-04-22

    Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, teicoplanin also has an inhibitory effect on transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particles, with an IC50 as low as 330 nm Comparative analysis further demonstrated that teicoplanin is able to block the entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) envelope pseudotyped viruses as well. Teicoplanin derivatives such as dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin can also inhibit the entry of Ebola, MERS, and SARS viruses. Mechanistic studies showed that teicoplanin blocks Ebola virus entry by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L, opening a novel avenue for the development of additional glycopeptides as potential inhibitors of cathepsin L-dependent viruses. Notably, given that teicoplanin has routinely been used in the clinic with low toxicity, our work provides a promising prospect for the prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola, MERS, and SARS virus infection.

  19. De Novo Herpes Simplex Virus VP16 Expression Gates a Dynamic Programmatic Transition and Sets the Latent/Lytic Balance during Acute Infection in Trigeminal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtell, Nancy M; Thompson, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The life long relationship between herpes simplex virus and its host hinges on the ability of the virus to aggressively replicate in epithelial cells at the site of infection and transport into the nervous system through axons innervating the infection site. Interaction between the virus and the sensory neuron represents a pivot point where largely unknown mechanisms lead to a latent or a lytic infection in the neuron. Regulation at this pivot point is critical for balancing two objectives, efficient widespread seeding of the nervous system and host survival. By combining genetic and in vivo in approaches, our studies reveal that the balance between latent and lytic programs is a process occurring early in the trigeminal ganglion. Unexpectedly, activation of the latent program precedes entry into the lytic program by 12 -14hrs. Importantly, at the individual neuronal level, the lytic program begins as a transition out of this acute stage latent program and this escape from the default latent program is regulated by de novo VP16 expression. Our findings support a model in which regulated de novo VP16 expression in the neuron mediates entry into the lytic cycle during the earliest stages of virus infection in vivo. These findings support the hypothesis that the loose association of VP16 with the viral tegument combined with sensory axon length and transport mechanisms serve to limit arrival of virion associated VP16 into neuronal nuclei favoring latency. Further, our findings point to specialized features of the VP16 promoter that control the de novo expression of VP16 in neurons and this regulation is a key component in setting the balance between lytic and latent infections in the nervous system.

  20. Efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe in treating patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure:a randomized controlled clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe(BCDR)in treating patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure(HBV-ACLF)of heat-toxicity accumulation syndrome(HTAS).Methods Adopting randomized controlled

  1. Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the setting of HIV coinfection: a single-centre 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ingiliz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has emerged as a major cause of morbidity in the HIV-infected population. Most guidelines recommend early treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin due to higher cure rates. The impact of acute HCV and its treatment on the outcome of the HIV-infected population is unknown. With new treatment options for HCV, early treatment of acute HCV has to be questioned. Here, we report a long-term analysis on patients with acute HCV. Methods: Retrospective analysis from an outpatient clinic from Berlin. All patients with the diagnosis of acute HCV according to The European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT criteria were included in the database at their date of HCV diagnosis and followed-up until the last medical contact. Demographic data was taken from the medical file. A fibrosis estimation was performed using transient elastography (Fibroscan(®. A Fibroscan value above 7 kPa was considered as significant fibrosis, above 12.4 kPa as liver cirrhosis. The following outcomes were documented: (a liver-related: hepatic decompensation, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. (b non-liver-related: death, myocardial infarction, AIDS-defining event, psychiatric hospitalisation. Results: A total of 207 cases of acute HCV infection in HIV-infected patients were diagnosed between May 2002 and September 2013. All patients were male and declared homosexual contacts as their risk factor for having acquired HIV. The mean age was 39 years, 162 patients (78% were on antiretroviral treatment, and the median CD4 cell count was 593/mm3 (IQR 443–749. At HCV diagnosis, the highest median alanine aminotransferase (ALT level was 408 IU/mL (159–871, the HCV viral load was 800,000 IU/mL (45x103–2.8x106. 22 cases (11% cleared their infection spontaneously, 161 (77% underwent interferon-based treatment. Of those treated, 58% had a sustained virological response. 36 cases of HCV reinfection were documented. All patients were

  2. Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock.

  3. Immunology of bats and their viruses: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock.

  4. Acute hepatitis B virus infection with simultaneous high HBsAg and high anti-HBs signals in a previously HBV vaccinated HIV-1 positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Laura; Verbon, Annelies; van Doorn, H Rogier; Goossens, Valère J

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of a clinical manifest hepatitis B virus infection and a potentially misleading HBV serological profile in an HIV-1 positive patient despite previous HBV vaccination. The patient presented with an acute hepatitis B and there was no indication of chronic HBV infection or the presence of a mutation in the 'a' determinant. Remarkably, simultaneously with high HBV surface antigen and HBV viral load, high anti-HBs antibodies were present. If, due to previous HBV vaccination only anti-HBs was tested in this patient, the result of the high anti-HBs antibodies could be very misleading and offering a false sense of security. Our findings contribute to the ongoing discussion on how to assess HBV specific immunological memory and determining the role of HBV booster vaccinations in immunocompromised individuals.

  5. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals.There was a significant increase in serum concentrations...... of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD......A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through...

  6. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands during the acute phase of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguchi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Doi, Kunio; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of EMC virus-induced sialodacryoadenitis in mice during the acute phase infection focusing on the activation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands. In the parotid gland, a few apoptotic acinar cells were detected at 2days post inoculation (DPI). The ratio of apoptotic acinar cells increased at 3 and 4DPI. On the other hand, in the exorbital lachrymal gland, apoptosis of acinar cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly composed of mononuclear cells started at 3DPI, and prominent acinar cell damage developed at 4DPI. Viral RNA was detected at 3 and 4DPI in both glands and the expression level was higher in the exorbital lachrymal gland than in the parotid gland. The up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as Irf7, Pkr and Oas, was quickly induced at 2DPI in the parotid gland, and this probably contributed to suppress viral replication and to eliminate affected cells by apoptosis. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the expression levels of ISGs mRNAs were not elevated at 2DPI, suggesting no induction of an effective anti-viral response such as apoptosis at this time point. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the mRNA expression of IFN beta and IFN alpha (type I IFNs) was weak- to strong-positive at 1DPI, and became negative at 2DPI. The weak- to strong-positive expression of IFNs at 1DPI is likely related to the abrupt viral replication and pathological changes in the exorbital lachrymal gland through activating the negative feedback regulation that depressed the IFN signaling cascade at 2DPI. In conclusion, the present study showed the changes in factors involved in the activation of type I IFN signaling cascade in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands and their differences between the two glands during the acute phase of EMC virus infection in mice.

  7. A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the concurrent detection of hepatitis A, B and C viruses in patients with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Kim, Beom Seok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-01

    A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for concurrent detection of hepatitis viruses was evaluated for its clinical performance in screening patients with acute hepatitis. A total of 648 serum samples were collected from patients with acute symptoms of hepatitis. Concurrent detection of nucleic acids of HAV, HBV and HCV was performed using the Magicplex™ HepaTrio Real-time Detection test. Serum nucleic acid levels of HBV and HCV were also quantified by the Cobas® AmpliPrep/Cobas® TaqMan® (CAP/CTM) HBV and HCV tests. Patients' medical records were also reviewed. Concordance rates between the results from the HepaTrio and the CAP/CTM tests for the detection of HBV and HCV were 94.9% (k = 0.88) and 99.2% (k = 0.98), respectively. The cycle threshold values with the HepaTrio test were also correlated well with the levels of HBV DNA (r = -0.9230) and HCV RNA (r = -0.8458). The sensitivity and specificity of the HepaTrio test were 93.8% and 98.2%, respectively, for detecting HBV infection, and 99.1% and 100.0%, respectively, for HCV infection. For the HepaTrio test, 21 (3.2%) cases were positive for both HBV and HCV. Among the positive cases, 6 (0.9%) were true coinfections. This test also detected 18 (2.8%) HAV positives. The HepaTrio test demonstrated good clinical performance and produced results that agreed well with those of the CAP/CTM assays, especially for the detection of HCV. This assay was also able to detect HAV RNA from anti-HAV IgM-positive individuals. Therefore, this new multiplex PCR assay could be useful for the concurrent detection of the three hepatitis viruses.

  8. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  9. An outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by a virus associated RNA II gene mutation strain of human adenovirus 7 in China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Beibei; Wu, Fuli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Sheng, Chunyu; Ma, Qiuxia; Yang, Chaojie; Xie, Jing; Li, Peng; Jia, Leili; Wang, Ligui; Du, Xinying; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) strains are a major cause of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and children, associated with fatal pneumonia. An ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 that involved 739 college students was reported in this article. To better understand the underlying cause of this large-scale epidemic, virus strains were isolated from infected patients and sequence variations of the whole genome sequence were detected. Evolutionary trees and alignment results indicated that the major capsid protein genes hexon and fibre were strongly conserved among serotype 7 strains in China at that time. Instead, the HAdV-7 strains presented three thymine deletions in the virus associated RNA (VA RNA) II terminal region. We also found that the mutation might lead to increased mRNA expression of an adjacent gene, L1 52/55K, and thus promoted faster growth. These findings suggest that sequence variation of VA RNA II gene was a potential cause of such a severe HAdV-7 infection and this gene should be a new-emerging factor to be monitored for better understanding of HAdV-7 infection. PMID:28225804

  10. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae.

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    Wayne Hunter

    Full Text Available The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania. To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  11. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L; Purcell, Maureen K

    2012-02-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, -UAA.001, and -PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  12. Quasispecies of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic viruses have RNA genomes that cause acute and chronic infections. These viruses replicate with high mutation rates and exhibit significant genetic diversity, so-called viral quasispecies. Viral quasispecies play an important role in chronic infectious diseases, but little is known about their involvement in acute infectious diseases such as dengue virus (DENV) infection. DENV, the most important human arbovirus, is a causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Accumulating observations suggest that DENV exists as an extremely diverse virus population, but its biological significance is unclear. In other virus diseases, quasispecies affect the therapeutic strategies using drugs and vaccines. Here, I describe the quasispecies of DENV and discuss the possible role of quasispecies in the pathogenesis of and therapeutic strategy against DENV infection in comparison with other viruses such as Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and poliovirus.

  13. Aetiological role of common respiratory viruses in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years: A systematic review and meta–analysis

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    Ting Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI remains a major cause of childhood hospitalization and mortality in young children and the causal attribution of respiratory viruses in the aetiology of ALRI is unclear. We aimed to quantify the absolute effects of these viral exposures. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review (across 7 databases of case–control studies published from 1990 to 2014 which investigated the viral profile of 18592 children under 5 years with and without ALRI. We then computed a pooled odds ratio and virus–specific attributable fraction among the exposed of 8 common viruses – respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza (IFV, parainfluenza (PIV, human metapneumovirus (MPV, adenovirus (AdV, rhinovirus (RV, bocavirus (BoV, and coronavirus (CoV. Findings: From the 23 studies included, there was strong evidence for causal attribution of RSV (OR 9.79; AFE 90%, IFV (OR 5.10; AFE 80%, PIV (OR 3.37; AFE 70% and MPV (OR 3.76; AFE 73%, and less strong evidence for RV (OR 1.43; AFE 30% in young children presenting with ALRI compared to those without respiratory symptoms (asymptomatic or healthy children. However, there was no significant difference in the detection of AdV, BoV, or CoV in cases and controls. Conclusions This review supports RSV, IFV, PIV, MPV and RV as important causes of ALRI in young children, and provides quantitative estimates of the absolute proportion of virus–associated ALRI cases to which a viral cause can be attributed.

  14. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A quasispecies diversity in acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-1 co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevot, M; Boesecke, C; Parera, M; Andrés, C; Franco, S; Revollo, B; Ingiliz, P; Tural, C; Clotet, B; Rockstroh, J K; Martinez, M A

    2014-06-01

    The growing number of cases of acute hepatitis C (AHC) infections among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last 10 years has promoted the search for predictors of AHC clearance as well as for epidemiological networks of viral transmission. We characterized the diversity and catalytic efficiency of HCV NS3/4A protease quasispecies in AHC patients coinfected with HIV-1. Plasma samples obtained at HCV diagnosis from 18 MSM HIV-coinfected patients with AHC were studied. Five HCV monoinfected patient samples with AHC were also investigated. An average of 39 clones from each sample was analysed. The catalytic efficiency of the dominant quasispecies (i.e. the most abundant) from each quasispecies was also assayed for mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) cleavage. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clusters of patients with highly related viruses, suggesting a common source of HCV infection. None of the 18 MSM HIV-coinfected patients spontaneously cleared HCV, although 78% of the treated patients achieved a sustained virological response after early treatment with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). The synonymous-nonsynonymous (ds/dn) mutation ratio, a marker of selective pressure, was higher in AHC compared to 26 HIV-1-infected men with genotype 1a chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (P < 0.0001). NS3/4A proteases from AHC patients also exhibited higher catalytic efficiency compared to CHC patients (P < 0.0001). No differences were found when ds/dn mutation ratios and NS3/4A protease catalytic efficiencies from AHC HIV-coinfected patients were compared with AHC monoinfected patients. The presence of epidemiological networks of HCV transmission was confirmed among HIV-1-positive MSM. In addition, substantial genetic diversity was demonstrated in AHC. NS3/4A protease efficiency cleaving MAVS may be associated with virus transmission and response to pegIFN/RBV treatment.

  15. Acute dengue virus 2 infection in Gabonese patients is associated with an early innate immune response, including strong interferon alpha production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkoghe Dieudonné

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the tropics. We conducted the first ex vivo study of dengue fever (DF in African patients infected during the first Gabonese dengue virus 2 (DENV-2 outbreak in 2007, in order to investigate cytokine production, including the antiviral cytokine IFN-α, reported to be a potent inhibitor of DENV replication in vitro. Methods Levels of 50 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were measured in plasma from 36 patients with DENV-2 infection, and in uninfected controls, using Luminex multiplex technology. The results were interpreted according to the day of sampling after symptom onset. PBMC from six patients were also studied for T lymphocyte cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. Results Acute DENV-2 infection elicited high levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17, chemokines (MIF, RANTES, IP-10 and MCP-1 and growth factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF and VEGF-A. We also observed high levels of IFN-α for the first time in adult DF patients, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation at symptom onset. Conclusion Acute DENV-2 infection in African patients elicits a strong innate response involving IFN-α production, as well as an adaptive immune response.

  16. Autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E caused by two distinct subgenotype 3b hepatitis E virus strains with only 90% nucleotide identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuko; Takagi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Maruhashi, Kyoko; Kosone, Takashi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Sato, Ken; Yamada, Masanobu; Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis E, which is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a public health concern in Japan, where the zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV from domestic pigs and wild boars plays an important role. A 44-year-old Japanese man with autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E was admitted with general fatigue and moderate liver dysfunction. In the present study, two distinct HEV strains were recovered from the patient, who had consumed the raw or undercooked pig liver and intestine two or three times per week for 3 months before the disease onset. The recovered HEV strains were segregated into two clusters within subgenotype 3b, the open reading frame (ORF)1 and ORF2 sequences of which each showed ~10% difference, indicating HEV mixed infection. Because most notified patients with clinical HEV infection in Japan are diagnosed based on the detection of IgA-class HEV antibodies and because serum samples from only a limited number of HEV-infected patients are subjected to HEV RNA detection and nucleotide sequencing, it is very likely that patients with HEV mixed infection remain largely overlooked. The identification of sources of autochthonous HEV infection remains an important goal. Continued efforts to trace the sources of acute or chronic autochthonous HEV infection are warranted.

  17. Antivirals reduce the formation of key Alzheimer's disease molecules in cell cultures acutely infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Wozniak

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD afflicts around 20 million people worldwide and so there is an urgent need for effective treatment. Our research showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 is a risk factor for AD for the brains of people who possess a specific genetic factor and that the virus causes accumulation of key AD proteins (β-amyloid (Aβ and abnormally phosphorylated tau (P-tau, suggests that anti-HSV1 antiviral agents might slow AD progression. However, currently available antiviral agents target HSV1 DNA replication and so might be successful in AD only if Aβ and P-tau accumulation depend on viral DNA replication. Therefore, we investigated firstly the stage(s of the virus replication cycle required for Aβ and P-tau accumulation, and secondly whether antiviral agents prevent these changes using recombinant strains of HSV1 that progress only partly through the replication cycle and antiviral agents that inhibit HSV1 DNA replication. By quantitative immunocytochemistry we demonstrated that entry, fusion and uncoating of HSV1, are insufficient to induce Aβ and P-tau production. We showed also that none of the "immediate early" viral proteins is directly responsible, and that Aβ and P-tau are produced at a subsequent stage of the HSV1 replication cycle. Importantly, the anti-HSV1 antiviral agents acyclovir, penciclovir and foscarnet reduced Aβ and P-tau accumulation, as well as HSV1, with foscarnet being less effective in each case. P-tau accumulation was found to depend on HSV1 DNA replication, whereas Aβ accumulation was not. The antiviral-induced decrease in Aβ is attributable to the reduced number of new viruses, and hence the reduction in viral spread. Since antiviral agents reduce greatly Aβ and P-tau accumulation in HSV1-infected cells, they would be suitable for treating AD with great advantage unlike current AD therapies, only the virus, not the host cell, would be targeted.

  18. 42 CFR 73.9 - Responsible Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... neurotoxins, Brucella melitensis, Francisella tularensis, Ebola viruses, Hendra virus, Marburg virus, Lassa fever virus, Nipah virus, Rift Valley fever virus, South American Haemorrhagic Fever viruses...

  19. Rapid Molecular Detection of Zika Virus in Acute-Phase Urine Samples Using the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Faye, Oumar; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Patel, Pranav; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Landt, Olfert; Niedrig, Matthias; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Czerny, Claus Peter; Sall, Amadou A.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently the detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92%, while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering). PMID:28239513

  20. Hepatitis C virus quasispecies and pseudotype analysis from acute infection to chronicity in HIV-1 co-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, R Bridget; Tarr, Alexander W; Hue, Stephane; Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Gilson, Richard; Ball, Jonathan K; Nastouli, Eleni; Garson, Jeremy A; Pillay, Deenan

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infected patients who acquire HCV infection have higher rates of chronicity and liver disease progression than patients with HCV mono-infection. Understanding early events in this pathogenic process is important. We applied single genome sequencing of the E1 to NS3 regions and viral pseudotype neutralization assays to explore the consequences of viral quasispecies evolution from pre-seroconversion to chronicity in four co-infected individuals (mean follow up 566 days). We observed that one to three founder viruses were transmitted. Relatively low viral sequence diversity, possibly related to an impaired immune response, due to HIV infection was observed in three patients. However, the fourth patient, after an early purifying selection displayed increasing E2 sequence evolution, possibly related to being on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Viral pseudotypes generated from HCV variants showed relative resistance to neutralization by autologous plasma but not to plasma collected from later time points, confirming ongoing virus escape from antibody neutralization.

