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Sample records for acute lung inflammation

  1. Dasatinib Reduces Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Acute Experimental Silicosis.

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    Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Horta, Lucas Felipe Bastos; Maia, Lígia de Albuquerque; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; da Silva, André Benedito; Morales, Marcelo Marco; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease with no effective treatment. We hypothesized that dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might exhibit therapeutic efficacy in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Silicosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a single intratracheal administration of silica particles, whereas the control group received saline. After 14 days, when the disease was already established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or dasatinib (1 mg/kg) by oral gavage, twice daily, for 14 days. On day 28, lung morphofunction, inflammation, and remodeling were investigated. RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) were incubated with silica particles, followed by treatment or not with dasatinib, and evaluated for macrophage polarization. On day 28, dasatinib improved lung mechanics, increased M2 macrophage counts in lung parenchyma and granuloma, and was associated with reduction of fraction area of granuloma, fraction area of collapsed alveoli, protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, and reduced neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and collagen fiber content in lung tissue and granuloma in silicotic animals. Additionally, dasatinib reduced expression of iNOS and increased expression of arginase and metalloproteinase-9 in silicotic macrophages. Dasatinib was effective at inducing macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype and reducing lung inflammation and fibrosis, thus improving lung mechanics in a murine model of acute silicosis.

  2. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

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    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  3. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

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    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6 h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24 h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

  4. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

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    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intravenous dexamethasone attenuated inflammation and influenced apoptosis of lung cells in an experimental model of acute lung injury.

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    Kosutova, P; Mikolka, P; Balentova, S; Adamkov, M; Kolomaznik, M; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2016-12-22

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, inflammation, and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. This study evaluated if intravenous dexamethasone can influence lung inflammation and apoptosis in lavage-induced ALI. ALI was induced in rabbits by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg, 9+/-3-times). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with dexamethasone i.v. (0.5 mg/kg, Dexamed; ALI+DEX), and healthy non-ventilated controls (Control). After following 5 h of ventilation, ALI animals were overdosed by anesthetics. Total and differential counts of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were estimated. Lung edema was expressed as wet/dry weight ratio. Concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-8, esRAGE, S1PR3 in the lung were analyzed by ELISA methods. In right lung, apoptotic cells were evaluated by TUNEL assay and caspase-3 immunohistochemically. Dexamethasone showed a trend to improve lung functions and histopathological changes, reduced leak of neutrophils (P<0.001) into the lung, decreased concentrations of pro-inflammatory IL-1beta (P<0.05) and marker of lung injury esRAGE (P<0.05), lung edema formation (P<0.05), and lung apoptotic index (P<0.01), but increased immunoreactivity of caspase-3 in the lung (P<0.001). Considering the action of dexamethasone on respiratory parameters and lung injury, the results indicate potential of this therapy in ALI.

  6. The metalloproteinase ADAM8 promotes leukocyte recruitment in vitro and in acute lung inflammation.

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    Dreymueller, Daniela; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Schumacher, Julian; Fellendorf, Sandra; Hess, Franz Martin; Seifert, Anke; Babendreyer, Aaron; Bartsch, Jörg W; Ludwig, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Alveolar leukocyte recruitment is a hallmark of acute lung inflammation and involves transmigration of leukocytes through endothelial and epithelial layers. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 8 is expressed on human isolated leukocytic cells and can be further upregulated on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines. By shRNA-mediated knockdown we show that leukocytic ADAM8 is required on monocytic THP-1 cells for chemokine-induced chemotaxis as well as transendothelial and transepithelial migration. Furthermore, ADAM8 promotes αL-integrin upregulation and THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells. On endothelial cells ADAM8 enhances transendothelial migration and increases cytokine-induced permeability. On epithelial cells the protease facilitates migration in a wound closure assay but does not affect transepithelial leukocyte migration. Blood leukocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from ADAM8-deficient mice show suppressed chemotactic response. Intranasal application of LPS to mice is accompanied with ADAM8 upregulation in the lung. In this model of acute lung inflammation ADAM8-deficient mice are protected against leukocyte infiltration. Finally, transfer experiments of BMDM in mice indicate that ADAM8 exerts a promigratory function predominantly on leukocytes. Our study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that ADAM8 on leukocytes holds a proinflammatory function in acute lung inflammation by promoting alveolar leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Gene expression profiles characterize inflammation stages in the acute lung injury in mice.

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    Isabelle Lesur

    Full Text Available Acute Lung Injury (ALI carries about 50 percent mortality and is frequently associated with an infection (sepsis. Life-support treatment with mechanical ventilation rescues many patients, although superimposed infection or multiple organ failure can result in death. The outcome of a patient developing sepsis depends on two factors: the infection and the pre-existing inflammation. In this study, we described each stage of the inflammation process using a transcriptional approach and an animal model. Female C57BL6/J mice received an intravenous oleic acid injection to induce an acute lung injury (ALI. Lung expression patterns were analyzed using a 9900 cDNA mouse microarray (MUSV29K. Our gene-expression analysis revealed marked changes in the immune and inflammatory response metabolic pathways, notably lipid metabolism and transcription. The early stage (1 hour-1.5 hours is characterized by a pro-inflammatory immune response. Later (3 hours-4 hours, the immune cells migrate into inflamed tissues through interaction with vascular endothelial cells. Finally, at late stages of lung inflammation (18 hours-24 hours, metabolism is deeply disturbed. Highly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines activate transcription of many genes and lipid metabolism. In this study, we described a global overview of critical events occurring during lung inflammation which is essential to understand infectious pathologies such as sepsis where inflammation and infection are intertwined. Based on these data, it becomes possible to isolate the impact of a pathogen at the transcriptional level from the global gene expression modifications resulting from the infection associated with the inflammation.

  8. Systemic disease during Streptococcus pneumoniae acute lung infection requires 12-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammation.

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    Bhowmick, Rudra; Maung, Nang; Hurley, Bryan P; Ghanem, Elsa Bou; Gronert, Karsten; McCormick, Beth A; Leong, John M

    2013-11-15

    Acute pulmonary infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by high bacterial numbers in the lung, a robust alveolar influx of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), and a risk of systemic spread of the bacterium. We investigated host mediators of S. pneumoniae-induced PMN migration and the role of inflammation in septicemia following pneumococcal lung infection. Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) is a PMN chemoattractant and a metabolite of the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) pathway. We observed that S. pneumoniae infection induced the production of 12-LOX in cultured pulmonary epithelium and in the lungs of infected mice. Inhibition of the 12-LOX pathway prevented pathogen-induced PMN transepithelial migration in vitro and dramatically reduced lung inflammation upon high-dose pulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae in vivo, thus implicating HXA3 in pneumococcus-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMN basolateral-to-apical transmigration in vitro significantly increased apical-to-basolateral transepithelial migration of bacteria. Mice suppressed in the expression of 12-LOX exhibited little or no bacteremia and survived an otherwise lethal pulmonary challenge. Our data suggest that pneumococcal pulmonary inflammation is required for high-level bacteremia and systemic infection, partly by disrupting lung epithelium through 12-LOX-dependent HXA3 production and subsequent PMN transepithelial migration.

  9. Role of TNF-α in lung tight junction alteration in mouse model of acute lung inflammation

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    Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we used tumor necrosis factor-R1 knock out mice (TNF-αR1KO to understand the roles of TNF-α on epithelial function in models of carrageenan-induced acute lung inflammation. In order to elucidate whether the observed anti-inflammatory status is related to the inhibition of TNF-α, we also investigated the effect of etanercept, a TNF-α soluble receptor construct, on lung TJ function. Pharmacological and genetic TNF-α inhibition significantly reduced the degree of (1 TNF-α production in pleural exudates and in the lung tissues, (2 the inflammatory cell infiltration in the pleural cavity as well as in the lung tissues (evaluated by MPO activity, (3 the alteration of ZO-1, Claudin-2, Claudin-4, Claudin-5 and β-catenin (immunohistochemistry and (4 apoptosis (TUNEL staining, Bax, Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of TNF-α reduces the tight junction permeability in the lung tissues associated with acute lung inflammation, suggesting a possible role of TNF-α on lung barrier dysfunction.

  10. Inhibition of Pyk2 blocks lung inflammation and injury in a mouse model of acute lung injury

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    Duan Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is essential in neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis in vitro. However, its effect on the process of lung inflammation and edema formation during LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting Pyk2 on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in vivo. Methods C57BL6 mice were given either 10 mg/kg LPS or saline intratracheally. Inhibition of Pyk2 was effected by intraperitoneal administration TAT-Pyk2-CT 1 h before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of cell counts, lung histology and protein concentration in BAL were analyzed at 18 h after LPS treatment. KC and MIP-2 concentrations in BAL were measured by a mouse cytokine multiplex kit. The static lung compliance was determined by pressure-volume curve using a computer-controlled small animal ventilator. The extravasated Evans blue concentration in lung homogenate was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS induced significant neutrophil infiltration into the lung interstitium and alveolar space, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with TAT-Pyk2-CT. TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment also attenuated 1 myeloperoxidase content in lung tissues, 2 vascular leakage as measured by Evans blue dye extravasation in the lungs and the increase in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, and 3 the decrease in lung compliance. In each paradigm, treatment with control protein TAT-GFP had no blocking effect. By contrast, production of neutrophil chemokines MIP-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the bronchoalveolar lavage was not reduced by TAT-Pyk2-CT. Western blot analysis confirmed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 in LPS-challenged lungs was reduced to control levels by TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment. Conclusions These results suggest that Pyk2 plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury in mice and

  11. Characterization of inflammation in a rat model of acute lung injury after repeated pulmonary lavage.

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    Menk, Mario; Graw, Jan Adriaan; Steinkraus, Henrik; Haefen, Clarissa von; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D; Lachmann, Burkhard; Schwaiberger, David

    2015-01-01

    Repeated pulmonary lavage allows to reliably reproduce failure of gas exchange and major histological findings of acute lung injury (ALI). However, because the capacity of pulmonary lavage to induce pulmonary inflammation is not well established in rodents, this study aims to characterize the induction of pulmonary inflammation in a rat model of ALI. Male adult rats were divided into a treatment group (n = 9) that received pulmonary lavage with consecutive mechanical ventilation, and a control group that received mechanical ventilation only (n = 9). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed every 30 min throughout the study. Pressure-volume curves, and lung tissue and plasma samples, were obtained at 240 min after the start of mechanical ventilation. Protein content and surface activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed. Transcriptional and translational regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 was determined in lungs and plasma. Markers of cellular stress were measured in lung tissue. Pulmonary lavage significantly decreased lung compliance, induced hypoxia and hypercapnia, and mediated respiratory acidosis. Protein content of lavage fluid was significantly increased and contained washed out surfactant. Expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was significantly induced in lavaged lungs, without spillover into the systemic circulation. Markers of cellular stress were significantly upregulated in lavaged lungs. This model of ALI applied in rats can induce pulmonary inflammation. The model might be used to develop therapeutic strategies that target pulmonary inflammation in ALI.

  12. Inflammation in lung after acute myocardial infarction is induced by dendritic cell-mediated immune response.

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    Hu, L J; Ren, W Y; Shen, Q J; Ji, H Y; Zhu, L

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to describe the changes of lung tissues in mice with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and also explain the cell mechanism involved in inflammation in lung. AMI was established by left coronary ligation in mice. Then mice were divided into three groups: control group, MW1 group (sampling after surgery for one week) and MW2 group (sampling after surgery for two weeks). Afterwards, measurement of lung weight and lung histology, cell sorting in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and detection of several adhesive molecules, inflammatory molecules as well as enzyme associated with inflammation were performed. Moreover, dendritic cells (DCs) were isolated from bone marrow of C57B/L6 mice. After incubating with necrotic myocardium, the expression of antigen presenting molecules, co-stimulatory molecules and inflammatory molecules were detected by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry in DCs. We also detected T-cell proliferation after incubating with necrotic myocardium-treated DCs. AMI induced pathological changes of lung tissue and increased inflammatory cell amount in BAL fluid. AMI also increased the expression of several inflammatory factors, adhesive molecules and enzymes associated with inflammation. CD11c and TLR9, which are DC surface markers, showed a significantly increased expression in mice with AMI. Additionally, necrotic myocardium significantly increased the expression of co-stimulatory factors including CD83 and CD80, inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ and NF-κB in DCs. Furthermore, DCs treated with necrotic myocardium also significantly promoted T-cell proliferation. AMI induced inflammation in lung and these pathological changes were mediated by DC-associated immune response.

  13. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

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    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  14. Regional pulmonary inflammation in an endotoxemic ovine acute lung injury model.

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    Fernandez-Bustamante, A; Easley, R B; Fuld, M; Mulreany, D; Chon, D; Lewis, J F; Simon, B A

    2012-08-15

    The regional distribution of inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI) is not well known. In an ovine ALI model we studied regional alveolar inflammation, surfactant composition, and CT-derived regional specific volume change (sVol) and specific compliance (sC). 18 ventilated adult sheep received IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS) until severe ALI was achieved. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from apical and basal lung regions were obtained at baseline and injury time points, for analysis of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), BAL protein and surfactant composition. Whole lung CT images were obtained in 4 additional sheep. BAL protein and IL-1β were significantly higher in injured apical vs. basal regions. No significant regional surfactant composition changes were observed. Baseline sVol and sC were lower in apex vs. base; ALI enhanced this cranio-caudal difference, reaching statistical significance only for sC. This study suggests that apical lung regions show greater inflammation than basal ones during IV LPS-induced ALI which may relate to differences in regional mechanical events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergic Airway Inflammation Decreases Lung Bacterial Burden following Acute Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in a Neutrophil- and CCL8-Dependent Manner

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    Dulek, Daniel E.; Newcomb, Dawn C.; Goleniewska, Kasia; Cephus, Jaqueline; Zhou, Weisong; Reiss, Sara; Toki, Shinji; Ye, Fei; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Moore, Martin L.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    The Th17 cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-22 are critical for the lung immune response to a variety of bacterial pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae. Th2 cytokine expression in the airways is a characteristic feature of asthma and allergic airway inflammation. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 diminish ex vivo and in vivo IL-17A protein expression by Th17 cells. To determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on IL-17-dependent lung immune responses to acute bacterial infection, we developed a combined model in which allergic airway inflammation and lung IL-4 and IL-13 expression were induced by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge prior to acute lung infection with K. pneumoniae. We hypothesized that preexisting allergic airway inflammation decreases lung IL-17A expression and airway neutrophil recruitment in response to acute K. pneumoniae infection and thereby increases the lung K. pneumoniae burden. As hypothesized, we found that allergic airway inflammation decreased the number of K. pneumoniae-induced airway neutrophils and lung IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 expression. Despite the marked reduction in postinfection airway neutrophilia and lung expression of Th17 cytokines, allergic airway inflammation significantly decreased the lung K. pneumoniae burden and postinfection mortality. We showed that the decreased lung K. pneumoniae burden was independent of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17A and partially dependent on IL-13 and STAT6. Additionally, we demonstrated that the decreased lung K. pneumoniae burden associated with allergic airway inflammation was both neutrophil and CCL8 dependent. These findings suggest a novel role for CCL8 in lung antibacterial immunity against K. pneumoniae and suggest new mechanisms of orchestrating lung antibacterial immunity. PMID:24958709

  16. Mast cells modulate acute ozone-induced inflammation of the murine lung

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    Kleeberger, S.R.; Seiden, J.E.; Levitt, R.C.; Zhang, L.Y. (Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    We hypothesized that mast cells modulate lung inflammation that develops after acute ozone (O3) exposure. Two tests were done: (1) genetically mast-cell-deficient (WBB6F1-W/Wv, WCB6F1-SI/SId) and bone-marrow-transplanted W/Wv mice were exposed to O3 or filtered air, and the inflammatory responses were compared with those of mast-cell-sufficient congenic mice (WBB6F1-(+)/+, WCB6F1-(+)/+); (2) genetically O3-susceptible C57BL/6J mice were treated pharmacologically with putative mast-cell modulators or vehicle, and the O3-induced inflammatory responses were compared. Mice were exposed to 1.75 ppm O3 or air for 3 h, and lung inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 6 and 24 h after exposure. Relative to O3-exposed W/Wv and SI/SId mice, the mean numbers of lavageable polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and total BAL protein concentration (a marker of permeability) were significantly greater in the respective O3-exposed normal congenic +/+ mice (p < 0.05). Mast cells were reconstituted in W/Wv mice by transplantation of bone marrow cells from congenic +/+ mice, and O3-induced lung inflammation was assessed in the mast-cell-replete W/Wv mice. After O3 exposure, the changes in lavageable PMNs and total protein of mast-cell-replete W/Wv mice were not different from age-matched normal +/+ control mice, and they were significantly greater than those of sham-transplanted W/Wv mice (p < 0.05). Genetically susceptible C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with a mast-cell stabilizer (nedocromil sodium), secretagogue (compound 48/80), or vehicle, and the mice were exposed to O3.

  17. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Lung Acutely Induce Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage in Various Organs of Mice

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs which are used as a diesel fuel additive are emitted in the particulate phase in the exhaust, posing a health concern. However, limited information exists regarding the in vivo acute toxicity of CeO2 NPs on multiple organs. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 h effects of intratracheally instilled CeO2 NPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg on oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in major organs including lung, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain. Lipid peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde production was increased in the lungs only, and reactive oxygen species were increased in the lung, heart, kidney, and brain. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the lung, liver, and kidney, whereas glutathione increased in lung but it decreased in the kidney. Total nitric oxide was increased in the lung and spleen but it decreased in the heart. Tumour necrosis factor-α increased in all organs studied. Interleukin- (IL- 6 increased in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen. IL-1β augmented in the lung, heart, kidney, and spleen. Moreover, CeO2 NPs induced DNA damage, assessed by COMET assay, in all organs studied. Collectively, these findings indicate that pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs.

  18. Acute lung inflammation in Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia and sepsis in BALB/c mice: a comparative study.

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    Kumar, Vijay; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Lungs play an important role in the body's defense against a variety of pathogens, but this network of immune system-mediated defense can be deregulated during acute pulmonary infections. The present study compares acute lung inflammation occurring during Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia and sepsis in BALB/c mice. Pneumonia was induced by intranasal instillation of bacteria (10(4) cfu), while sepsis was developed by placing the fibrin-thrombin clot containing known amount of bacteria (10(2) cfu) into the peritoneal cavity of animals. Mice with sepsis showed 100% mortality within five post-infection days, whereas all the animals with pneumonia survived. In animals suffering from K. pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia, all the inflammatory parameters (TNF-α, IL-1α, MPO, MDA, and NO) were found to be maximum till third post-infection day, after that, a decline was observed, whereas in septic animals, all the above-mentioned markers of inflammation kept on increasing. Histopathological study showed presence of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages (or foam cells) in lungs of mice with pneumonia after third post-infection day, which might have contributed to the induction of resolution of inflammation, but no such observation was made in lungs of septic mice. Hence, during pneumonia, controlled activation of macrophages may lead to resolution of inflammation.

  19. Acute lung injury in children : from viral infection and mechanical ventilation to inflammation and apoptosis

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    Bern, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), ook bekend als acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is een uitgebreide ontstekingsreactie in beide longen door een longziekte of een aandoening elders in het lichaam. Kinderen lijken minder gevoelig voor de ziekte dan volwassenen, wellicht door de manier waarop de

  20. Effects of S-Nitroso-N-Acetyl-Penicillamine (SNAP) on Inflammation, Lung Tissue Apoptosis and iNOS Activity in a Rabbit Model of Acute Lung Injury.

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    Kosutova, P; Mikolka, P; Kolomaznik, M; Balentova, S; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury is characterized by lung edema, surfactant dysfunction, and inflammation. The main goal of our study was to evaluate effects of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on migration of cells into the lung and their activation, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity, and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbits. ALI was induced by repetitive lung lavage with saline. The animals were divided into the following groups: (1) ALI without therapy, (2) lung injury treated with SNAP (ALI + SNAP), and (3) healthy animals (Control). After 5 h of ventilation, total and differential counts of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed. Concentrations of interleukins (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8, endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (esRAGE), sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)3, caspase-3, and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue and nitrite/nitrate in plasma were analyzed. In the right lung, apoptotic cells were evaluated by TUNEL assay. In the animals with ALI, higher counts of cells, mainly neutrophils, in BALF and increased production of pro-inflammatory substances were observed compared with controls. SNAP therapy reduced a leak of cells into the lung and decreased concentrations of pro-inflammatory and apoptotic markers, reduced mRNA expression of iNOS, and decreased apoptotic index in the lung.

  1. Parecoxib reduces systemic inflammation and acute lung injury in burned animals with delayed fluid resuscitation.

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    Chong, Si Jack; Wong, Yong Chiat; Wu, Jian; Tan, Mui Hong; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir M

    2014-01-01

    Burn injuries result in the release of proinflammatory mediators causing both local and systemic inflammation. Multiple organ dysfunctions secondary to systemic inflammation after severe burn contribute to adverse outcome, with the lungs being the first organ to fail. In this study, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Parecoxib, a parenteral COX-2 inhibitor, in a delayed fluid resuscitation burned rat model. Anaesthetized Sprague Dawley rats were inflicted with 45% total body surface area full-thickness scald burns and subsequently subjected to delayed resuscitation with Hartmann's solution. Parecoxib (0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg) was delivered intramuscularly 20 min after injury followed by 12 h interval and the rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h. Burn rats developed elevated blood cytokines, transaminase, creatinine, and increased lung MPO levels. Animals treated with 1 mg/kg Parecoxib showed significantly reduced plasma level of CINC-1, IL-6, PGEM, and lung MPO. Treatment of 1 mg/kg Parecoxib is shown to mitigate systemic and lung inflammation without significantly affecting other organs. At present, no specific therapeutic agent is available to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response secondary to burn injury. The results suggest that Parecoxib may have the potential to be used both as an analgesic and ameliorate the effects of lung injury following burn.

  2. Regulatory T cells expressing granzyme B play a critical role in controlling lung inflammation during acute viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebbermann, J; Thornton, H; Durant, L; Sparwasser, T; Webster, K E; Sprent, J; Culley, F J; Johansson, C; Openshaw, P J

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory response to lung infections must be tightly regulated, enabling pathogen elimination while maintaining crucial gas exchange. Using recently described “depletion of regulatory T cell” (DEREG) mice, we found that selective depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection enhanced viral clearance but increased weight loss, local cytokine and chemokine release, and T-cell activation and cellular influx into the lungs. Conversely, inflammation was decreased when Treg numbers and activity were boosted using interleukin-2 immune complexes. Unexpectedly, lung (but not draining lymph node) Tregs from RSV-infected mice expressed granzyme B (GzmB), and bone marrow chimeric mice with selective loss of GzmB in the Treg compartment displayed markedly enhanced cellular infiltration into the lung after infection. A crucial role for GzmB-expressing Tregs has not hitherto been described in the lung or during acute infections, but may explain the inability of children with perforin/GzmB defects to regulate immune responses to infection. The effects of RSV infection in mice with defective immune regulation closely parallel the observed effects of RSV in children with bronchiolitis, suggesting that the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis may involve an inability to regulate virus-induced inflammation. PMID:22236998

  3. Mast cell stabilization alleviates acute lung injury after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation in rats by downregulating inflammation.