  1. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni.

  2. Acute hepatitis C in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV: The "Real-life Setting" proves the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermeier M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infection have been described recently in several cities in the western world. The epidemic affects mainly MSM who are coinfected with HIV and is supposably linked to certain sexual risk practices. Here, we compared our findings with current knowledge and recommendations. Methods HIV-positive patients with the diagnosis of acute HCV infection were included in the retrospective analysis. The patients came from outpatient infectious disease centers in northern German cities. We looked at markers of HIV and HCV infection and compared patients who received treatment and those who did not. Treated patients were followed up to 72 weeks. Results Three hundred nineteen HIV-positive patients with the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C between 2001 and 2008 and were included in the analysis. All patients were male, 315 (99% patients were of caucasian origin, 296 (93% declared homosexual contacts as a risk factor for HCV infection, intravenous drug use was declared in 3 (1% cases. Median age at HCV diagnosis was 40 years (range 20-69 years. Median HCV viral load was 1.2 × 106 IU/mL, 222 patients (70% had HCV genotype 1, 59 (18% genotype 4. The median time of HIV infection was 5.5 years (range 0 to 22.4 years. Median HIV viral load was 110 copies/mL (range 25 to 10 × 106 copies/mL. The median CD 4 count was 461 cells/mm3 (range 55- 1331 cells/mm3. Two hundred and fourty-six patients (77% received anti-HCV treatment, and 175 (55% had completed therapy by the time of the analysis. Median treatment duration was 33 weeks (IQR 24.1-49.9. 93 of the 175 treated patients (53% reached a sustained virological response (SVR. In the multivariate analysis, ART at diagnosis, HCV RNA drop at week 12, hemoglobin levels and higher platelets were associated with SVR. Treatment duration was significantly higher in the SVR group (40.6 weeks vs 26.6 weeks, p Conclusions Our findings confirm that acute hepatitis C in

  3. Antibody producing B lineage cells invade the central nervous system predominantly at the time of and triggered by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection: A hypothesis on the origin of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Carolin; Hofmann, Jörg; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), typically have an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Intrathecal IgG is produced by B lineage cells that entered the CNS, but why and when these cells invade the CNS of patients with MS is unknown. The intrathecal IgG response in patients with MS is polyspecific and part of it is directed against different common viruses (e.g. measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus). Strong and consistent evidence suggests an association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and EBV seroprevalence in patients with MS is practically 100%. However, intriguingly, despite of the universal EBV seroprevalence, the frequency of intrathecally produced IgG to EBV in patients with MS is much lower than that of intrathecally produced IgG to other common viruses. The acute phase of primary EBV infection is characterized by a strong polyclonal B cell activation. As typical for humoral immune responses against viruses, EBV specific IgG is produced only with a temporal delay after acute EBV infection. Aiming to put the above facts into a logical structure, we here propose the hypothesis that in individuals going on to develop MS antibody producing B lineage cells invade the CNS predominantly at the time of and triggered by acute primary EBV infection. Because at the time of acute EBV infection EBV IgG producing B lineage cells have not yet occurred, the hypothesis could explain the universal EBV seroprevalence and the low frequency of intrathecally produced IgG to EBV in patients with MS. Evidence supporting the hypothesis could be provided by large prospective follow-up studies of individuals with symptomatic primary EBV infection (infectious mononucleosis). Furthermore, the clarification of the molecular mechanism underlying an EBV induced invasion of B lineage cells into the CNS of individuals going on to develop MS could corroborate it, too. If true, our

  4. Anti Japanese encephalitis virus IgM positivity among patients with acute encephalitic syndrome admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Anupama; Nepal, Krishus; Adhikari, Sailaja; Sharma, Mukunda; Parajuli, Pramila

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is one of the major public health problems in Nepal because of its increasing disease morbidity and mortality. The main purpose of this study was to determine the anti-JEV IgM positivity among acute encephalitis syndromic cases from all over Nepal. The present study was conducted at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2015 to October 2015. A total of 671 (418 CSF and 253 serum) samples were collected from 625 patients with acute encephalitic syndrome, admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal. IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of anti-JEV IgM positive cases. The rate of anti-JEV IgM positivity was found to be 21.12%. The majority of positive cases (50%) were from the age group below 15 years, with the highest numbers of cases occurring in September (55.30%). Among all the anti-JEV IgM positive cases, higher numbers of cases were males. Geographically, the highest numbers of anti-JEV IgM positive cases were recorded from Terai region. Similarly, largest numbers of anti-JEV IgM positive cases were reported from Kailai district followed by those from Kanchanpur. However, anti-JEV IgM positive cases were also reported from hill districts. Continuation of active surveillance and vector control measures, proper management of diagnostic facilities and expanded program of immunization in JE endemic areas should be strongly emphasized to reduce the endemicity of the disease. PMID:28264024

  5. Acute kidney injury and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome in mixed genotype (A/E) hepatitis B virus co-infection in HIV-associated lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Katsushi; Kohno, Kei; Shiono, Yosuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Kato, Yuichi; Hiroshima, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Ohtake, Hiroya; Iwaba, Akiko; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    We report a first case of HIV-associated lymphoma (HAL) presenting with acute kidney injury (AKI) and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). A 39-year-old male, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for one month prior to admission, developed AKI, left testicular tumor, and recurrent swelling of the right parotid gland. A resected testicular tumor exhibited features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Renal biopsy showed hydro-degeneration of renal tubules, interstitial inflammatory cells, and a small number of lymphoma cells in the sub-capsule, compatible with acute interstitial nephritis. His renal dysfunction rapidly recovered following chemotherapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). He developed pneumonia concomitantly with a decrease in HIV-RNA level and an increase in CD4+ cells after the first cycle of chemotherapy, which spontaneously resolved after the second cycle of chemotherapy without additional anti-infection drugs; thus, his pneumonia fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for IRIS. We suggest that IRIS may frequently develop during chemotherapy for HAL, but may be overlooked. He was coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which genotypes known as is associated with liver-related mortality and response to antiviral therapy; recently, an intimate interplay between HIV and HBV in the onset of lymphoma has been reported. Therefore, we addressed the HBV genotype in the patient. The analysis revealed that he exhibited a mixed genotype (A/E) not native to Japan and primarily found in Europe and North America or West Africa. These findings suggest that universal vaccination for juveniles against HBV is warranted in Japan.

  6. Elaboration of a clinical and paraclinical score to estimate the probability of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients with febrile, acute neurologic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennai, S; Rallo, A; Keil, D; Seigneurin, A; Germi, R; Epaulard, O

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is associated with a high risk of mortality and sequelae, and early diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department are necessary. However, most patients present with non-specific febrile, acute neurologic impairment; this may lead clinicians to overlook the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. We aimed to identify which data collected in the first hours in a medical setting were associated with the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective case-control study in four French public hospitals from 2007 to 2013. The cases were the adult patients who received a confirmed diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. The controls were all the patients who attended the emergency department of Grenoble hospital with a febrile acute neurologic impairment, without HSV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in 2012 and 2013. A multivariable logistic model was elaborated to estimate factors significantly associated with HSV encephalitis. Finally, an HSV probability score was derived from the logistic model. We identified 36 cases and 103 controls. Factors independently associated with HSV encephalitis were the absence of past neurological history (odds ratio [OR] 6.25 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.22-16.7]), the occurrence of seizure (OR 8.09 [95 % CI: 2.73-23.94]), a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (OR 5.11 [95 % CI: 1.77-14.77]), and a C-reactive protein probability score was calculated summing the value attributed to each independent factor. HSV encephalitis diagnosis may benefit from the use of this score based upon some easily accessible data. However, diagnostic evocation and probabilistic treatment must remain the rule.

  7. Inhibition of Acute in vivo Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection by Human Interleukin 10 Treatment of SCID Mice Implanted with Human Fetal Thymus and Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Tobias R.; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Katopodis, Nikos F.; Hachamovitch, Moshe; Rubinstein, Arye; Kim, Ana; Goldstein, Harris

    1996-04-01

    To improve the usefulness of in vivo models for the investigation of the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we modified the construction of SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver (thy/liv-SCID-hu mice) so that the peripheral blood of the mice contained significant numbers of human monocytes and T cells. After inoculation with HIV-159, a primary patient isolate capable of infecting monocytes and T cells, the modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice developed disseminated HIV infection that was associated with plasma viremia. The development of plasma viremia and HIV infection in thy/liv-SCID-hu mice inoculated with HIV-159 was inhibited by acute treatment with human interleukin (IL) 10 but not with human IL-12. The human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in these modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice were responsive in vivo to treatment with exogenous cytokines. Human interferon γ expression in the circulating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was induced by treatment with IL-12 and inhibited by treatment with IL-10. Thus, these modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice should prove to be a valuable in vivo model for examining the role of immunomodulatory therapy in modifying HIV infection. Furthermore, our demonstration of the in vivo inhibitory effect of IL-10 on acute HIV infection suggests that further studies may be warranted to evaluate whether there is a role for IL-10 therapy in preventing HIV infection in individuals soon after exposure to HIV such as for children born to HIV-infected mothers.

  8. Successful Antiviral Triple Therapy in a Longstanding Refractory Hepatitis C Virus Infection with an Acute Kidney Injury

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    David Callau Monje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The HCV infection is a common disease with many chronically infected patients worldwide. So far, the standard therapy of a chronic HCV infection consisted of interferon as single therapy or in combination with ribavirin. After approval of the two protease inhibitors, boceprevir and telaprevir, the standard therapy for patients with genotype 1 changed. In patients with acute kidney injury (AKI these therapies are not approved and have so far not been evaluated in studies. Case Report. In April 2012, a 58-year-old female was admitted due to a cryoglobulin-positive chronic HCV infection which had been treated with interferon and ribavirin. Currently, the patient was admitted because of severe complications with an acute kidney injury. We treated our patient successfully with a boceprevir based triple therapy. Conclusion. Limited data suggests that a therapy with ribavirin in patients with AKI seems to be safe under close monitoring. Our patient was treated successfully with a protease inhibitor based triple therapy. Nevertheless, it is necessary to plan an interventional study to evaluate the exact risk-benefit profile of triple therapy regimens in patients with AKI and hepatitis C.

  9. 908 cases of acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalized children virus etiology research%908例急性下呼吸道感染住院儿童病毒病原学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷炽龙; 李海风; 何苑棉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis in children with acute respiratory tract infection virus-specific antibodies in Guidong area(IgM) test resμlts,study the situation of pathogenic virus in clinical acute respiratory infection in children,and to provide basis for etiological diagnosis,guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Acute respiratory tract infection,specific antibodies from the blood with the XK2100 biochip detection screening of 4 kinds of common respiratory virus(IgM),including respiratory syncytial virus(RSV),adenovirus(ADV),influen za virus(IV) and parainfluenza virus(PIV),were detected by statistical analysis was made.Results The 235 samples of the virus specific antibody in 908 samples(IgM) positive,the total positive rate was 25.88%,in which ADV is the most common,the detection rate was 20.26%,followed by IV(9.14%),RSV(3.63%),PIV(1.76%).The detection rate between men and women had no significant difference(P>0.05).Virus positive rate among all age groups had significant difference(χ2=92.549,P0.05).病毒阳性检出率在各年龄组之间差异有统计学意义(χ2=92.549,P<0.001),以4~5岁年龄组检出率最高.病毒总检出率在四季分布差异有统计学意义(χ2=101.011,P<0.001),以夏季检出率最高.结论:病毒病原在桂东地区儿童ALRTI中占重要地位,其中ADV、IV是主要病毒病原,病毒检出率以4~5岁年龄组检出率最高;夏季病毒总检出率高于其他季节.

  10. A temporal role of type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection.

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    Amelia K Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A genetic absence of the common IFN-α/β signaling receptor (IFNAR in mice is associated with enhanced viral replication and altered adaptive immune responses. However, analysis of IFNAR(-/- mice is limited for studying the functions of type I IFN at discrete stages of viral infection. To define the temporal functions of type I IFN signaling in the context of infection by West Nile virus (WNV, we treated mice with MAR1-5A3, a neutralizing, non cell-depleting anti-IFNAR antibody. Inhibition of type I IFN signaling at or before day 2 after infection was associated with markedly enhanced viral burden, whereas treatment at day 4 had substantially less effect on WNV dissemination. While antibody treatment prior to infection resulted in massive expansion of virus-specific CD8(+ T cells, blockade of type I IFN signaling starting at day 4 induced dysfunctional CD8(+ T cells with depressed cytokine responses and expression of phenotypic markers suggesting exhaustion. Thus, only the later maturation phase of anti-WNV CD8(+ T cell development requires type I IFN signaling. WNV infection experiments in BATF3(-/- mice, which lack CD8-α dendritic cells and have impaired priming due to inefficient antigen cross-presentation, revealed a similar effect of blocking IFN signaling on CD8(+ T cell maturation. Collectively, our results suggest that cell non-autonomous type I IFN signaling shapes maturation of antiviral CD8(+ T cell response at a stage distinct from the initial priming event.

  11. Acute sleep deprivation has no lasting effects on the human antibody titer response following a novel influenza A H1N1 virus vaccination

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    Benedict Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies in humans have yielded evidence that adaptive immune function, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, is distinctly impaired when sleep is deprived at the time of first antigen exposure. Here we examined the effects of a regular 24- hour sleep-wake cycle (including 8 hours of nocturnal sleep and a 24-hour period of continuous wakefulness on the 7-week antibody production in 11 males and 13 females in response to the H1N1 (swine flu virus vaccination. The specific antibody titer in serum was assayed by the hemagglutination inhibition test on the days 5, 10, 17, and 52 following vaccination. Results In comparison to the sleep group, sleep-deprived males but not females had reduced serum concentration of H1N1-specific antibodies five days after vaccination, whereas antibody titers at later time points did not differ between the conditions. Conclusions These findings concur with the notion that sleep is a supportive influence in the very early stage of an adaptive immune response to a viral antigen. However, our results do not support the view that acute sleep deprivation has lasting effects on the human antibody titer response to influenza vaccination.

  12. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  13. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  14. Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Signaling in the Brain Is Imperative in Acute Inflammation-Induced Anorexia and Body Weight Loss

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    Kwang Kon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal inflammation and diet-induced obesity. However, the role of HVEM in the brain is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether HVEM signaling in the brain is involved in inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.MethodsFood intake and body weight were measured at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant mouse LIGHT (also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14, TNFSF14, an HVEM ligand, into 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking HVEM expression (HVEM-/-. We also assessed LPS-induced change in hypothalamic expression of HVEM using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAdministration of LPS significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and moreover, increased expression of HVEM in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, LPS induced only minor decreases in food intake and body weight in HVEM-/- mice. Administration of LIGHT into the brain was very effective at decreasing food intake and body weight in wild-type mice, but was less effective in HVEM-/- mice.ConclusionActivation of brain HVEM signaling is responsible for inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.

  15. Adaptive Immune Responses in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient with Acute Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation during Treatment with Fingolimod

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    Andrea Harrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fingolimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptor modulator, is approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. The interference with S1P signaling leads to retention particularly of chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 expressing T cells in lymph nodes. The immunological basis of varicella zoster virus (VZV infections during fingolimod treatment is unclear. Here, we studied the dynamics of systemic and intrathecal immune responses associated with symptomatic VZV reactivation including cessation of fingolimod and initiation of antiviral therapy. Key features in peripheral blood were an about two-fold increase of VZV-specific IgG at diagnosis of VZV reactivation as compared to the previous months, a relative enrichment of effector CD4+ T cells (36% versus mean 12% in controls, and an accelerated reconstitution of absolute lymphocytes counts including a normalized CD4+/CD8+ ratio and reappearance of CCR7+ T cells. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF the lymphocytic pleocytosis and CD4+/CD8+ ratios at diagnosis of reactivation and after nine days of fingolimod discontinuation remained unchanged. During this time CCR7+ T cells were not observed in CSF. Further research into fingolimod-associated VZV reactivation and immune reconstitution is mandatory to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with this potentially life-threatening condition.

  16. Recombinant scFv Antibodies against E Protein and N Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LIU; Yan-Li DING; Wei HAN; Mei-Yun LIU; Rui-Yang TIAN; Sheng-Li YANG; Yi GONG

    2004-01-01

    Three single chain antibodies(scFv)against the proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-CoV)were isolated by phage display from an scFv antibody library.Bio-panning was carried out against immobilized purified envelope(E)and nucleocapsid(N)proteins of SARS-CoV.Their binding activity and specificity to E or N protein of SARS-CoV were characterized by phage-ELISA.Two of them,B 10 and C20,could recognize non-overlapping epitopes of the E protein according to the two-site binding test result.Clone A 17 could recognize N protein.The sequence of the epitope or overlapping epitope of scFv antibody A17 was PTDSTDNNQNGGRNGARPKQRRPQ.The affinity(equilibrium dissociation constant,Kd)of SARS-CoV E protein was 5.7×10-8 M for B10 and 8.9×10-8 M for C20.The affinity of A17for N protein was 2.1 x 10-6 M.All three scFv antibodies were purified with affinity chromatography and determined by Western blot.

  17. Molecular Characterisation of Chikungunya Virus Infections in Trinidad and Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Features with Dengue and Other Acute Febrile Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadeo, Nikita; Mohammed, Hamish; Allicock, Orchid M; Auguste, Albert J; Widen, Steven G; Badal, Kimberly; Pulchan, Krishna; Foster, Jerome E; Weaver, Scott C; Carrington, Christine V F

    2015-11-01

    Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised and compared dengue virus (DENV) and CHIKV infections in 158 patients presenting with suspected dengue fever (DF) and CHIKF at a major hospital in T&T, and performed phylogenetic analyses on CHIKV genomic sequences recovered from 8 individuals. The characteristics of patients with and without PCR-confirmed CHIKV were compared using Pearson's χ2 and student's t-tests, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using logistic regression. We then compared signs and symptoms of people with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV and DENV infections using the Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Among the 158 persons there were 8 (6%) RT-qPCR-confirmed DENV and 30 (22%) RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV infections. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CHIKV strains belonged to the Asian genotype and were most closely related to a British Virgin Islands strain isolated at the beginning of the 2013/14 outbreak in the Americas. Compared to persons who were RT-qPCR-negative for CHIKV, RT-qPCR-positive individuals were significantly more likely to have joint pain (aOR: 4.52 [95% CI: 1.28-16.00]), less likely to be interviewed at a later stage of illness (days post onset of fever--aOR: 0.56 [0.40-0.78]) and had a lower white blood cell count (aOR: 0.83 [0.71-0.96]). Among the 38 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV or DENV, there were no significant differences in symptomatic presentation. However when individuals with serological evidence of recent DENV or CHIKV infection were included in the analyses, there were key differences in clinical presentation between CHIKF and other AUFIs including DF, which

  18. The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is cleaved in virus infected Vero-E6 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Spike protein is one of the major structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. It is essential for the interaction of the virons with host cell receptors and subsequent fusion of the viral envelop with host cell membrane to allow infection. Some spike proteins of coronavirus, such as MHV, HCoV-OC43, AIBV and BcoV, are proteolytically cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2. In contrast, TGV, FIPV and HCoV-229E are not. Many studies have shown that the cleavage of spike protein seriously affects its function. In order to investigate the maturation and proteolytic processing of the S protein of SARS CoV, we generated S1 and S2 subunit specific antibodies (Abs) as well as N, E and 3CL protein-specific Abs. Our results showed that the antibodies could efficiently and specifically bind to their corresponding proteins from E. coli expressed or lysate of SARS-CoV infected Vero-E6 cells by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the anti-S 1 and S2 Abs were proved to be capable of binding to SARS CoV under electron microscope observation. When S2 Ab was used to perform immune precipitation with lysate of SARS-CoV infected cells, a cleaved S2 fragment was detected with S2-specific mAb by Western blot analysis. The data demonstrated that the cleavage of S protein was observed in the lysate, indicating that proteolytic processing of S protein is present in host cells.

  19. Hepatitis B virus genotype distribution and genotype-specific BCP/preCore substitutions in acute and chronic infections in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mora González López Ledesma

    Full Text Available In order to assess Hepatitis B Virus genotype (g and subgenotype (sg implications in the course of infection, 234 HBsAg positive patients in different infection stages were characterized (66 acute infections, 63 HBeAg positive chronic infections and 105 anti-HBe positive chronic infections.Overall, sgA2 (17.9%, gD (20.9%, sgF1b (34.2% and sgF4 (19.7% were the most prevalent. Subgenotype F1b was overrepresented in acute and chronic HBeAg infections (56.1%, whereas gD was the most frequent (40.0% in anti-HBe positive chronic infections. Among chronic infections, HBeAg positivity rates were 50.0, 12.5, 62.8 and 35.3% for sgA2, gD, sgF1b and sgF4, respectively (p <0.05. A bias toward BCP/preCore mutations was observed among genotypes. In anti-HBe positive chronic infections, sgF1b was more prone to have A1762T/G1764A mutation than sgA2, sgF4 and gD (75.0, 40.0, 33.3 and 31.8%, p<0.005, whereas in the pC region, gD and sgF4 were more likely to have G1896A than sgA2 and sgF1b (81.0, 72.7, 0.0 and 31.3%, p <0.001. The unexpected low frequency of the G1896A mutation in the sgF1b (despite carrying 1858T prompted us to perform a further analysis in order to identify genotype-specific features that could justify the pattern mutations observed. A region encompassing nucleotides 1720 to 1920 showed the higher dissimilarity between sgF1b and sgF4. Genotypes and subgenotypes carrying the 1727G, 1740C and 1773T polymorphisms were prevented to mutate position 1896.HBeAg seroconversion is a critical event in the natural history of HBV infection. Differences in the HBeAg positivity rate might be relevant since different studies have observed that delayed HBeAg seroconversion is associated with a more severe clinical course of infection, highlighting the critical role that genotypes/subgenotypes might play in the progression of HBV infection. Polymorphisms in the regions 1720 to 1920 could be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying seroconversion of each

  20. Cloning of the rhesus lymphocryptovirus viral capsid antigen and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA homologues and use in diagnosis of acute and persistent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P; Jiang, H; Wang, F

    2000-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with the development of several human malignancies. A closely related herpesvirus in the same lymphocryptovirus (LCV) genera as EBV naturally infects rhesus monkeys and provides an important animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis. We cloned the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) homologue from the rhesus LCV and developed a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine whether epitopes in the rhesus LCV sVCA are a reliable indicator of rhesus LCV infection. In order to define a "gold standard" for rhesus LCV infection, we also cloned the EBV-encoded small RNA 1 (EBER1) and EBER2 homologues from rhesus LCV and developed a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to detect persistent LCV infection in rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals from a conventional and a hand-reared colony were studied to compare the prevalence of rhesus LCV infection in the two groups. There was a 100% correlation between the peptide ELISA and EBER RT-PCR results for rhesus LCV infection. In addition, specificity for LCV infection and exclusion of potential cross-reactivity to the rhesus rhadinovirus sVCA homologue could be demonstrated using sera from experimentally infected animals. These studies establish two novel assays for reliable diagnosis of acute and persistent rhesus LCV infections. The rhesus LCV sVCA peptide ELISA provides a sensitive and reliable assay for routine screening, and these studies of the hand-reared colony confirm the feasibility of raising rhesus LCV-naive animals.

  1. Cinanserin is an inhibitor of the 3C-like proteinase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and strongly reduces virus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Gui, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaomin; Yang, Qingang; Günther, Stephan; Scandella, Elke; Drosten, Christian; Bai, Donglu; He, Xichang; Ludewig, Burkhard; Chen, Jing; Luo, Haibin; Yang, Yiming; Yang, Yifu; Zou, Jianping; Thiel, Volker; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Jianhua; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2005-06-01

    The 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the most promising targets for anti-SARS-CoV drugs due to its crucial role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a database containing structural information of more than 8,000 existing drugs was virtually screened by a docking approach to identify potential binding molecules of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. As a target for screening, both a homology model and the crystallographic structure of the binding pocket of the enzyme were used. Cinanserin (SQ 10,643), a well-characterized serotonin antagonist that has undergone preliminary clinical testing in humans in the 1960s, showed a high score in the screening and was chosen for further experimental evaluation. Binding of both cinanserin and its hydrochloride to bacterially expressed 3CLpro of SARS-CoV and the related human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance technology. The catalytic activity of both enzymes was inhibited with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5 microM, as tested with a fluorogenic substrate. The antiviral activity of cinanserin was further evaluated in tissue culture assays, namely, a replicon system based on HCoV-229E and quantitative test assays with infectious SARS-CoV and HCoV-229E. All assays revealed a strong inhibition of coronavirus replication at nontoxic drug concentrations. The level of virus RNA and infectious particles was reduced by up to 4 log units, with IC50 values ranging from 19 to 34 microM. These findings demonstrate that the old drug cinanserin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV replication, acting most likely via inhibition of the 3CL proteinase.

  2. Plasma exchange-centered artiifcial liver support system in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure:a nationwide prospective multicenter study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jia Chen; Jian-He Gan; Zhi-Liang Gao; Yu-Ming Wang; Shu-Mei Lin; Qing Xie; Chen Pan; Lan-Juan Li; Jian-Rong Huang; Qian Yang; Xiao-Wei Xu; Xiao-Li Liu; Shao-Rui Hao; Hui-Fen Wang; Tao Han; Jing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange (PE)-centered artiifcial liver support system reduced the high mortality rate of hepa-titis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the data were diverse in different medical centers. The present prospective nationwide study was to evaluate the effects of PE on patients with HBV-ACLF at different stages. METHODS: From December 2009 to December 2011, we eval-uated 250 patients at different stages of HBV-ACLF from 10 major medical centers in China. All the laboratory parameters were collected at admission, before and after PE. RESULTS: Among the 250 patients who underwent 661 rounds of PE, one-month survival rate was 61.6%; 141 (56.4%) showed improvement after PE. Variables such as age (P=0.000), levels of total bilirubin (TB,P=0.000), direct bilirubin (P=0.000), total triglycerides (P=0.000), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.022), Na+ (P=0.014), Cl– (P=0.038), creatinine (Cr,P=0.007), ifbrinogen (P=0.000), prothrombin time (PT,P=0.000), white blood cell (P=0.000), platelet (P=0.003) and MELD (P=0.000) were signiifcantly related to prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, disease stage, TB, Cr and PT levels were independent risk factors of mortality among HBV-ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: PE can improve the clinical outcome of pa-tients with HBV-ACLF. Levels of TB, Cr and PT, age and disease stage help to predict prognosis.

  3. Plasma exchange-centered artiifcial liver support system in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure:a nationwide prospective multicenter study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jia Chen; Jian-He Gan; Zhi-Liang Gao; Yu-Ming Wang; Shu-Mei Lin; Qing Xie; Chen Pan; Lan-Juan Li; Jian-Rong Huang; Qian Yang; Xiao-Wei Xu; Xiao-Li Liu; Shao-Rui Hao; Hui-Fen Wang; Tao Han; Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange (PE)-centered artiifcial liver support system reduced the high mortality rate of hepa-titis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the data were diverse in different medical centers. The present prospective nationwide study was to evaluate the effects of PE on patients with HBV-ACLF at different stages. METHODS: From December 2009 to December 2011, we eval-uated 250 patients at different stages of HBV-ACLF from 10 major medical centers in China. All the laboratory parameters were collected at admission, before and after PE. RESULTS: Among the 250 patients who underwent 661 rounds of PE, one-month survival rate was 61.6%; 141 (56.4%) showed improvement after PE. Variables such as age (P=0.000), levels of total bilirubin (TB,P=0.000), direct bilirubin (P=0.000), total triglycerides (P=0.000), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.022), Na+ (P=0.014), Cl– (P=0.038), creatinine (Cr,P=0.007), ifbrinogen (P=0.000), prothrombin time (PT,P=0.000), white blood cell (P=0.000), platelet (P=0.003) and MELD (P=0.000) were signiifcantly related to prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, disease stage, TB, Cr and PT levels were independent risk factors of mortality among HBV-ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: PE can improve the clinical outcome of pa-tients with HBV-ACLF. Levels of TB, Cr and PT, age and disease stage help to predict prognosis.

  4. [Summary of research works on viruses in the Vietnam Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University (NEKKEN) and National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vietnam (NIHE) jointly conducted a project from 2006 on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (ERID) granted by the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. Fifteen independent researches have been carried out by 7 scientists who stationed in the Vietnam Research Station (VRS), and by approximately 60 visiting scientists. A wide variety of viruses have been studied in the research activities in the VRS, of those, topics of'' Nipah virus infection in bats in Vietnam'', ''Nam Dinh virus, a newly discovered insect nidovirus'', and'' Risk factors of dengue fever in southern Vietnam'' were summarized. It is important to develop a mechanism to facilitate young scientists to use the VRS in their research works, and then a scope to establish the VRS as a gateway to a successful career path for young scientists in the field of the infectious diseases would be realized.

  5. Duration of Maternal Antibodies against Canine Distemper Virus and Hendra Virus in Pteropid Bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Epstein

    Full Text Available Old World frugivorous bats have been identified as natural hosts for emerging zoonotic viruses of significant public health concern, including henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra virus, Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Epidemiological studies of these viruses in bats often utilize serology to describe viral dynamics, with particular attention paid to juveniles, whose birth increases the overall susceptibility of the population to a viral outbreak once maternal immunity wanes. However, little is understood about bat immunology, including the duration of maternal antibodies in neonates. Understanding duration of maternally derived immunity is critical for characterizing viral dynamics in bat populations, which may help assess the risk of spillover to humans. We conducted two separate studies of pregnant Pteropus bat species and their offspring to measure the half-life and duration of antibodies to 1 canine distemper virus antigen in vaccinated captive Pteropus hypomelanus; and 2 Hendra virus in wild-caught, naturally infected Pteropus alecto. Both of these pteropid bat species are known reservoirs for henipaviruses. We found that in both species, antibodies were transferred from dam to pup. In P. hypomelanus pups, titers against CDV waned over a mean period of 228.6 days (95% CI: 185.4-271.8 and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 96.0 days (CI 95%: 30.7-299.7. In P. alecto pups, antibodies waned over 255.13 days (95% CI: 221.0-289.3 and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 52.24 days (CI 95%: 33.76-80.83. Each species showed a duration of transferred maternal immunity of between 7.5 and 8.5 months, which was longer than has been previously estimated. These data will allow for more accurate interpretation of age-related Henipavirus serological data collected from wild pteropid bats.

  6. Potential for Introduction of Bat-Borne Zoonotic Viruses into the EU: A Review

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    Robin R. L. Simons

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bat-borne viruses can pose a serious threat to human health, with examples including Nipah virus (NiV in Bangladesh and Malaysia, and Marburg virus (MARV in Africa. To date, significant human outbreaks of such viruses have not been reported in the European Union (EU. However, EU countries have strong historical links with many of the countries where NiV and MARV are present and a corresponding high volume of commercial trade and human travel, which poses a potential risk of introduction of these viruses into the EU. In assessing the risks of introduction of these bat-borne zoonotic viruses to the EU, it is important to consider the location and range of bat species known to be susceptible to infection, together with the virus prevalence, seasonality of viral pulses, duration of infection and titre of virus in different bat tissues. In this paper, we review the current scientific knowledge of all these factors, in relation to the introduction of NiV and MARV into the EU.

  7. Emerging and re-emerging viruses in Malaysia, 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kok Keng; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2009-05-01

    Over the past decade, a number of unique zoonotic and non-zoonotic viruses have emerged in Malaysia. Several of these viruses have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality to those affected and they have imposed a tremendous public health and economic burden on the state. Amongst the most devastating was the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in 1998, which resulted in 109 deaths. The culling of more than a million pigs, identified as the amplifying host, ultimately brought the outbreak under control. A year prior to this, and subsequently again in 2000 and 2003, large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease due to enterovirus 71, with rare cases of fatal neurological complications, were reported in young children. Three other new viruses - Tioman virus (1999), Pulau virus (1999), and Melaka virus (2006) - whose origins have all been linked to bats, have been added to the growing list of novel viruses being discovered in Malaysia. The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has also been detected in Malaysia with outbreaks in poultry in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Fortunately, no human infections were reported. Finally, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has seen the emergence of an HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF33_01B) in HIV-infected individuals from various risk groups, with evidence of ongoing and rapid expansion.

  8. Management of acute hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2010-02-01

    Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of acute icteric hepatitis in adults. The vast majority of these patients resolve this acute infection and develop long-lasting immunity. In contrast, the vast majority of patients who develop chronic HBV have minimal symptoms and do not develop jaundice after becoming infected with HBV. These patients will frequently remain undiagnosed for years or decades. Approximately 1% of persons with acute HBV develop acute liver failure. Preventing acute HBV with vaccination is the best treatment. Although universal vaccination is now administered to newborns in many countries, the majority of adults have not been vaccinated and remain at risk. Because the majority of patients with acute HBV resolve this infection spontaneously, treatment with an oral anti-HBV agent is not necessary. However, the use of an oral anti-HBV agent is not unreasonable to use in a patient who is developing acute liver failure from severe acute HBV.

  9. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  10. KEGG DISEASE / Acute encephalitis [KEGG DISEASE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DISEASE: H01417 Entry H01417Disease Name Acute encephalitis Description Acute encep...ns Infections caused by dsDNA viruses H01417Acute encephalitis Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:b...of the central nervous system G04Encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis H01417Acute encephalitis Patho...elines for management. Journal Eur J Neurol 12:331-43 (2005) KEGG DISEASE / Acute encephalitis ...

  11. Risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus associated with acute lower respiratory infection in children under five years: Systematic review and meta–analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common pathogen identified in young children with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI as well as an important cause of hospital admission. The high incidence of RSV infection and its potential severe outcome make it important to identify and prioritise children who are at higher risk of developing RSV–associated ALRI. We aimed to identify risk factors for RSV–associated ALRI in young children. We carried out a systematic literature review across 4 databases and obtained unpublished studies from RSV Global Epidemiology Network (RSV GEN collaborators. Quality of all eligible studies was assessed according to modified GRADE criteria. We conducted meta–analyses to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI for individual risk factors. We identified 20 studies (3 were unpublished data with “good quality” that investigated 18 risk factors for RSV–associated ALRI in children younger than five years old. Among them, 8 risk factors were significantly associated with RSV–associated ALRI. The meta–estimates of their odds ratio (ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI are prematurity 1.96 (95% CI 1.44–2.67, low birth weight 1.91 (95% CI 1.45–2.53, being male 1.23 (95% CI 1.13–1.33, having siblings 1.60 (95% CI 1.32–1.95, maternal smoking 1.36 (95% CI 1.24–1.50, history of atopy 1.47 (95% CI 1.16–1.87, no breastfeeding 2.24 (95% CI 1.56–3.20 and crowding 1.94 (95% CI 1.29–2.93. Although there were insufficient studies available to generate a meta–estimate for HIV, all articles (irrespective of quality scores reported significant associations between HIV and RSV–associated ALRI. This study presents a comprehensive report of the strength of association between various socio–demographic risk factors and RSV–associated ALRI in young children. Some of these amenable risk factors are similar to those that have been identified for (all cause ALRI and

  12. Kaempferol ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ai, Xia; Duan, Yongjie; Xue, Man; He, Wenxiao; Wang, Cunlian; Xu, Tong; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Li, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei; Liu, Huifeng

    2017-03-02

    Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment. In vivo, kaempferol treatment attenuated pulmonary edema, the W/D mass ratio, pulmonary capillary permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the numbers of inflammatory cells. Kaempferol reduced ROS and Malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Kaempferol also reduced overproduction of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, kaempferol decreased the H9N2 viral titre. In vitro, ROS, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was also reduced by kaempferol. Moreover, our data showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, and phosphorylation level of MAPKs, both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on H9N2 virus-induced inflammation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways, and kaempferol may be considered as an effective drug for the potential treatment of influenza virus-induced ALI.

  13. Viral glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion assays using vaccinia virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Katharine N; Broder, Christopher C

    2004-01-01

    The vaccinia virus-based expression of viral envelope glycoprotein genes-derived from enveloped viruses that infect their respective host cells through a pH-independent mechanism of membrane fusion-has been a powerful tool in helping to characterize these important attachment and fusion proteins. The cellular expression of these viral envelope glycoproteins has allowed for the measurement of membrane fusion events using cell-cell fusion or syncytia formation. This method has been enhanced by the addition of a reporter-gene system to the vaccinia virus-based cell-cell fusion assay. This improvement has provided a high-throughput and quantitative aspect to this assay, which can serve as a surrogate for virus entry and is therefore ideally suited in the characterization of numerous enveloped viruses, including biological safety level-4 (BSL-4) agents. This chapter will detail the methods of the vaccinia virus-based reporter-gene fusion assay and how it may be used to characterize the fusion mediated by the BSL-4-classified Hendra and Nipah viruses.

  14. In-vitro infection of pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus suggests variation for susceptibility and disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An exper...