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    Ailan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is one of the most severe complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Amplified inflammatory response after transplantation contributes to the process of ALI, but the mechanism underlying inflammation activation is not completely understood. We have demonstrated that mast cell stabilization attenuated inflammation and ALI in a rodent intestine ischemia/reperfusion model. We hypothesized that upregulation of inflammation triggered by mast cell activation may be involve in ALI after liver transplantation. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT and were executed 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after OALT. The rats were pretreated with the mast cell stabilizers cromolyn sodium or ketotifen 15 min before OALT and executed 8 h after OALT. Lung tissues and arterial blood were collected to evaluate lung injury. β-hexosaminidase and mast cell tryptase levels were assessed to determine the activation of mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 translocation was assessed by Western blot. RESULTS: The rats that underwent OALT exhibited severe pulmonary damage with a high wet-to-dry ratio, low partial pressure of oxygen, and low precursor surfactant protein C levels, which corresponded to the significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-hexosaminidase, and tryptase levels in serum and lung tissues. The severity of ALI progressed and maximized 8 h after OALT. Mast cell stabilization significantly inhibited the activation of mast cells, downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and translocation of NF-κB, and attenuated OALT-induced ALI. CONCLUSIONS: Mast cell activation amplified inflammation and played an important role in the process of post-OALT related ALI.

  4. LPS-induced lung inflammation in marmoset monkeys - an acute model for anti-inflammatory drug testing.

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    Sophie Seehase

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50. LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. Involvement of exosomes in lung inflammation associated with experimental acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjoch, Laia; Casas, Vanessa; Carrascal, Montserrat; Closa, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    A frequent complication of acute pancreatitis is the lung damage associated with the systemic inflammatory response. Although various pro-inflammatory mediators generated at both local and systemic levels have been identified, the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease are still poorly understood. In recent years, exosomes have emerged as a new intercellular communication system able to transfer encapsulated proteins and small RNAs and protect them from degradation. Using an experimental model of taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis in rats, we aimed to evaluate the role of exosomes in the extent of the systemic inflammatory response. Induction of pancreatitis increased the concentration of circulating exosomes, which showed a different proteomic profile to those obtained from control animals. A series of tracking experiments using PKH26-stained exosomes revealed that circulating exosomes effectively reached the alveolar compartment and were internalized by macrophages. In vitro experiments revealed that exosomes obtained under inflammatory conditions activate and polarize these alveolar macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Interestingly, the proteomic analysis of circulating exosomes during acute pancreatitis suggested a multi-organ origin with a relevant role for the liver as a source of these vesicles. Tracking experiments also revealed that the liver retains the majority of exosomes from the peritoneal cavity. We conclude that exosomes are involved in the lung damage associated with experimental acute pancreatitis and could be relevant mediators in the systemic effects of pancreatitis. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

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    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI.

  7. Preferential recruitment of neutrophils by endothelin-1 in acute lung inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide or cigarette smoke

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    Tapan Bhavsar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tapan Bhavsar, Xing Jian Liu, Hardik Patel, Ralph Stephani, Jerome O CantorSt John’s University, School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, New York, USAAbstract: This study examined the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in recruiting inflammatory cells to the lung after induction of injury with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS or cigarette smoke. Hamsters injected with either ET-1 or its precursor peptide (Big ET-1 prior to treatment with LPS or cigarette smoke had markedly increased concentrations of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF despite a reduction in total numbers of BALF leukocytes. Furthermore, the effect of ET-1 on smoke-exposed animals was reversed by addition of an endothelin-A receptor antagonist. These results are consistent with preferential recruitment of neutrophils by ET-1, and suggest that inhibition of this proinfl ammatory mediator may decrease acute pulmonary inflammation associated with cigarette smoke and other pulmonary toxins.Keywords: endothelin, lipopolysaccahride, cigarette smoke, neutrophils, lung

  8. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

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    Dasom Shin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2 has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments.

  9. Effects of acteoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury via regulation of NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro

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    Jing, Wang; Chunhua, Ma, E-mail: machunhuabest@126.com; Shumin, Wang, E-mail: wangshuminch@126.com

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of acteoside (AC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received AC (30, and 60 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 2 h prior to or after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Treatment with AC significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. In addition, AC increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total cell and neutrophil infiltrations, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LPS-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AC inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-α (IKK-α) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-β (IKKβ) in LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells. Our data suggested that LPS evoked the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells A549. The experimental results indicated that the protective mechanism of AC might be attributed partly to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in lung epithelial cells A549. • Acteoside inhibited NF-kB activation in LPS-induced mice and lung epithelial cells A549.

  10. Effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (AÇAÍ) extract in acute lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Roberto Soares de; Ferreira, Thiago Santos; Lopes, Alan Aguiar; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; Resende, Angela Castro; Souza, Pergentino Jose Cunha; Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro da; Borges, Ricardo Moreira; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Valenca, Samuel Santos

    2012-02-15

    Short term inhalation of cigarette smoke (CS) induces significant lung inflammation due to an imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms. Açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The present study aimed to determine whether oral administration of an açai stone extract (ASE) could reduce lung inflammation induced by CS. Thirty C57BL/6 mice were assigned to three groups (n=10 each): the Control+A group was exposed to ambient air and treated orally with ASE 300 mg/kg/day; the CS group was exposed to smoke from 6 cigarettes per day for 5 days; and the CS+A group was exposed to smoke from 6 cigarettes per day for 5 days and treated orally with ASE (300 mg/kg/day). On day 6, all mice were sacrificed. After bronchoalveolar lavage, the lungs were removed for histological and biochemical analyses. The CS group exhibited increases in alveolar macrophage (AMs) and neutrophil numbers (PMNs), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase activities (GPx), TNF-α expression, and nitrites levels in lung tissue when compared with the control ones (pstudy in mice should stimulate future studies on ASE as a potential agent to protect against CS-induced inflammation in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Blockage of glycolysis by targeting PFKFB3 alleviates sepsis-related acute lung injury via suppressing inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanqi; Lan, Haibing; Yu, Zhihong; Wang, Meng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Yu; Rao, Haiwei; Li, Jingying; Sheng, Zhiyong; Shao, Jianghua

    2017-09-16

    Sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive lung inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Recent studies indicated that anaerobic glycolysis play an important role in sepsis. However, whether inhibition of aerobic glycolysis exhibits beneficial effect on sepsis-induced ALI is not known. In vivo, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced ALI mouse model was set up and mice treated with glycolytic inhibitor 3PO after CLP. The mice treated with the 3PO ameliorated the survival rate, histopathological changes, lung inflammation, lactate increased and lung apoptosis of mice with CLP-induced sepsis. In vitro, the exposure of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in cell apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine production, enhanced glycolytic flux and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. While these changes were attenuated by 3PO treatment. Sequentially, treatment of A549 cells with lactate caused cell apoptosis and enhancement of ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly lowered LPS and lactate-induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis in A549 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that anaerobic glycolysis may be an important contributor in cell apoptosis of sepsis-related ALI. Moreover, LPS specifically induces apoptotic insults to A549 cell through lactate-mediated enhancement of ROS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of intrauterine infection or inflammation on fetal lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Alana J; Moss, Timothy J M

    2012-09-01

    1. Intrauterine infection or inflammation is common in cases of preterm birth. Preterm infants are at risk of acute respiratory distress as a result of lung immaturity; evidence of exposure to infection and/or inflammation before birth is associated with a reduced risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Experimentally induced intrauterine inflammation or infection in sheep causes a precocious increase in pulmonary surfactant in the preterm lungs that improves preterm lung function, consistent with the reduced risk of RDS in human infants exposed to infection and/or inflammation before birth. 2. The effects of intrauterine inflammation on fetal lung development appear to result from direct action of proinflammatory stimuli within the lungs rather than by systemic signals, such as the classical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation pathway. However, paracrine and/or autocrine production and/or metabolism of glucocorticoids in fetal lung tissue may occur as a result of inflammation-induced changes in the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (types 1 and 2). 3. Likely candidates that mediate inflammation-induced surfactant production by the preterm lung include prostaglandin E₂ and/or other arachidonic acid metabolites. Intrauterine inflammation induces the expression of enzymes responsible for prostaglandin production in fetal lung tissue. Inhibition of prostaglandin production prevents, at least in part, the effects of inflammation on fetal lungs. 4. Our experiments are identifying mechanisms of surfactant production by the preterm lungs that may be exploited as novel therapies for preventing respiratory distress in preterm infants. Elucidation of the effects of inflammation on the fetal lungs and other organs will allow more refined approaches to the care of preterm infants exposed to inflammation in utero. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Trapa japonica Pericarp Extract Reduces LPS-Induced Inflammation in Macrophages and Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Yon-Suk Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we found that chloroform fraction (CF from TJP ethanolic extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and intracellular ROS in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS genes was reduced, as evidenced by western blot. Our results indicate that CF exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38 and NF-κB signaling. Similarly we also evaluated the effects of CF on LPS-induced acute lung injury. Male Balb/c mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or CF 1 h before intranasal instillation of LPS. Eight hours after LPS administration, the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were determined. The results indicated that CF inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner. It was also observed that CF attenuated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the protective effect of CF on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI in mice might relate to the suppression of excessive inflammatory responses in lung tissue. Thus, it can be suggested that CF might be a potential therapeutic agent for ALI.

  14. MORINGA TEA BLOCKS ACUTE LUNG INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY SWINE CONFINEMENT DUST THROUGH A MECHANISM INVOLVING TNF-α EXPRESSION, C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE ACTIVATION AND NEUTROPHIL REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mykea Mcknight; Jabria Allen; Jenora T. Waterman; Steven Hurley; Joshua Idassi; Radiah C. Minor

    2014-01-01

    Plant based products represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for inflammation. Moringa oleifera Lam is a tree rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and a variety of phytochemcals with health benefits. Among the reported health benefits are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tea brewed from dried Moringa leaves would abrogate inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by...

  15. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  16. 2-Chloroadenosine (2-CADO) treatment modulates the pro-inflammatory immune response to prevent acute lung inflammation in BALB/c mice suffering from Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Acute lung inflammation (ALI) is a life-threatening pathology and can develop during the course of several clinical conditions such as pneumonia, acid aspiration or sepsis. Adenosine plays a significant role in controlling acute inflammation via binding to A(2A) receptors on inflammatory cells, i.e. neutrophils or macrophages. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO), alone or in combination with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), in Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced acute lung infection in mice. Acute lung infection in mice was induced by directly instilling the selected dose (10(4) colony-forming units/mL) of bacteria intranasally. Histopathological examination of the lungs was performed to reveal neutrophil infiltration into the lung alveoli. In addition to the major pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin (IL)-1alpha, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were also determined. Intranasal instillation of bacteria caused profound neutrophil infiltration into the lung alveoli as well as a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e. TNFalpha and IL-1alpha). However, intravenous administration of 2-CADO 10 microg/kg/day, alone or in combination with an antibiotic (i.e. AMC), significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration into the lung alveoli. A significant decrease in TNFalpha and IL-1alpha along with elevation of IL-10 levels in the lung homogenate of mice with acute lung infection was observed upon treatment with 2-CADO alone, with no significant decrease in bacterial counts. Moreover, in combination with AMC, 2-CADO exhibited its immunomodulatory action in acute lung infection and prevented ALI, whilst an antibacterial action was exhibited by AMC. 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Qi-Dong-Huo-Xue-Yin Inhibits Inflammation in Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Toll-Like Receptor 4/Caveolin-1 Signaling

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    Li-Ying Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a critical illness with no current effective treatment. Caveolin-1 indirectly activates inflammation-associated signaling pathways by inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. This induces an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, which are involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. The compound Chinese prescription Qi-Dong-Huo-Xue-Yin (QDHXY is efficacious for ALI treatment via an anti-inflammatory effect; however, the exact underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we explored the protective effect of QDHXY against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced ALI in mice. Histopathological changes in mouse lung tissues were studied. Furthermore, alterations in the serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were investigated. The levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-1β, and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. Additionally, the expression levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, caveolin-1, and eNOS were assessed. QDHXY significantly reduced lung infiltration with inflammatory cells and the production of serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, caveolin-1, and MyD88 but not eNOS. These indicate that QDHXY significantly improved the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, possibly by inhibiting the caveolin-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, QDHXY may be a potential treatment for ALI.

  18. Role of toll-like receptor 4 in acute neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by intratracheal bacterial products in mice

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    Wakako Yamada

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wakako Yamada1, Sadatomo Tasaka1, Hidefumi Koh1, Mie Shimizu1, Yuko Ogawa1, Naoki Hasegawa1, Taku Miyasho2, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi1, Akitoshi Ishizaka11Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, JapanBackground: Toll-like receptors (TLRs represent a conserved family of innate immune recognition receptors. Among TLRs, TLR4 is important for the recognition of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas TLR2 recognizes cell wall constituents of Gram-positive microorganisms, such as peptidoglycan (PGN.Methods: To evaluate the role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS or PGN, we compared inflammatory cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and lung pathology between C3H/HeJ (TLR4 mutant and wild-type C3H/HeN mice. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in plasma and BAL fluid and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB translocation in the lung were also evaluated.Results: In C3H/HeJ mice, LPS-induced neutrophil emigration was significantly decreased compared with C3H/HeN mice, whereas PGN-induced neutrophil emigration did not differ. Differential cell count in BAL fluid revealed comparable neutrophil recruitment in the alveolar space. In TLR4 mutant mice, LPS-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, KC, and CXCL10 in plasma and BAL fluid was attenuate, which was not different after PGN. NF-κB translocation in the lung was significantly decreased in C3H/HeJ compared with C3H/HeN mice, whereas PGN-induced NF-κB translocation was not different.Conclusion: These results suggest that TLR4 mediates inflammatory cascade induced by Gram-negative bacteria that is locally administered.Keywords: rodent, TLR4, endotoxin, neutrophils, NF-κB

  19. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were...

  20. Obesity, Inflammation, and Lung Injury (OILI: The Good

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    Cheryl Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity becomes pandemic, predisposing these individuals to great risk for lung injury. In this review, we focused on the anti-inflammatories and addressed the following aspects: adipocytokines and obesity, inflammation and other mechanisms, adipocytokines and lung injury in obesity bridged by inflammation, and potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, the majority of evidence supported that adiponectin, omentin, and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5 were reduced significantly in obesity, which is associated with increased inflammation, indicated by increase of TNFα and IL-6, through activation of toll-like receptor (TLR4 and nuclear factor light chain κB (NF-κB signaling pathways. Administration of these adipocytokines promotes weight loss and reduces inflammation. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG, vaspin, IL-10, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1, and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15 are also regarded as anti-inflammatories. There were controversial reports. Furthermore, there is a huge lack of studies for obesity related lung injury. The effects of adiponectin on lung transplantation, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, and pneumonia were anti-inflammatory and protective in lung injury. Administration of IL-10 agonist reduces mortality of acute lung injury in rabbits with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, possibly through inhibiting proinflammation and strengthening host immunity. Very limited information is available for other adipocytokines.

  1. Obesity, inflammation, and lung injury (OILI): the good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity becomes pandemic, predisposing these individuals to great risk for lung injury. In this review, we focused on the anti-inflammatories and addressed the following aspects: adipocytokines and obesity, inflammation and other mechanisms, adipocytokines and lung injury in obesity bridged by inflammation, and potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, the majority of evidence supported that adiponectin, omentin, and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) were reduced significantly in obesity, which is associated with increased inflammation, indicated by increase of TNF α and IL-6, through activation of toll-like receptor (TLR4) and nuclear factor light chain κ B (NF- κ B) signaling pathways. Administration of these adipocytokines promotes weight loss and reduces inflammation. Zinc-α 2-glycoprotein (ZAG), vaspin, IL-10, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) are also regarded as anti-inflammatories. There were controversial reports. Furthermore, there is a huge lack of studies for obesity related lung injury. The effects of adiponectin on lung transplantation, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and pneumonia were anti-inflammatory and protective in lung injury. Administration of IL-10 agonist reduces mortality of acute lung injury in rabbits with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, possibly through inhibiting proinflammation and strengthening host immunity. Very limited information is available for other adipocytokines.

  2. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Pinheiro, Milena L; Vitoretti, Luana B; Mariano-Souza, Domenica P; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Akamine, Adriana T; Almeida, Vinícius I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-03-05

    Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition for which treatment is mainly supportive because effective therapies have not been developed. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of acute lung injury. Analysis of total inflammatory cells and differential in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used to characterize leukocyte migration into the lungs; myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by colorimetric assays; cytokine/chemokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also analyzed by Cytometric Bead Arrays and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A single dose of cannabidiol (20mg/kg) administered prior to the induction of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced acute lung injury decreases leukocyte (specifically neutrophil) migration into the lungs, albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) 1, 2, and 4days after the induction of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, adenosine A(2A) receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol on LPS-induced acute lung injury because ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-Amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) (a highly selective antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptor) abrogated all of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol previously described. Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Alpha glucocorticoid receptor expression in different experimental rat models of acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertorelli, Giuseppina; Pesci, Alberto; Peveri, Silvia; Mergoni, Mario; Corradi, Attilio; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Tincani, Giovanni; Bobbio, Antonio; Rusca, Michele; Carbognani, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a frequent form of hypoxiemic respiratory failure caused by the acute development of diffuse lung inflammation. Dysregulated systemic inflammation with persistent elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines is the

  4. Amount of Pneumocystis carinii and degree of acute lung inflammation in HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Nielsen, T L; Junge, Jette

    1993-01-01

    Correlations between semiquantitative amounts of Pneumocystis carinii (PC), the degree of inflammation, and the severity of pneumonia were analyzed in 58 patients with PC pneumonia (PCP). Material from both transbronchial biopsies (TBBs; n = 39) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; n = 57...

  5. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  6. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  7. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,

  8. Alveolar recruitment of ficolin-3 in response to acute pulmonary inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plovsing, Ronni R; Berg, Ronan M G; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2016-01-01

    acute lung and systemic inflammation induce recruitment of lectins in humans. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers received LPS intravenously (IV) or in a lung subsegment on two different occasions. Volunteers were evaluated by consecutive blood samples and by bronchoalveolar lavage 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24h...... acute phase response with an increase in CRP (precruitment...

  9. The dynamics of acute inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rukmini

    The acute inflammatory response is the non-specific and immediate reaction of the body to pathogenic organisms, tissue trauma and unregulated cell growth. An imbalance in this response could lead to a condition commonly known as "shock" or "sepsis". This thesis is an attempt to elucidate the dynamics of acute inflammatory response to infection and contribute to its systemic understanding through mathematical modeling and analysis. The models of immunity discussed use Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) to model the variation of concentration in time of the various interacting species. Chapter 2 discusses three such models of increasing complexity. Sections 2.1 and 2.2 discuss smaller models that capture the core features of inflammation and offer general predictions concerning the design of the system. Phase-space and bifurcation analyses have been used to examine the behavior at various parameter regimes. Section 2.3 discusses a global physiological model that includes several equations modeling the concentration (or numbers) of cells, cytokines and other mediators. The conclusions drawn from the reduced and detailed models about the qualitative effects of the parameters are very similar and these similarities have also been discussed. In Chapter 3, the specific applications of the biologically detailed model are discussed in greater detail. These include a simulation of anthrax infection and an in silico simulation of a clinical trial. Such simulations are very useful to biologists and could prove to be invaluable tools in drug design. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses the general problem of extinction of populations modeled as continuous variables in ODES is discussed. The average time to extinction and threshold are estimated based on analyzing the equivalent stochastic processes.

  10. CXCR2 in Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In pulmonary inflammation, recruitment of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes is essential for host defense and initiates the following specific immune response. One pathological hallmark of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome is the uncontrolled transmigration of neutrophils into the lung interstitium and alveolar space. Thereby, the extravasation of leukocytes from the vascular system into the tissue is induced by chemokines that are released from the site of inflammation. The most relevant chemokine receptors of neutrophils are CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR 1 and CXCR2. CXCR2 is of particular interest since several studies implicate a pivotal role of this receptor in development and promotion of numerous inflammatory disorders. CXCR2 gets activated by ELR+ chemokines, including MIP-2, KC (rodents and IL-8 (human. Since multiple ELR+ CXC chemokines act on both receptors—CXCR1 and CXCR2—a pharmacologic agent blocking both receptors seems to be advantageous. So far, several CXCR1/2 antagonists have been developed and have been tested successfully in experimental studies. A newly designed CXCR1 and CXCR2 antagonist can be orally administered and was for the first time found efficient in humans. This review highlights the role of CXCR2 in acute lung injury and discusses its potential as a therapeutic target.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupelli, Madhulika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chiba, Norika; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Jones, Heather D; Peterson, Ellena; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Crother, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5) CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Jupelli

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs. Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  13. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration and recruitment maneuver on lung inflammation and hyperinflation in experimental acid aspiration-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Aline M; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A; Malbouisson, Luiz M S; Auler, Jose O C; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.

  14. Inspiratory resistive breathing induces acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpanakis, Dimitris; Kastis, George A; Zacharatos, Panagiotis; Sigala, Ioanna; Michailidou, Tatiana; Kouvela, Maroussa; Glynos, Constantinos; Divangahi, Maziar; Roussos, Charis; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros

    2010-11-01

    Resistive breathing is associated with large negative intrathoracic pressures. Increased mechanical stress induces high-permeability pulmonary edema and lung inflammation. To determine the effects of resistive breathing on the healthy lung. Anesthetized rats breathed through a two-way nonrebreathing valve. The inspiratory line was connected to a resistance setting peak inspiratory tracheal pressure at 50% of maximum (inspiratory resistive breathing), while 100% oxygen was supplied to prevent hypoxemia. Quietly breathing animals (100% oxygen) served as controls. Lung injury was evaluated after 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing. After both 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing, lung permeability was increased, as assessed by (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scintigraphy and Evans blue dye extravasation. Tissue elasticity, measured on the basis of static pressure-volume curves and by the low-frequency forced oscillation technique, was also increased. After both 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing, gravimetric measurements revealed the presence of pulmonary edema and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage showed increased total protein content, whereas the total cell count was elevated only after 6 hours of resistive breathing. Cytokine levels were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue by ELISA and were increased after 6 hours compared with controls. Western blot analysis showed early activation of Src kinase via phosphorylation (at 30 min), and Erk1/2 and IκBα (nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) were phosphorylated at 3 and 6 hours. Pathology revealed the presence of lung injury after resistive breathing. Resistive breathing induces acute lung injury and inflammation.

  15. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  16. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury in rats is greater after acid instillation than after sepsis-induced acute lung injury, but does not increase systemic inflammation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiper Jan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Methods Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV with either a low tidal volume (Vt of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis or with a high Vt of 15 mL/kg and no PEEP (HVt acid, HVt sepsis. Rats sacrificed immediately after acid instillation and non-ventilated septic animals served as controls. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were monitored. After 4 h, lung wet to dry (W/D weight ratios, histological lung injury and plasma mediator concentrations were measured. Results Oxygenation and lung compliance decreased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. Additionally, W/D weight ratios and histological lung injury scores increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. MV increased W/D weight ratio and lung injury score, however this effect was mainly attributable to HVt ventilation after acid instillation. Similarly, effects of HVt on oxygenation were only observed after acid instillation. HVt during sepsis did not further affect oxygenation, compliance, W/D weight ratio or lung injury score. Plasma interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations were increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis, but plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration increased during sepsis only. In contrast to lung injury parameters, no additional effects of HVt MV after acid instillation on plasma mediator concentrations were observed. Conclusions During MV more severe lung injury develops after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. HVt causes VILI after acid instillation, but not during sepsis. However, this differential effect was not observed in the systemic release of

  17. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios-Angelos Mouratis

    Full Text Available Acute Lung Injury (ALI is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2, a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation.

  18. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Nikos; Katsifa, Aggeliki; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kaffe, Eleanna; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2), a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26196781

  19. Acute rejection and humoral sensitization in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinu, Tereza; Chen, Dong-Feng; Palmer, Scott M

    2009-01-15

    Despite the recent introduction of many improved immunosuppressive agents for use in transplantation, acute rejection affects up to 55% of lung transplant recipients within the first year after transplant. Acute lung allograft rejection is defined as perivascular or peribronchiolar mononuclear inflammation. Although histopathologic signs of rejection often resolve with treatment, the frequency and severity of acute rejections represent the most important risk factor for the subsequent development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a condition of progressive airflow obstruction that limits survival to only 50% at 5 years after lung transplantation. Recent evidence demonstrates that peribronchiolar mononuclear inflammation (also known as lymphocytic bronchiolitis) or even a single episode of minimal perivascular inflammation significantly increase the risk for BOS. We comprehensively review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, histopathologic features, and mechanisms of acute cellular lung rejection. In addition, we consider emerging evidence that humoral rejection occurs in lung transplantation, characterized by local complement activation or the presence of antibody to donor human leukocyte antigens (HLA). We discuss in detail methods for HLA antibody detection as well as the clinical relevance, the mechanisms, and the pathologic hallmarks of humoral injury. Treatment options for cellular rejection include high-dose methylprednisolone, antithymocyte globulin, or alemtuzumab. Treatment options for humoral rejection include intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, or rituximab. A greater mechanistic understanding of cellular and humoral forms of rejection and their role in the pathogenesis of BOS is critical in developing therapies that extend long-term survival after lung transplantation.

  20. Low Tidal Volume Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Liquid Ventilation in Piglets With Severe Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Feng, Huizhen; Chen, Xiaofan; Liang, Kaifeng; Ni, Chengyao

    2017-05-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively. Extracorporeal CO2 removal was applied in low tidal volume group to improve CO2 clearance and in high tidal volume group as sham control. Gas exchange and hemodynamic status were monitored every 30 min during TLV. At the end of the study, pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by collecting lung tissue and blood samples from piglets. Arterial blood pressure, PaO2 , and PaCO2 showed no remarkable difference between groups during the observation period. Compared with high tidal volume strategy, low tidal volume resulted in 76% reduction of minute volume and over 80% reduction in peak inspiratory pressure during TLV. In addition, low tidal volume significantly diminished pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic level of IL-6 and IL-8. We conclude that during TLV, low tidal volume reduces lung inflammation in piglets with acute lung injury without compromising gas exchange. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cigarette Smoke and DNA Cleavage Promote Lung Inflammation and Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kheradmand, Farrah; You, R. (Ruquan); HEE GU, BON; Corry, D B

    2017-01-01

    Smoking-related lung diseases are among the most preventable and incurable ailments in the world. Smokers are at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that can be further complicated by emphysema and lung cancer. A subset of former smokers shows persistent lung inflammation and progressive loss of lung function, indicating a role for activation of acquired immunity in smoking-induced lung diseases. In addition to the well-established noxious effects of volatile co...

  2. ChemR23 dampens lung inflammation and enhances anti-viral immunity in a mouse model of acute viral pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim was to determine the role played by the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, using the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM as a model. Wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice were infected by PVM and followed for functional and inflammatory parameters. ChemR23(-/- mice displayed higher mortality/morbidity, alteration of lung function, delayed viral clearance and increased neutrophilic infiltration. We demonstrated in these mice a lower recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a reduction in type I interferon production. The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was further addressed by performing depletion and adoptive transfer experiments as well as by the generation of chimeric mice, demonstrating two opposite effects of the chemerin/ChemR23 system. First, the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells contributes to adaptive immune responses and viral clearance, but also enhances the inflammatory response. Second, increased morbidity/mortality in ChemR23(-/- mice is not due to defective plasmacytoid dendritic cells recruitment, but rather to the loss of an anti-inflammatory pathway involving ChemR23 expressed by non-leukocytic cells. The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies.

  3. Lung function after acute bronchiolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, R L; Milner, A. D.; Stokes, G M; Hodges, I G; Groggins, R C

    1983-01-01

    We performed 211 lung function measurements on 93 children in the first year after they had been admitted with acute bronchiolitis. During the convalescent phase of the illness, 77% of the infants were hyperinflated with a thoracic gas volume greater than 40 ml/kg and 3 months later 43% were hyperinflated. Twelve months after the initial illness, 17% still had lung function abnormalities and most of these children have had lower respiratory tract symptoms. For the group as a whole about 60% h...

  4. Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology, neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory.

  5. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available John Wong, Bruce E Magun, Lisa J Wood School of Nursing, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from fungal spores pose an occupational risk for respiratory illness and also present a health hazard to those living in damp buildings. Microscopic airborne particulates of asbestos and silica (from building materials and those of heavy metals (from paint are additional sources of indoor air pollution that contributes to respiratory illness and is known to cause respiratory illness in experimental animals. Ricin in aerosolized form is a potential bioweapon that is extremely toxic yet relatively easy to produce. Although the aforementioned agents belong to different classes of toxic chemicals, their pathogenicity is similar. They induce the recruitment and activation of macrophages, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition of protein synthesis, and production of interleukin-1 beta. Targeting either macrophages (using nanoparticles or the production of interleukin-1 beta (using inhibitors against protein kinases, NOD-like receptor protein-3, or P2X7 may potentially be employed to treat these types of lung inflammation without affecting the natural immune response to bacterial infections. Keywords: cigarette, mycotoxin, trichothecene, ricin, inflammasome, macrophage, inhibitors

  6. A data-driven acute inflammation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, Vladan; Ristovski, Kosta; Obradovic, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Acute inflammation is a severe medical condition defined as an inflammatory response of the body to an infection. Its rapid progression requires quick and accurate decisions from clinicians. Inadequate and delayed decisions makes acute inflammation the 10th leading cause of death overall in United States with the estimated cost of treatment about $17 billion annually. However, despite the need, there are limited number of methods that could assist clinicians to determine optimal therapies for acute inflammation. We developed a data-driven method for suggesting optimal therapy by using machine learning model that is learned on historical patients' behaviors. To reduce both the risk of failure and the expense for clinical trials, our method is evaluated on a virtual patients generated by a mathematical model that emulates inflammatory response. In conducted experiments, acute inflammation was handled with two complimentary pro- and anti-inflammatory medications which adequate timing and doses are crucial for the successful outcome. Our experiments show that the dosage regimen assigned with our data-driven method significantly improves the percentage of healthy patients when compared to results by other methods used in clinical practice and found in literature. Our method saved 88% of patients that would otherwise die within a week, while the best method found in literature saved only 73% of patients. At the same time, our method used lower doses of medications than alternatives. In addition, our method achieved better results than alternatives when only incomplete or noisy measurements were available over time as well as it was less affected by therapy delay. The presented results provide strong evidence that models from the artificial intelligence community have a potential for development of personalized treatment strategies for acute inflammation.

  7. Lung injury during LPS-induced inflammation occurs independently of the receptor P2Y1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Elisabetta

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the lung endothelial and epithelial barriers during acute inflammation leads to excessive neutrophil migration. It is likely that activated platelets promote pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils during inflammation, and previous studies have found that anti-platelet therapy and depletion of circulating platelets have lung-protective effects in different models of inflammation. Because ADP signaling is important for platelet activation, I investigated the role of the ADP-receptor P2Y 1 , a G protein-coupled receptor expressed on the surface of circulating platelets, during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and lung injury in P2Y 1 -null and wild-type mice. Systemic inflammation was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS (3 mg/kg), and the mice were analyzed 24 h posttreatment. The data show that the LPS-induced inflammation levels were comparable in the P2Y 1 -null and wild-type mice. Specifically, splenomegaly, counts of circulating platelets and white blood cells (lymphocytes and neutrophils), and assessments of lung injury (tissue architecture and cell infiltration) were similar in the P2Y 1 -null and wild-type mice. Based on my results, I conclude that lung injury during LPS-induced inflammation in mice is independent of P2Y 1 signaling. I propose that if a blockade of purinergic signaling in platelets is a potential lung-protective strategy in the treatment of acute inflammation, then it is more likely to be a result of the disruption of the signaling pathway mediated by P2Y 12 , another G protein-coupled receptor that mediates platelet responses to ADP.

  8. Time-response relationship of nano and micro particle induced lung inflammation. Quartz as reference compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roursgaard, Martin; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of engineered particles, including nanoparticles, are being manufactured, increasing the need for simple low-dose toxicological screening methods. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of biomarkers related to acute and sub-chronic particle-induced lung inflammation of...

  9. Systemic inflammation and lung function: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Robert J; Gray, Andrew R; Sears, Malcolm R; Poulton, Richie

    2016-02-01

    Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired lung function in healthy adults as well as in patients with lung disease. The mechanism for this association is unknown and it is unclear if systemic inflammation leads to impaired lung function or if poor lung function leads to inflammation. We explored the temporal associations between blood C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white blood cells, and lung function in young adults. Spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion capacity were measured in a population-based cohort at ages 32 and 38 years. High-sensitivity CRP, fibrinogen, and white blood cells were measured at the same ages. Higher levels of CRP and, to a lesser extent, fibrinogen were associated with lower lung volumes in cross-sectional analyses at both ages 32 and 38 years. Higher CRP and fibrinogen at age 32 were associated with higher FEV1 and FEV1/FVC at age 38, but not other measures of lung function. Lower lung volumes (total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) but not airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC) at age 32 were associated with higher CRP at age 38. Associations between age 32 lung function and fibrinogen at follow-up were weaker, but consistent. There were no longitudinal associations between white blood cells and lung function. We found no evidence that systemic inflammation causes a decline in lung function. However, lower lung volumes were associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen at follow-up indicating that pulmonary restriction may be a risk factor for systemic inflammation. The mechanism for this association remains unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    related to development of ARDS were chest trauma, femoral fracture , Acute Physiology 11 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution...Contusions 16 62 5 83.7 8 53 NS Rib Fractures 16 62 3 50 9 60 NS Pelvic Fractures 2 7.7 1 16.7 1 6.7 NS Femur Fractures 4 15.4 0...intubation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012; 138(9):854-8. 8. Puyo CA, Tricomi SM, Dahms TE. Early biochemical markers of inflammation in a swine

  11. Airway epithelium controls lung inflammation and injury through the NF-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong-sheng; Han, Wei; Chen, Sabrina M; Sherrill, Taylor P; Chont, Melissa; Park, Gye-Young; Sheller, James R; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Christman, John W; Yull, Fiona E; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2007-05-15

    Although airway epithelial cells provide important barrier and host defense functions, a crucial role for these cells in development of acute lung inflammation and injury has not been elucidated. We investigated whether NF-kappaB pathway signaling in airway epithelium could decisively impact inflammatory phenotypes in the lungs by using a tetracycline-inducible system to achieve selective NF-kappaB activation or inhibition in vivo. In transgenic mice that express a constitutively active form of IkappaB kinase 2 under control of the epithelial-specific CC10 promoter, treatment with doxycycline induced NF-kappaB activation with consequent production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines, high-protein pulmonary edema, and neutrophilic lung inflammation. Continued treatment with doxycycline caused progressive lung injury and hypoxemia with a high mortality rate. In contrast, inducible expression of a dominant inhibitor of NF-kappaB in airway epithelium prevented lung inflammation and injury resulting from expression of constitutively active form of IkappaB kinase 2 or Escherichia coli LPS delivered directly to the airways or systemically via an osmotic pump implanted in the peritoneal cavity. Our findings indicate that the NF-kappaB pathway in airway epithelial cells is critical for generation of lung inflammation and injury in response to local and systemic stimuli; therefore, targeting inflammatory pathways in airway epithelium could prove to be an effective therapeutic strategy for inflammatory lung diseases.

  12. Obesity, Inflammation, and Lung Injury (OILI): The Good

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Wang

    2014-01-01

    Obesity becomes pandemic, predisposing these individuals to great risk for lung injury. In this review, we focused on the anti-inflammatories and addressed the following aspects: adipocytokines and obesity, inflammation and other mechanisms, adipocytokines and lung injury in obesity bridged by inflammation, and potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, the majority of evidence supported that adiponectin, omentin, and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) were reduced significantly in ob...

  13. Pre-Treatment with Allopurinol or Uricase Attenuates Barrier Dysfunction but Not Inflammation during Murine Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T.; Aslami, Hamid; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Hegeman, Maria A.; Jongsma, Geartsje; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J.; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and

  14. Allergic inflammation does not impact chemical-induced carcinogenesis in the lungs of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Konstantinos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the relationship between allergic inflammation and lung carcinogenesis is not clearly defined, several reports suggest an increased incidence of lung cancer in patients with asthma. We aimed at determining the functional impact of allergic inflammation on chemical carcinogenesis in the lungs of mice. Methods Balb/c mice received single-dose urethane (1 g/kg at day 0 and two-stage ovalbumin during tumor initiation (sensitization: days -14 and 0; challenge: daily at days 6-12, tumor progression (sensitization: days 70 and 84; challenge: daily at days 90-96, or chronically (sensitization: days -14 and 0; challenge: daily at days 6-12 and thrice weekly thereafter. In addition, interleukin (IL-5 deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice received ten weekly urethane injections. All mice were sacrificed after four months. Primary end-points were number, size, and histology of lung tumors. Secondary end-points were inflammatory cells and mediators in the airspace compartment. Results Ovalbumin provoked acute allergic inflammation and chronic remodeling of murine airways, evident by airspace eosinophilia, IL-5 up-regulation, and airspace enlargement. Urethane resulted in formation of atypical alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas in mouse lungs. Ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation during tumor initiation, progression, or continuously did not impact the number, size, or histologic distribution of urethane-induced pulmonary neoplastic lesions. In addition, genetic deficiency in IL-5 had no effect on urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis. Conclusions Allergic inflammation does not impact chemical-induced carcinogenesis of the airways. These findings suggest that not all types of airway inflammation influence lung carcinogenesis and cast doubt on the idea of a mechanistic link between asthma and lung cancer.

  15. Cigarette Smoke and DNA Cleavage Promote Lung Inflammation and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Farrah; You, R; Hee Gu, Bon; Corry, D B

    2017-01-01

    Smoking-related lung diseases are among the most preventable and incurable ailments in the world. Smokers are at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that can be further complicated by emphysema and lung cancer. A subset of former smokers shows persistent lung inflammation and progressive loss of lung function, indicating a role for activation of acquired immunity in smoking-induced lung diseases. In addition to the well-established noxious effects of volatile compounds in cigarette smoke, incomplete combustion of tobacco generates nano-sized carbon black (nCB) that accumulate in lung myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Experimentally, intra-nasal instillation nCB can cause airway inflammation and emphysema in mice, underscoring their pathogenic role in inflammatory lung diseases. High throughput analyses of macrophages that have engulfed nCB reveal de novo activation of DNA repair enzymes, and histological studies provide evidence for DNA double-stranded breaks. Emphysematous lung myeloid dendritic cells that contain nCB express pro-inflammatory cytokines, and can efficiently differentiate naive CD4 T cells to interferon-g-secreting T helper 1 and interleukin 17A expressing cell subsets. Together these findings indicate that nCB accumulation in lung innate immune cells can initiate and sustain lung inflammation and promote emphysema development.

  16. [Inflammation and acute pharyngo-tonsillitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessey, J J

    1. Despite several studies, it has been impossible to establish a correlation between bacteriological and clinical findings in erythematous pultaceous sore throat. 2. Antibiotics should be prescribed for group A streptococcal sore throat alone. 3. In acute tonsilitis, inflammation is perfectly proportional to infection; 4. Their extremely important role in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory processes has been demonstrated in acute tonsilitis. 5. Based on the fact that no clinical argument can confirm or infirm the streptococcal cause, it is recommended to use a rapid diagnostic test in all adults or children with sore throat. 6. No data are available demonstrating the benefit of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs at antiinflammatory doses or of general corticosteroid treatment of acute sore throat. Nevertheless, in non-A hemolytic streptococcal where antibiotic treatment is not indicated, wouldn't it be useful to prescribe symptomatic antiinflammatory treatment?

  17. Caffeine Mitigates Lung Inflammation Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion of Lower Limbs in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chi Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reperfusion of ischemic limbs can induce inflammation and subsequently cause acute lung injury. Caffeine, a widely used psychostimulant, possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We elucidated whether caffeine can mitigate lung inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR of the lower limbs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive IR, IR plus caffeine (IR + Caf group, sham-operation (Sham, or sham plus caffeine (n=12 in each group. To induce IR, lower limbs were bilaterally tied by rubber bands high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 3 hours. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection was administered immediately after reperfusion. Our histological assay data revealed characteristics of severe lung inflammation in the IR group and mild to moderate characteristic of lung inflammation in the IR + Caf group. Total cells number and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (P<0.001 and P=0.008, resp.. Similarly, pulmonary concentrations of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (all P<0.05. These data clearly demonstrate that caffeine could mitigate lung inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the lower limbs.

  18. Myricetin attenuates lung inflammation and provides protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The euthanasia was followed by the collection of lung samples for subsequent experimental analysis. Estimation of 'wet-to-dry' weight ratio. After euthanasia, the extent of pulmonary edema in the experimental groups was assessed by measuring the 'wet-to-dry' weight of the lungs. For this, the left lung was removed and.

  19. 1,8-cineol attenuates LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunzhen; Sun, Jianbo; Fang, Chunyan; Tang, Fadi

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptol, also known as 1,8-cineol, is a monoterpene and has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect. It is traditionally used to treat respiratory disorders due to its secretolytic properties. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 1,8-cineol on pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung injury. We found that 1,8-cineol significantly decreased the level of TNF-α and IL-1β, and increased the level of IL-10 in lung tissues after acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It also reduced the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissues. In addition, 1,8-cineol reduced the amounts of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), including neutrophils and macrophages, and significantly decreased the protein content in BALF and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Its effect on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation was associated with suppression of TLR4 and NF-κB expressions. Our results provide evidence that 1,8-cineol inhibits acute pulmonary inflammation, indicating its potential for the treatment of acute lung injury.

  20. Probenecid reduces infection and inflammation in acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnenberg, Bodo; Tschernig, Thomas; Voss, Meike; Bischoff, Markus; Meier, Carola; Schirmer, Stephan H; Langer, Frank; Bals, Robert; Beisswenger, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    The activation of inflammasome signaling mediates pathology of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. This suggests that the inflammasome might represent a target to limit the pathological consequences of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection. Pannexin-1 (Px1) channels mediate the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1β induced by P2X7 receptor activation. The approved drug probenecid is an inhibitor of Px1 and ATP release. In this study, we demonstrate that probenecid reduces infection and inflammation in acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Treatment of mice prior to infection with P. aeruginosa resulted in an enhanced clearance of P. aeruginosa and reduced levels of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β. In addition, probenecid inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators in murine alveolar macrophages and human U937 cell-derived macrophages upon bacterial infection but not in human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, Px1 blockade via probenecid treatment may be a therapeutic option in P. aeruginosa pneumonia by improving bacterial clearance and reducing negative consequences of inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammation in cystic fibrosis lung disease: Pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, André M; Hartl, Dominik; Konstan, Michael W; Chmiel, James F

    2015-07-01

    Lung disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although CF lung disease is primarily an infectious disorder, the associated inflammation is both intense and ineffective at clearing pathogens. Persistent high-intensity inflammation leads to permanent structural damage of the CF airways and impaired lung function that eventually results in respiratory failure and death. Several defective inflammatory responses have been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) deficiency including innate and acquired immunity dysregulation, cell membrane lipid abnormalities, various transcription factor signaling defects, as well as altered kinase and toll-like receptor responses. The inflammation of the CF lung is dominated by neutrophils that release oxidants and proteases, particularly elastase. Neutrophil elastase in the CF airway secretions precedes the appearance of bronchiectasis, and correlates with lung function deterioration and respiratory exacerbations. Anti-inflammatory therapies are therefore of particular interest for CF lung disease but must be carefully studied to avoid suppressing critical elements of the inflammatory response and thus worsening infection. This review examines the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, summarizes the results of past clinical trials and explores promising new anti-inflammatory options. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Local immunotherapy in experimental murine lung inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Caroline Uebel, Sonja Koch, Anja Maier, Nina Sopel, Anna Graser, Stephanie Mousset & Susetta Finotto ### Abstract Innovative local immunotherapy for severe lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer requires a successful delivery to access the desired cellular target in the lung. An important route is the direct instillation into the airways in contrast to delivery through the digestive tract. This protocol details a method to deliver a...

  3. Modeling and Hemofiltration Treatment of Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Parker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The body responds to endotoxins by triggering the acute inflammatory response system to eliminate the threat posed by gram-negative bacteria (endotoxin and restore health. However, an uncontrolled inflammatory response can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and ultimately death; this is clinically known as sepsis. Mathematical models of acute inflammatory disease have the potential to guide treatment decisions in critically ill patients. In this work, an 8-state (8-D differential equation model of the acute inflammatory response system to endotoxin challenge was developed. Endotoxin challenges at 3 and 12 mg/kg were administered to rats, and dynamic cytokine data for interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, and IL-10 were obtained and used to calibrate the model. Evaluation of competing model structures was performed by analyzing model predictions at 3, 6, and 12 mg/kg endotoxin challenges with respect to experimental data from rats. Subsequently, a model predictive control (MPC algorithm was synthesized to control a hemoadsorption (HA device, a blood purification treatment for acute inflammation. A particle filter (PF algorithm was implemented to estimate the full state vector of the endotoxemic rat based on time series cytokine measurements. Treatment simulations show that: (i the apparent primary mechanism of HA efficacy is white blood cell (WBC capture, with cytokine capture a secondary benefit; and (ii differential filtering of cytokines and WBC does not provide substantial improvement in treatment outcomes vs. existing HA devices.

  4. Stiffness-activated GEF-H1 expression exacerbates LPS-induced lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mambetsariev

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is accompanied by decreased lung compliance. However, a role of tissue mechanics in modulation of inflammation remains unclear. We hypothesized that bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS stimulates extracellular matrix (ECM production and vascular stiffening leading to stiffness-dependent exacerbation of endothelial cell (EC inflammatory activation and lung barrier dysfunction. Expression of GEF-H1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, ECM proteins fibronectin and collagen, lysyl oxidase (LOX activity, interleukin-8 and activation of Rho signaling were analyzed in lung samples and pulmonary EC grown on soft (1.5 or 2.8 kPa and stiff (40 kPa substrates. LPS induced EC inflammatory activation accompanied by expression of ECM proteins, increase in LOX activity, and activation of Rho signaling. These effects were augmented in EC grown on stiff substrate. Stiffness-dependent enhancement of inflammation was associated with increased expression of Rho activator, GEF-H1. Inhibition of ECM crosslinking and stiffening by LOX suppression reduced EC inflammatory activation and GEF-H1 expression in response to LPS. In vivo, LOX inhibition attenuated LPS-induced expression of GEF-H1 and lung dysfunction. These findings present a novel mechanism of stiffness-dependent exacerbation of vascular inflammation and escalation of ALI via stimulation of GEF-H1-Rho pathway. This pathway represents a fundamental mechanism of positive feedback regulation of inflammation.