  15. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  16. Detailed genetic analysis of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein gene in human parainfluenza virus type 1 isolates from patients with acute respiratory infection between 2002 and 2009 in Yamagata prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuta Katsumi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1 causes various acute respiratory infections (ARI. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN glycoprotein of HPIV1 is a major antigen. However, the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of such ARI are not exactly known. Recent studies suggested that a phylogenetic analysis tool, namely the maximum likelihood (ML method, may be applied to estimate the evolutionary time scale of various viruses. Thus, we conducted detailed genetic analyses including homology analysis, phylogenetic analysis (using both the neighbor joining (NJ and ML methods, and analysis of the pairwise distances of HN gene in HPIV1 isolated from patients with ARI in Yamagata prefecture, Japan. Results A few substitutions of nucleotides in the second binding site of HN gene were observed among the present isolates. The strains were classified into two major clusters in the phylogenetic tree by the NJ method. Another phylogenetic tree constructed by the ML method showed that the strains diversified in the late 1980s. No positively selected sites were found in the present strains. Moreover, the pairwise distance among the present isolates was relatively short. Conclusions The evolution of HN gene in the present HPIV1 isolates was relatively slow. The ML method may be a useful phylogenetic method to estimate the evolutionary time scale of HPIV and other viruses.

  17. Structure of the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 nucleoprotein-RNA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayyoubi, Maher; Leser, George P.; Kors, Christopher A.; Lamb, Robert A. [NWU

    2015-05-20

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of membrane-enveloped viruses with a negative-sense RNA genome that is packaged and protected by long filamentous nucleocapsid-helix structures (RNPs). These RNPs, consisting of ~2,600 protomers of nucleocapsid (N) protein, form the template for viral transcription and replication. We have determined the 3D X-ray crystal structure of the nucleoprotein (N)-RNA complex from PIV5 to 3.11-Å resolution. The structure reveals a 13-mer nucleocapsid ring whose diameter, cavity, and pitch/height dimensions agree with EM data from early studies on the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of native RNPs, indicating that it closely represents one-turn in the building block of the RNP helices. The PIV5-N nucleocapsid ring encapsidates a nuclease resistant 78-nt RNA strand in its positively charged groove formed between the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of its successive N protomers. Six nucleotides precisely are associated with each N protomer, with alternating three-base-in three-base-out conformation. The binding of six nucleotides per protomer is consistent with the "rule of six" that governs the genome packaging of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of viruses. PIV5-N protomer subdomains are very similar in structure to the previously solved Nipah-N structure, but with a difference in the angle between NTD/CTD at the RNA hinge region. Based on the Nipah-N structure we modeled a PIV5-N open conformation in which the CTD rotates away from the RNA strand into the inner spacious nucleocapsid-ring cavity. This rotation would expose the RNA for the viral polymerase activity without major disruption of the nucleocapsid structure.

  18. Acute myopericarditis masquerading as acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Tian; Zixin Zhang; Xiaojuan Bai; Dingyin Zeng; Guoxian Qi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with abrupt onset of chest pain, ischemic ECG abnormalities and elevated levels of cardiac markers could be given a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. However, some other diseases should be taken into consideration in this clinical setting when coronary arteries are proven to be normal. Here we report a case of acute myopericarditis with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary anatomy. The Herpes Simplex Virus Ⅱ was considered as the organism causing myopericarditis and the patient was recovered by the treatment with valacicloavir. A precise diagnosis is a prerequisite of successful treatment and favorable prognosis.

  19. Acute pancreatitis, acute hepatitis and acute renal failure favourably resolved in two renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, Gener; Mandache, Eugen; Hortopan, Monica; Constantinescu, Ileana; Iliescu, Olguta

    2003-03-01

    Renal transplantation is often associated with severe complications. Except for acute rejection, infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive treatment are the most frequent problems observed after transplantation. Infections with hepatic viruses (HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV) and cytomegalic virus (CMV) are the main infectious complications after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine toxicity is not unusual for a patient with renal transplantation and is even more frequent for patients with hepatic impairment due to viral infections. The subjects of this report are two renal transplant recipients with acute pancreatitis, severe hepatitis and acute renal failure on graft, receiving immunosuppressive therapy for maintaining renal graft function

  20. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations.

  1. Rapid identification viruses from nasal pharyngeal aspirates in acute viral respiratory infections by RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Rothman, Richard E; Ramachandran, Padmini; Blyn, Lawrence; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2011-04-01

    Diagnosis of the etiologic agent of respiratory viral infection relies traditionally on culture or antigen detection. This pilot evaluation compared performance characteristics of the RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) platform to conventional virologic methods for identifying multiple clinically relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit was designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Patients (N=192) attending an emergency department during the 2007-2008 respiratory season consented, and "excess" frozen archived nasopharyngeal aspirates were analysed; 46 were positive by conventional virology and 69 by RT-PCR/ESI-MS, among which there were six samples with multiple viral pathogens detected. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 89.1% and 80.3%, respectively. Additional viruses that were not identified by conventional virology assays were detected (4 human bocaviruses and 7 coronaviruses). Samples in which the RT-PCR/ESI-MS results disagreed with conventional virology were sent for analysis by a third method using a commercial RT-PCR-based assay, which can identify viruses not detectable by conventional virologic procedures. Time to first result of RT-PCR/ESI-MS was 8h. RT-PCR/ESI-MS demonstrated capacity to detect respiratory viruses identifiable and unidentifiable by conventional methods rapidly.

  2. Clinical Investigation into Children’s Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection by Parainfluenza Virus%小儿急性上呼吸道感染副流感病毒感染的临床调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁娟娟; 李燕宁; 潘月丽; 宋惠霄; 王晓

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To undertake clinic investigation into the infection rate, season, age, area of children's acute upper respiratory tract infection caused by parainfluenza virus in clinic and to study treatment based on syndrome differentiation by TCM patent medicine. METHODS We collected 1090 cases with children's acute upper respiratory tract infection in the city of Ji'an, Shenyang and Nanjing from April 2009 to January 2011, of which 973 remained after falling off and rejecting. After syndrome differentiation, they were divided into two groups through center stratiform and interval. The control group (487 cases) were given ribavirin; while the treatment group were administrated by TCM patent medicine for three days as a course. The parainfluenza virus was detected to observe the therapeutic effect of the patent medicine and its related influential factors. RESULTS The infection rate of this virus was 5.65 %, spring is the season with high concurrency, the city of Nanjing and Ji'nan are the highly infection area, and also the infection of parainfluenza virus is not confined to one type. CONCLUSION Parainfluenza virus is one of the most common viruses causing children's acute upper respiratory tract infection; the infection rate is of a close relation with season and location; treatment based on syndrome differentiation by TCM patent medicine is stable and feasible.%目的 对小儿急性上呼吸道感染(简称上感)副流感病毒的感染率、季节、年龄、地域等状况进行临床调查,并进行中成药辨证分型治疗研究.方法 收集2009年4月-2011年1月济南、沈阳、南京地区急性上感患儿1 090例,脱落及剔除后共余973例,辨证分型后进行中心分层十区间随机分成2组,对照组(487例)使用利巴韦林,治疗组(486例)应用上市中成药辨证治疗方案治疗,3d为1个疗程,检测副流感病毒并观察上市中成药辨证治疗效果及相关因素.结果 副流感病毒感染率为5.65%,春季多发,

  3. Acta Medica Indonesiana - The Indonesian Journal of Internal Medicine 153 Malignant Pleural Effusion in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

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    C Suharti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions can be the first presentation of a hematologic malignancy. The most common disorders with pleural effusion are Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a frequency of 20 to 30%, especially if mediastinal involvement. Acute and chronic leukemia are rarely accompanied by pleural involvement. We describe a 46-year-old female with history of progressive dyspnoea. Physical examination was revealed massive left pleural effusion. Complete blood count revealed anemia, trombositopenia and normal leucocyte count. Viral serology test shown positive of HBsAg and total antiHBc. Chest X-ray revealed left pleural effusion. Pleural fluid cytology was myeloblast consistent with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Bone marrow aspiration smear, bone marrow biopsy smear, and flow cytometry analysis were consistent with acute myeloid leukemia without maturation (AML M0-FAB classification. Key words: Acute myeloid leukemia, pleural effusion, infection.

  4. 儿童急性上呼吸道感染夏季和冬季病毒病原学分析%Etiology Study on Virus in Children with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection during Summer and Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾艳红; 刘兰吉; 孙利; 苏颖; 徐朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate etiologic characteristics of virus in children with acute upper respiratory infection ( AURI ) during summer and winter in Qinhuangdao district. Methods 169 AURI children admitted from June to August in 2010 and 152 AURI children admitted from November 2010 to January 2011 were involved into the study. Multiplex PCR method was used to detect 15 kinds of viruses in 321 samples of throat swab, including adenovirus A/B/C/D, coronavirus 229E/NL63, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3 , coronavirus OC43/HKU1, rhinovirus A/B/C, influenza virus A, respiratory syncytial virus A/ B, bocavirus 1/2/3/4, influenza virus B, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 4 and enterovirus. Results A total of 321 samples were detected, and 208 samples were positive, with a detection rate of 64. 8%. 185 samples had single virus, including 55 cases of enterovirus, 41 cases of influenza virus, 32 cases of respiratory syncytial virus, 24 cases of adenovirus, 17 cases of rhinovirus, 6 cases of metapneumovirus, 6 cases of coronavirus and 4 cases of bocavirus. 23 samples had two kinds of viruses , including 7 cases of respiratory syncytial virus combined with influenza virus, 3 cases of enterovirus combined with adenovirus , 3 cases of adenovirus combined with influenza virus, 3 cases of adenovirus combined with respiratory syncytial virus, 2 cases of enterovirus combined with rhinovirus, one case of enterovirus combined with respiratory syncytial virus, one case of en- terovirus combined with bocavirus, one case of influenza virus combined with coronavirus, one case of adenovirus combined with rhinovirus, and one case of adenovirus combined with metapneumovirus. Viruses detected in summer were mainly enterovirus, adenovirus and influenza virus; while the viruses detected in winter were mainly respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and adenovirus. Rhinovirus, coronavirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus were sporadic type viruses. The detection rates of enterovirus in summer

  5. HBcAg-specific CD8 T cells play an important role in virus suppression, and acute flare-up is associated with the expansion of activated memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Terada, Ryo; Hakoda, Tomomi; Shimomura, Hiroyuki; Hata, Hidenori; Nakayama, Eiichi; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2003-05-01

    We analyzed the prevalence and longitudinal fluctuation of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD8 T cells in chronic HBV infection using an HLA-A2-HBc18-27 tetramer. Thirty-five HLA-A2-positive patients with chronic HBV infection were divided into 17 HBe antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 18 anti-HBe antibody (anti-HBe)-positive patients. Five HLA-A2-positive normal subjects, five HLA-A2-negative patients with chronic HBV infection, and two HLA-A2-positive patients with acute HBV infection were included as controls. HBc18-27-specific CD8 T cells (c18-27-CD8Ts) were detected at a significantly higher prevalence in patients with anti-HBe (6/18) than in those with HBeAg (1/17), and their frequency reached 0.28% of the total CD8 T cells. The prevalence was significantly higher in patients with HBV DNA below 4.0 log genome equivalents (LGE)/ml (5/12) than in those with HBV DNA above 4.0 LGE/ml (2/23). The frequency of c18-27-CD8Ts was consistently higher in liver-infiltrating lymphocytes, ranging from 0.18 to 1.28%, than in autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes. Longitudinal analysis of patients with acute flare-up demonstrated that the elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was intimately associated with the expansion of c18-27-CD8Ts. Phenotypic analysis revealed that most c18-27-CD8Ts during acute flare-up expressed HLA-DR and CCR5, while those during low-ALT periods showed low expression. Furthermore, most liver-infiltrating c18-27-CD8Ts were positive for HLA-DR and CCR5, suggesting selective recruitment of activated c18-27-CD8Ts into the liver. In conclusion. HBV-specific CD8 T cells play an important role in the suppression of virus replication, and acute flare-up is associated with the expansion and activation of HBV-specific memory cells.

  6. Use of dual priming oligonucleotide system-based multiplex RT-PCR combined with high performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with acute enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Lu; Wang, Zi-Wei; Qin, Yue; Sun, Chao; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Yuan; Tang, Li-Jie; Li, Yi-Jing; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of human astrovirus, human rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus and enteric adenovirus associated with acute enteritis was developed, based on the specific dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system and the sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The DPO system-based multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) combined with HPLC assay was more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time SYBR Green PCR assay, and showed a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 96%-100%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay indicates its great potential to be a useful tool for the accurate diagnosis of enteric virus infections.

  7. Establishment of a nested PCR for rapid detection of Chlamys farreri acute viral necrosis virus%栉孔扇贝急性病毒性坏死病毒巢式PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 王崇明; 曲朋; 黄倢

    2013-01-01

    为更好地实现对养殖海区栉孔扇贝急性病毒性坏死病毒(acute viral necrosis virus,AVNV)的快速诊断和分子流行病学的调查,以及AVNV的疫情监测,选择AVNV全基因组序列中的保守区段,应用Accelrys gene 2.5软件设计一对巢式引物,用于AVNV的检测.结果显示,引物的扩增片段分别为979和548 bp.实验优化了PCR体系中Mg2+和dNTPs浓度及扩增程序中的退火温度,并建立了完善的AVNV巢式PCR检测技术.研究表明,该PCR检测技术具有较高的敏感性,可稳定检测出5 pg扇贝样品组织总核酸中5×10 copies的病毒粒子.%The scallop Chlamys farreri is one of the major species cultured in North China, and its culture in commercial scale has been performed for more than 20 years. However, the great expansion and intensification have induced the occurrence of disease called " acute viral necrosis disease" ( AVND) since 1990's,and the cumulative mortality could be higher than 90%. This disease is caused by a virus called "acute viral necrosis virus"(AVNV),which is a spherical enveloped virus(130 to 170 nm in diameter) with spike-like surface protrusions and has been becoming the major limiting factor in the development of the scallop industry. In order to establish a rapid diagnosis method of AVNV parasitizing on scallop( C. farreri) , a pair of primers of nested-PCR were developed by Accelrys gene 2. 5 based on the conserved region of the AVNV genome ( GenBank accession number; GQ153938 ) in this study. The reactive conditions such as concentration of Mg2 + , dNTPs and annealing temperature were optimized for the PCR system, and the expected products of the external and internal primers were 979 and 548 bp respectively. The results showed that the primers were specific for AVNV and did not amplify marine aquaculture animals' s and bacteria' s genome DNA,and the method can be stably amplified 5 x 10 copies virus particles in 5 pg total nucleic acid of scallop tissue. Also this

  8. High-programmed death-1 levels on hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral persistence and require preservation of cognate antigen during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Ray, Stuart C; Astemborski, Jacquie; Levine, Jordana; Liu, Lin; Dowd, Kimberly A; Clute, Shalyn; Wang, Changyu; Korman, Alan; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Pardoll, Drew M; Cox, Andrea L

    2008-12-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that represents a model for chronic infection given that the majority of infected individuals fail to clear the infection despite generation of virus-specific T cell responses during the period of acute infection. Although viral sequence evolution at targeted MHC class I-restricted epitopes represents one mechanism for immune escape in HCV, many targeted epitopes remain intact under circumstances of viral persistence. To explore alternative mechanisms of HCV immune evasion, we analyzed patterns of expression of a major inhibitory receptor on T cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1), from the time of initial infection and correlated these with HCV RNA levels, outcome of infection, and sequence escape within the targeted epitope. We show that the level of PD-1 expression in early HCV infection is significantly higher on HCV-specific T cells from subjects who progress to chronic HCV infection than from those who clear infection. This correlation is independent of HCV RNA levels, compatible with the notion that high PD-1 expression on HCV-specific CD8 T cells during acute infection inhibits viral clearance. Viral escape during persistent infection is associated with reduction in PD-1 levels on the surface of HCV-specific T cells, supporting the necessity of ongoing antigenic stimulation of T cells for maintenance of PD-1 expression. These results support the idea that PD-1 expression on T cells specific for nonescaped epitopes contributes to viral persistence and suggest that PD-1 blockade may alter the outcome of HCV infection.

  9. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  10. Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    dominant foreign producer of heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines for the US market. Colombia produces the overwhelming majority of the cocaine that...became known as the human Nipah Virus ; a bat corona virus that jumped to humans in 2002 to cause Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS); and...another SARS-like corona virus recently identified in individuals who have been in Saudi 13 Arabia, which might also have bat origins. Human and

  11. 病毒感染与儿童哮喘急性发作相关性分析%The Correlation Analysis between Virus Infection and Acute Asthmatic Attack in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范如艳; 范楚平; 潘俊秀; 陈礼娟; 肖志兵; 刘婵

    2015-01-01

    Objective :To explore the correlation analysis between virus infection and acute asthmatic attack in chil‐dren .Methods :Totally seven‐hundred seventy children with asthma were recruited ,and divided into experimental group (n= 367)with acute asthmatic attack and control group(n= 403) with asthma in remission stage .Seven virus infections were identified by immunofluorescence testing of nasopharyngeal swabs was collected during respiratory episodes .Re‐sults :There are at least one virus was detected in experimental group (239/367 ,65 .1% ) and control group(60/403 , 14.9% ) .Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most (154/367 ,42 .0% in experimental group and 39/403 ,9 .7%in control group) ,and the others were parainfluenza Ⅲ (31/367 ,8 .4% and 11/403 ,2 .7% ,respectively) ,adenovirus (25/367 ,6 .8% and 5/403 ,1 .2% ,respectively) ,influenza A virus (11/367 ,3 .0% and 3/403 ,0 .7% ,respectively) ,in‐fluenza B virus(9/367 ,2 .5% and 1/403 ,0 .2% ,respectively) ,parainfluenza Ⅰ (5/367 ,1 .4% and 1/403 ,0 .2% ,respec‐tively) ,parainfluenza Ⅱ (4/367 ,1 .1% and 0/403 ,0% ,respectively) .It is significantly difference between experimen‐tal group and control group(P< 0 .01). The detection rates of virus was highest in children aged < 6 month(67 .5% ) . RSV infection has obvious seasonal character ,most illness occurs in yearly outbreak in the winter and early spring months ,e .g .October to April .Conclusion :There is a close relationship between virus infection and acute asthmatic at‐tack in children .RSV is the major causes of acute asthmatic attack in infant ,and the peak of onset was in winter and spring .%目的:了解病毒感染与儿童哮喘急性发作之间的相关性。方法:应用直接免疫荧光法(DIF),对实验组(367例哮喘急性发作患儿)和对照组(403例哮喘缓解期患儿)鼻咽分泌物进行7种病毒抗原检测。结果:实验组239例检出至少1种病毒,总检出率65.1%。呼吸

  12. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Presenting as Acute Painful Thyroiditis and as a Manifestation of an Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Mast, Q. de; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Background: An immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may complicate immune restoration following start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The occurrence of Graves' disease in the setting of an IRIS is well recognized. We hereby repor

  13. Rapid and transient activation of gamma/delta T cells to interferon gamma production, NK cell-like killing and antigen processing during acute virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma/delta T cells are the majority peripheral blood T cells in young cattle. The role of gamma/delta T cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was analyzed on 5 consecutive days following infection. Before infection, bovine gamma/delta T cells expressed...