  5. Interplay of extracellular matrix and leukocytes in lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Thomas N; Frevert, Charles W; Debley, Jason S; Reeves, Stephen R; Parks, William C; Ziegler, Steven F

    2017-02-01

    During inflammation, leukocytes influx into lung compartments and interact with extracellular matrix (ECM). Two ECM components, versican and hyaluronan, increase in a range of lung diseases. The interaction of leukocytes with these ECM components controls leukocyte retention and accumulation, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and activation as part of the inflammatory phase of lung disease. In addition, bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts generate an ECM that is adherent for monocytes/macrophages. Macrophages are present in both early and late lung inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) is induced in alveolar macrophages with injury and infection and modulates macrophage phenotype and their ability to degrade collagenous ECM components. Collectively, studies outlined in this review highlight the importance of specific ECM components in the regulation of inflammatory events in lung disease. The widespread involvement of these ECM components in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation make them attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2017-06-01

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Significance of coexistent granulomatous inflammation and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaonkar, Rucha S; Choong, Caroline V; Asmat, Atasha Binti; Ahmed, Dokeu Basheer A; Chopra, Akhil; Lim, Albert Y H; Tai, Dessmon Y H; Kor, Ai Ching; Goh, Soon Keng; Abisheganaden, John; Verma, Akash

    2017-04-01

    Coexistence of lung cancer and granulomatous inflammation in the same patient confuses clinicians. We aimed to document the prevalence, clinicopathological features, treatment outcomes and prognosis in patients with coexisting granulomatous inflammation undergoing curative lung resection for lung cancer, in a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country. An observational cohort study of patients with lung cancer undergoing curative resection between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary centre in Singapore. One hundred and twenty-seven patients underwent lung resection for cancer, out of which 19 (14.9%) had coexistent granulomatous inflammation in the resected specimen. Median age was 68 years and 58.2% were males. Overall median (range) survival was 451 (22-2452) days. Eighteen (14%) patients died at median duration of 271 days after surgery. The postsurgery median survival for those alive was 494 (29-2452) days in the whole group. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any differences in age, gender, location of cancer, radiological features, type of cancer, chemotherapy, history of TB or survival in patients with or without coexistent granulomatous inflammation. Incidental detection of granulomatous inflammation in patients undergoing lung resection for cancer, even in a TB-endemic country, may not require any intervention. Such findings may be due to either mycobacterial infection in the past or 'sarcoid reaction' to cancer. Although all patients should have their resected specimen sent for acid-fast bacilli culture and followed up until the culture results are reported, the initiation of the management of such patients as per existing lung cancer management guidelines does not affect their outcome adversely. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Toluene-induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene inhalation is an important occupational health hazard in persons working in factories manufacturing paint, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and rubber. The present report describes an unusual case of toluene-induced acute lung injury threatening life.

  9. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase II overexpression attenuates LPS-mediated lung leak in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Gross, Christine M; Kumar, Sanjiv; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Sharma, Shruti; Gorshkov, Boris A; Sridhar, Supriya; Lu, Qing; Bogatcheva, Natalia V; Jezierska-Drutel, Agnieszka J; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander D; Catravas, John D; Black, Stephen M

    2014-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency associated with lung leak, diffuse alveolar damage, inflammation, and loss of lung function. Decreased dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity and increases in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), together with exaggerated oxidative/nitrative stress, contributes to the development of ALI in mice exposed to LPS. Whether restoring DDAH function and suppressing ADMA levels can effectively ameliorate vascular hyperpermeability and lung injury in ALI is unknown, and was the focus of this study. In human lung microvascular endothelial cells, DDAH II overexpression prevented the LPS-dependent increase in ADMA, superoxide, peroxynitrite, and protein nitration. DDAH II also attenuated the endothelial barrier disruption associated with LPS exposure. Similarly, in vivo, we demonstrated that the targeted overexpression of DDAH II in the pulmonary vasculature significantly inhibited the accumulation of ADMA and the subsequent increase in oxidative/nitrative stress in the lungs of mice exposed to LPS. In addition, augmenting pulmonary DDAH II activity before LPS exposure reduced lung vascular leak and lung injury and restored lung function when DDAH activity was increased after injury. Together, these data suggest that enhancing DDAH II activity may prove a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients with ALI.

  10. Interleukin-17A Is Associated With Alveolar Inflammation and Poor Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikacenic, Carmen; Hansen, Elizabeth E; Radella, Frank; Gharib, Sina A; Stapleton, Renee D; Wurfel, Mark M

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine known to play a role in host defense and pathologic inflammation in murine models of lung injury. The relationship between interleukin-17A and inflammation in human lung injury is unknown. Our primary objective was to determine whether interleukin-17A levels are associated with alveolar measures of inflammation and injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our secondary objective was to test whether interleukin-17A levels are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome-related outcomes. Observational study. Six North American medical centers. We studied two groups of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) patients previously enrolled in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of omega-3 fatty acids performed at five North American medical centers (n = 86, acute respiratory distress syndrome 1), and 2) patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome admitted to an ICU who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 140, acute respiratory distress syndrome 2). In acute respiratory distress syndrome 1, we used paired serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained within 48 hours of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset, whereas in acute respiratory distress syndrome 2, we used plasma obtained within the first 24 hours of ICU admission. None. We measured circulating interleukin-17A in acute respiratory distress syndrome 1 and acute respiratory distress syndrome 2. We also measured interleukin-17A, neutrophil counts, and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from acute respiratory distress syndrome 1. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage interleukin-17A was strongly associated with higher bronchoalveolar lavage percent neutrophils (p syndrome1. In both acute respiratory distress syndrome 1 and acute respiratory distress syndrome 2, elevated interleukin-17A was associated with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (p syndrome.

  11. Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Uchakina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB.

  12. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shichao Han; Weixia Cai; Xuekang Yang; Yanhui Jia; Zhao Zheng; Hongtao Wang; Jun Li; Yan Li; Jianxin Gao; Lei Fan; Dahai Hu

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibiti...

  13. RAGE inhibition reduces acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondonnet, Raiko; Audard, Jules; Belville, Corinne; Clairefond, Gael; Lutz, Jean; Bouvier, Damien; Roszyk, Laurence; Gross, Christelle; Lavergne, Marilyne; Fournet, Marianne; Blanchon, Loic; Vachias, Caroline; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Sapin, Vincent; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Jabaudon, Matthieu

    2017-08-03

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in inflammatory response during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Growing body of evidence support strategies of RAGE inhibition in experimental lung injury, but its modalities and effects remain underinvestigated. Anesthetised C57BL/6JRj mice were divided in four groups; three of them underwent orotracheal instillation of acid and were treated with anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody (mAb) or recombinant soluble RAGE (sRAGE), acting as a decoy receptor. The fourth group served as a control. Lung injury was assessed by the analysis of blood gases, alveolar permeability, histology, AFC, and cytokines. Lung expression and distribution epithelial channels ENaC, Na,K-ATPase, and aquaporin (AQP)-5 were assessed. Treatment with either anti-RAGE mAb or sRAGE improved lung injury, arterial oxygenation and decreased alveolar inflammation in acid-injured animals. Anti-RAGE therapies were associated with restored AFC and increased lung expression of AQP-5 in alveolar cell. Blocking RAGE had potential therapeutic effects in a translational mouse model of ARDS, possibly through a decrease in alveolar type 1 epithelial cell injury as shown by restored AFC and lung AQP-5 expression. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to describe intracellular pathways that may control such effects of RAGE on lung epithelial injury and repair.

  14. Semaphorin 7A Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation during Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mariella; Granja, Tiago Folgosa; Rosenberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The extent of pulmonary inflammation during lung injury ultimately determines patient outcome. Pulmonary inflammation is initiated by the migration of neutrophils into the alveolar space. Recent work has demonstrated that the guidance protein semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) influences the migration of neutrophils into hypoxic tissue sites, yet, its role during lung injury is not well understood. Here, we report that the expression of SEMA7A is induced in vitro through pro-inflammatory cytokines. SEMA7A itself induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial and epithelial cells, enhancing pulmonary inflammation. The induction of SEMA7A facilitates the transendothelial migration of neutrophils. In vivo, animals with deletion of SEMA7A expression showed reduced signs of pulmonary inflammatory changes following lipopolysaccharide challenge. We define here the role of SEMA7A in the development of lung injury and identify a potential pathway to interfere with these detrimental changes. Future anti-inflammatory strategies for the treatment of lung injury might be based on this finding. PMID:26752048

  15. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-03-01

    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  16. EFFECT OF PICRORHIZA KURROA BENTH. IN ACUTE INFLAMMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kantibiswas, Tuhin; Marjit, Bani; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the indigenous drug Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth was studied on experimental acute inflammation in rats. It was observed that Picrorhiza kurrooa at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. has significant (p

  17. Impact of interleukin-6 on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and lung inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izziki Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH. Recent studies in patients with idiopathic PH or PH associated with underlying diseases suggest a role for interleukin-6 (IL-6. Methods To determine whether endogenous IL-6 contributes to mediate hypoxic PH and lung inflammation, we studied IL-6-deficient (IL-6-/- and wild-type (IL-6+/+ mice exposed to hypoxia for 2 weeks. Results Right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and the number and media thickness of muscular pulmonary vessels were decreased in IL-6-/- mice compared to wild-type controls after 2 weeks' hypoxia, although the pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar in IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Hypoxia exposure of IL-6+/+ mice led to marked increases in IL-6 mRNA and protein levels within the first week, with positive IL-6 immunostaining in the pulmonary vessel walls. Lung IL-6 receptor and gp 130 (the IL-6 signal transducer mRNA levels increased after 1 and 2 weeks' hypoxia. In vitro studies of cultured human pulmonary-artery smooth-muscle-cells (PA-SMCs and microvascular endothelial cells revealed prominent synthesis of IL-6 by PA-SMCs, with further stimulation by hypoxia. IL-6 also markedly stimulated PA-SMC migration without affecting proliferation. Hypoxic IL-6-/- mice showed less inflammatory cell recruitment in the lungs, compared to hypoxic wild-type mice, as assessed by lung protein levels and immunostaining for the specific macrophage marker F4/80, with no difference in lung expression of adhesion molecules or cytokines. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-6 may be actively involved in hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice.

  18. Attenuation of lung inflammation and fibrosis in CD69-deficient mice after intratracheal bleomycin

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    Matsunaga Hirofumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69, an early activation marker antigen on T and B cells, is also expressed on activated macrophages and neutrophils, suggesting that CD69 may play a role in inflammatory diseases. To determine the effect of CD69 deficiency on bleomycin(BLM-induced lung injury, we evaluated the inflammatory response following intratracheal BLM administration and the subsequent fibrotic changes in wild type (WT and CD69-deficient (CD69-/- mice. Methods The mice received a single dose of 3 mg/kg body weight of BLM and were sacrificed at 7 or 14 days post-instillation (dpi. Lung inflammation in the acute phase (7 dpi was investigated by differential cell counts and cytokine array analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, lung fibrotic changes were evaluated at 14 dpi by histopathology and collagen assays. We also used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to measure the mRNA expression level of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the lungs of BLM-treated mice. Results CD69-/- mice exhibited less lung damage than WT mice, as shown by reductions in the following indices: (1 loss of body weight, (2 wet/dry ratio of lung, (3 cytokine levels in BALF, (4 histological evidence of lung injury, (5 lung collagen deposition, and (6 TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the lung. Conclusion The present study clearly demonstrates that CD69 plays an important role in the progression of lung injury induced by BLM.

  19. Sub-chronic lung inflammation after airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides in mice

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    Barfod Kenneth K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess possible health effects of airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt based biopesticides in mice. Endpoints were lung inflammation evaluated by presence of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, clearance of bacteria from the lung lumen and histological alterations of the lungs. Hazard identifications of the biopesticides were carried out using intratracheal (i.t. instillation, followed by an inhalation study. The two commercial biopesticides used were based on the Bt. subspecies kurstaki and israelensis, respectively. Groups of BALB/c mice were i.t instilled with one bolus (3.5 × 105 or 3.4 × 106 colony forming units (CFU per mouse of either biopesticide. Control mice were instilled with sterile water. BALFs were collected and the inflammatory cells were counted and differentiated. The BALFs were also subjected to CFU counts. Results BALF cytology showed an acute inflammatory response dominated by neutrophils 24 hours after instillation of biopesticide. Four days after instillation, the neutrophil number was normalised and inflammation was dominated by lymphocytes and eosinophils, whereas 70 days after instillation, the inflammation was interstitially located with few inflammatory cells present in the lung lumen. Half of the instilled mice had remaining CFU recovered from BALF 70 days after exposure. To gain further knowledge with relevance for risk assessment, mice were exposed to aerosols of biopesticide one hour per day for 2 × 5 days. Each mouse received 1.9 × 104 CFU Bt israelensis or 2.3 × 103 CFU Bt kurstaki per exposure. Seventy days after end of the aerosol exposures, 3 out of 17 mice had interstitial lung inflammation. CFU could be recovered from 1 out of 10 mice 70 days after exposure to aerosolised Bt kurstaki. Plethysmography showed that inhalation of Bt aerosol did not induce airway irritation. Conclusions Repeated low dose aerosol

  20. Melatonin improves inflammatory cytokine profiles in lung inflammation associated with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Yang-Deok; Kim, Byung-Joon; Kim, Sang-Pil; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Jo, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Ki-Ho; Baik, Haing-Woon

    2012-05-01

    Sleep disturbance has become an endemic behavior in modern countries, and its prevalence has also increased. Even a subtle sleep deficiency is related to health problems. Particularly, patients with pulmonary disease often complain of insomnia. We recently showed that sleep deprivation (SD) exacerbates existing acute lung inflammation, and that melatonin treatment attenuates it via anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant action. In order to reinforce our previous report, the present study was designed to evaluate pro-inflammatory mediators in acute lung inflammation in SD mice. In addition, we investigated the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. Twenty-five ICR mice were divided into 5 groups (n=5/group): control, SD, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + SD and LPS + SD + melatonin. The SD mice were deprived of sleep for 96 h in a multiplatform water bath. LPS (5 mg/kg) and melatonin (5 mg/kg) were administered on day 2. The mice were sacrificed on day 3, and serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected. The serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were increased in the LPS + SD group. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ levels were also increased in BAL fluid in the LPS + SD group. Melatonin reduced inflammatory mediators in the serum and BAL fluid. The accumulation of leukocytes in the LPS and LPS + SD mice was elevated, however, melatonin inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells (p<0.05). Lymphocytes in the BAL fluid of the LPS + SD group were increased, and macrophage levels were decreased; however, the increment was attenuated by melatonin administration (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study indicates that melatonin has a protective effect against lung inflammation associated with SD.

  1. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 reduces pneumococcal lung infection and inflammation in a viral and bacterial coinfection pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Anthony, Desiree; Yatmaz, Selcuk; Wijburg, Odilia; Satzke, Catherine; Levy, Bruce; Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2017-09-15

    Formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A4 (LXA4) receptor (Fpr2/ALX) co-ordinates the transition from inflammation to resolution during acute infection by binding to distinct ligands including serum amyloid A (SAA) and Resolvin D1 (RvD1). Here, we evaluated the proresolving actions of aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) in an acute coinfection pneumonia model. Coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus (IAV) markedly increased pneumococcal lung load and neutrophilic inflammation during the resolution phase. Fpr2/ALX transcript levels were increased in the lungs of coinfected mice, and immunohistochemistry identified prominent Fpr2/ALX immunoreactivity in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages. Levels of circulating and lung SAA were also highly increased in coinfected mice. Therapeutic treatment with exogenous AT-RvD1 during the acute phase of infection (day 4-6 post-pneumococcal inoculation) significantly reduced the pneumococcal load. AT-RvD1 also significantly reduced neutrophil elastase (NE) activity and restored total antimicrobial activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of coinfected mice. Pneumonia severity, as measured by quantitating parenchymal inflammation or alveolitis was significantly reduced with AT-RvD1 treatment, which also reduced the number of infiltrating lung neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages as assessed by flow cytometry. The reduction in distal lung inflammation in AT-RvD1-treated mice was not associated with a significant reduction in inflammatory and chemokine mediators. In summary, we demonstrate that in the coinfection setting, SAA levels were persistently increased and exogenous AT-RvD1 facilitated more rapid clearance of pneumococci in the lungs, while concurrently reducing the severity of pneumonia by limiting excessive leukocyte chemotaxis from the infected bronchioles to distal areas of the lungs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Neutrophilic Lung Inflammation Suppressed by Picroside II Is Associated with TGF-β Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soohwan; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Although acute lung injury (ALI) is a leading cause of death in intensive care unit, effective pharmacologic means to treat ALI patients are lacking. The rhizome of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora used in a traditional herbal medicine in Asian countries has been shown to have anti-inflammatory function, and picroside II (PIC II) is known as a major constituent in the plant. Here, we examined whether PIC II has an anti-inflammatory activity, which is applicable for treating ALI. We found that although it is not significantly effective in suppressing proinflammatory factor NF-κB or in activating anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2, PIC II induced the phosphorylation of Smad 2, with concomitant increase of luciferase activity from SBE luciferase reporter in RAW 264.7 cells. H&E staining of lung, differential counting of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of lung tissues show that an intratracheal (i.t.) spraying of PIC II suppressed neutrophilic inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in the lung, which were elicited by an i.t. LPS instillation to the lung. In addition, PIC II treatment increased the phosphorylation of Smad 2 in the lung tissue. Together, our results suggest that PIC II plays a role as an anti-inflammatory constituent in P. scrophulariiflora, whose activity is associated at least in part with TGF-β signaling. PMID:26617662

  3. Neutrophilic Lung Inflammation Suppressed by Picroside II Is Associated with TGF-β Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohwan Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acute lung injury (ALI is a leading cause of death in intensive care unit, effective pharmacologic means to treat ALI patients are lacking. The rhizome of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora used in a traditional herbal medicine in Asian countries has been shown to have anti-inflammatory function, and picroside II (PIC II is known as a major constituent in the plant. Here, we examined whether PIC II has an anti-inflammatory activity, which is applicable for treating ALI. We found that although it is not significantly effective in suppressing proinflammatory factor NF-κB or in activating anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2, PIC II induced the phosphorylation of Smad 2, with concomitant increase of luciferase activity from SBE luciferase reporter in RAW 264.7 cells. H&E staining of lung, differential counting of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of lung tissues show that an intratracheal (i.t. spraying of PIC II suppressed neutrophilic inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in the lung, which were elicited by an i.t. LPS instillation to the lung. In addition, PIC II treatment increased the phosphorylation of Smad 2 in the lung tissue. Together, our results suggest that PIC II plays a role as an anti-inflammatory constituent in P. scrophulariiflora, whose activity is associated at least in part with TGF-β signaling.

  4. Bosutinib Therapy Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Priscila J; Clevelario, Amanda L; Padilha, Gisele A; Silva, Johnatas D; Kitoko, Jamil Z; Olsen, Priscilla C; Capelozzi, Vera L; Rocco, Patricia R M; Cruz, Fernanda F

    2017-01-01

    nodes also decreased with bosutinib therapy without affecting thymus cellularity. In vitro, bosutinib led to a decrease in IL-12 and iNOS and increase in IL-10, arginase-1, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. In conclusion, in the current model of silicosis, bosutinib therapy yielded beneficial effects on lung inflammation and remodeling, therefore resulting in lung mechanics improvement. Bosutinib may hold promise for silicosis; however, further studies are required.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in the perivascular space in lungs

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    Pabst Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS contained in tobacco smoke and a variety of environmental and occupational dusts is a toxic agent causing lung inflammation characterized by migration of neutrophils and monocytes into alveoli. Although migration of inflammatory cells into alveoli of LPS-treated rats is well characterized, the dynamics of their accumulation in the perivascular space (PVS leading to a perivascular inflammation (PVI of pulmonary arteries is not well described. Methods Therefore, we investigated migration of neutrophils and monocytes into PVS in lungs of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intratracheally with E. coli LPS and euthanized after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Control rats were treated with endotoxin-free saline. H&E stained slides were made and immunohistochemistry was performed using a monocyte marker and the chemokine Monocyte-Chemoattractant-Protein-1 (MCP-1. Computer-assisted microscopy was performed to count infiltrating cells. Results Surprisingly, the periarterial infiltration was not a constant finding in each animal although LPS-induced alveolitis was present. A clear tendency was observed that neutrophils were appearing in the PVS first within 6 hours after LPS application and were decreasing at later time points. In contrast, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed after 24 hours. In addition, MCP-1 expression was present in perivascular capillaries, arteries and the epithelium. Conclusion PVI might be a certain lung reaction pattern in the defense to infectious attacks.

  6. Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira, Masanori, E-mail: Akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai City, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals.

  7. Phloretin Exerts Anti-Tuberculosis Activity and Suppresses Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasom Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the prevalence of the drug-resistant Mycobacteria tuberculosis necessitates developing new types of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Here, we found that phloretin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, has anti-mycobacterial effects on H37Rv, multi-drug-, and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 182 and 364 μM, respectively. Since Mycobacteria cause lung inflammation that contributes to tuberculosis pathogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects of phloretin in interferon-γ-stimulated MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated dendritic cells were investigated. The release of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α was inhibited by phloretin. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, were suppressed. A mouse in vivo study of LPS-stimulated lung inflammation showed that phloretin effectively suppressed the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung tissue with low cytotoxicity. Phloretin was found to bind M. tuberculosis β-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III (mtKASIII with high affinity (7.221 × 107 M−1; a binding model showed hydrogen bonding of A-ring 2′-hydroxy and B-ring 4-hydroxy groups of phloretin with Asn261 and Cys122 of mtKASIII, implying that mtKASIII can be a potential target protein. Therefore, phloretin can be a useful dietary natural product with anti-tuberculosis benefits.

  8. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  9. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  10. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases.

  11. Macrophage micro-RNA-155 promotes lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Liu, Zhi; Su, Jie; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Bai, San-Xing; Zhang, Jin-Zhou; Yu, Shi-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Micro-RNA (miR)-155 is a novel gene regulator with important roles in inflammation. Herein, our study aimed to explore the role of miR-155 in LPS-induced acute lung injury(ALI). ALI in mice was induced by intratracheally delivered LPS. Loss-of-function experiments performed on miR-155 knockout mice showed that miR-155 gene inactivation protected mice from LPS-induced ALI, as manifested by preserved lung permeability and reduced lung inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Bone marrow transplantation experiments identified leukocytes, but not lung parenchymal-derived miR-155-promoted acute lung inflammation. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of miR-155 in lung tissue was greatly elevated in wild-type mice after LPS stimulation. In situ hybridization showed that miR-155 was mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In vitro experiments performed in isolated alveolar macrophages and polarized bone marrow-derived macrophages confirmed that miR-155 expression in macrophages was increased in response to LPS stimulation. Conversely, miR-155 gain-of-function in alveolar macrophages remarkably exaggerated LPS-induced acute lung injury. Molecular studies identified the inflammation repressor suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1) as the downstream target of miR-155. By binding to the 3'-UTR of the SOCS-1 mRNA, miR-155 downregulated SOCS-1 expression, thus, permitting the inflammatory response during lung injury. Finally, we generated a novel miR-155 knockout rat strain and showed that the proinflammatory role of miR-155 was conserved in rats. Our study identified miR-155 as a proinflammatory factor after LPS stimulation, and alveolar macrophages-derived miR-155 has an important role in LPS-induced ALI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Role of glutathione in immunity and inflammation in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ghezzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pietro GhezziBrighton and Sussex Medical School, Trafford Centre, Falmer, Brighton, UKAbstract: Reactive oxygen species and thiol antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, regulate innate immunity at various levels. This review outlines the redox-sensitive steps of the cellular mechanisms implicated in inflammation and host defense against infection, and describes how GSH is not only important as an antioxidant but also as a signaling molecule. There is an extensive literature of the role of GSH in immunity. Most reviews are biased by an oversimplified picture where “bad” free radicals cause all sorts of diseases and “good” antioxidants protect from them and prevent oxidative stress. While this may be the case in certain fields (eg, toxicology, the role of thiols (the topic of this review in immunity certainly requires wearing scientist’s goggles and being prepared to accept a more complex picture. This review aims at describing the role of GSH in the lung in the context of immunity and inflammation. The first part summarizes the history and basic concepts of this picture. The second part focuses on GSH metabolism/levels in pathology, the third on the role of GSH in innate immunity and inflammation, and the fourth gives 4 examples describing the importance of GSH in the response to infections.Keywords: antioxidants, oxidative stress, sepsis, infection, cysteine

  13. Differential Expression of Aquaporins in Experimental Models of Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Alice G; Manitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Kardara, Matina; Maniatis, Nikolaos A; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung expresses at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels whose precise role in lung injury or inflammation is still controversial. Three murine models of lung inflammation and corresponding controls were used to evaluate the expression of Aqp1, Aqp4, Aqp5 and Aqp9: lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury; HCl-induced lung injury; and ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI). All models yielded increased lung vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid; VILI additionally produced altered lung mechanics. Lung expression of Aqp4 decreased in the models that targeted primarily the alveolar epithelium, i.e. acid aspiration and mechanical ventilation, while Aqp5 expression decreased in the model that appeared to target both the capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium, i.e. LPS. Participation of aquaporins in the acute inflammatory process depends on localization and the type of lung injury. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Lung inflammation and genotoxicity in mice lungs after pulmonary exposure to candle light combustion particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Damiao Gouveia, Ana Cecilia; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi

    2017-01-01

    that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to compare pulmonary effects of candle light combustion particles (CP) with two benchmark diesel exhaust particles (A-DEP and SRM2975). Intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of CP (5mg/kg bodyweight) in C57BL/6n mice produced...... a significant influx of alveolar macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes and increased concentrations of proteins and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar fluid. Lower levels of these markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed after i.t. instillation of the same dose of A...... increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to particles from burning candles is associated with inflammation and cytotoxicity in the lungs....

  15. EFFECT OF PICRORHIZA KURROA BENTH. IN ACUTE INFLAMMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantibiswas, Tuhin; Marjit, Bani; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the indigenous drug Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth was studied on experimental acute inflammation in rats. It was observed that Picrorhiza kurrooa at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. has significant (p<0.01) anti inflammatory effect with respect to control, vehicle and standard drug. PMID:22556764

  16. Acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity following lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadahunsi, Opeyemi; Krol, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Amiodarone is one of the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmic agents. Despite its widespread use, it is associated with systemic side effects. Pulmonary toxicity, the most severe adverse effect of amiodarone, has usually been described in the context of chronic amiodarone use. We report a case of an 80-year-old male presenting acutely following right upper lung lobe resection for stage 1b adenocarcinoma. He developed atrial fibrillation on postoperative day four and received 12.5 g of amiodarone within a 12 day period. On presentation, he had new bilateral lung opacities and a 35% absolute decline in the predicted diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. Pulmonary embolism was ruled out on chest computed tomography. Amiodarone was discontinued and prednisone was initiated. Despite initial improvement, he suffered from multiple hypoxemic episodes until his death in the fourth month. In a subset of patients undergoing thoracic surgery who are intubated and require high levels of oxygen, the risk of amiodarone lung toxicity increases and patients may present acutely.

  17. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced...... lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation.  Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL8 (IL-8) were measured at age 6 months in 300 children...

  18. The axonal guidance receptor neogenin promotes acute inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens König

    Full Text Available Neuronal guidance proteins (NGP were originally described in the context of axonal growth and migration. Yet recent work has demonstrated that NGPs also serve as guidance cues for immune competent cells. A crucial target receptor for NGPs during embryonic development is the neogenin receptor, however its role during acute inflammation is unknown. We report here that neogenin is abundantly expressed outside the nervous system and that animals with endogenous repression of neogenin (Neo1(-/- demonstrate attenuated changes of acute inflammation. Studies using functional inhibition of neogenin resulted in a significant attenuation of inflammatory peritonitis. In studies employing bone marrow chimeric animals we found the hematopoietic presence of Neo1(-/- to be responsible for the attenuated inflammatory response. Taken together our studies suggest that the guidance receptor neogenin holds crucial importance for the propagation of an acute inflammatory response and further define mechanisms shared between the nervous and the immune system.

  19. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates airway remodelling and hyperresponsiveness in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, G S; Rodrigues-Machado, M G; Motta-Santos, D; Silva, A R; Caliari, M V; Prata, L O; Abreu, S C; Rocco, P R M; Barcelos, L S; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J

    2015-05-01

    A long-term imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators leads to airway remodelling, which is strongly correlated to most of the symptoms, severity and progression of chronic lung inflammation. The Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor axis of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with attenuation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang-(1-7) treatment in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; 4 injections over 42 days, 14 days apart) and were challenged three times per week (days 21-46). These mice received Ang-(1-7) (1 μg·h(-1) , s.c.) by osmotic mini-pumps, for the last 28 days. Histology and morphometric analysis were performed in left lung and right ventricle. Airway responsiveness to methacholine, analysis of Ang-(1-7) levels (RIA), collagen I and III (qRT-PCR), ERK1/2 and JNK (Western blotting), IgE (elisa), cytokines and chemokines (elisa multiplex), and immunohistochemistry for Mas receptors were performed. Infusion of Ang-(1-7) in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in the airways and lung parenchyma, and prevented bronchial hyperresponsiveness. These effects were accompanied by decreased IgE and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mas receptors were detected in the epithelium and bronchial smooth muscle, suggesting a site in the lung for the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7). Ang-(1-7) exerted beneficial attenuation of three major features of chronic asthma: lung inflammation, airway remodelling and hyperresponsiveness. Our results support an important protective role of Ang-(1-7) in lung inflammation. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Pleiotropic effect of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole leading to suppression of lung inflammation and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P; Gerhart, William; Griego, Carol; Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin C; Zhou, Qingtao; Ho, Lawrence; de Andrade, Joao; Raghu, Ganesh; Peterson, Leif; Rivera, Andreana; Rosen, Glenn D

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial outcome associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been reported in retrospective studies. To date, no prospective study has been conducted to confirm these outcomes. In addition, the potential mechanism by which PPIs improve measures of lung function and/or transplant-free survival in IPF has not been elucidated. Here, we used biochemical, cell biological and preclinical studies to evaluate regulation of markers associated with inflammation and fibrosis. In our in vitro studies, we exposed primary lung fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells to ionizing radiation or bleomycin; stimuli typically used to induce inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, we cultured lung fibroblasts from IPF patients and studied the effect of esomeprazole on collagen release. Our preclinical study tested efficacy of esomeprazole in a rat model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Furthermore, we performed retrospective analysis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) databases to examine the effect of PPIs on transplant-free survival. The cell culture studies revealed that esomeprazole controls inflammation by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6). The antioxidant effect is associated with strong induction of the stress-inducible cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) and the antifibrotic effect is associated with potent inhibition of fibroblast proliferation as well as downregulation of profibrotic proteins including receptors for transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Furthermore, esomeprazole showed robust effect in mitigating the inflammatory and fibrotic responses in a murine model of acute lung injury. Finally, retrospective analysis of two ILD databases was performed to assess the effect

  1. Lung Sound Analysis and Airway Inflammation in Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study on lung sound analysis (LSA) revealed that the expiration-to-inspiration sound power ratio in a low-frequency range (E/I LF) was increased in patients with bronchial asthma, even when they have no wheezes. We also monitored the expiration-to-inspiration sound power ratio in a mid-frequency range (E/I MF) and the mid- to low-frequency sound power ratio for inspiration and expiration (ie, I MF/LF and E MF/LF, respectively) using a new software program to examine which parameter is most suitable as an index of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. A study was conducted in 31 patients with mild-to-moderate bronchial asthma to examine potential correlations of LSA parameters (E/I LF, E/I MF, I MF/LF, and E MF/LF) with spirogram parameters, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and sputum eosinophils. E/I LF was significantly correlated with airway narrowing (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1.0]/forced vital capacity [FVC]%: r = -0.50, maximal expiratory flow at 50% [V50],%pred: r = -0.50) and peripheral airway inflammation (alveolar NO: r = 0.36, eosinophils in peripheral sputum: r = 0.41). E/I MF was significantly correlated with airway narrowing (FEV1.0/FVC%: r = -0.46, V50,%pred: r = -0.49), airway inflammation (bronchial NO: r = 0.43, alveolar NO: r = 0.47, eosinophils in peripheral sputum: r = 0.50), and airway hyperresponsiveness (logPC20: r = -0.49). E MF/LF was significantly correlated with airway inflammation (NO: r = 0.36, eosinophils in sputum: r = 0.40) and airway hyperresponsiveness (logPC20: r = -0.40). I MF/LF was not significantly correlated with any parameters. Among the 4 LSA parameters investigated, E/I MF demonstrated the highest correlation with airway inflammation, and also with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetics and Role of Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Albert T; Barrett, Christopher D; DeBusk, George M; Ellson, Christian D; Gautam, Shiva; Talmor, Daniel S; Gallagher, Diana C; Yaffe, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    Primed neutrophils that are capable of releasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) into the circulation are thought to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that direct measurement of plasma MMP-9 activity may be a predictor of incipient tissue damage and subsequent lung injury, which was investigated in both an animal model of ARDS and a small cohort of 38 critically ill human patients. In a mouse model of ARDS involving instillation of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce lung inflammation, we measured neutrophil-mediated inflammation, along with MMP-9 activity in the airways and lung tissue and MMP-9 expression in the plasma. Neutrophil recruitment, inflammation, and MMP-9 activity in the airways and lung tissue increased throughout the 72 h after LPS instillation, whereas plasma MMP-9 expression was greatest at 12 to 24 h after LPS instillation. The results suggest that the peak in plasma MMP-9 activity may precede the peak of neutrophil inflammation in the airways and lung tissue in the setting of ARDS. Based on this animal study, a retrospective observational cohort study involving 38 patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit at a tertiary care university hospital with acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation was conducted. Plasma samples were collected daily, and MMP-9 activity was compared with lung function as determined by the PaO2/FiO2 ratio. In patients who developed ARDS, a notable increase in plasma MMP-9 activity on a particular day correlated with a decrease in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the following day (r = -0.503, P critically ill patients.

  3. Critical Role of Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase in Thrombin-Induced Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Lung PMN Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Fabeha; Bijli, Kaiser M.; Murrill, Matthew; Leonard, Antony; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Anwar, Khandaker N.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Watterson, D. Martin; Rahman, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) involves bidirectional cooperation and close interaction between inflammatory and coagulation pathways. A key molecule linking coagulation and inflammation is the procoagulant thrombin, a serine protease whose concentration is elevated in plasma and lavage fluids of patients with ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, little is known about the mechanism by which thrombin contributes to lung inflammatory response. In this study, we developed a new mouse model that permits investigation of lung inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation. Using this mouse model and in vitro approaches, we addressed the role of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in thrombin-induced endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and lung neutrophil (PMN) infiltration. Our in vitro experiments revealed a key role of nmMLCK in ICAM-1 expression by its ability to control nuclear translocation and transcriptional capacity of RelA/p65 in EC. When subjected to intraperitoneal thrombin challenge, wild type mice showed a marked increase in lung PMN infiltration via expression of ICAM-1. However, these responses were markedly attenuated in mice deficient in nmMLCK. These results provide mechanistic insight into lung inflammatory response associated with intravascular coagulation and identify nmMLCK as a critical target for modulation of lung inflammation. PMID:23555849

  4. Microarray analysis of regional cellular responses to local mechanical stress in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Brett A; Easley, R Blaine; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Ye, Shui Q; Lavoie, Tera; Tuder, Rubin M; Garcia, Joe G N

    2006-11-01

    Human acute lung injury is characterized by heterogeneous tissue involvement, leading to the potential for extremes of mechanical stress and tissue injury when mechanical ventilation, required to support critically ill patients, is employed. Our goal was to establish whether regional cellular responses to these disparate local mechanical conditions could be determined as a novel approach toward understanding the mechanism of development of ventilator-associated lung injury. We utilized cross-species genomic microarrays in a unilateral model of ventilator-associated lung injury in anesthetized dogs to assess regional cellular responses to local mechanical conditions that potentially contribute pathogenic mechanisms of injury. Highly significant regional differences in gene expression were observed between lung apex/base regions as well as between gravitationally dependent/nondependent regions of the base, with 367 and 1,544 genes differentially regulated between these regions, respectively. Major functional groupings of differentially regulated genes included inflammation and immune responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, signaling, and apoptosis. Expression of genes encoding both acute lung injury-associated inflammatory cytokines and protective acute response genes were markedly different in the nondependent compared with the dependent regions of the lung base. We conclude that there are significant differences in the local responses to stress within the lung, and consequently, insights into the cellular responses that contribute to ventilator-associated lung injury development must be sought in the context of the mechanical heterogeneity that characterizes this syndrome.

  5. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Christopher B.; Groves, Angela M.; Jaggernauth, Smita U.; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd) develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a ...

  6. The chemokines secretion and the oxidative stress are targets of low-level laser therapy in allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Carvalho, Jorge Luis; de Brito, Auriléia Aparecida; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; de Castro Faria Neto, Hugo Caire; Pereira, Thiago Martini; de Carvalho, Regiane Albertini; Anatriello, Elen; Aimbire, Flávio

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies show that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has an important anti-inflammatory action in acute lung inflammation. The present work explored if laser therapy is able to antagonize eosinophils and allergic inflammation induced by oxidative stress in Balb/c mice. Forty-eight hours after challenge, the leukocyte counting, ROS and nitrite/nitrate level, RANTES, CCL3, CCL8 as well as eotaxins were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of laser-treated mice or not. Into the lung, some chemokines receptors, the iNOS activity and mRNA expression, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, gluthatione, NADPH oxidase activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (T-Bars) were measured. Laser-treated allergic mice presented reduction of both the ICAM-1 and eosinophil in the lungs. RANTES, CCL8, CCL3 and eotaxins were reduced in BALF of laser-treated allergic mice. In allergic mice lung LLLT decreased the CCR1 and CCR3 and restored the oxidative stress balance as well. Laser decreased the lipidic peroxidation in allergic mice lung as much as increased SOD, GPx and GR. It shows that LLLT on allergic lung inflammation involves leukocyte-attractant chemokines and endogenous antioxidant. Based on results, LLLT may ultimately become a non- invasive option in allergic lung disease treatment. The top figure illustrates the laser decreasing the eosinophils migration into BALF and the bottom figure shows the laser upregulating the expression of heme-oxygenase (anti-oxidant enzyme) in lung tissue anti-oxidant. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Pre-treatment with allopurinol or uricase attenuates barrier dysfunction but not inflammation during murine ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Kuipers

    Full Text Available Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid are reported. We studied levels in human lung injury and the contribution of uric acid in experimental VILI.Uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid of patients with acute lung injury (ALI were determined. In a different cohort of cardiac surgery patients, uric acid levels were correlated with pulmonary leakage index. In a mouse model of VILI the effect of allopurinol (inhibits uric acid synthesis and uricase (degrades uric acid pre-treatment on neutrophil influx, up-regulation of adhesion molecules, pulmonary and systemic cytokine levels, lung pathology, and regulation of receptors involved in the recognition of uric acid was studied. In addition, total protein and immunoglobulin M in lung lavage fluid and pulmonary wet/dry ratios were measured as markers of alveolar barrier dysfunction.Uric acid levels increased in ALI patients. In cardiac surgery patients, elevated levels correlated significantly with the pulmonary leakage index. Allopurinol or uricase treatment did not reduce ventilator-induced inflammation, IκB-α degradation, or up-regulation of NLRP3, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression in mice. Alveolar barrier dysfunction was attenuated which was most pronounced in mice pre-treated with allopurinol: both treatment strategies reduced wet/dry ratio, allopurinol also lowered total protein and immunoglobulin M levels.Local uric acid levels increase in patients with ALI. In mice, allopurinol and uricase attenuate ventilator-induced alveolar barrier dysfunction.

  8. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauk Carole L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802 and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 μg did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%, endothelin-1 (20–40%, and metallothionein-II (20–40% mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression.

  9. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shaughnessy Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure. Results In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu. Conclusions Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.

  10. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  11. Treatment with H2S-releasing diclofenac protects mice against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Madhav; Sidhapuriwala, Jenab N; Sparatore, Anna; Moore, Philip K

    2008-01-01

    Impaired lung function in severe acute pancreatitis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a naturally occurring gas that has been shown to be a potent vasodilator. Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity. ACS15 is an H(2)S-releasing derivative of diclofenac. Little is known about its effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory drug. In this report, we describe the effect of diclofenac and its H(2)S-releasing derivative on acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury in the mouse. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by hourly i.p. injections of cerulein. Diclofenac and ACS15 were administered either 1 hour before or 1 hour after starting cerulein injections, and the severity of acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury was assessed. The severity of acute pancreatitis was determined by hyperamylasemia, neutrophil sequestration in the pancreas (pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity), and pancreatic acinar cell injury/necrosis on histological examination of pancreas sections. The severity of acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury was assessed by neutrophil sequestration in the lungs (lung myeloperoxidase activity) and by histological examination of lung sections. ACS15, given prophylactically and therapeutically, significantly reduced lung inflammation without having any significant effect on pancreatic injury. These results suggest the usefulness of H(2)S-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as potential treatments for pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

  12. The novel cytokine interleukin-33 activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and induces acute pancreatic inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown.In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-α stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2α. Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue.As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation

  13. Allicin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of allicin, an active component of garlic, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced acute lung injury. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to LPS intravenous injection with or without allicin treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. Also, A549 cells were stimulated with LPS in the ...

  14. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  15. Creatine kinase activity in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Zapryanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total creatine kinase (CK activity in dogs. In these animals, CK is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. Plasma increases in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation. The study was induced in 15 mongrel male dogs (n=9 in experimental group and n=6 in control group at the age of two years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was evaluated at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 hours after inoculation and on days 7, 14 and 21 by a kit from Hospitex Diagnostics. In the experimental group, the plasma concentrations of the CK-activity were increased at the 48th hour (97.48±6.92 U/L and remained significantly higher (p<0.05 at the 72 hour (97.43±2.93 U/L compared to the control group (77.08±5.27 U/L. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of creatine kinase in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation has a limited diagnostic value. It was observed that the creatine kinase activity is slightly affected by the experimentally induced acute inflammation in dogs.

  16. The Flavonoid Isoliquiritigenin Reduces Lung Inflammation and Mouse Morbidity during Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hussein; Cloutier, Alexandre; Boyapelly, Kumaraswamy; Bonin, Marc-André; Marsault, Éric; Cantin, André M; Richter, Martin V

    2015-10-01

    The host response to influenza virus infection is characterized by an acute lung inflammatory response in which intense inflammatory cell recruitment, hypercytokinemia, and a high level of oxidative stress are present. The sum of these events contributes to the virus-induced lung damage that leads to high a level of morbidity and mortality in susceptible infected patients. In this context, we identified compounds that can simultaneously reduce the excessive inflammatory response and the viral replication as a strategy to treat influenza virus infection. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antiviral potential activities of isoliquiritigenin (ILG). Interestingly, we demonstrated that ILG is a potent inhibitor of influenza virus replication in human bronchial epithelial cells (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 24.7 μM). In addition, our results showed that this molecule inhibits the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced after the infection of cells with influenza virus. We demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of ILG in the context of influenza virus infection is dependent on the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway. Interestingly, ILG phosphate (ILG-p)-treated mice displayed decreased lung inflammation as depicted by reduced cytokine gene expression and inflammatory cell recruitment. We also demonstrated that influenza virus-specific CD8(+) effector T cell recruitment was reduced up to 60% in the lungs of mice treated with ILG-p (10 mg/kg) compared to that in saline-treated mice. Finally, we showed that administration of ILG-p reduced lung viral titers and morbidity of mice infected with the PR8/H1N1 virus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Early pulmonary inflammation and lung damage in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, André; Stick, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer progressive airway inflammation, infection and lung damage. Airway inflammation and infection are present from early in life, often before children are symptomatic. CF gene mutations cause changes in the CF transmembrane regulator protein that result in an aberrant airway microenvironment including airway surface liquid (ASL) dehydration, reduced ASL acidity, altered airway mucin and a dysregulated inflammatory response. This review discusses how an altered microenvironment drives CF lung disease before overt airway infection, the response of the CF airway to early infection, and methods to prevent inflammation and early lung disease. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Opposing functions of IKKβ during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Lars; Nebelsiek, Tim; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Dann, Sara M.; Mages, Jörg; Lang, Roland; Robine, Sylvie; Kagnoff, Martin F.; Schmid, Roland M.; Karin, Michael; Arkan, Melek C.; Greten, Florian R.

    2008-01-01

    NF-κB is a key transcriptional regulator of inflammatory responses, but also controls expression of prosurvival genes, whose products protect tissues from damage and may thus act indirectly in an antiinflammatory fashion. The variable importance of these two distinct NF-κB-controlled responses impacts the potential utility of NF-κB inhibition as a treatment strategy for intractable inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show in murine models that inhibition of IKKβ-dependent NF-κB activation exacerbates acute inflammation, but attenuates chronic inflammatory disease in the intestinal tract. Acute ulcerating inflammation is aggravated because of diminished NF-κB-mediated protection against epithelial cell apoptosis and delayed mucosal regeneration secondary to reduced NF-κB-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells that secrete cytoprotective factors. In contrast, in IL-10-deficient mice, which serve as a model of chronic T cell-dependent colitis, ablation of IKKβ in the intestinal epithelium has no impact, yet IKKβ deficiency in myeloid cells attenuates inflammation and prolongs survival. These results highlight the striking context and tissue dependence of the proinflammatory and antiapoptotic functions of NF-κB. Our findings caution against the therapeutic use of IKKβ/NF-κB inhibitors in acute inflammatory settings dominated by cell loss and ulceration. PMID:18815378

  19. Opposing functions of IKKbeta during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Lars; Nebelsiek, Tim; Fingerle, Alexander A; Dann, Sara M; Mages, Jörg; Lang, Roland; Robine, Sylvie; Kagnoff, Martin F; Schmid, Roland M; Karin, Michael; Arkan, Melek C; Greten, Florian R

    2008-09-30

    NF-kappaB is a key transcriptional regulator of inflammatory responses, but also controls expression of prosurvival genes, whose products protect tissues from damage and may thus act indirectly in an antiinflammatory fashion. The variable importance of these two distinct NF-kappaB-controlled responses impacts the potential utility of NF-kappaB inhibition as a treatment strategy for intractable inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show in murine models that inhibition of IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation exacerbates acute inflammation, but attenuates chronic inflammatory disease in the intestinal tract. Acute ulcerating inflammation is aggravated because of diminished NF-kappaB-mediated protection against epithelial cell apoptosis and delayed mucosal regeneration secondary to reduced NF-kappaB-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells that secrete cytoprotective factors. In contrast, in IL-10-deficient mice, which serve as a model of chronic T cell-dependent colitis, ablation of IKKbeta in the intestinal epithelium has no impact, yet IKKbeta deficiency in myeloid cells attenuates inflammation and prolongs survival. These results highlight the striking context and tissue dependence of the proinflammatory and antiapoptotic functions of NF-kappaB. Our findings caution against the therapeutic use of IKKbeta/NF-kappaB inhibitors in acute inflammatory settings dominated by cell loss and ulceration.

  20. A review of pulmonary coagulopathy in acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Laurens; de Groot, Philip G.; Grutters, Jan C.; Biesma, Douwe H.