  14. Processing of genome 5' termini as a strategy of negative-strand RNA viruses to avoid RIG-I-dependent interferon induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Habjan

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is critically dependent on the rapid production of interferon in response to intruding viruses. The intracellular pathogen recognition receptors RIG-I and MDA5 are essential for interferon induction by viral RNAs containing 5' triphosphates or double-stranded structures, respectively. Viruses with a negative-stranded RNA genome are an important group of pathogens causing emerging and re-emerging diseases. We investigated the ability of genomic RNAs from substantial representatives of this virus group to induce interferon via RIG-I or MDA5. RNAs isolated from particles of Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Lassa virus, and Rift Valley fever virus strongly activated the interferon-beta promoter. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that interferon induction depended on RIG-I, but not MDA5, and phosphatase treatment revealed a requirement for the RNA 5' triphosphate group. In contrast, genomic RNAs of Hantaan virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Borna disease virus did not trigger interferon induction. Sensitivity of these RNAs to a 5' monophosphate-specific exonuclease indicates that the RIG-I-activating 5' triphosphate group was removed post-transcriptionally by a viral function. Consequently, RIG-I is unable to bind the RNAs of Hantaan virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Borna disease virus. These results establish RIG-I as a major intracellular recognition receptor for the genome of most negative-strand RNA viruses and define the cleavage of triphosphates at the RNA 5' end as a strategy of viruses to evade the innate immune response.

  15. Acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence leads to depletion and redistribution of WC1(+) γδ T cells in lymphoid tissues of beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Sakamoto, Kaori; Walz, Heather L; Brock, Kenny V; Hurley, David J

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of γδ T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue during acute infection with high (HV) or low virulence (LV) non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in beef calves. This study was performed using tissue samples from a previous experiment in which thirty beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: LV [n=10; animals inoculated intranasally (IN) with LV BVDV-1a (strain SD-1)], HV [n=10; animals inoculated IN with HV BVDV-2 (strain 1373)], and control (n=10; animals inoculated with cell culture medium). On day 5 post inoculation, animals were euthanized, and samples from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to assess the abundance of WC1(+) γδ T cells. A higher proportion of calves challenged with BVDV showed signs of apoptosis and cytophagy in MLN and spleen samples compared to the control group. A significantly lower number of γδ T cells was observed in spleen and MLN from calves in HV and LV groups than in the control calves (P<0.05). In conclusion, acute infection with HV or LV BVDV resulted in depletion of WC1(+) γδ T cells in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues at five days after challenge in beef calves. This reduction in γδ T cells in the studied lymphoid tissues could be also due to lymphocyte trafficking to other tissues.

  16. Molecular diagnostic and genetic characterization of highly pathogenic viruses: application during Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus outbreaks in Eastern Europe and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, C; Marianneau, P; Murri, S; Mollard, N; Avsic-Zupanc, T; Chinikar, S; Desprès, P; Caro, V; Gessain, A; Berthet, N; Tordo, N

    2013-02-01

    Several haemorrhagic fevers are caused by highly pathogenic viruses that must be handled in Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. These zoonotic infections have an important impact on public health and the development of a rapid and differential diagnosis in case of outbreak in risk areas represents a critical priority. We have demonstrated the potential of a DNA resequencing microarray (PathogenID v2.0) for this purpose. The microarray was first validated in vitro using supernatants of cells infected with prototype strains from five different families of BSL-4 viruses (e.g. families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae and Paramyxoviridae). RNA was amplified based on isothermal amplification by Phi29 polymerase before hybridization. We were able to detect and characterize Nipah virus and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in the brains of experimentally infected animals. CCHFV was finally used as a paradigm for epidemics because of recent outbreaks in Turkey, Kosovo and Iran. Viral variants present in human sera were characterized by BLASTN analysis. Sensitivity was estimated to be 10(5) -10(6) PFU/mL of hybridized cDNA. Detection specificity was limited to viral sequences having ~13-14% of global divergence with the tiled sequence, or stretches of ~20 identical nucleotides. These results highlight the benefits of using the PathogenID v2.0 resequencing microarray to characterize geographical variants in the follow-up of haemorrhagic fever epidemics; to manage patients and protect communities; and in cases of bioterrorism.

  17. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.D. Thai; H.L. Phuong; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; N.V. Nam; T.Q. Binh; C. Simmons; J. Farrar; T.T. Hien; H.R. van Doorn; M.D. de Jong; P.J. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from 200

  18. Comprehensive longitudinal analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses during acute HCV infection in the presence of existing HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.S.B. van den Berg; T.A. Ruys; N.M. Nanlohy; S.E. Geerlings; J.T. van der Meer; J.W. Mulder; J.A. Lange; D. van Baarle

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the development of HCV-specific T cell immunity during acute HCV infection in the presence of an existing HIV-1 infection in four HIV-1 infected men having sex with men. A comprehensive analysis of HCV-specific T cell responses was performed at two time points duri

  19. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  20. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  1. Cystitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  2. Cloning of the Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus Viral Capsid Antigen and Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Small RNA Homologues and Use in Diagnosis of Acute and Persistent Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Pasupuleti; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with the development of several human malignancies. A closely related herpesvirus in the same lymphocryptovirus (LCV) genera as EBV naturally infects rhesus monkeys and provides an important animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis. We cloned the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) homologue from the rhesus LCV and developed a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine whether e...

  3. A recombinant Hendra virus G glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine protects ferrets from lethal Hendra virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Jackie; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa; Klein, Reuben; Haining, Jessica; Robinson, Rachel; Yamada, Manabu; White, John; Payne, Jean; Feng, Yan-Ru; Chan, Yee-Peng; Broder, Christopher C

    2011-08-01

    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are two deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics have yet been approved for human or livestock use. In 14 outbreaks since 1994 HeV has been responsible for multiple fatalities in horses and humans, with all known human infections resulting from close contact with infected horses. A vaccine that prevents virus shedding in infected horses could interrupt the chain of transmission to humans and therefore prevent HeV disease in both. Here we characterise HeV infection in a ferret model and show that it closely mirrors the disease seen in humans and horses with induction of systemic vasculitis, including involvement of the pulmonary and central nervous systems. This model of HeV infection in the ferret was used to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a subunit vaccine based on a recombinant soluble version of the HeV attachment glycoprotein G (HeVsG), adjuvanted with CpG. We report that ferrets vaccinated with a 100 μg, 20 μg or 4 μg dose of HeVsG remained free of clinical signs of HeV infection following a challenge with 5000 TCID₅₀ of HeV. In addition, and of considerable importance, no evidence of virus or viral genome was detected in any tissues or body fluids in any ferret in the 100 and 20 μg groups, while genome was detected in the nasal washes only of one animal in the 4 μg group. Together, our findings indicate that 100 μg or 20 μg doses of HeVsG vaccine can completely prevent a productive HeV infection in the ferret, suggesting that vaccination to prevent the infection and shedding of HeV is possible.

  4. Monitoring extravascular lung water in acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by probable 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus: report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-liang; WANG Zong-yu; YAO Gai-qi; ZHU Xi

    2010-01-01

    @@ During the spring of 2009, a pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) vims emerged and spread globally. As of January 3, 2009, more than 208 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 12 799 death cases.1 Critical cases developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rapidly, which was refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation and rescue therapies.

  5. High-Dose Mannose-Binding Lectin Therapy for Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    are heavily glycosylated and contain high-mannose. As a result, MBL binds to Ebola and Marburg viruses and mediates com- plement-dependent virus ...host cells. Therefore, MBL preferentially recognizes glycosylated viruses including influenza virus , human immunodeficiency virus , severe acute...respiratory syndrome coronovirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus , and Marburg virus . It also recognizes many glycosylated gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria [1

  6. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  7. Infectious Lassa virus, but not filoviruses, is restricted by BST-2/tetherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Dong, Lian; Chi, Xiaoli; Clester, Jeremiah C; Retterer, Cary; Spurgers, Kevin; Kuhn, Jens H; Sandwick, Sarah; Ruthel, Gordon; Kota, Krishna; Boltz, Dutch; Warren, Travis; Kranzusch, Philip J; Whelan, Sean P J; Bavari, Sina

    2010-10-01

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin) is a cellular membrane protein that inhibits the release of HIV-1. We show for the first time, using infectious viruses, that BST-2 also inhibits egress of arenaviruses but has no effect on filovirus replication and spread. Specifically, infectious Lassa virus (LASV) release significantly decreased or increased in human cells in which BST-2 was either stably expressed or knocked down, respectively. In contrast, replication and spread of infectious Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV) were not affected by these conditions. Replication of infectious Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) was also not affected by BST-2 expression. Elevated cellular levels of human or murine BST-2 inhibited the release of virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of the matrix proteins of multiple highly virulent NIAID Priority Pathogens, including arenaviruses (LASV and Machupo virus [MACV]), filoviruses (ZEBOV and MARV), and paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus). Although the glycoproteins of filoviruses counteracted the antiviral activity of BST-2 in the context of VLPs, they could not rescue arenaviral (LASV and MACV) VLP release upon BST-2 overexpression. Furthermore, we did not observe colocalization of filoviral glycoproteins with BST-2 during infection with authentic viruses. None of the arenavirus-encoded proteins rescued budding of VLPs in the presence of BST-2. Our results demonstrate that BST-2 might be a broad antiviral factor with the ability to restrict release of a wide variety of human pathogens. However, at least filoviruses, RVFV, and CPXV are immune to its inhibitory effect.

  8. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half...... discusses the reason for this antibiotic overprescription. Other therapies targeted to control symptoms have also demonstrated a marginal or no effect. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Clinicians should be aware of the marginal effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Some strategies like the use of rapid tests, delayed...

  9. Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Chang Min; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kwon, Gu Jin (Dept. of Family Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Family Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)); Woo, Sung Koo (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Seung Hoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-05-15

    Background Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiological features of patients infected by the pandemic H1N1 2009 flu virus at their initial presentation and to compare them with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Material and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Armed Forces Medical Command, South Korea. From August to September 2009, 337 consecutive patients presented with an acute febrile respiratory illness in a tertiary military hospital. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction tests were performed in 62 of these patients under the impression of H1N1 infection. Clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation were described for the H1N1 group (n = 35) and non-H1N1 group (n = 27) and compared between the two groups. Results Increased C-reactive protein level (97%) without leukocytosis (9%) or increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0%) was common in the H1N1 group at their initial presentation. On chest radiographs, 12 of 35 (34%) H1N1 patients had abnormal findings; nodules in 10 patients (83%) and consolidations in two (17%). Of the 28 H1N1 patients who underwent thin-section CT 16 patients (57%) showed abnormal findings; ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in 15 (94%), and nodules in 13 (81%). However, there were no significant differences between the H1N1 group and non-H1N1 group in terms of symptoms, laboratory results, or radiological findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion Patients with H1N1 infection show consistent clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation, however, clinical and radiological features of the H1N1 group are

  10. 399例急性呼吸道感染患儿呼吸道病毒检出情况分析%Analysis on the detection situation of respiratory viruses in 399 children with acute respiratory tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 贺菊晖; 郭威; 李小斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological feature of respiratory viruses in children with respiratory tract infection and to provide evidences for diagnosis and rational use of drugs .Methods Nasopharyngeal secretion were collected from 399 chil‐dren with acute respiratory tract infection ,and 7 respiratory viruses ,including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,adenovirus(ADV) , influenza virus A (FA ) ,influenza virus B (FB) ,parainfluenza virus Ⅰ(PIVⅠ) ,parainfluenza virus Ⅱ (PIVⅡ )and parainfluenza vi‐rus Ⅲ(PIVⅢ) ,were detected by using direct immunofluorescence assay .The clinical epidemiological characteristics were analyzed by age group ,virus distribution and seasons .Results Among 399 children ,142 cases were positive for 7 viruses ,which included 40 cases of RSV infection(28 .2% ) ,26 cases of ADV infection (18 .3% ) ,43 cases of FA infection (30 .3% ) ,15 cases of FB infection (10 .6% ) ,5 cases of PIVⅠ infection(3 .5% ) ,4 cases of PIVⅡ infection(2 .8% ) and 9 cases of PIVⅢ infection(6 .3% ) .The total positive rate was 35 .6% .The number of infected infants of 3 year group were 54 cases(39 .1 .0% ) .In 4 seasons ,the positive rates were 32 .1% (spring) ,26 .9% (summer) ,29 .3% (autumn) ,45 .0% (winter)respectively .The positive rate in winter was the highest .Conclusion FA and RSV is the major virus in children with respiratory tract infection .FA infection rate in infants(>3 years old )is the highest ,and FA is most prevalent in winter .RSV infection rate in infants (< 1 years old )is the highest ,and RSV is most prevalent in spring .%目的:探讨儿童呼吸道感染的病毒病原情况,掌握该地区儿童病毒感染的病原学流行趋势,为儿童呼吸道病毒感染的诊断提供帮助,指导合理用药。方法选取呼吸道感染患儿399例,采集鼻咽深部分泌物,采用直接免疫荧光法快速检测呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、流感病毒A(FA)、流感病毒B

  11. 上海地区儿童急性呼吸道病毒感染的流行特征%Epidemiological characteristics of common respiratory viruses among children with acute respiratory tract infections in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玫; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 朱启鎔

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解近年上海地区呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、甲型和乙型流感病毒(IV-A和IV-B)、副流感病毒1、2、3型(PIV-1、2、3)以及腺病毒(ADV)在急性呼吸道感染住院儿童中的流行特征.方法 回顾性分析2003-2006年连续4年复旦大学附属儿科医院收治入院的急性呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽吸取物7种常见呼吸道病毒的检出情况以及季节和年龄分布特点.直接免疫荧光法检测病毒.年龄分布比较作非参数检验.结果 4年期间共收集11214例患儿标本,其中98.7%取自急性下呼吸道感染,7种病毒总的阳性检出率为24.2%,其中RSV阳性率为17.7%,PIV-3为2.8%,ADV为2.2%,IV-A为0.7%,PIV-1为0.5%,PIV-2为0.3%,IV-B为0.1%,混合感染为0.2%.RSV通常在冬、春季流行,夏季很少检出,每2年RSV流行季节提前至秋季开始,持续流行较长时间.PIV-3、ADV和IV全年散发,某些月份时有流行.无固定的流行规律.病毒感染患儿年龄中位数RSV为4个月、PIV-3为8个月、PIV-1为9.5个月、PIV-2为10.5个月、ADV为12个月、IV为13个月,差异有统计学意义(X2154.319,P<0.01).RSV感染率随患儿年龄增长而降低,PIV-3在婴幼儿人群中感染率较高,ADV在1岁及以上儿童中感染率较高.结论 RSV是上海地区儿童呼吸道感染最常见的病毒病原,要幼儿易感,春、秋和冬季都有流行,PIV-3是第2位常见病原.感染儿童以婴幼儿常见,ADV是第3位常见病原,感染儿童年龄较大,IV检出率低,未出现ADV和IV在上海地区儿童中暴发流行.%Objective To understand the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus(RSV),influenza virus type A and type B(IV-A and IV-B),parainfluenza virus type 1,2,3(PIV-1,2,3)and adenovirus(ADV) among children with acute respiratory tract infection in Shanghai.Methods A retrospective epidemiological investigation was conducted to analyze the prevalence rate,seasonality and susceptible pediatric population of seven common respiratory viruses among

  12. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute, watery diarrhea are caused by viruses (viral gastroenteritis). The most common ones in children are rotavirus and in adults are norovirus (this is sometimes called “cruise ship diarrhea” due to well publicized epidemics). Bacteria are a common cause of traveler’s diarrhea. Causes – ...

  13. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  14. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  15. Encefalitis aguda: Manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas como expresión de infección por virus de influenza Acute encephalitis: Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noris Moreno-Flagge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue revisar la encefalitis en niños y adolescentes, su etiología, manifestaciones clínicas, fisiopatología, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento, enfatizando las manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas de la encefalitis durante una epidemia de influenza. La encefalitis se considera una inflamación del sistema nervioso central (SNC que compromete el cerebro. Se manifiesta usualmente por cefaleas, fiebre y trastorno del estado de conciencia. Puede además manifestarse por convulsiones, cambios en la personalidad y manifestaciones obsesivas (síntomas neuropsiquiátricos. Las manifestaciones dependerán del tipo de virus y las células afectadas. La encefalitis puede ser causada por una gran variedad de agentes infecciosos incluyendo virus, bacterias, hongos y parásitos. Causas virales de encefalitis incluyen herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabia y enterovirus. Casos establecidos de bacterias incluyen Borrelia burgdorferi y rickettsia y el Mycoplasma neumoniae, al cual se atribuyen varios casos de encefalitis. Otros agentes como el hongo Coccidioides immitis e Histoplasma capsulatum pueden también generarla. Más de 100 agentes se han asociado a encefalitis. El diagnóstico de encefalitis constituye un reto para el clínico, y su etiología infecciosa usualmente se identifica entre el 40% al 70% de casos. El diagnóstico se hace con absoluta certeza sólo con una biopsia cerebral. La epidemiología depende de ciertos factores como la edad, la localización geográfica, la época del año, las condiciones climáticas y la inmunocompetencia del huésped. El tratamiento temprano puede disminuir el riesgo de muerte y las secuelas. Describimos cuatro pacientes con encefalitis y manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas durante una epidemia de influenza, con el fin de alertar sobre esta asociación.The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic

  16. Dynamics of adaptive and innate immunity in patients treated during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection: results from Maraviroc in HIV Acute Infection (MAIN) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, M; Pogliaghi, M; Chiappetta, S; Galli, L; Pensieroso, S; Cavarelli, M; Scarlatti, G; De Biasi, S; Cossarizza, A; De Battista, D; Malnati, M; Lazzarin, A; Nozza, S; Tambussi, G

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of innate and adaptive immunity in patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (PHI), enrolled in a prospective randomized trial (MAIN, EUDRACT 2008-007004-29). After 48 weeks of cART, we documented a reduction in activated B cells and CD8(+) T cells. Natural killer cell and dendritic cell frequencies were measured and a decrease in CD16(+) CD56(dim) with a reciprocal rise in CD56(high) natural killer cells and an increase in myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were recorded. In conclusion, 48 weeks of cART during PHI showed significant benefits for both innate and adaptive immunity.

  17. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  18. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan Azadmanesh; Safie Amini; Seyed-Moayed Alavian; Malek Hossein Ahmadipour

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1). It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2). Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3). While the majorit...

  20. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  1. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Nigro, L

    2009-05-01

    A transient reduction of hepatitis C virus replication during the course of acute hepatitis A virus infection has already been reported in the literature. The present study reports the case study of a subject with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus who went on to develop an acute hepatitis A. From the early onset of acute disease, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable. Following recovery from acute hepatitis, alanine amino-transferase levels became persistently normal and liver biopsy revealed a reduction in the Knodell histological activity index score. Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance was maintained up to 4 years after the onset of acute hepatitis A. During the course of the acute disease, a sharp increase in interferon gamma levels was detected in serum and in the supernatant of both unstimulated and phytoemagglutinin/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an immunological mechanism related to interferon gamma production.

  2. Antibodies to henipavirus or henipa-like viruses in domestic pigs in Ghana, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N = 97 tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es. Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV.

  3. Structure and stabilization of the Hendra virus F glycoprotein in its prefusion form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joyce J W; Paterson, Reay G; Lamb, Robert A; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2016-01-26

    Hendra virus (HeV) is one of the two prototypical members of the Henipavirus genus of paramyxoviruses, which are designated biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) organisms due to the high mortality rate of Nipah virus (NiV) and HeV in humans. Paramyxovirus cell entry is mediated by the fusion protein, F, in response to binding of a host receptor by the attachment protein. During posttranslational processing, the fusion peptide of F is released and, upon receptor-induced triggering, inserts into the host cell membrane. As F undergoes a dramatic refolding from its prefusion to postfusion conformation, the fusion peptide brings the host and viral membranes together, allowing entry of the viral RNA. Here, we present the crystal structure of the prefusion form of the HeV F ectodomain. The structure shows very high similarity to the structure of prefusion parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F, with the main structural differences in the membrane distal apical loops and the fusion peptide cleavage loop. Functional assays of mutants show that the apical loop can tolerate perturbation in length and surface residues without loss of function, except for residues involved in the stability and conservation of the F protein fold. Structure-based disulfide mutants were designed to anchor the fusion peptide to conformationally invariant residues of the F head. Two mutants were identified that inhibit F-mediated fusion by stabilizing F in its prefusion conformation.

  4. Expression of interferon-alpha and Mx1 protein in pigs acutely infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H-K; Lee, J-H; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2004-05-01

    The expression of mRNA encoding interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and Mx1 protein was studied, by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by in-situ hybridization with a non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probe, in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissue from pigs experimentally infected with a Korean isolate (North American genotype) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The animals were examined over a period of 10 days after intranasal inoculation. IFN-alpha and Mx1 protein was detected in the lung at 1 day post inoculation (dpi), the number of positive cells increasing at 7dpi, and rapidly decreasing thereafter. Hybridization signals for IFN-alpha and Mx1 protein were usually associated with inflammation, and in particular with macrophages. Expression of IFN-alpha and Mx1 protein was negative in non-lesional lung of PRRSV-infected pigs and in normal lung from control pigs. There was a good statistical correlation between the number of cells positive for mRNA encoding IFN-alpha and Mx1 protein in the infected lungs (r = 0.95, PMx1 protein plays a role in the early host defence against PRRSV infection.

  5. Acute SIV infection in sooty mangabey monkeys is characterized by rapid virus clearance from lymph nodes and absence of productive infection in germinal centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Amanda J; Meythaler, Mareike; Pozzi, Lu-Ann; Dalecki Boisvert, Karen; Knight, Heather; Walsh, Dennis; Westmoreland, Susan; Anderson, Daniel C; Kaur, Amitinder; O'Neil, Shawn P

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue immunopathology is a characteristic feature of chronic HIV/SIV infection in AIDS-susceptible species, but is absent in SIV-infected natural hosts. To investigate factors contributing to this difference, we compared germinal center development and SIV RNA distribution in peripheral lymph nodes during primary SIV infection of the natural host sooty mangabey and the non-natural host pig-tailed macaque. Although SIV-infected cells were detected in the lymph node of both species at two weeks post infection, they were confined to the lymph node paracortex in immune-competent mangabeys but were seen in both the paracortex and the germinal center of SIV-infected macaques. By six weeks post infection, SIV-infected cells were no longer detected in the lymph node of sooty mangabeys. The difference in localization and rate of disappearance of SIV-infected cells between the two species was associated with trapping of cell-free virus on follicular dendritic cells and higher numbers of germinal center CD4(+) T lymphocytes in macaques post SIV infection. Our data suggests that fundamental differences in the germinal center microenvironment prevent productive SIV infection within the lymph node germinal centers of natural hosts contributing to sustained immune competency.

  6. Protective effect of brown Brazilian propolis against acute vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice: involvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Gláubia; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Pinton, Simone; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Roman, Silvane Souza; Pauletto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos; Prigol, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Propolis has been highlighted for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate if brown Brazilian hydroalcoholic propolis extract (HPE) protects against vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in female BALB/c mice. The treatment was divided in 5 days of pre-treatment with HPE [50 mg · kg(-1), once a day, intragastric (i.g.)], HSV-2 infection [10 µl of a solution 1 × 10(2) plaque-forming unit (PFU · ml(-1) HSV-2), intravaginal inoculation at day 6] and post-treatment with HPE (50 mg · kg(-1)) for 5 days more. At day 11, the animals were killed, and the in vivo analysis (score of lesions) and ex vivo analysis [haematological and histological evaluation; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities; reactive species (RS), tyrosine nitration levels, non-protein thiols (NPSH) and ascorbic acid (AA) levels] were carried out. HPE treatment reduced extravaginal lesions and the histological damage caused by HSV-2 infection in vaginal tissues of animals. HPE was able to decrease RS, tyrosine nitration, AA levels and MPO activity. Also, it protected against the inhibition of CAT activity in vaginal tissues of mice. HPE promoted protective effect on HSV-2 infected animals by acting on inflammatory and oxidative processes, and this effect probably is caused by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  7. Selected biochemical and oxidative stress parameters and ceruloplasmin as acute phase protein associated with bovine leukaemia virus infection in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akalın Pınar Peker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ceruloplasmin (Cp and vitamin C concentrations, the total antioxidant status (TAS, and selected biochemical parameters in dairy cows spontaneously infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV. Of the 27 cows included in the study, 18 animals were seropositive for enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, whereas nine cows were seronegative and were used as controls. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST (P = 0.003 and Cp concentrations (P = 0.03 decreased (65.17 ± 5.03 and 7.70 ± 0.72 respectively in BLV-infected cows, as compared to healthy animals (100.67 ± 11.50 and 10.40 ± 0.70 respectively. A slight insignificant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and unchanged levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, magnesium, and TAS were demonstrated in EBL cows. As the TAS and vitamin C levels remained unchanged in EBL cows, it may be suggested that ruminants may compensate for the impaired oxidative/antioxidative balance. The results obtained also indicate that BLV may suppress AST and Cp synthesis or secretion in the liver through an unknown mechanism. The mechanism of action of BLV in hepatocytes, especially on AST and Cp, requires further investigation to elucidate the immune suppression caused by oncogenic retroviruses.

  8. Vesicular stomatitis virus (indiana 2 serotype as experimental model to study acute encephalitis – morphological features Vírus da estomatite vesicular (sorotipo indiana 2 como modelo experimental para o estudo de encefalite aguda – aspectos morfológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcanti Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV is a Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that infects mammals and causes vesicular lesions similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease. VSV experimental encephalitis can be induced in rodents and the symptoms are similar to those observed in rabies. However, the lesions observed in the animals´ encephalon are different. Inclusion bodies are not observed. There is necrosis, particularly in the region of the olfactory bulb, and, in some cases, ventriculitis. It was observed that the time pattern of VSV dissemination and the morphological aspects of the lesions are similar to those described in literature. The virus seems to be disseminated through the brain ventricles, being multiplied in the ependyma cells and in the neurons, besides using retrograde and anterograde transport. It was noticed that, due to the facility of virus manipulation, this experimental model has been used in innumerable research studies in several fields. If, on the one hand there are plenty of reports on the infection pathogenesis, on the other hand there are many gaps involving, for instance, aspects about virus transmission, recovery of infected animals and participation of glial cells in the acute as well as in the recovery phases.   O vírus da estomatite vesicular (VEV é um Vesiculovírus da família Rhabdoviridae que infecta mamíferos e causa lesões vesiculares semelhantes às observadas na febre aftosa. A encefalite experimental pode ser induzida em roedores e os sintomas são semelhantes aos observados na raiva; entretanto, as lesões observadas no encéfalo dos animais são diferentes. Corpúsculos de inclusão não são observados, há necrose especialmente da região do bulbo olfatório e em alguns casos, ventriculite. Observamos que o padrão temporal de disseminação do VEV e os aspectos morfológicos das lesões são similares aos descritos na literatura. O vírus parece se disseminar através dos ventr

  9. La experiencia de los virus emergentes en el Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Máttar V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe una interrelación muy estrecha entre el hombre, su ecología y el mundo microbiano, tanto el ser humano como los agentes infecciosos han coevolucionado durante milenios (1. La historia demuestra que ha existido una confluencia de diferentes enfermedades infecciosas y las principales civilizaciones. En los últimos años las enfermedades zoonoticas emergentes han ido cobrando una importancia creciente en el terreno de la salud humana y animal, surgiendo nuevas enfermedades procedentes siempre de lugares insospechados y causantes de graves problemas para el hombre o los animales (2. La mayoría de patógenos involucrados en las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes (EIE son de origen bacteriano o rickettsial (54.3%. En este grupo están incluidos los patógenos bacterianos resistentes a los antibióticos. Los patógenos de origen viral y los priones, constituyen el 25.4% de eventos de las EIE, los protozoarios representan el 10.7%, seguido de los hongos 6.3% y los helmintos en un 3.3%. El 60.3% de las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes son causadas por patógenos zoonoticos (2. El 71.8% de estas zoonosis son causados por patógenos que se originan de la fauna silvestre, como la emergencia del virus de Nipah en Malasia y el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS en China (3.

  10. Viral etiology in infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkur, Dilek; Özaydın, Eda; Dibek-Mısırlıoğlu, Emine; Vezir, Emine; Tombuloğlu, Duygu; Köse, Gülşen; Kocabaş, Can N

    2014-01-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is predominantly a viral disease. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common agent, but other newly identified viruses have also been considered as causes. The aim of the present study is to determine the respiratory viruses causing acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. Infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis in a children's hospital between November 2011 and May 2012 were evaluated for the presence of viruses as etiologic agents using a realtime polymerase chain reaction method.A total of 55 infants were included in this study. The mean age of the children was 6.98±5.53 months, and 63.6% were male. In the 55 children, 63 viruses were detected. A single viral pathogen was detected in 47 (85.5%) patients, and two viruses were co-detected in 8 (14.6%) patients. Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus identified, accounting for 25 (45.5%) cases, followed by rhinovirus (n=9, 16.4%), and human metapneumovirus (n = 8, 14.5%).Although respiratory syncytial virus remains the major viral pathogen in infants hospitalized for acute broncholitis, more than half of bronchiolitis cases are associated with other respiratory viruses.

  11. Influenza Virus-specific CD8+ T Cells : -longevity, cross-reactivity and viral evasion-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van de Sandt (Carolien)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractInfluenza viruses are among the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infections worldwide. Natural influenza virus infections elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although, neutralizing antibodies directed to the hemagglutinin (HA) globular head domain prevent rein

  12. 流感病毒感染与急性心肌梗死关系的研究%Research on relationship between influenza virus infection and acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关秀茹; 马学华; 蒋丽鑫; 林春艳; 韩丽; 杜柏岩

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨流感病毒(IV)感染与急性心肌梗死(AMI)的关系.方法 采用ELISA法检测74例AMI患者和77例对照组IV-A、IV-B抗体及白细胞介素-18(IL-18)、超敏C反应蛋白(hsCRP)的水平,并对冠心病危险因素进行调查.结果 AMI组IV-A IgG、IV-B IgG阳性率及IL-18、hsCRP水平均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且IgG水平与IL-18、hsCRP呈正相关.校正冠心病危险因素前后,IV-A和IV-B IgG阳性均与AMI有相关性.结论 IV 感染可能激发或加重冠状动脉内炎性反应,IL-18和hsCRP参与AMI的病理过程.%Objective To study the association between influenza virus infection and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods 74 patients with AMI(AMI group) ,77 healthy controls were enrolled(control group). For all subjects,antibodies specific for IV-A and IV-B, levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured by ELISA. Meanwhile, the risk factors of coronary heart disease were investigated. Results The positive rates of antibodies specific for IV-A and IV-B IgG,and levels of IL-8 and hsCRP in AMI group were all significantly higher than those in control group. For AMI group,there was positive correlation between level of IgG and levels of IL-8 and hsCRP. After the adjustment of cardiovascular risk factors,IV-A and IV-B IgG antibodies were both correlated with AMI. Conclusion There could be significant correlation between influenza virus infection and AMI. IL-18 and hsCRP may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction by inducing and accelerating coronary artery inflammation.

  13. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  14. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  15. Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus in Vaginal Secretions and Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Carlson, Anna R.; Berry, Rebecca; Lai, Lilin; Natrajan, Muktha; Garcia, Melissa N.; Correa, Armando; Patel, Shital M.; Aagaard, Kjersti; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with Zika virus is an emerging public health crisis. We observed prolonged detection of virus RNA in vaginal mucosal swab specimens and whole blood for a US traveler with acute Zika virus infection who had visited Honduras. These findings advance understanding of Zika virus infection and provide data for additional testing strategies. PMID:27748649

  16. Crystal Structure of the Marburg Virus VP35 Oligomerization Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Jessica F.; Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Urata, Sarah M.; Li, Sheng; Tickle, Ian J.; Bricogne, Gérard; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps); (Globel Phasing); (UCSD)

    2016-11-09

    ABSTRACT

    Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a genus distinct from that of Ebola virus (EBOV) (generaMarburgvirusandEbolavirus, respectively). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase cofactor, a viral protein chaperone, and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function. Here we present crystal structures of the MARV VP35 oligomerization domain. These structures and accompanying biophysical characterization suggest that MARV VP35 is a trimer. In contrast, EBOV VP35 is likely a tetramer in solution. Differences in the oligomeric state of this protein may explain mechanistic differences in replication and immune evasion observed for MARV and EBOV.

    IMPORTANCEMarburg virus can cause severe disease, with up to 90% human lethality. Its genome is concise, only producing seven proteins. One of the proteins, VP35, is essential for replication of the viral genome and for evasion of host immune responses. VP35 oligomerizes (self-assembles) in order to function, yet the structure by which it assembles has not been visualized. Here we present two crystal structures of this oligomerization domain. In both structures, three copies of VP35 twist about each other to form a coiled coil. This trimeric assembly is in contrast to tetrameric predictions for VP35 of Ebola virus and to known structures of homologous proteins in the measles, mumps, and Nipah viruses. Distinct oligomeric states of the Marburg and Ebola virus VP35 proteins may explain differences between them in polymerase function and immune evasion. These findings may provide a more accurate understanding of the

  17. 潍坊地区急性呼吸道感染患儿副流感病毒检测及分析%Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Pediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Weifang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏迎迎; 孙中厚; 王华; 郑晓静; 武帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate parainfluenza virus (PIV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections in Weifang area.Methods:Three hundred and fifty-eight hospitalized children with acute respiratory illnesses in Weifang Medical University Affiliated Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 were collected.Nasopharyngeal secretion samples were examined for seven common respiratory viruses by direct immunofluorescence assay.Results:(1) Among 358 cases,180 (50.3%) cases were positive for virus antigens.PIV accounted for 120 (66.7%) cases,PIV1 for 36 cases (20.0%),PIV2 for 32 cases (17.8%),PIV3 for 14 cases (7.8%) and mixed infection for38 cases (21.1%).(2) There was a significant difference in positivity rate between PIV1 and PIV3 infection in the upper or lower respiratory tract infections (P<0.05).There was no significant difference in positivity rate between PIV2 and mixed infection in the upper or lower respiratory tract infections (P>0.05).(3) The difference between every age group was significant (x2 =14.0,P<0.05).(4) The PIV seasons peaked in spring and winter (x2 =10.4,P<0.05).Conclusions:PIV has a high detection rate (33.52%) in pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections in Weifang area.PIV1 is predominant strain.The peak seasons of PIV are spring and winter.The majority of infections occur in children younger than three years.PIV1 usually causes upper respiratory tract infections,while PIV3 mainly causes lower respiratory tract infections.%目的:了解潍坊地区急性呼吸道感染患儿副流感病毒(PIV)感染状况及特点.方法:收集2010年10月至2012年11月在潍坊医学院附属医院儿科住院的急性呼吸道感染惠儿358例,用直接免疫荧光法对患儿鼻咽分泌物标本进行7种常见呼吸道病毒抗原检测,结合临床分析其结果.结果:(1) 358例患儿标本中,病毒检测阳性180例(50.3%),其中PIV 120例(120/180,66.7%),包括PIV1 36例(36/180,20.0%),PIV2

  18. Identification of mouse acute pneumonia model induced by influenza virus using gene clone and sequence analysis%克隆测序鉴定流感病毒诱导小鼠急性肺炎模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彬; 王雪峰; 岳志军; 南春红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify mouse acute pneumonia model induced by influenza virus adapted strains ( FM1 strain) using RT-PCR, gene clone and sequence analysis and pathological examination of lung tissues. Methods Acute pneumonia was induced by intranasal drip of FM1 strain. The lungs were collected after 3, 5 and 7 days. RT-PCR was used to detect the viral load. Amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Pathological and histological changes to the lungs were observed. Results There were no abnormalities in the alveoli, alveolar sacs and alveolar septa and no inflammatory cell infiltration was found in normal mice. In the model group, we found disappearance of alveoli, alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and alveolar septa, thickening of the alveolar septal and bronchiolar walls, and infiltration of inflammatory cells after 3, 5 and 7 days of influenza virus (Ⅳ) infection. Compared with the normal group, pathological changes at various time points were significantly increased (P < 0. 01). Viral nucleic acid can be detected in the lung tissue of the model group at various time points, and the pathological changes of the lung tissue were positively correlated with viral load. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there was 99. 1% consistency between RT-PCR products of lung tissues in the model group and the known IV cDNA sequence (P < 0. 01). Conclusions Gene clone and sequence analysis may be used to identify acute mouse pneumonia model induced by FM1 strain.%目的 结合RT-PCR病毒载量检测、克隆测序基因比对以及病理改变鉴定甲型流感病毒(influenza virus,IV)鼠肺适应株(FM1株)诱导的小鼠急性肺炎模型,为急性肺炎模型提供科学的鉴定方案.方法 以FM1株滴鼻诱导昆明小鼠急性肺炎,分别于第3、5、7天取小鼠肺脏,以RT-PCR法检测IV病毒载量,并通过质粒克隆测定cDNA序列;同时观察小鼠肺脏病理改变.结果 正常组小鼠肺组织的肺泡、肺泡囊和肺泡隔形态完整,周围