    Enhanced bronchoalveolar coagulation is a hallmark of many acute inflammatory lung diseases such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia. Intervention with natural anticoagulants in these diseases has therefore become a topic of interest. Recently, new data on the

  1. MUC18 Regulates Lung Rhinovirus Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Reena; Jiang, Di; Wu, Qun; Stevenson, Connor R; Schaefer, Niccolette R; Chu, Hong Wei

    2016-01-01

    MUC18 is upregulated in the lungs of asthma and COPD patients. It has been shown to have pro-inflammatory functions in cultured human airway epithelial cells during viral infections and in mice during lung bacterial infections. However, the in vivo role of MUC18 in the context of viral infections remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to define the in vivo function of MUC18 during respiratory rhinovirus infection. Muc18 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV-1B) and sacrificed after 1 day to determine the inflammatory and antiviral responses. To examine the direct effects of Muc18 on viral infection, tracheal epithelial cells isolated from WT and KO mice were grown under air-liquid interface and infected with HRV-1B. Finally, siRNA mediated knockdown of MUC18 was performed in human airway epithelial cells (AECs) to define the impact of MUC18 on human airway response to HRV-1B. Both viral load and neutrophilic inflammation were significantly decreased in Muc18 KO mice compared to WT mice. In the in vitro setting, viral load was significantly lower and antiviral gene expression was higher in airway epithelial cells of Muc18 KO mice than the WT mice. Furthermore, in MUC18 knockdown human AECs, viral load was decreased and antiviral gene expression was increased compared to controls. Our study is the first to demonstrate MUC18's pro-inflammatory and pro-viral function in an in vivo mouse model of rhinovirus infection.

  2. NLRP3 deletion protects from hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Jutaro; Fukumoto, Itsuko; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cox, Ruan; Huynh, Bao; Ramanathan, Gurukumar Kollongod; Venugopal, Rajan Babu; Allen-Gipson, Diane S; Lockey, Richard F; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2013-07-15

    Inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen, a therapy for acute lung injury (ALI), could unexpectedly lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI). Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat PYD-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) senses the ROS, triggering inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and secretion. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in HALI is unclear. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of NLRP3 gene deletion on inflammatory response and lung epithelial cell death. Wild-type (WT) and NLRP3(-/-) mice were exposed to 100% O2 for 48-72 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues were examined for proinflammatory cytokine production and lung inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung pathological score was suppressed in NLRP3(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Hyperoxia-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells and elevation of IL-1β, TNFα, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were attenuated in NLRP3(-/-) mice. NLRP3 deletion decreased lung epithelial cell death and caspase-3 levels and a suppressed NF-κB levels compared with WT controls. Taken together, this research demonstrates for the first time that NLRP3-deficient mice have suppressed inflammatory response and blunted lung epithelial cell apoptosis to HALI.

  3. PET imaging of acute and chronic inflammation in living mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qizhen; Cai, Weibo; Li, Zi-Bo; Chen, Kai; He, Lina; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Stanford University School of Medicine, The Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Li, Hui-Cheng; Hui, Mizhou [AmProtein Corporation, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute and chronic inflammation in living mice by PET imaging of TNF-{alpha} and integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression. TPA was topically applied to the right ear of BALB/c mice every other day to create the inflammation model. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-etanercept and {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} were used for PET imaging of TNF-{alpha} and integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression in both acute and chronic inflammation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, ex vivo autoradiography, direct tissue sampling, and immunofluorescence staining were also performed to confirm the non-invasive PET imaging results. The ear thickness increased significantly and the TNF-{alpha} level more than tripled after a single TPA challenge. MicroPET imaging using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-etanercept revealed high activity accumulation in the inflamed ear, reaching 11.1 {+-} 1.3, 13.0 {+-} 2.0, 10.9 {+-} 1.4, 10.2 {+-} 2.2%ID/g at 1, 4, 16, and 24 h post injection, respectively (n = 3). Repeated TPA challenges caused TPA-specific chronic inflammation and reduced {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-etanercept uptake due to lowered TNF-{alpha} expression. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} uptake in the chronically inflamed ears (after four and eight TPA challenges) was significantly higher than in the control ears and those after one TPA challenge. Immunofluorescence staining revealed increased integrin {beta}{sub 3} expression, consistent with the non-invasive PET imaging results using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} as an integrin {alpha}{sub v} {beta}{sub 3}-specific radiotracer. Biodistribution and autoradiography studies further confirmed the quantification capability of microPET imaging. Successful PET imaging of TNF- {alpha} expression in acute inflammation and integrin {alpha}{sub v} {beta}{sub 3} expression in chronic inflammation provides

  4. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanfei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  5. Immunothrombosis in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Cross Talks between Inflammation and Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskaki, Frantzeska; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Orfanos, Stylianos E

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as a syndrome of acute onset, with bilateral opacities on chest imaging and respiratory failure not caused by cardiac failure, leading to mild, moderate, or severe oxygenation impairment. The syndrome is most commonly a manifestation of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction, characterized by disruption of endothelial barrier integrity and diffuse lung damage. Imbalance between coagulation and inflammation is a predominant characteristic of ARDS, leading to extreme inflammatory response and diffuse fibrin deposition in vascular capillary bed and alveoli. Activated platelets, neutrophils, endothelial cells, neutrophil extracellular traps, microparticles, and coagulation proteases, participate in the complex process of immunothrombosis, which is a key event in ARDS pathophysiology. The present review is focused on the elucidation of immunothrombosis in ARDS and the potential therapeutic implications. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F; Humphrey, David M; Powell, Karen S; Roberts, Andrew M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24h after exposure to 800ppm chlorine for 4min to study acute effects or up to 7days after exposure to 400ppm for 8min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24h after inhalation of 800ppm chlorine for 4min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400ppm chlorine for 8min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) in acute respiratory distress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the most severe manifestation of acute lung injury and it is associated with high mortality rate. ARDS is characterized by the acute onset of diffuse neutrophilic alveolar infiltrates protein-rich edema due to enhanced alveolar-capillary permeability and hypoxemic respiratory failure.

  8. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran A Brune

    can enter airway epithelial cells and alter their function by impairing cell-cell adhesion and increasing the expression of inflammatory mediators. These observed changes may contribute local inflammation, which can lead to lung function decline and increased susceptibility to COPD in HIV patients.

  9. Possible regulatory role of galectin-9 on Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Shigeki; Oomizu, Souichi; Niki, Toshiro; Shimizu, Hiroki; Obase, Yasushi; Korenaga, Masataka; Oka, Mikio; Hirashima, Mistuomi

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a member of the galectin family of lectins that exhibit binding affinity for β-galactosides. We found a T cell line-derived Gal-9 with novel eosinophil chemoattractant activity, but its role in eosinophilic inflammation of the lung is unknown. We evaluated the role of Gal-9 in Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. To evaluate the role of Gal-9 in Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation, we developed a mouse model of eosinophilic pneumonia induced by the Ascaris suum antigen, and analyzed eosinophilic inflammation in Gal-9-deficient mice. The therapeutic effects of recombinant Gal-9 on lung inflammation were also examined in this mouse model. To evaluate lung inflammation, numbers of inflammatory cells and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were estimated by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The BALF of this mouse model of eosinophilic pneumonia induced by the Ascaris suum antigen contained increased numbers of inflammatory cells and elevated Gal-9 levels. Compared with wild-type mice, the BALF of Gal-9-deficient mice contained higher numbers of both eosinophils and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Th2 cytokines and eotaxin levels were also higher, and levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were lower in Gal-9-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Intranasal administration of recombinant Gal-9 prevented eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and upregulated the release of endogenous Gal-9. Our findings suggest that Gal-9 negatively regulates Th2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be involved in suppressing allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    Lung injury is the most pertinent manifestation of extra-abdominal organ dysfunction in pancreatitis. The propensity of this retroperitoneal inflammatory condition to engender a diffuse and life-threatening lung injury is significant. Approximately one third of patients will develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The variability in the clinical course of pancreatitis renders it a vexing entity and makes demonstration of the efficacy of any specific intervention difficult. The distinct pathologic entity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury is reviewed with a focus on etiology and potential therapeutic maneuvers.

  11. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  12. Extravascular inflammation in experimental atherosclerosis : the role of the liver and lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Man Chi

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the role of the liver and lungs in atherosclerosis development were studied. The liver plays an important role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, the two main processes involved in atherogenesis. We show that continuous enhanced inflammation in hepatocytes increased the hepatic

  13. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with conventional tidal volumes for patients without acute lung injury: a preventive randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Determann, R.M.; Royakkers, A.; Wolthuis, E.K.; Vlaar, A.P.; Choi, G.; Paulus, F.; Hofstra, J.J.; Graaff, M.J. de; Korevaar, J.C.; Schultz, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Recent cohort studies have identified the use of large tidal volumes as a major risk factor for development of lung injury in mechanically ventilated patients without acute lung injury (ALI). We compared the effect of conventional with lower tidal volumes on pulmonary inflammation and

  14. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with conventional tidal volumes for patients without acute lung injury : a preventive randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Determann, Rogier M; Royakkers, Annick; Wolthuis, Esther K; Vlaar, Alexander P; Choi, Goda; Paulus, Frederique; Hofstra, Jorrit-Jan; de Graaff, Mart J; Korevaar, Johanna C; Schultz, Marcus J

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent cohort studies have identified the use of large tidal volumes as a major risk factor for development of lung injury in mechanically ventilated patients without acute lung injury (ALI). We compared the effect of conventional with lower tidal volumes on pulmonary inflammation and

  15. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI – acase report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury is defined as acute respiratory failure which develops during or within 6 hours after transfusion of a blood component in a patient with no risk factors for respiratory insufficiency. Transfusion-related acute lung injury is diagnosed based on clinical manifestation and by excluding other causes of acute lung injury. Unambiguous diagnosis is difficult. Looking for anti-HLA and/or anti-HNA antibodies in donors and sometimes in recipients plays an important role in lab tests. Negative antibody findings, either in a donor or in a recipient, do not exclude transfusion-related acute lung injury, which, however, does not exempt from performing leukocyte antibody tests since they are extremely important for transfusion-related acute lung injury prophylaxis. The ways to prevent this reaction include: disqualifying donors with anti-HLA/HNA antibodies, screening for antibodies in multiparous women and in individuals after transfusion, modifying the way blood components are prepared and limiting blood transfusion in clinical practice. The paper presents a case of a 38-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukaemia, hospitalised at the Department of Internal Diseases and Haematology of the Military Institute of Medicine for subsequent courses of chemotherapy. During treatment, the patient had red cells and platelets concentrates transfused several times with no transfusion-related reactions. Eight days after the last chemotherapy infusion, the patient developed high temperature and her platelet count was 14 × 103 /mL. Therefore, the patient received a platelet concentrate again. About 1 hour after transfusion, the patient complained about chest pain and dyspnoea. She needed oxygen therapy. Chest X-ray revealed lung oedema with no signs of left ventricular failure. Once other causes of acute lung injury were excluded, transfusion-related acute lung injury was diagnosed.

  16. Quantitative assessment of global lung inflammation following radiation therapy using FDG PET/CT: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla, Sarah; Salavati, Ali; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A. [University of Pennsylvania, and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Basu, Sandip [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Tata Memorial Center Annexe, Radiation Medicine Center, Bombay (India); Alavi, Abass [University of Pennsylvania, and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Radiation pneumonitis is the most severe dose-limiting complication in patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify global lung inflammation following radiation therapy using FDG PET/CT. We studied 20 subjects with stage III non-small-cell lung carcinoma who had undergone FDG PET/CT imaging before and after radiation therapy. On all PET/CT studies, the sectional lung volume (sLV) of each lung was calculated from each slice by multiplying the lung area by slice thickness. The sectional lung glycolysis (sLG) was calculated by multiplying the sLV and the lung sectional mean standardized uptake value (sSUVmean) on each slice passing through the lung. The lung volume (LV) was calculated by adding all sLVs from the lung, and the global lung glycolysis (GLG) was calculated by adding all sLGs from the lung. Finally, the lung SUVmean was calculated by dividing the GLG by the LV. The amount of inflammation in the lung parenchyma directly receiving radiation therapy was calculated by subtracting tumor measurements from GLG. In the lung directly receiving radiation therapy, the lung parenchyma SUVmean and global lung parenchymal glycolysis were significantly increased following therapy. In the contralateral lung (internal control), no significant changes were observed in lung SUVmean or GLG following radiation therapy. Global lung parenchymal glycolysis and lung parenchymal SUVmean may serve as potentially useful biomarkers to quantify lung inflammation on FDG PET/CT following thoracic radiation therapy. (orig.)

  17. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D provides a cross-talk between chronic inflammation and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Xing; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Yi-Chun; Bai, Chun-Xue; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Jie-Bai

    2017-03-24

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are exposed to a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Chronic inflammation may play an important role in the lung carcinogenesis among those patients. The present study aimed at identifying candidate biomarker predicting lung cancer risk among patients with chronic respiratory diseases. We applied clinical bioinformatics tools to analyze different gene profile datasets with a special focus on screening the potential biomarker during chronic inflammation-lung cancer transition. Then we adopted an in vitro model based on LPS-challenged A549 cells to validate the biomarker through RNA-sequencing, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis. Bioinformatics analyses of the 16 enrolled GSE datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus online database showed myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) level significantly increased in COPD patients coexisting non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Inflammation challenge increased MEF2D expression in NSCLC cell line A549, associated with the severity of inflammation. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibition could reverse the up-regulation of MEF2D in inflammation-activated A549. MEF2D played a critical role in NSCLC cell bio-behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, and movement. Inflammatory conditions led to increased MEF2D expression, which might further contribute to the development of lung cancer through influencing cancer microenvironment and cell bio-behaviors. MEF2D might be a potential biomarker during chronic inflammation-lung cancer transition, predicting the risk of lung cancer among patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  18. Therapeutic Effect of the Tuber of Alisma orientale on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyun Ha Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Alisma orientale, an ethnic herb, has been prescribed for treating various diseases in Asian traditional medicine, experimental evidence to support its therapeutic effects is lacking. Here, we sought to determine whether A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury (ALI. Ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale (EEAO was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC for its constituents. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS for the induction of ALI. At 2 h after LPS treatment, mice received an intratracheal (i.t. spraying of various amounts of EEAO to the lung. Bioluminescence imaging of transgenic NF-κB/luciferase reporter mice shows that i.t. EEAO posttreatment suppressed lung inflammation. In similar experiments with C57BL/6 mice, EEAO posttreatment significantly improved lung inflammation, as assessed by H&E staining of lung sections, counting of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-dependent genes in the inflamed lungs. Furthermore, EEAO posttreatment enhanced the survival of mice that received a lethal dose of LPS. Together, our results provide evidence that A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on ALI induced by sepsis.

  19. The Nitrated Fatty Acid 10-Nitro-oleate Diminishes Severity of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind T. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is an inflammatory condition culminating in respiratory failure. There is currently no effective pharmacological treatment. Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that delivery of NFAs directly to the site of inflammation would reduce the severity of ALI. Pulmonary delivery of 10-nitro-oleate following endotoxin-induced ALI in mice reduced markers of lung inflammation and injury, including capillary leakage, lung edema, infiltration of neutrophils into the lung, and oxidant stress, as well as plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Nitro-oleate delivery likewise downregulated expression of proinflammatory genes by alveolar macrophages, key cells in regulation of lung inflammation. These effects may be accounted for by the observed increases in the activity of PPAR-γ and the PPAR-γ-induced antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2, together with the decreased activity of NF-κB. Our results demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of NFAs reduces severity of acute lung injury and suggest potential utility of these molecules in other inflammatory lung diseases.

  20. Biomass Smoke Exposure Enhances Rhinovirus-Induced Inflammation in Primary Lung Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrano, Sarah J; Zakarya, Razia; Chen, Hui; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-08-25

    Biomass smoke is one of the major air pollutants and contributors of household air pollution worldwide. More than 3 billion people use biomass fuels for cooking and heating, while other sources of exposure are from the occurrence of bushfires and occupational conditions. Persistent biomass smoke exposure has been associated with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) as a major environmental risk factor. Children under the age of five years are the most susceptible in developing severe ALRI, which accounts for 940,000 deaths globally. Around 90% of cases are attributed to viral infections, such as influenza, adenovirus, and rhinovirus. Although several epidemiological studies have generated substantial evidence of the association of biomass smoke and respiratory infections, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Using an in vitro model, primary human lung fibroblasts were stimulated with biomass smoke extract (BME), specifically investigating hardwood and softwood types, and human rhinovirus-16 for 24 h. Production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and IL-8, were measured via ELISA. Firstly, we found that hardwood and softwood smoke extract (1%) up-regulate IL-6 and IL-8 release (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, human rhinovirus-16 further increased biomass smoke-induced IL-8 in fibroblasts, in comparison to the two stimulatory agents alone. We also investigated the effect of biomass smoke on viral susceptibility by measuring viral load, and found no significant changes between BME exposed and non-exposed infected fibroblasts. Activated signaling pathways for IL-6 and IL-8 production by BME stimulation were examined using signaling pathway inhibitors. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 significantly attenuated IL-6 and IL-8 release the most (p ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated that biomass smoke can modulate rhinovirus-induced inflammation during infection, which can alter the severity of the disease. The mechanism by which biomass smoke exposure increases

  1. Sequential analysis of surfactant, lung function and inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Karl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross-sectional analysis of cystic fibrosis (CF patients with mild lung disease, reduced surfactant activity was correlated to increased neutrophilic airway inflammation, but not to lung function. So far, longitudinal measurements of surfactant function in CF patients are lacking and it remains unclear how these alterations relate to the progression of airway inflammation as well as decline in pulmonary function over time. Methods As part of the BEAT trial, a longitudinal study to assess the course of airway inflammation in CF, we studied lung function, surfactant function and endobronchial inflammation using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 CF patients with normal pulmonary function (median FEV1 94% of predicted at three times over a three year period. Results There was a progressive loss of surfactant function, assessed as minimal surface tension. The decline in surfactant function was negatively correlated to an increase in neutrophilic inflammation and a decrease in lung function, assessed by FEV1, MEF75/25%VC, and MEF25%VC. The concentrations of the surfactant specific proteins A, C and D did not change, whereas SP-B increased during this time period. Conclusion Our findings suggest a link between loss of surfactant function driven by progressive airway inflammation and loss of small airway function in CF patients with limited lung disease.

  2. Exaggerated Acute Lung Injury and Impaired Antibacterial Defenses During Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Rats with the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomei; Maze, Mervyn; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hellman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Rats with Metabolic Syndrome (MetaS) have a dysregulated immune response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. We hypothesized that rats with MetaS would have dysregulated inflammation, increased lung injury, and less effective antibacterial defenses during Staphylococcus (S.) aureus sepsis as compared to rats without MetaS. Low capacity runner (LCR; a model of MetaS) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were challenged intravenously with S. aureus bacteria. After 48 h, inflammatory mediators and bacteria were quantified in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung homogenates. Lungs were analyzed histologically. BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios were quantified to assess for vascular leak. Endpoints were compared in infected LCR vs HCR rats. LCR rats had higher blood and lung S. aureus counts, as well as higher levels of IL-6 in plasma, lungs and BALF, MIP-2 in plasma and lung, and IL-17A in lungs. Conversely, LCR rats had lower levels of IL-10 in plasma and lungs. Although lactate levels, and liver and renal function tests were similar between groups, LCR rats had higher BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios, and more pronounced acute lung injury histologically. During S. aureus bacteremia, as compared with HCR rats, LCR (MetaS) rats have heightened pro-inflammatory responses, accompanied by increased acute lung injury and vascular leak. Notably, despite an augmented pro-inflammatory phenotype, LCR rats have higher bacterial levels in their blood and lungs. The MetaS state may exacerbate lung injury and vascular leak by attenuating the inflammation-resolving response, and by weakening antimicrobial defenses.

  3. CORM-2 inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Fei, Dongsheng; Gong, Rui; Yang, Wei; Yu, Wei; Pan, Shangha; Zhao, Mingran; Zhao, Mingyan

    2016-11-01

    Accumulated studies suggest that exogenously administered carbon monoxide is beneficial for the resolution of acute lung inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the effects and the underlying mechanisms of CORM-2 on thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was intratracheally induced by LPS in C57BL6 mice. CORM-2 or iCORM-2 (30mg/kg i.p.) was administered immediately before LPS instillation. 6 h later, lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were acquired for IL-18, IL-1β, and cell measurement, and lung issues were collected for histologic examination, wet/dry weight ratio, and determination of TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome expression, NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-ΚB activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LPS triggered significant lung edema, lung injury, and leukocyte infiltration, and elevated the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 in lung BAL fluids. CORM-2 pretreatment resulted in a marked amelioration of lung injury and reduced IL-1β and IL-18 secretion in BAL fluids. In lung tissues; CORM-2 down-regulated mRNA and protein level of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1. Furthermore, CORM-2 reduced ROS production, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activity, and interaction of TXNIP-NLRP3. However, no significant differences were detected between the LPS and iCORM-2 (an inactive variant of CORM-2) group. CORM-2 suppresses TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protects against LPS-induced lung injury.

  4. DISTINCT PHENOTYPES OF INFILTRATING CELLS DURING ACUTE AND CHRONIC LUNG REJECTION IN HUMAN HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, JB; CLELLAND, C; GOUW, ASH; PROP, J

    1995-01-01

    To differentiate between acute and chronic lung rejection in an early stage, phenotypes of infiltrating inflammatory cells were analyzed in 34 transbronchial biopsies (TBBs) of 24 patients after heart-lung transplantation. TBBs were taken during during acute lung rejection and chronic lung

  5. HIF1A reduces acute lung injury by optimizing carbohydrate metabolism in the alveolar epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eckle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While acute lung injury (ALI contributes significantly to critical illness, it resolves spontaneously in many instances. The majority of patients experiencing ALI require mechanical ventilation. Therefore, we hypothesized that mechanical ventilation and concomitant stretch-exposure of pulmonary epithelia could activate endogenous pathways important in lung protection.To examine transcriptional responses during ALI, we exposed pulmonary epithelia to cyclic mechanical stretch conditions--an in vitro model resembling mechanical ventilation. A genome-wide screen revealed a transcriptional response similar to hypoxia signaling. Surprisingly, we found that stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A during stretch conditions in vitro or during ventilator-induced ALI in vivo occurs under normoxic conditions. Extension of these findings identified a functional role for stretch-induced inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH in mediating normoxic HIF1A stabilization, concomitant increases in glycolytic capacity, and improved tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle function. Pharmacologic studies with HIF activator or inhibitor treatment implicated HIF1A-stabilization in attenuating pulmonary edema and lung inflammation during ALI in vivo. Systematic deletion of HIF1A in the lungs, endothelia, myeloid cells, or pulmonary epithelia linked these findings to alveolar-epithelial HIF1A. In vivo analysis of ¹³C-glucose metabolites utilizing liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry demonstrated that increases in glycolytic capacity, improvement of mitochondrial respiration, and concomitant attenuation of lung inflammation during ALI were specific for alveolar-epithelial expressed HIF1A.These studies reveal a surprising role for HIF1A in lung protection during ALI, where normoxic HIF1A stabilization and HIF-dependent control of alveolar-epithelial glucose metabolism function as an endogenous feedback loop to dampen lung inflammation.