  19. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  20. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  1. 2011-2013年顺义区急性呼吸道感染病毒流行特征分析%Epidemiological analysis on virus etiology of acute respiratory infection from 2011 to 2013 in Shunyi District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红霞; 李彦丽; 郑玉明; 张新会; 张松建

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解北京市顺义区2011-2013年急性呼吸道感染病毒病原谱构成及流行特征,为临床诊断、治疗和预防控制提供病原学依据.方法 采集顺义区医院发热门诊、儿科、呼吸科三个监测科室门诊的急性呼吸道感染病例咽拭子标本292份,利用多重RT-PCR和PCR方法进行甲型流感病毒、乙型流感病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒、副流感病毒、腺病毒、偏肺病毒、鼻病毒、冠状病毒、博卡病毒和肠道病毒检测,结合病例流行病学信息进行统计分析.结果 292份咽拭子中检出95份阳性样本,阳性率为32.53%(95/292).病毒病原谱构成前三位为副流感病毒、鼻病毒、甲型流感病毒.病毒检出阳性率全年均有检出,其中2月、6月、7月、10月、11月病原检出率大于50%,11月检出率最高,为72.00%,其余月份检出率较低,9月最低,为10.34%.不同年龄组病毒感染的病原谱也不同,其中0~4岁组以鼻病毒、副流感病毒感染为主;5~14岁组以鼻病毒和肠道病毒感染为主;15~24岁组、25~59岁组均以甲型流感和副流感为主;60岁以上组以副流感病毒为主.结论 副流感病毒、鼻病毒、甲型流感病毒为顺义区地区急性呼吸道感染主要病原体,不同月份呼吸道病毒检出阳性率不同,并且不同年龄组易感的病毒也不同.%Objective To analyze the virus distribution and epidemiological characteristics of acute respirato-ry infections from 2011 to 2013 in Shunyi District of Beijing so as to provide the data for the preventive strategy, clini-cal diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 292 throat swab samples were collected from patients with acute re-spiratory tract infection in Fever Outpatient Department, Department of Paediatrics, and Department of Respiratory in Beijing Shunyi District Hospital. By multiples RT-PCR and PCR, influena A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syn-cytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, metapnermovirus

  2. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  3. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  4. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  5. Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Franca,Rita; Silva,Luciana; Melo, Maria Clotildes; Cavalcante,Suzy; Lima, Bruno; Rocha, Anita; Gomes, Cristiana; Franca, Mônica

    2004-01-01

    p.227-235 Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Bat Genomes Provides Insight into the Evolution of Flight and Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Cowled, Christopher; Shi, Zhengli

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific...... that may be related to the origin of flight, as well as expansion and contraction of important gene families. Comparison of bat genomes with other mammalian species has provided new insights into bat biology and evolution.......Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat...

  7. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family.

  8. Epstein -barr virus infection in children with acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura%儿童急性特发性血小板减少性紫癜与EB病毒感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白松婷; 赵晓明; 盛光耀; 方营旗

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) is the most common hemorrhagenic disease in children. It often appears to be related to the sensitization by some viral infections, such as Epstein - Barr virus ( EBV ), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human parvovirus B19 ( HPVB19 ) and so on. The present study is to elucidate EBV infection in children with AITP. Methods The study cohorts consisted of 87 children with AITP and 40 healthy children. Specific viral antibody - EBV - IgM was detected by ELISA. The laboratory characteristics were analyzed in patients with and without EBV infection. Results Twenty - one (24. 14% ) of 87 children with AITP associated with EBV infection. Which was markedly higher than that of the controls (P <0. 01 ). In children with AITP,the platelet and magakaryocyte counts were similar in patients with and without EBV infection (P > 0. 05 ). However, in the group of EBV infection, the positive rate of antiplatelet antibodies (GPIIb/Ⅲa)in plasma and the numbers of variant lymphocytes in peripheral smear were both significantly increased compared with the group of non -EBV infection( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions EBV should be the causative viral agent in some children with AITP. Its pathogenesis may initiate the autoimmune reaction.%目的 探讨儿童急性特发性血小板减少性紫癜(AITP)与EBV感染的关系.方法 用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定87例AITP患儿病毒特异性抗体EBV-IgM,做骨髓巨核细胞、外周血小板以及外周血异形淋巴细胞计数,采用改良MAIPA法检测血小板特异性抗体(GPⅡb/Ⅲa).对照组为40例健康体检的儿童.用统计学分析软件包SPSS13.0进行统计学分析.结果 87例AITP患儿中,EBV-IgM阳性者21例,阳性率24.14%,明显高于对照组(P0.05).结论 EBV感染确实与部分儿童AITP的发病有关.EBV感染引起ITP的机制可能与引发机体自身免疫反应有关.

  9. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of balance. Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over ... 2015. Palevsky PM. Definition of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April ...

  10. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  11. Saffold Cardiovirus in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Lili; Gonzalez, Richard; Xiao, Yan; Xu, Xiwei; Chen, Lan; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    To understand Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) distribution, prevalence, and clinical relevance in China, we retrospectively studied SAFV in children with acute gastroenteritis and found SAFV in 12 (3.2%) of 373. Sequence homology of virus protein 1 genes suggested these strains belong to the SAFV-1 sublineage. SAFVs were found in samples positive for other diarrhea-causing viruses.

  12. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L;

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...

  13. VirusSeeker, a computational pipeline for virus discovery and virome composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoyan; Wu, Guang; Lim, Efrem S; Droit, Lindsay; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W; Wang, David

    2017-03-01

    The advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has vastly increased our ability to discover novel viruses and to systematically define the spectrum of viruses present in a given specimen. Such studies have led to the discovery of novel viral pathogens as well as broader associations of the virome with diverse diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, severe acute malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. Critical to the success of these efforts are robust bioinformatic pipelines for rapid classification of microbial sequences. Existing computational tools are typically focused on either eukaryotic virus discovery or virome composition analysis but not both. Here we present VirusSeeker, a BLAST-based NGS data analysis pipeline designed for both purposes. VirusSeeker has been successfully applied in several previously published virome studies. Here we demonstrate the functionality of VirusSeeker in both novel virus discovery and virome composition analysis.

  14. 活体肝移植治疗HBV相关性急性亚急性肝功能衰竭%Living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus related acute or subacute liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占宇; 董家鸿; 王曙光; 别平; 刘祥德; 卢倩

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨活体肝移植(living donor liver transplantation,LDLT)HBV感染导致的急性肝功能衰竭(acute liver failure,ALF)和亚急性肝功能衰竭(subacute liver failure,SALF)患者的可行性,并评价其疗效.方法 回顾性分析2000年11月至2007年10月完成的10例LDLT治疗ALF、SALF患者的临床资料.10例LDLT的供、受者均为成人,切取右半肝为移植物,8例含肝中静脉(middle hepatic vein,MHV).10例供者的评估均在确定实施LDLT的24 h内完成,供、受者手术均在确定供者后的12 h内完成.移植物质量与受者体质量比为(1.03±0.17)%(0.86%~1.22%),移植物体积与受者标准肝体积比为(52.2±11.8)%(47.6%~70.1%).结果 10例受者中,2例分别于术后7、28 d时因肺部感染、十二指肠球部溃疡穿孔腹腔感染死亡.1例胆管吻合口胆漏,经十二指肠镜下置入鼻胆管引流治愈.2例术后1周出现轻度急性排斥反应,增强免疫抑制强度后肝功能恢复正常.8例中位随访期9.6个月(2~84个月),生存质量优良.10例供者中,1例出现急性门静脉高压症导致脾脏破裂,行脾脏切除术,其后出现胆管断端胆漏,经鼻胆管引流结合经皮穿刺腹腔引流治愈.其余9例无并发症发生.结论 LDLT适宜治疗HBV感染导致的ALF、SALF,而且能获得较好的中、远期疗效.%Objective To investigate the feasibility and evaluate the outcome of living donor.liver transplantation(LDLT) for hepatitis B virus(HBV)related acute liver failure(ALF)or subacute liver failure (SALF).Methods A retrospective analysis was done based on the clinical data of 10 patients with ALF or SALF who underwent LDLT from November 2000 to October 2007. All the liver grafts,including right lobe with middle hepatic vein(MHV)(n=8)and right lobe without MHV(n=2),were obtained from adult donors.The Drocess of donor evaluation was accomplished within 12 hours after making the decision of LDLT, and the donor and recipient operation was performed

  15. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Glycoprotein Using DNA-Directed RNA Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    e _s~u~m mary - Introduction: Alphaviruses are a large family of RNA viruses that can cause acute infection resulting in arthritis and encephalitis...One of the important alphaviruses is the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. This virus has been linked to a number of outbreaks in both North and... replication of VEE virus in vitro. Bhogal, H.S., McLaws, L.J., and Jager, S.J. 2006. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2

  16. Incidence and characteristics of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Copenhagen, Denmark during four years (2006-2009): a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke S; Omland, Lars Haukali; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2011-01-01

    We determined the incidence of hepatitis C virus among Danish human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and described their characteristics. We included 871 HIV-positive MSM seen from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen; drug users ...

  17. Zika Virus, Chikungunya Virus, and Dengue Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Adults with Neurological Manifestations, Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Waggoner, Jesse; Rodriguez, Michelle; Rivera, Lissette; Landivar, José; Pinsky, Benjamin; Zambrano, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) have been associated with clinical presentations that involve acute neurological complaints. In the current study, we identified ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients admitted to the Hospital Luis Vernaza (Guayaquil, Ecuador) to the Emergency Room or the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological symptoms and/or concern for acute arboviral infections. Viral RNA from one or more virus was detected in 12/16 patients. Six patients were diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis, three with Guillain–Barré Syndrome, and one with CNS vasculitis. Two additional patients had a systemic febrile illness including headache that prompted testing of CSF. Two patients, who were diagnosed with encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, died during their hospitalizations. These cases demonstrate the breadth and significance of neurological manifestations associated with ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV infections. PMID:28174559

  18. 人副流感病毒三型感染对豚鼠咳嗽敏感性的影响%A guinea pig model of parainfluenza virus type 3 infection-induced acute and postinfectious cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新民; 钟南山; 刘春丽; 刘蓉; 赖克方; 陈如冲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a guinea pig model of cough induced by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) infection,and to investigate the change of the cough reflex sensitivity (CRS).Methods Sixty male SPF guinea pigs were divided into 6 groups (n=10,each),namely,a normal control group,an asthma group and 4 groups of PIV3 inoculation which included post-infection day (PID) 6,12,28,and 42.Infected animals were inoculated by intranasal instillation of PIV3 suspension.Control animals were inoculated by uninfected cell culture medium.Asthma animals were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin.The Buxco system was used to assess cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) elicited by capsaicin and airway hyper-reaction(AHR).Airway inflammation was studied by bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) cytology and lung histopathology.Results The CRS of PID 6,12,28 and 42 groups was 7.50 (5.25),7.30 (7.25),8.40(9.75) and 8.20 (5.50) Cough counts (CCnt).Compared with 2.50 (3.00) CCnt of the vehicle group,the CRS to capsaicin increased significantly in all the animals with PIV3 inoculation (P value were 0.024,0.03,0.011 and 0.008) and peaked in PID 42.There was no significant difference (P=0.18)between 3.90 (1.75)CCnt of the asthma animals and the normal control.Animals of PID 6 showed significantly greater AHR to 2 highest concentrations of methacholine than the normal controls.BAL total cell counts of both the PIV3-inoculated and the asthma animals were significantly higher than those of the normal control,with the number of lymphocytes increased significantly within first 2 weeks after PIV3 inoculation.The lung pathology of PIV3-inoculated animals showed airway inflammation without pneumonia in acute infectious phase.Conclusions An animal model of cough induced by PIV3 was created.The CRS of infected guinea pigs increased significantly in both acute and subacute phases of cough.Elevation of CRS may be characteristic of cough caused by virus.%目的 研究人副流感病毒3型(PIV3)感染对豚鼠咳

  19. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Martins Moreira Anjos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.

  20. Viruses and clinical features associated with hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Lhasa, Tibet%西藏拉萨地区儿童急性呼吸道感染病毒病原及其临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红; 邓洁; 钱渊; 朱汝南; 孙宇; 赵林清; 王芳; 扇敏娜; 德吉美朵

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解西藏拉萨地区因急性呼吸道感染住院的患儿的病毒病原及临床特点.方法 采集西藏自治区人民医院儿科于2011年4至7月因急性呼吸道感染住院患儿的鼻咽分泌物标本,用直接免疫荧光法检测常见7种常见呼吸道病毒[呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、流感病毒(INFA、INFB)、副流感病毒(PIV Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ)]及新发人类偏肺病毒(hMPV)的抗原,并进行临床资料的统计及分析.结果 (1)病毒抗原检测结果:共收集了167例患儿的标本,呼吸道病毒抗原阳性65例,阳性率为38.9%.检测到病毒67例份,其中有2例为2种病毒的合并感染,分别为RSV+INFB和hMPV+ PIVⅢ型.RSV感染45例,占检测到病毒的67.2%,PIVⅢ7例,占检测到病毒的10.4%,ADV感染6例,占检测到病毒的9.0%,PIV Ⅰ 4例,占检测到病毒的6.0%,INFB型3例,占检测到病毒的4.5%,hMPV 2例,占检测到病毒的3.0%.未检测到INFA和PIVⅡ.(2)本组临床特点:在RSV阳性者中,除临床表现为咳嗽、气促外,喘息症状少,但是大部分发绀现象较重,肺部细湿哕音多见.本组大部分患儿病情较轻,恢复快,少数年龄小有基础疾病或有合并症者病情重.结论 病毒是西藏儿童急性呼吸道感染的重要病原之一,其中RSV感染最常见,主要发病年龄为3岁以下婴幼儿.%Objective To investigate the viral etiology and clinical features of hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Tibet.Method Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from children with acute respiratory tract infection hospitalized at the department of Pediatrics,Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital from April to July,2011.The specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were screened for antigens of 7 common respiratory viruses by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),adenovirus (ADV),parainfluenza viruses type Ⅰ-Ⅲ,influenza virus A and B]and human metapneumovirus

  1. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  2. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  3. Impacts of chronic hepatitis B virus co-infection on immune responses and clinical manifestations in acute infection of dengue virus type 1%合并慢性乙型肝炎病毒感染对登革病毒1型急性感染者免疫应答和临床的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐漾波; 张复春; 曹孟丽; 姚细安; 唐小平

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解合并慢性HBV感染对急性登革病毒感染引起的免疫应答和临床的影响.方法 采用ELISA法同时检测了310例登革病毒1型感染患者血清中IFNα、IFNβ、IFNγ、IL-10和TNFα等细胞因子水平,其中8%(25/310)合并感染了HBV,对照组的血清标本取自41名健康者和47例慢性HBV感染患者.多组比较采用单因素方差分析,检测指标的相关性分析采用Spearman等级相关检验.结果 在急性登革病毒感染期间,IFNα分泌水平显著高于IFNβ,分别为(95.1±279.3) pg/mL和(2.8土16.2)pg/mL,但在合并HBV感染的患者中IFNα的分泌明显减少,为(86.5±358.1) pg/mL;分别在发热第2天、第3~4天和第6天,IFNα、IFNβ及IL-10的中位数达到峰值.在单纯登革病毒感染的患者中,IFNα水平与血小板计数和血清ALT水平呈负相关(分别为r=-0.2327,-0.2122,均P<0.01).结论 合并慢性HBV感染可以改变急性登革病毒感染引起的免疫反应;IFNα的分泌可能与出血倾向相关,但对肝脏的炎性损伤可能起保护作用.%Objective To investigate impacts of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection on immune responses and clinical manifestations in acute infection of dengue virus type 1.Methods The serum levels of interferon (IFN)a,IFNβ,IFNγ,interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α of 310 dengue serotype 1 (DENV1)-infected patients were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),among which 8% (25/310) were chronic HBV co-infection.Meanwhile,serum samples from 41 healthy adults and 47 chronic HBV infected subjects were recruited as controls.Comparisons among groups were done by one factor analysis of variance and correlation analysis of results was done by spearman rank correlation test.Results The serum level of IFN-α [(95.1 ± 279.3) pg/mL] was significantly higher than IFN-β[(2.8 ± 16.2) pg/mL] during acute dengue infection,while IFN-α level [(86.5±358.1) pg/mL] reduced in patients with HBV

  4. Viral-bacterial interactions and risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2011-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P virus loads (≥3.16 × 10(7) copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.

  5. Hepatitis C virus: risk factors and disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grady, B.P.X.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and was first identified in 1989 as a cause for transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. Transmission of HCV occurs predominantly via blood-to-blood contact. After acute infection about 75% of those infected progress to a persistent infect

  6. Complete Genomic Sequence of Issyk-Kul Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Barry; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R; Hewson, Roger

    2015-07-02

    Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) is an ungrouped virus tentatively assigned to the Bunyaviridae family and is associated with an acute febrile illness in several central Asian countries. Using next-generation sequencing technologies, we report here the full-genome sequence for this novel unclassified arboviral pathogen circulating in central Asia.