  6. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation in healthy intermittent smokers

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    Vonk Judith M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Knowledge on the response to the initial smoke exposures might enhance the understanding of changes due to chronic smoking, since repetitive acute smoke effects may cumulate and lead to irreversible lung damage. Methods We investigated acute effects of smoking on inflammation in 16 healthy intermittent smokers in an open randomised cross-over study. We compared effects of smoking of two cigarettes on inflammatory markers in exhaled air, induced sputum, blood and urine at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours and outcomes without smoking. All sputum and blood parameters were log transformed and analysed using a linear mixed effect model. Results Significant findings were: Smoking increased exhaled carbon monoxide between 0 and 1 hour, and induced a greater decrease in blood eosinophils and sputum lymphocytes between 0 and 3 hours compared to non-smoking. Compared to non-smoking, smoking induced a greater interleukin-8 release from stimulated blood cells between 0 and 3 hours, and a greater increase in sputum lymphocytes and neutrophils between 3 and 12 hours. Conclusion We conclude that besides an increase in inflammation, as known from chronic smoking, there is also a suppressive effect of smoking two cigarettes on particular inflammatory parameters.

  7. The effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure on inflammation and lung function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Janka, Maxine A; Mullins, Benjamin J; Berry, Luke J; Bredin, Arne; Franklin, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarette usage is increasing worldwide, yet there is a paucity of information on the respiratory health effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol would alter lung function and pulmonary inflammation in mice and to compare the severity of any alterations with mice exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke. Female BALB/c mice were exposed for 8 wk to tobacco smoke, medical air (control), or one of four different types of e-cigarette aerosol. E-cigarette aerosols varied depending on nicotine content (0 or 12 mg/ml) and the main excipient (propylene glycol or glycerin). Twenty-four hours after the final exposure, we measured pulmonary inflammation, lung volume, lung mechanics, and responsiveness to methacholine. Mice exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke had increased pulmonary inflammation and responsiveness to methacholine compared with air controls. Mice exposed to e-cigarette aerosol did not have increased inflammation but did display decrements in parenchymal lung function at both functional residual capacity and high transrespiratory pressures. Mice exposed to glycerin-based e-cigarette aerosols were also hyperresponsive to methacholine regardless of the presence or absence of nicotine. This study shows, for the first time, that exposure to e-cigarette aerosol during adolescence and early adulthood is not harmless to the lungs and can result in significant impairments in lung function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Kong, Huan-Yu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Huang; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2013-06-15

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. The dry root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn has been long used to treat respiratory diseases in China. In the present study, Praeruptorin A, C, D and E (PA, PC, PD and PE), four pyranocoumarins extracted from this herb, have been investigated for the pharmacological effects in experimental lung injury mouse models. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice, PA and PC did not show protective effect against lung injury at the dose of 80 mg/kg. However, PD and PE significantly inhibited the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group. Further study demonstrated that PD and PE suppressed protein extravasations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the pathological changes in the lung. Both PD and PE suppressed LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. We also extended our study to acid-induced acute lung injury and found that these two compounds protected mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation. Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phagocytosis of microparticles by alveolar macrophages during acute lung injury requires MerTK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohning, Michael P; Thomas, Stacey M; Barthel, Lea; Mould, Kara J; McCubbrey, Alexandria L; Frasch, S Courtney; Bratton, Donna L; Henson, Peter M; Janssen, William J

    2018-01-01

    Microparticles are a newly recognized class of mediators in the pathophysiology of lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about the factors that regulate their accumulation and clearance. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether alveolar macrophages engulf microparticles and to elucidate the mechanisms by which this occurs. Alveolar microparticles were quantified in bronchoalveolar fluid of mice with lung injury induced by LPS and hydrochloric acid. Microparticle numbers were greatest at the peak of inflammation and declined as inflammation resolved. Isolated, fluorescently labeled particles were placed in culture with macrophages to evaluate ingestion in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. Ingestion was blocked with cytochalasin D and wortmannin, consistent with a phagocytic process. In separate experiments, mice were treated intratracheally with labeled microparticles, and their uptake was assessed though microscopy and flow cytometry. Resident alveolar macrophages, not recruited macrophages, were the primary cell-ingesting microparticles in the alveolus during lung injury. In vitro, microparticles promoted inflammatory signaling in LPS primed epithelial cells, signifying the importance of microparticle clearance in resolving lung injury. Microparticles were found to have phosphatidylserine exposed on their surfaces. Accordingly, we measured expression of phosphatidylserine receptors on macrophages and found high expression of MerTK and Axl in the resident macrophage population. Endocytosis of microparticles was markedly reduced in MerTK-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, microparticles are released during acute lung injury and peak in number at the height of inflammation. Resident alveolar macrophages efficiently clear these microparticles through MerTK-mediated phagocytosis.

  10. Inhaled unfractionated heparin improves abnormalities of alveolar coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in endotoxemia-induced lung injury rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Zhu, Zhao-Zhong; Yang, Ba-Xian; Zhu, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome presents with not only local inflammation, but also pulmonary coagulopathy which is characterized by an alveolar procoagulant response, anticoagulant inhibition, fibrinolytic supression and fibrin deposition. We thus had hypothesized that if aerosolized unfractionated heparin was inhaled into alveolar spaces, it could block the procoagulant tendency, lessen depletion of coagulation factors, and even influence the inflammatory response. We also assessed the effects of different administration regimens of heparin. Male Wistar rats were given inhaled heparin starting 30 minutes before (prophylactic heparin) or 2 hours after (therapeutic heparin) intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered at 6-hour intervals; control groups received inhaled normal saline with or without being exposed to LPS. Thrombin-antithrombin complexes, activated protein C, tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (t-PA/u-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and histology score were measured at three time-points. PAI-1/(t-PA + u-PA) was calculated based on the before-mentioned parameters. Statistical analysis was made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc test or Student's t test in the case of heterogeneity of variance. An alveolar procoagulant reaction, depressed fibrinolysis, and inflammatory response occurred in endotoxemia-induced lung injury. Local prophylactic application of heparin attenuated coagulation and early inflammation, promoted fibrinolysis, and reduced the histology score. Therapeutic application of heparin had similar, but weaker effects. Intrapulmonary application of unfractionated heparin by inhalation might inhibit alveolar procoagulant reaction and the early inflammatory response, promote fibrinolysis, and alleviate pulmonary pathology in endotoxemia-induced lung

  11. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  12. Antinociception induced by galanin in anterior cingulate cortex in rats with acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Lin; Fu, Feng-Hua; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2017-01-18

    The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of rats with acute inflammation, and the changes in galanin and galanin receptor 2 (Gal R2) expressions in rats with acute inflammation. Intra-ACC injection of galanin induced antinociception in rats with acute inflammation, the antinociceptive effects induced by galanin were attenuated significantly by intra-ACC injection of the Gal R2 antagonist M871, indicating an involvement of Gal R2 in nociceptive modulation in ACC in rats with acute inflammation. Furthermore, we found that both the galanin mRNA expression and galanin content increased significantly in ACC in rats with acute inflammation than that in normal rats. Moreover, both the mRNA levels of Gal R2 and the content of Gal R2 in ACC increased significantly in rats with acute inflammation than that in normal rats. These results demonstrated that galanin induced antinociception in ACC in rats with acute inflammation. And there were changes in the expression of galanin and Gal R2 in rats with acute inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  14. House dust mite induced lung inflammation does not alter circulating vitamin D levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] are associated with chronic lung diseases such as asthma. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D is involved in disease pathogenesis or is modified by the inflammation associated with the disease process. We hypothesized that allergic inflammation decreases the level of circulating 25(OHD and tested this using a mice model of house dust mite (HDM induced allergic airway inflammation. Cellular influx was measured in bronchoalvelar lavage (BAL fluid, and allergic sensitization and 25(OHD levels were measured in serum. Exposure to HDM caused a robust inflammatory response in the lung that was enhanced by prior influenza infection. These responses were not associated with any change in circulating levels of 25(OHD. These data suggest that alterations in circulating 25(OHD levels induced by Th-2 driven inflammation are unlikely to explain the cross-sectional epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and asthma.

  15. Lysyl oxidase promotes bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis through modulating inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Liu, Qingbo; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jianfeng; Yu, Ronghuan; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Enzymes involved in collagen biosynthesis, including lysyl oxidase (LOX), have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. LOX expression is significantly upregulated in bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis, and knockdown of LOX expression or inhibition of LOX activity alleviates the lung fibrosis. Unexpectedly, treatment of the mice with LOX inhibitor at the inflammatory stage, but not the fibrogenic stage, efficiently reduces collagen deposition and normalizes lung architecture. Inhibition of LOX impairs inflammatory cell infiltration, TGF-β signaling, and myofibroblast accumulation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LOX sensitizes the fibrosis-resistant Balb/c mice to BLM-induced inflammation and lung fibrosis. These results suggest that LOX is indispensable for the progression of BLM-induced experimental lung fibrosis by aggravating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis process after lung injury. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The activin A antagonist follistatin inhibits cystic fibrosis-like lung inflammation and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Charles L; King, Susannah J; Mifsud, Nicole A; Hedger, Mark P; Phillips, David J; Mackay, Fabienne; de Kretser, David M; Wilson, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetically acquired respiratory disorder. Patients with CF have thick mucus obstructing the airways leading to recurrent infections, bronchiectasis and neutrophilic airway inflammation culminating in deteriorating lung function. Current management targets airway infection and mucus clearance, but despite recent advances in care, life expectancy is still only 40 years. We investigated whether activin A is elevated in CF lung disease and whether inhibiting activin A with its natural antagonist follistatin retards lung disease progression. We measured serum activin A levels, lung function and nutritional status in CF patients. We studied the effect of activin A on CF lung pathogenesis by treating newborn CF transgenic mice (β-ENaC) intranasally with the natural activin A antagonist follistatin. Activin A levels were elevated in the serum of adult CF patients, and correlated inversely with lung function and body mass index. Follistatin treatment of newborn β-ENaC mice, noted for respiratory pathology mimicking human CF, decreased the airway activin A levels and key features of CF lung disease including mucus hypersecretion, airway neutrophilia and levels of mediators that regulate inflammation and chemotaxis. Follistatin treatment also increased body weight and survival of β-ENaC mice, with no evidence of local or systemic toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that activin A levels are elevated in CF and provide proof-of-concept for the use of the activin A antagonist, follistatin, as a therapeutic in the long-term management of lung disease in CF patients. PMID:25753271

  17. Lung volume assessment in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Brochard, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of lung volumes allow evaluating the pathophysiogical severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in terms of the degree of reduction in aerated lung volume, calculating strain, quantifying recruitment and/or hyperinflation, and gas volume distribution. We summarize the current techniques for lung volume assessment selected according to their possible usage in the ICU and discuss the recent findings obtained with implementation of these techniques in patients with ARDS. Computed tomography technique remains irreplaceable in terms of quantitative aeration of different lung regions, but the commonly used cut-offs for classification may be questioned with recent findings on nonpathological lungs. Monitoring end expiratory lung volume using nitrogen washout technique enhanced our understanding on lung volume change during positioning, pleural effusion drainage, intra-abdominal hypertension, and recruitment maneuver. Recent studies supported that tidal volume could not surrogate tidal strain, which needs measurement of functional residual capacity and which is correlated with pro-inflammatory lung response. Although lung volume measurements are still limited to research area of ARDS, recent progress in technology provides clinicians more opportunities to evaluate lung volumes noninvasively at the bedside and may facilitate individualization of ventilator settings based on the specific physiological understandings of a given patient.

  18. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin prevents acute lung injury in a rat cardiopulmonary bypass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Shingo; Minakata, Kenji; Masumoto, Hidetoshi; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tadashi; Minatoya, Kenji; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2017-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may induce systemic inflammatory responses causing acute lung injury. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is reported to attenuate the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and the high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, which is critical in controlling systemic inflammation and apoptosis. We investigated the protective effects of rTM on CPB-induced lung injury in a rat model. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: sham, control (CPB alone), and rTM (CPB + rTM). CPB was conducted in the control group and the rTM group. A bolus of rTM (3 mg/kg) was administered to the rTM group rats before CPB establishment. The ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen only dropped markedly from before CPB in the control group (P rTM group. The number of apoptotic cells and the protein of cleaved Caspase-3 were reduced in the rTM group. These results suggest that rTM prevents acute lung injury through attenuating inflammation and apoptosis during and after CPB in a rat model. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary tryptophan helps to preserve tryptophan homeostasis in pigs suffering from lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, N; Melchior, D; Sève, B

    2008-12-01

    In pigs, inflammation modifies Trp metabolism and consequently could impact on Trp requirement for growth. In this study, the effects of lung inflammation, induced by the intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, and dietary Trp content on Trp metabolism and availability were investigated. Two dietary Trp contents, one corresponding to a low-Trp diet (1.5 g of Trp/kg of diet, Basal diet) and the second to an adequate-Trp diet (2 g of Trp/kg of diet, TRP diet), were used. Ten blocks of 4 littermate piglets were selected at 40 d of age. Within each block, piglets were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental treatments: (1) healthy control and Basal diet, (2) inflammation and Basal diet, (3) inflammation and Basal diet + antioxidant, and (4) inflammation and TRP diet. Inflammation induced an increase in indoleam-ine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity, an enzyme involved in Trp catabolism, in lung, lymph nodes, heart, and spleen (P < 0.01). Contrary to piglets fed the TRP diet, pigs suffering from inflammation did not maintain their plasma Trp concentrations when they were fed the Basal diet. Furthermore, pigs fed the TRP diet had decreased plasma haptoglobin concentrations, IDO activity, and lung weight than those fed the Basal diet, indicating that the inflammatory response was moderated with the greater Trp supply. Antioxidant addition in the Basal diet decreased the effects of inflammation on plasma Trp concentrations and IDO activity. These results indicated that inflammation increases Trp catabolism and thus may decrease Trp availability for growth.

  20. Air Pollution, Airway Inflammation, and Lung Function in a Cohort Study of Mexico City Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. Objective In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. Methods We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results An increase of 17.5 μg/m3 in the 8-hr moving average of PM2.5 levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in FeNO [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98–1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00–1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diamter (PM2.5) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (p = 0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p = 0.021) in nonasthmatic children. FeNO and FEV1 were inversely associated (p = 0.005) in asthmatic children. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. PMID:18560490

  1. Air pollution, airway inflammation, and lung function in a cohort study of Mexico City schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-06-01

    The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Fe(NO)), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. An increase of 17.5 microg/m(3) in the 8-hr moving average of PM(2.5) levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in Fe(NO) [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98-1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00-1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter <2.5 microm in aerodynamic diamter (PM(2.5)) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) (p=0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p=0.021) in nonasthmatic children. Fe(NO) and FEV(1) were inversely associated (p=0.005) in asthmatic children. Exposure to PM(2.5) resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptors in Mouse Lungs: A Biomarker of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hardwick

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize the immune response with radioligands targeted to immune cells will enhance our understanding of cellular responses in inflammatory diseases. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR are present in monocytes and neutrophils as well as in lung tissue. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a model of inflammation to assess whether the PBR could be used as a noninvasive marker of inflammation in the lungs. Planar imaging of mice administrated 10 or 30 mg/kg LPS showed increased [123I]-(R-PK11195 radioactivity in the thorax 2 days after LPS treatment relative to control. Following imaging, lungs from control and LPS-treated mice were harvested for ex vivo gamma counting and showed significantly increased radioactivity above control levels. The specificity of the PBR response was determined using a blocking dose of nonradioactive PK11195 given 30 min prior to radiotracer injection. Static planar images of the thorax of nonradioactive PK11195 pretreated animals showed a significantly lower level of radiotracer accumulation in control and in LPS-treated animals (p < .05. These data show that LPS induces specific increases in PBR ligand binding in the lungs. We also used in vivo small-animal PET studies to demonstrate increased [11C]-(R-PK11195 accumulation in the lungs of LPS-treated mice. This study suggests that measuring PBR expression using in vivo imaging techniques may be a useful biomarker to image lung inflammation.

  3. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG, cholic acid (CLA, chlorogenic acid (CGA and sinapic acid (SPA, regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES, reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.

  4. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332

  5. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative pathogen-induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.

  6. Pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Laura C.; McAuley, Danny F.; Marino, Philip S.; Finney, Simon J.; Griffiths, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by protein rich alveolar edema, reduced lung compliance, and acute severe hypoxemia. A degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is also characteristic, higher levels of which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increase in right ventricular (RV) afterload causes RV dysfunction and failure in some patients, with associated adverse effects on oxygen delivery. Although the introduction of lung protective ventilation strategies has probably reduced the severity of PH in ALI, a recent invasive hemodynamic analysis suggests that even in the modern era, its presence remains clinically important. We therefore sought to summarize current knowledge of the pathophysiology of PH in ALI. PMID:22246001

  7. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  8. Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinman, Pieter R; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Juffermans, Nicole P; Schultz, Marcus J

    2012-12-12

    Data from interventional trials of systemic anticoagulation for sepsis inconsistently suggest beneficial effects in case of acute lung injury (ALI). Severe systemic bleeding due to anticoagulation may have offset the possible positive effects. Nebulization of anticoagulants may allow for improved local biological availability and as such may improve efficacy in the lungs and lower the risk of systemic bleeding complications. We performed a systematic review of preclinical studies and clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of nebulized anticoagulants in the setting of lung injury in animals and ALI in humans. The efficacy of nebulized activated protein C, antithrombin, heparin and danaparoid has been tested in diverse animal models of direct (for example, pneumonia-, intra-pulmonary lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and smoke inhalation-induced lung injury) and indirect lung injury (for example, intravenous LPS- and trauma-induced lung injury). Nebulized anticoagulants were found to have the potential to attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy and frequently also inflammation. Notably, nebulized danaparoid and heparin but not activated protein C and antithrombin, were found to have an effect on systemic coagulation. Clinical trials of nebulized anticoagulants are very limited. Nebulized heparin was found to improve survival of patients with smoke inhalation-induced ALI. In a trial of critically ill patients who needed mechanical ventilation for longer than two days, nebulized heparin was associated with a higher number of ventilator-free days. In line with results from preclinical studies, nebulization of heparin was found to have an effect on systemic coagulation, but without causing systemic bleedings. Local anticoagulant therapy through nebulization of anticoagulants attenuates pulmonary coagulopathy and frequently also inflammation in preclinical studies of lung injury. Recent human trials suggest nebulized heparin for ALI to be beneficial and safe, but data

  9. Acute inflammation in horizontal incompletely impacted third molar with radiolucency in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ishizuka, Masahide; Uchihashi, Takayuki; YASUDA, KOUICHI; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although radiolucency has been shown as a risk of infection, the poorly understood effects of aging on radiolucency correlate with acute pericoronitis, which has a high risk of infection extending any complications. We reviewed the records of 346 consecutive patients aged more than 41 years to evaluate whether pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars is related to acute inflammation. The frequency of acute inflammation in teeth with ...

  10. Contributions of high mobility group box protein in experimental and clinical acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Satoru; Amaya, Fumimasa; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Maruyama, Ikuro; Yamada, Shingo; Hasegawa, Naoki; Soejima, Junko; Koh, Hidefumi; Ishizaka, Akitoshi

    2004-12-15

    This study was performed to examine the putative role of high mobility group box (HMGB) protein in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Observations were made (1) in 21 patients who were septic with ALI and 15 patients with normal lung function and (2) in a mouse model 24 hours after intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The concentrations of HMGB1 were increased in plasma and lung epithelial lining fluid of patients with ALI and mice instilled with LPS. LPS-induced ALI was mitigated by anti-HMGB1 antibody. Although this protein was not detected in the plasma of control humans or mice, the concentrations of HMGB1 in lung epithelial lining fluid or in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were unexpectedly high. The nuclear expression of HMGB1 was apparent in epithelial cells surrounding terminal bronchioles in normal mice, whereas its nuclear and cytoplasmic expression was observed in alveolar macrophages in LPS-instilled mice. Lung instillation of HMGB2 did not cause as much inflammation as HMGB1. Extracellular HMGB1 may play a key role in the pathogenesis of clinical and experimental ALI. However, its expression in normal airways is noteworthy and suggests that it also plays a physiologic role in the lung.

  11. Incorporating Inflammation into Mortality Risk in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinter, Matt S; Orwoll, Benjamin E; Spicer, Aaron C; Alkhouli, Mustafa F; Calfee, Carolyn S; Matthay, Michael A; Sapru, Anil

    2017-05-01

    In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung injury is mediated by immune activation and severe inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with elevated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines would have higher mortality rates and that these biomarkers could improve risk stratification of poor outcomes. Multicenter prospective observational study. We enrolled patients from five academic PICUs between 2008 and 2015. Patients were 1 month to 18 years old, used noninvasive or invasive ventilation, and met the American European Consensus Conference definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Eight proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured on acute respiratory distress syndrome day 1 and correlated with mortality, ICU morbidity as measured by survivor Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score, and biomarkers of endothelial injury, including angiopoietin-2, von Willebrand Factor, and soluble thrombomodulin. We measured biomarker levels in 194 patients, including 38 acute respiratory distress syndrome nonsurvivors. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-18, and tumor necrosis factor-R2 were each strongly associated with all-cause mortality, multiple markers of ICU morbidity, and endothelial injury. A multiple logistic regression model incorporating oxygenation index, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-R2 was superior to a model of oxygenation index alone in predicting the composite outcome of mortality or severe morbidity (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.77 [0.70-0.83] vs 0.70 [0.62-0.77]; p = 0.042). In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are strongly associated with mortality, ICU morbidity, and biochemical evidence of endothelial injury. These cytokines significantly improve the ability of the oxygenation index to discriminate risk of mortality or severe morbidity and may allow for identification and enrollment of high

  12. Low dose methylprednisolone prophylaxis to reduce inflammation during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Mary C; Olivant, Alicia; Lim, Doyle; Bernardi, John P; Costarino, Andrew T; Shaffer, Thomas H; Miller, Thomas L

    2008-09-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a low dose of methylprednisolone in minimizing inflammatory response in juvenile piglets when given 45-60 min prior to onset of one-lung ventilation. Twenty piglets aged 3 weeks were assigned to either the control group (n = 10) or methylprednisolone group (n = 10). The animals were anesthetized and after 30 min of ventilation, they had their left lung blocked. Ventilation was continued via right lung for 3 h. The left lung was then unblocked. Following another 30 min of bilateral ventilation, the animals were euthanized and both lungs were harvested. The methylprednisolone group had a single dose (2 mg x kg(-1)) of methylprednisolone given i.v. 45-60 min prior to onset of one-lung ventilation. Physiological parameters (PaO2, resistance, and compliance) and markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8) were measured at baseline and every 30 min thereafter. Lung tissue homogenates from both collapsed and ventilated lungs were analyzed for TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8. The methylprednisolone group had higher partial pressure of oxygen (P = 0.01), lower plasma levels of TNF-alpha (P = 0.03) and IL-6 (P = 0.001) when compared with control group. Lung tissue homogenate in the methylprednisolone group had lower levels of TNF-alpha (P ventilated lungs. In a piglet model of one-lung ventilation, use of prophylactic methylprednisolone prior to collapse of the lung improves lung function and decreases systemic pro-inflammatory response. In addition, in the piglets who received methylprednisolone, there were reduced levels of inflammatory mediators in both the collapsed and ventilated lungs.