  7. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  8. Longitudinal study of acute respiratory diseases in Rio de Janeiro: occurrence of respiratory viruses during four consecutive years Estudo longitudinal sobre doença repiratória aguda no Rio de Janeiro: ocorrência de vírus respiratório durante quatro anos consecutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara P. Nascimento

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions from children less than 5 years old with acute respiratory infections (ARI was investigated over a period of 4 years (1982-1985 in Rio de Janeiro. Of the viruses known to be associated with ARI, all but influenza C and parainfluenza types 1, 2 and 4 were found. Viruses were found more frequently in children attending emergency or pediatric wards than in outpatients. This was clearly related to the high incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV in the more severe cases of ARI. RSV positive specimens appeared mainly during the fall, over four consecutive years, showing a clear seasonal ocurrence of this virus. Emergency wards provide the best source of data for RSV surveillance, showing sharp increase in the number of positive cases coinciding with increased incidence of ARI cases. Adenovirus were the second most frequent viruses isolated and among these serotypes 1,2 and 7 were predominant. Influenza virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 were next in frequency. Influenza A virus were isolated with equal frequency in outpatient departments, emergency and pediatric wards. Influenza B was more frequent among outpatients. Parainfluenza type 3 caused outbreaks in the shanty town population annually during the late winter or spring and were isolated mainly from outpatients. Herpesvirus, enterovi-rus and rhinovirus were found less frequently. Other viruses than RSV and parainfluenza type 3 did not show a clear seasonal incidence.Investigamos, durante um período de 4 anos (1982 a 1985, a ocorrência de vírus em secreções de nasofaringe coletadas de crianças com menos de 5 anos de idade apresentando quadro clínico de infecção respiratória aguda (IRA, residentes na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram encontrados todos os vírus conhecidos como associados a IRA, com excessão do vírus influenza C e parainfluenza 1, 2 e 4. Vírus foram isolados mais freqüentemente de crian

  9. 树鼩水动力转染方法的建立及在HBV模型探索中的应用%Tree shrew model of acute hepatitis B virus infection generated by hydrodynamic injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 阎少多; 闫虎; 段相国; 王纪东; 章金刚; 詹林盛

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种水动力注射将外源基因导入树鼩肝脏的方法,并用此方法建立HBV树鼩模型.方法 用萤火虫荧光素酶(firefly luciferase,Fluc)和β-半乳糖苷酶(β-galactosidase,β-Gal)作为报告基因,通过树鼩大隐静脉将报告基因用水动力注射方法导入树鼩肝脏,活体成像和β-Gal染色观察水动力转染效果.将pHBV1.2质粒用水动力注射方法转入树鼩肝脏,检测树鼩血清中ALT、实时荧光定量检测血清中HBV DNA,ELISA 检测血清中HBsAg、HBsAb.结果 通过大隐静脉水动力注射,报告基因能够在肝脏特异性表达,转染HBV1.2质粒后树鼩血清中能够检测到相关阳性指标.结论 大隐静脉水动力注射法能够作为树鼩肝脏外源基因导入的一种方法,并用此方法初步探索了树鼩的HBV模型.%Objective To establish a method for hydrodynamic-based transfection to tree shrews and generate a tree shrew model of hepatitis B virus infection. Methods The firefly luciferase ( Flue ) and a β-galactosidase (β-Gal ) as reporter genes were delivered to hepatocytes of tree shrews by hydrodynamic-based injection via the great saphenous vein. Bi-oluminescence imaging and β-Gal staining were used to verify the gene expression. The tree shrew was hydrodynamically injected with pHBV1.2 plasmid. At various times, the sera were collected in which ALT, HBsAg, HBsAb and HBV DNA were examined by ELISA or real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR respectively. Results The reporter genes were detected only in the liver of tree shrews by bioluminescence imaging and β-Gal staining. Markers of HBV were detected in the sera of tree shrews injected hydrodynamically with pHBVl. 2. Conclusion Hydrodynamic-based injection by the great saphenous vein can be used to deliver the gene to hepatocytes of tree shrews. A tree shrew model of acute HBV infection is generated by the hydrodynamic injection.

  10. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  11. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s.

  12. The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Nestor E; Melton, Julian; Wilmes, Anja; Ewart, Gary; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2007-04-01

    Alphaviruses such as the Sindbis-group viruses, Scandinavian Ockelbo virus, the African Asian chikungunya virus, the African O'nyong-nyong virus, the South American Mayaro virus, and the Australasian Barmah Forest and Ross River viruses, are commonly associated with outbreaks of acute and persistent arthritis and arthralgia in humans. The mechanisms by which these viruses cause arthritis/arthralgia are poorly understood. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of viral arthritides using our newly developed mouse model of Ross River virus-induced joint and muscle inflammation.

  13. Innate immune recognition of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan; Liu; Xiao-Yong; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus and its infection results in acute or chronic hepatitis. It is reported that the host innate immune system contributes to viral control and liver pathology, while whether and how HBV can trigger the components of innate immunity remains controversial. In recent years, the data accumulated from HBV-infected patients, cellular and animal models have challenged the concept of a stealth virus for HBV infection. This editorial focuses on the current findings about the innate immune recognition to HBV. Such evaluation could help us to understand HBV immunopathogenesis and develop novel immune therapeutic strategies to combat HBV infection.

  14. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Omata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a hepatotropic virus, is a single stranded-positive RNA virus of ~9,600 nt. length belonging to the Flaviviridae family. HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. It has been reported that HCV-coding proteins interact with host-cell factors that are involved in cell cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Severe inflammation and advanced liver fibrosis in the liver background are also associated with the incidence of HCV-related HCC. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in HCV-related liver diseases.

  15. Acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Hernán Ocampo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment. Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE. At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found. Fundoscopy revealed profuse soft exudates and hemorrhages involving posterior pole, inferior hemiretina and superotemporal periphery. Infectious workup and fluoresceinic angiography were made and positive serologies for herpes virus types 1 and 2, without HIV, were found. A diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis was made and treatment with intravenous valgancyclovir for two weeks and intra-vitreous triamcinolone for severe vasculitis, was given. Then a 3 months treatment with oral antiviral agents was prescribed. Results: Patient’s evolution showed improvement with treatment and at two and a half months of follow up, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye, normal slit lamp examination, tonometry of 12 mm Hg and fundoscopy improved when compared to initial pictures.Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosing ARN taking into account clinical findings. Prompt intravenous and intra-vitreous treatments are needed to achieve good clinical and functional outcomes and to avoid central nervous system complications.

  16. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.

  17. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  18. Neuralgic amyotrophy and hepatitis E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. van Eijk (Jeroen); R.G. Madden (Richie); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.G. Hunter (Jeremy); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); R.P. Bendall (Richard); S.D. Pas (Suzan); V. Ellis (Vic); N. van Alfen (Nens); L. Beynon (Laura); L. Southwell (Lucy); B. McLean (Brendan); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); B.G.M. van Engelen (Baziel); H.R. Dalton (Harry)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To determine whether there is an association between an acute preceding hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), and if so, whether patients with HEV-related NA differ from patients without an associated HEV infection. Methods: HEV testing was conducted

  19. Neuralgic amyotrophy and hepatitis E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, J.J.J. van; Madden, R.G.; Eijk, A.A. van der; Hunter, J.G.; Reimerink, J.H.; Bendall, R.P.; Pas, S.D.; Ellis, V.; Alfen, N. van; Beynon, L.; Southwell, L.; McLean, B.; Jacobs, B.C.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Dalton, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between an acute preceding hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), and if so, whether patients with HEV-related NA differ from patients without an associated HEV infection. METHODS: HEV testing was conducted in a retros

  20. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  1. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  2. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners in government, academia, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to better understand Zika virus, the disease ... Associated Co-Infections Allergy, Immunology, Transplantation Research Resources Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Resources Preclinical and Clinical Services ...

  3. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  4. The V protein of Tioman virus is incapable of blocking type I interferon signaling in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Caignard

    Full Text Available The capacity of a virus to cross species barriers is determined by the development of bona fide interactions with cellular components of new hosts, and in particular its ability to block IFN-α/β antiviral signaling. Tioman virus (TioV, a close relative of mumps virus (MuV, has been isolated in giant fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are present in the same bat colonies, are highly pathogenic in human. Despite serological evidences of close contacts between TioV and human populations, whether TioV is associated to some human pathology remains undetermined. Here we show that in contrast to the V protein of MuV, the V protein of TioV (TioV-V hardly interacts with human STAT2, does not degrade STAT1, and cannot block IFN-α/β signaling in human cells. In contrast, TioV-V properly binds to human STAT3 and MDA5, and thus interferes with IL-6 signaling and IFN-β promoter induction in human cells. Because STAT2 binding was previously identified as a host restriction factor for some Paramyxoviridae, we established STAT2 sequence from giant fruit bats, and binding to TioV-V was tested. Surprisingly, TioV-V interaction with STAT2 from giant fruit bats is also extremely weak and barely detectable. Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-α/β signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host.

  5. Risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus infection of lower respiratory tract in hospitalized infants%婴儿急性下呼吸道呼吸道合胞病毒感染的危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波; 刘丽娟; 施鹏; 蒋高立; 贾品; 王传凯; 王立波; 钱莉玲

    2014-01-01

    染的风险大为增加.%Objective To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI).Method ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1 st,2011 to February 29th,2012,were enrolled in this study.Patient information included demographic characteristics,feeding history,family status,clinical presentation,accessory examination,treatment and prognosis.According to the etiology of ALRI infants,we compared the seasonal distribution,demographic characteristics,household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients.Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection.Result Among 1 726 ALRI infants,there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%).The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation,with a peak in winter (59.1%).The median (P25,P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days.The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ±0.66) kg,respectively.The male/female ratio among these was 1.9:1.RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members,crowded living conditions,history of atopic mother.Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs.54.2%,P < 0.05).Univariate logistic regression demonstrated that factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were:GA < 37weeks (OR =1.346,95% CI:1.037-1.748),birth weight < 2 500 g (OR =1.447,95 % CI:1.103-1.898),underlying diseases (OR =1.232,95 % CI:1.018-1.492),underlying CHD (OR =1.391,95% CI:1.120-1.728),environmental tobacco smoke exposure (OR =1.254,95% CI:1.035-1.519),mother with atopic diseases (OR =1.827,95% CI:1.296-2.573),crowded house with four or

  6. Acute Pancreatitis Concomitant Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okay Abacı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory syndrome with unpredictable progression to systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction. As in our case rarely, acute pancreatitis can be presented with the coexistance of acute coronary syndrome. To prevent a misdiagnosis of acute situation presented with chest or abdominal pain, physicians must be aware for coexisting pathophysiologies and take into account the differential diagnosis of all life-threatening causes such as cardiac ischemia or acute abdominal situations.

  7. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever virus infection: I. Susceptibility of mice to recombinant Lassa Gp/LCMV chimeric virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew M; Cruite, Justin; Welch, Megan J; Sullivan, Brian; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2013-08-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is a BSL-4 restricted agent. To allow study of infection by LASV under BSL-2 conditions, we generated a recombinant virus in which the LASV glycoprotein (Gp) was placed on the backbone of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Cl13 nucleoprotein, Z and polymerase genes (rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp). The recombinant virus displayed high tropism for dendritic cells following in vitro or in vivo infection. Inoculation of immunocompetent adults resulted in an acute infection, generation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells and clearance of the infection. Inoculation of newborn mice with rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp resulted in a life-long persistent infection. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp immune memory cells into such persistently infected mice failed to purge virus but, in contrast, cleared virus from mice persistently infected with wt LCMV Cl13.

  8. 急性淋巴细胞白血病并EB病毒感染的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Complicated with Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢愿; 孙立荣; 仲仁; 庞秀英; 隋爱华; 赵艳霞; 宋爱琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the Epstein - Barr virus(EBV) infection in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia(ALL) and to explore its clinical significance. Methods Serum EBV - CA - lgM and EBV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 47 cases with ALL and 14 healthy children were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence quantitative - polymerase chain reaction ( FQ - PCR). In 47 ALL children,new diagnosed ALL were in for 45 cases, relapsed ALL were 2 cases ,and their ages were 0 - 14 years old.With mean age(8.06 ± 3.71 ) years old; while in 14 healthy children, 9 cases were male, 5 were female; ages between 2 - 10 years old,with mean age( 7.24 ± 2.54) years old. The EBV infection in children with ALL and its clinical significance were analyzed according to the clinical manifestations, complete remission(CR) rate after induction chemotherapy, determination of minimal residual disease (MRD) after CR, relapse rate and effect flee survival(EFS) rate. Results EBV infection was detected in 15 cases(31.90% ) of 47 ALL children; 11 cases (23.40%) were detected EBV DNA, and the quantity of EBV DNA was (3.28 ± 5.95 ) × l08 copy · L- 1 ;EBV DNA and EBV - CA - lgM were not detected in healthy control group. Childhood ALL with EBV infections had a significantly higher incidence of peripheral leukocytosis [ (78.00 ±58.38) × 109 L-1 vs (27.46 ±60. 10) × 109 L-1 ,t =2. 70,P =0.01 ]. In ALL,CR rate after induction chemotherapy in ALL with EBV infection was significantly lower than that in children without EBV infection(46.7% vs 87.5% ,P <0. 01 ). The differences of MRD >10 -3 ( 90.0% vs 26.1% ), relapse rate (53.8% vs 13.8% ), and EFS rate ( 23.1% vs 82.8% ) were statistically significant between EBV infection and non EBV infection individuals( Pa < 0.01 ). Conclusions Childhood ALL with EBV infection had higher incidence of peripheral leukocytosis,with low CR rate,high MRD,high relapse rate and low EFS rate. EBV infection

  9. Cell Transformation by RNA Viruses: An Overview

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    Hung Fan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of oncogenic viruses have made seminal contributions to the molecular biology of cancer. Key discoveries include the identification of viral oncogenes and cellular proto-oncogenes, elucidation of signal transduction pathways, and identification of tumor suppressor genes. The origins of cancer virology began almost exactly one hundred years ago with the discovery of avian sarcoma and acute leukemia viruses—RNA-containing viruses of the retrovirus family. The study of animal cancer viruses accelerated beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with the discovery of DNA viruses that could transform cells in culture, and the development of quantitative assays for transformation by DNA and RNA-containing tumor viruses. The discovery of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses in 1970 also greatly accelerated research on these viruses. Indeed RNA and DNA tumor viruses led the way in cancer molecular biology during this era before molecular cloning. It was possible to physically purify virus particles and generate specific hybridization probes for viral DNA and RNA at a time when it was not possible to analyze cellular genes in the same manner. [...

  10. Acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobillo, E T; Schwartz, S M

    1998-10-01

    Diarrhea can result from damage to the intestinal lining caused by viruses or bacteria, malabsorption, inflammatory processes, bile salt and pancreatic enzyme deficiency, abnormal motility, or the presence of osmotically active solutes in the gut. While it is important to elicit information to determine the possible cause of diarrhea, be sure to check circulatory status first. Some patients may need rehydration therapy more urgently than they need a diagnosis. The main goals of treatment are to prevent dehydration and correct electrolyte imbalance, to provide supportive and symptomatic therapy, and to treat underlying disease. In most cases, a specific diagnosis is not necessary to guide initial treatment.

  11. Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sofia; Sela, Noa; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2016-11-24

    Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences' reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.

  12. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  13. Risk factors of virus infection in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospital%慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期住院患者病毒感染危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓; 何和章; 林容; 陈亚芳; 黎健

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors of virus infection in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospital ,so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the virus infection .METHODS A total of 150 cases with AECOPD who were treated in respiratory medicine from Jan .2011 to Dec .2014 were recruited as the study objects ,virus were detected by taking ELISA technology ,and the risk factors of viral infection in patients were analyzed .RESULTS Of 150 patients with virus detection ,52 cases were positive with virus detection result ,and the positive rate was 34 .67% .The single virus infection was mainly with the proportion of 73 .08% ,and the detection rate of the hRV was the highest with the proportion of 23 .68% .Re‐spiratory disorders ,diabetes and asthma were related factors of infection ,and the differences were significant (P<0 .05) .Respiratory disorder ,diabetes and asthma were the main factors for causing virus infection in AECOPD patients ,and the differences were significant (P<0 .05) .The diastolic blood pressure in virus infected patients was significantly higher than the uninfected patients (P=0 .02 ,P<0 .05) ,and the differences of the clinical indi‐cators were not significant ,such as other respiratory condition ,blood routine examination and routine assay . CONCLUSION hRV was the main infection virus in patients with AECOPD ,it was important to control the blood sugar to reduce the risk factors of virus infection ,and it was clear that the virus vaccine could reduce greatly the deterioration of virus infections .The risk factors analysis of virus infection in patients with AECOPD had an im‐portant guiding significance to the clinical management ,prevention and treatment of AECOPD disease .%目的:探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)住院患者病毒感染的危险因素,为临床预防治疗AECOPD患者病毒感染提供依据。方法选择2011年1月-2014年12

  14. Etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children: current state of the issue (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Verification of the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections is necessary for definition of treatment and direction of prevention. Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 and adenovirus are considered the main reasons of acute lower respiratory tract infections. The importance of different viruses depends on countries, district, seasons and ages of children. Analysis of the results of studies from different regions of the world showed fluctuations in frequency of etiology definition of respiratory viruses from 25 to 90%. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main reason of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the group of children up to 1 year.

  15. Dual Infection with Hepatitis B and Epstein-Barr Virus Presenting with Severe Jaundice, Coagulopathy, and Hepatitis B Virus Chronicity Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sirish C.; Ashraf, Imran; Mir, Fazia; Samiullah, Sami; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 34 Final Diagnosis: HBV and EBV dual infection Symptoms: Jaundice • fatigue • anorexia • subjective weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported as a coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case Report: A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with epigastric pain and severe acute hepatitis manifested as jaundice associated with hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, and coagulopathy. The patient was diagnosed with acute HBV with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection leading to subsequent chronic hepatitis B. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this patient case is the first reported case of HBV and EBV coinfection reported in the literature. HBV and EBV coinfection may cause severe acute hepatitis with HBV chronicity. PMID:28202897

  16. Dengue virus antibodies enhance Zika virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lauren M; Carlin, Eric R; Jenkins, Meagan M; Tan, Amanda L; Barcellona, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Cindo O; Michael, Scott F; Isern, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity may enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may lead to increased disease severity. Understanding the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies. PMID:28090318

  17. Chikungunya fever presenting with acute optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Abhijit Anand; Agius-Fernandez, Adriana

    2015-07-28

    Chikungunya fever is a vector borne virus that typically causes a self-limiting systemic illness with fever, skin rash and joint aches 2 weeks after infection. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman presenting with an acute unilateral optic neuropathy as a delayed complication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection contracted during a recent trip to the West Indies. She presented to our ophthalmology department with acute painless visual field loss in the right eye and a recent flu-like illness. She was found to have a right relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) with unilateral optic disc swelling. Serology confirmed recent CHIKV infection. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was delayed while awaiting MRI scans and serology results. At 5-month follow-up, there was a persistent right RAPD and marked optic atrophy with a corresponding inferior scotoma in the visual field.

  18. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  19. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complica

  20. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura as sole manifestation in a case of acute hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanir, Gönül; Aydemir, Cumhur; Tuygun, Nilden; Kaya, Ozge; Yarali, Neşe

    2005-12-01

    Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus is usually a benign selflimiting disease during childhood. Although many viral infections such as hepatitis B virus, Parvovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with extrahepatic autoimmune phenomena, such manifestations are rare in patients with acute hepatitis A infection. Immune thrombocytopenia is a benign, self-limiting disease in children, responding well to treatment and generally associated with viral infections. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is rarely reported as a manifestation of acute hepatitis A. We report a five-year-old boy with immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the sole manifestation of anicteric acute hepatitis A infection. Acute hepatitis A should be included in the differential diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  1. Lack of association between viral load and severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Duarte de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. Methods: This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study by quantitative real-time PCR. We screened for three human viruses: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Results: Of 110 samples evaluated by direct immunofluorescence, 56 (50.9% were positive for a single virus, and 16 (14.5% were positive for two or more viruses. Among those 72 samples, the most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus, followed by influenza. Of 56 samples evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, 24 (42.8% were positive for a single virus, and 1 (1.7% was positive for two