  13. Comparison of lung alveolar and tissue cells in silica-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, M; Absher, P M; Hemenway, D R; Trombley, L; Baldor, L C

    1991-01-01

    The silicon dioxide mineral, cristobalite (CRS) induces inflammation involving both alveolar cells and connective tissue compartments. In this study, we compared lung cells recovered by whole lung lavage and by digestion of lung tissue from rats at varying times after 8 days of exposure to aerosolized CRS. Control and exposed rats were examined between 2 and 36 wk after exposure. Lavaged cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage with phosphate-buffered saline. Lung wall cells were prepared via collagenase digestion of lung tissue slices. Cells from lavage and lung wall were separated by Percoll density centrifugation. The three upper fractions, containing mostly macrophages, were cultured, and the conditioned medium was assayed for effect on lung fibroblast growth and for activity of the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. Results demonstrated that the cells separated from the lung walls exhibited different reaction patterns compared with those cells recovered by lavage. The lung wall cells exhibited a progressive increase in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes compared with a steady state in cells of the lung lavage. This increase in macrophages apparently was due to low density cells, which showed features of silica exposure. Secretion of a fibroblast-stimulating factor was consistently high by lung wall macrophages, whereas lung lavage macrophages showed inconsistent variations. The secretion of NAG was increased in lung lavage macrophages, but decreased at most observation times in lung wall macrophages. No differences were found among cells in the different density fractions regarding fibroblast stimulation and enzyme secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Sub-chronic lung inflammation after airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth K; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Hammer, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess possible health effects of airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides in mice. Endpoints were lung inflammation evaluated by presence of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), clearance of bacteria from the lung...... lumen and histological alterations of the lungs. Hazard identifications of the biopesticides were carried out using intratracheal (i.t.) instillation, followed by an inhalation study. The two commercial biopesticides used were based on the Bt. subspecies kurstaki and israelensis, respectively. Groups...

  15. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  16. Time-dependent changes of markers associated with inflammation in the lungs of humans exposed to ambient levels of ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.; Becker, S.; Perez, R.; McDonnell, W.F. (Health Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Acute exposure of humans to 0.4 ppm ozone results in reversible respiratory function decrements, and cellular and biochemical changes leading to the production of substances which can mediate inflammation and acute lung injury. While pulmonary function decrements occur almost immediately after ozone exposure, it is not known how quickly the cellular and biochemical changes indicative of inflammation occur in humans. Changes in neutrophils and PGE2 have been observed in humans as early as 3 hr (28) and as late as 18 hr post exposure (19). The purpose of this study was to determine whether inflammatory changes occur relatively rapidly (within 1 hr) following exposure to ozone, or if the cascade of events which are initiated by ozone and lead to inflammation, take some time to develop. We exposed 10 healthy volunteers twice: once to filtered air and once to 0.4 ppm ozone. Each exposure lasted for 2 hr at an exercise level of 60 L/min, and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1 hr following exposure. The data from this study were compared to those from a previous study in which 10 subjects were exposed to O3 under identical conditions except that bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 18 hr following exposure. The results of the present study demonstrate that O3 is capable of inducing rapid cellular and biochemical changes in the lung. These changes were detectable as early as 1 hr following a 2 hr exposure of humans to ozone. The profiles of these changes were different at 1 hr and 18 hr following ozone exposures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Innate type 2 response to Alternaria extract enhances ryegrass-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with A. alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airways compared with ryegrass-only challenges. Type 2 ILC2 and Th2 cell recruitment to the airways was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass-challenged mice. Innate immune challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. A single exposure to Alternaria extract in ryegrass-sensitized and -challenged mice enhances the type 2 lung inflammatory response, including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production, possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposure to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma.

  18. Innate Type-2 Response to Alternaria Extract Enhances Ryegrass-induced Lung Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Methods Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with Alternaria alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of BAL eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), IL-5 and IL-13 as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Results Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airway compared with ryegrass only challenges. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and Th2 cell recruitment to the airway was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass challenged mice. Innate challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. Conclusions A single exposure of Alternaria extract in ryegrass sensitized and challenged mice enhances the type-2 lung inflammatory response including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposures to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma. PMID:24296722

  19. Intratracheal synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide causes acute lung injury with systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial genome is characterized by frequent unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG motifs. Deleterious effects can occur when synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN with unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN are administered in a systemic fashion. We aimed to evaluate the effect of intratracheal CpG-ODN on lung inflammation and systemic inflammatory response. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal administration of CpG-ODN (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 μM or control ODN without CpG motif. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was obtained 3 or 6 h or 1, 2, 7, or 14 days after the instillation and subjected to a differential cell count and cytokine measurement. Lung permeability was evaluated as the BAL fluid-to-plasma ratio of the concentration of human serum albumin that was injected 1 h before euthanasia. Nuclear factor (NF-κB DNA binding activity was also evaluated in lung homogenates. Intratracheal administration of 10 μM or higher concentration of CpG-ODN induced significant inflammatory cell accumulation into the airspace. The peak accumulation of neutrophils and lymphocytes occurred 1 and 2 days after the CpG-ODN administration, respectively. Lung permeability was increased 1 day after the 10 μM CpG-ODN challenge. CpG-ODN also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines in BAL fluid and plasma. Histopathology of the lungs and liver revealed acute lung injury and liver damage with necrosis, respectively. Control ODN without CpG motif did not induce any inflammatory change. Since intratracheal CpG-ODN induced acute lung injury as well as systemic inflammatory response, therapeutic strategies to neutralize bacterial DNA that is released after administration of bactericidal agents should be considered.

  20. Acute inflammation in horizontal incompletely impacted third molar with radiolucency in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ishizuka, Masahide; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although radiolucency has been shown as a risk of infection, the poorly understood effects of aging on radiolucency correlate with acute pericoronitis, which has a high risk of infection extending any complications. We reviewed the records of 346 consecutive patients aged more than 41 years to evaluate whether pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars is related to acute inflammation. The frequency of acute inflammation in teeth with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown was similar to that in teeth without; however, the odds ratio of acute inflammation exhibited in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 41–50 years was 9.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67–57.29; P pericoronitis, including the severe forms of acute inflammation that result from pericoronitis, with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in the elderly. PMID:19696898

  1. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  2. HMGB1 and Extracellular Histones Significantly Contribute to Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Failure in Acute Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT. BT triggers/induces systemic inflammatory responses syndrome (SIRS, which can lead to MOF in ALF. Blockade of HMGB1 significantly decreases BT and improves hepatocyte regeneration in experimental acute fatal liver injury. Therefore, HMGB1 seems to be an important factor that links BT and systemic inflammation in ALF. ALF patients/animals also have high levels of circulating histones, which might be the major mediators of systemic inflammation in patients with ALF. Extracellular histones kill endothelial cells and elicit immunostimulatory effect to induce multiple organ injuries. Neutralization of histones can attenuate acute liver, lung, and brain injuries. In conclusion, HMGB1 and histones play a significant role in inducing systemic inflammation and MOF in ALF.

  3. Epidemiology of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in The Netherlands : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jan; Versteegt, Jens; Twisk, Jos; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bindels, Alexander J. G. H.; Spijkstra, Jan-Jaap; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The characteristics, incidence and risk factors for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may depend on definitions and geography. Methods: A prospective, 3-day point-prevalence study was performed by a survey of all intensive care units (ICU) in the

  4. Preferential lymphatic growth in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in sustained lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluk, Peter; Adams, Alicia; Phillips, Keeley; Feng, Jennifer; Hong, Young-Kwon; Brown, Mary B; McDonald, Donald M

    2014-05-01

    Lymphatics proliferate, become enlarged, or regress in multiple inflammatory lung diseases in humans. Lymphatic growth and remodeling is known to occur in the mouse trachea in sustained inflammation, but whether intrapulmonary lymphatics exhibit similar plasticity is unknown. We examined the time course, distribution, and dependence on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2/VEGFR-3 signaling of lung lymphatics in sustained inflammation. Lymphatics in mouse lungs were examined under baseline conditions and 3 to 28 days after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, using prospero heomeobox 1-enhanced green fluorescence protein and VEGFR-3 as markers. Sprouting lymphangiogenesis was evident at 7 days. Lymphatic growth was restricted to regions of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), where VEGF-C-producing cells were scattered in T-cell zones. Expansion of lung lymphatics after infection was reduced 68% by blocking VEGFR-2, 83% by blocking VEGFR-3, and 99% by blocking both receptors. Inhibition of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 did not prevent the formation of BALT. Treatment of established infection with oxytetracycline caused BALT, but not the lymphatics, to regress. We conclude that robust lymphangiogenesis occurs in mouse lungs after M. pulmonis infection through a mechanism involving signaling of both VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Expansion of the lymphatic network is restricted to regions of BALT, but lymphatics do not regress when BALT regresses after antibiotic treatment. The lung lymphatic network can thus expand in sustained inflammation, but the expansion is not as reversible as the accompanying inflammation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Azithromycin reduces inflammation in a rat model of acute conjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Robredo, Patricia; Recalde, Sergio; Moreno-Orduña, Maite; García-García, Laura; Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Macrolide antibiotics are known to have various anti-inflammatory effects in addition to their antimicrobial activity, but the mechanisms are still unclear. The effect of azithromycin on inflammatory molecules in the lipopolysaccharide-induced rat conjunctivitis model was investigated. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups receiving topical ocular azithromycin (15 mg/g) or vehicle. In total, six doses (25 µl) were administered as one dose twice a day for three days before subconjunctival lipopolysaccharide injection (3 mg/ml). Before the rats were euthanized, mucus secretion, conjunctival and palpebral edema and redness were evaluated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine gene expression for interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Interleukin-6 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, nuclear factor-kappa B with western blot, and MMP-2 activity with gelatin zymogram. Four eyes per group were processed for histology and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff staining and CD68 for immunofluorescence. The Student t test or the Wilcoxon test for independent samples was applied (SPSS v.15.0). Results Azithromycin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in all clinical signs (pazithromycin group (p=0.063). Mucus secretion by goblet cells and the macrophage count in conjunctival tissue were also decreased in the azithromycin group (pazithromycin administration ameliorates induced inflammation effects in a rat model of acute conjunctivitis. PMID:23378729

  6. Strategies to improve oxygenation in experimental acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hartog (Arthur)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOne of the most important clinical syndromes, in which failure of oxygen uptake in the lung leads to severe hypoxia, is the so-called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is a complex of clinical signs and symptoms which occur following diverse pulmonary or systemic insults,

  7. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a change of perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Juffermans, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Two decades ago, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was considered a rare complication of transfusion medicine. Nowadays, TRALI has emerged as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality, presumably as a consequence of reaching international agreement on defining TRALI with

  8. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

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    Taiki Kida

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/- represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Taiki; Ayabe, Shinya; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Maehara, Toko; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT) mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/-) represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. Crystalline silica-induced leukotriene B4-dependent inflammation promotes lung tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Shuchismita R; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Bodduluri, Sobha R; Krishnan, Elangovan; Hegde, Bindu; Hoyle, Gary W; Fraig, Mostafa; Luster, Andrew D; Haribabu, Bodduluri

    2015-04-29

    Chronic exposure to crystalline silica (CS) causes silicosis, an irreversible lung inflammatory disease that may eventually lead to lung cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that in K-ras(LA1) mice, CS exposure markedly enhances the lung tumour burden and genetic deletion of leukotriene B4 receptor-1 (BLT1(-/-)) attenuates this increase. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation induced by CS is significantly reduced in BLT1(-/-)K-ras(LA1) mice. CS exposure induces LTB4 production by mast cells and macrophages independent of inflammasome activation. In an air-pouch model, CS-induced neutrophil recruitment is dependent on LTB4 production by mast cells and BLT1 expression on neutrophils. In an implantable lung tumour model, CS exposure results in rapid tumour growth and decreased survival that is attenuated in the absence of BLT1. These results suggest that the LTB4/BLT1 axis sets the pace of CS-induced sterile inflammation that promotes lung cancer progression. This knowledge may facilitate development of immunotherapeutic strategies to fight silicosis and lung cancer.

  11. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Christopher B; Groves, Angela M; Jaggernauth, Smita U; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd) develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs), however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group). An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical alteration at

  12. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Massa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs, however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group. An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical

  13. Effects of biliverdin administration on acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Junko; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toru; Shimizu, Hiroko; Kawanishi, Susumu; Omori, Emiko; Endo, Yasumasa; Tamaki, Naofumi; Morita, Manabu; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation resulted in prominent histopathological damage, including congestion, edema, cellular infiltration, and hemorrhage. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly ameliorated these lung injuries as judged by histopathological improvement. After hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, inflammatory gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Inflammatory gene expression significantly decreased when biliverdin was administered prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Moreover, after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, lung 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in mitochondrial DNA expressed in the pulmonary interstitium increased by 1.5-fold. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation decreased mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels to almost the same level as that in the control animals. We also

  14. Effects of biliverdin administration on acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kosaka

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation resulted in prominent histopathological damage, including congestion, edema, cellular infiltration, and hemorrhage. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly ameliorated these lung injuries as judged by histopathological improvement. After hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, inflammatory gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Inflammatory gene expression significantly decreased when biliverdin was administered prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Moreover, after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, lung 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in mitochondrial DNA expressed in the pulmonary interstitium increased by 1.5-fold. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation decreased mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels to almost the same level as that in the

  15. RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lidocaine against sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Jie; Liao, Changli; Li, Xiaobing; Liu, Minghua; Song, Daqiang; Jiang, Xian

    2017-04-01

    Lidocaine (Lido) is reported to suppress inflammatory responses and exhibit a therapeutic effect in models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) exerts pro-inflammatory effects by enhancing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. However, the precise mechanism by which Lido confers protection against ALI is not clear. ALI was induced in RAGE WT and RAGE knockout (KO) rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operations for 24 h. The results showed that Lido significantly inhibited CLP-induced lung inflammation and histopathological lung injury. Furthermore, Lido significantly reduced CLP-induced upregulation of HMGB1 and RAGE expression and activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. With the use of RAGE KO rats, we demonstrate here that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced lung inflammatory cell infiltration and histopathological lung injury. These results suggest that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced ALI by attenuating the pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

  16. Erythropoietin-Derived Peptide Protects Against Acute Lung Injury After Rat Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Yuan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI can be complicated by TBI-triggered acute lung injury (ALI, in which inflammation plays a central role. It has been reported that an Erythropoietin-derived peptide (pHBSP was able to ameliorate TBI; however, its function in TBI-caused ALI has not been reported yet. Methods: In this study, we studied the effect of pHBSP on TBI-caused ALI by using a weight-drop induced TBI model. At 8 h and 24 h post-TBI, pulmonary edema (PE and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF proteins were measured, and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining of lung sections was carried out. At 24 h following TBI, the lungs were harvested for immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR analysis. Results: At 8 h and 24 h post-TBI, pHBSP treatment significantly decreased wet/dry ratios, decreased total BALF protein, and attenuated the histological signs of pulmonary injury. At 24 h post-TBI, pHBSP treatment decreased the accumulation of CD68+ macrophages in the lung and reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS in the lung. Conclusions: We identified the protective role that pHBSP played in TBI-caused ALI, suggesting that pHBSP is a potent candidate for systemic therapy in TBI patients.

  17. Overexpression of IL-38 protein in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Masaki; Okamoto, Masaki; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Matsuoka, Masanobu; Kaieda, Shinjiro; Sakazaki, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke; Inoue, Akira; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38, a member of the IL-1 family, shows high homology to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Its function in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is still unknown. To determine the expression pattern of IL-38 mRNA, a panel of cDNAs derived from various tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-human IL-38 monoclonal antibody (clone H127C) was evaluated semi-quantitatively in lung tissue samples from 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP), 5 with acute exacerbation of IPF, and 10 with anticancer drug-induced ILD (bleomycin in 5 and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in 5). Control lung tissues were obtained from areas of normal lung in 22 lung cancer patients who underwent extirpation surgery. IL-38 transcripts were strongly expressed in the lung, spleen, synoviocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at a lower level in pancreas and muscle. IL-38 protein was not strongly expressed in normal pulmonary alveolar tissues in all 22 control lungs. In contrast, IL-38 was overexpressed in the lungs of 4 of 5 (80%) patients with acute IPF exacerbation and 100% (10/10) of the patients with drug-induced ILD. IL-38 overexpression was limited to hyperplastic type II pneumocytes, which are considered to reflect regenerative change following diffuse alveolar damage in ILD. IL-38 may play an important role in acute and/or chronic inflammation in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

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    JM Real

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI, representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTX3 in VILI. PTX3 transgenic, knockout and Wt control mice (n = 12/group were ventilated (45ml·kg–1 until respiratory system Elastance increased 50% (Ers150%, an indicator of VILI. Histological analysis demonstrated that using a Ers150% was appropriate for our analysis since identical degrees of inflammation were observed in Tg, KO and Wt mice as assessed by leukocyte infiltration, oedema, alveolar collapse and number of breaks in alveolar septa. However, Tg mice reached Ers150% faster than Wt controls (p = 0.0225. We also showed that the lack of PTX3 does not abolish the occurrence of VILI in KOs. Gene expression profile of PTX3, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, IFNgamma, TGFbeta and PCIII were investigated by QPCR. MV drastically up modulated PTX3 as well as IL-1beta, IL-6, IFNgamma and KC. Alternatively, mice were ventilated for 20, 40 and 60 min. The faster kinetics of Tg mice to reach Ers150% was accompanied by an earlier augmentation of IL-1b and PTX3 expression. The kinetics of local PTX3 expression in the lungs of ventilated mice strongly suggests the involvement of this pentraxin in the pathogenesis of VILI.

  19. Protective effect of adenosine receptors against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Boris; Varn, Matthew N.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.; Sridhar, Supriya; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) affect 200,000 people a year in the USA. Pulmonary vascular and specifically endothelial cell (EC) barrier compromise is a hallmark of these diseases. We have recently shown that extracellular adenosine enhances human pulmonary (EC) barrier via activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) in cell cultures. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that activation of ARs might exert barrier-protective effects in a model of ALI/ARDS in mice. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of pre- and posttreatment of adenosine and 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonselective stable AR agonist, on LPS-induced lung injury. Mice were given vehicle or LPS intratracheally followed by adenosine, NECA, or vehicle instilled via the internal jugular vein. Postexperiment cell counts, Evans Blue Dye albumin (EBDA) extravasation, levels of proteins, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Harvested lungs were used for histology and myeloperoxidase studies. Mice challenged with LPS alone demonstrated an inflammatory response typical of ALI. Cell counts, EBDA extravasation, as well as levels of proteins and inflammatory cytokines were decreased in adenosine-treated mice. Histology displayed reduced infiltration of neutrophils. NECA had a similar effect on LPS-induced vascular barrier compromise. Importantly, posttreatment with adenosine or NECA recovers lung vascular barrier and reduces inflammation induced by LPS challenge. Furthermore, adenosine significantly attenuated protein degradation of A2A and A3 receptors induced by LPS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of ARs protects and restores vascular barrier functions and reduces inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. PMID:24414256

  20. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we as...... without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.......We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we...... the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3) and hepatic (Saa1) acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90...

  1. Eosinophils in the lung – modulating apoptosis and efferocytosis in airway inflammation

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    Jennifer M Felton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the key role of the lung in efficient transfer of oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, a controlled inflammatory response is essential for restoration of tissue homeostasis following airway exposure to bacterial pathogens or environmental toxins. Unregulated or prolonged inflammatory responses in the lungs can lead to tissue damage, disrupting normal tissue architecture and consequently compromising efficient gaseous exchange. Failure to resolve inflammation underlies the development and/or progression of a number of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Eosinophils, granulocytic cells of the innate immune system, are primarily involved in defence against parasitic infections. However, the propagation of the allergic inflammatory response in chronic asthma is thought to involve excessive recruitment and impaired apoptosis of eosinophils together with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis. In terms of therapeutic approaches for treatment of asthma, the widespread use of glucocorticoids is associated with a number of adverse health consequences after long-term use, while some patients suffer from steroid-resistant disease. A new approach for therapeutic intervention would be to promote the resolution of inflammation via modulation of eosinophil apoptosis and the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning eosinophil-mediated lung damage, currently available treatments and therapeutic targets that might in future be harnessed to facilitate inflammation resolution by the manipulation of cell survival and clearance pathways.

  2. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nardo Matteo; Perrotta Daniela; Stoppa Francesca; Cecchetti Corrado; Marano Marco; Pirozzi Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weig...

  3. Regulation of Lipolysis and Adipose Tissue Signaling during Acute Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Thomsen, Henrik Holm

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipolysis is accelerated during the acute phase of inflammation, a process being regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α), stress-hormones, and insulin. The intracellular mechanisms remain elusive and we therefore measured pro- and anti-lipolytic signaling pathways...... inflammation and sepsis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01705782....

  4. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Huang, Qingxian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000 (China); Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Bai, Xianyong, E-mail: xybai2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  5. Low molecular weight heparin prevents CLP-Induced acute lung injury in rats by anti-inflammatory coagulation

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    Xiao Lu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to observe the influence of low molecular Weight heparin (LMWH on systemic inflammation, including high mobility group box 1 protern (HMGB1 and protective effect on acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture(CLP. Discuss the mechanism of this effect. 144 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (A, normal treatment group (B, the LMWH treatment group (C, n=48. Group A received a sham operation and the other groups were underwent CLP operation. Groups A and B accepted intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of normal saline (NS at a dose of 2.oml/kg and ceftriaxone (30 mg/kg, Group C were intraperitoneal injection additional LMWH (isoU/kg except saline and ceftriaxone. Observe points were made at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 h, the rats were anesthetized and killed, mortality, lungs wet/dry ratio and Pathology change were determined. HMGB-1 mRNA, protein of lung tissues was calculated by RT-PCR and Western blot. TNF-α and IL-6 of blood plasma calculated by ELSIA. There was significantly different in each index between A and B group (p<0.05. Compared with CLP group, there was a significant decrease in the lung injury, the mortality, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression on lung tissues (p<0.05. LMWH can decreases cytokine, HMGB1 levels of lung tissue during CLP-induced inflammation. As a result, LMWH ameliorated lung pathology and reduces mortality in CLP-induced systemic inflammation in a rat model. This effect may be mediated through the inhibition of axis of inflammation and coagulation.

  6. Interleukin-6 displays lung anti-inflammatory properties and exerts protective hemodynamic effects in a double-hit murine acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiriot, Guillaume; Razazi, Keyvan; Amsellem, Valérie; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Abid, Shariq; Adnot, Serge; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Maitre, Bernard

    2017-04-19

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a predictive factor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, its acute pulmonary hemodynamic effects and role in lung injury have not been investigated in a clinically relevant murine model of ARDS. We used adult C57Bl6 wild-type (WT) and IL-6 knock-out (IL-6KO) mice. The animals received intravenous recombinant human IL-6 (rHuIL-6) or vehicle followed by intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline before undergoing low tidal volume mechanical ventilation (MV) for 5 h. Before sacrifice, right ventricular systolic pressure and cardiac output were measured and total pulmonary resistance was calculated. After sacrifice, lung inflammation, edema and injury were assessed with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histology. In other experiments, right ventricular systolic pressure was recorded during hypoxic challenges in uninjured WT mice pretreated with rHuIL-6 or rHuIL-6 + non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME or vehicle. IL-6KO (LPS+MV) mice showed a faster deterioration of lung elastic properties and more severe bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation as compared to WT (LPS+MV) . Treatment with rHuIL-6 partially prevented this lung deterioration. Total pulmonary resistance was higher in IL-6KO (LPS+MV) mice and this increase was abolished in rHuIL-6-treated IL-6KO mice. Finally, rHuIL-6 reduced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in uninjured WT mice, an effect that was abolished by co-treatment with L-NAME. In a double-hit murine model of ARDS, IL-6 deficient mice experienced more severe bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation as compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, IL-6 deficiency caused marked acute pulmonary hypertension, which may be, at least partially, due to vasoactive mechanisms. A dysregulation of nitric oxide synthase may account for this observation, a hypothesis that will need to be investigated in future studies.

  7. Vildagliptin-induced acute lung injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Ryoko; Furukawa, Tomoyasu; Tanaka, Junta; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-08-12

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs and are used widely to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in many countries. Adverse effects include nasopharyngitis, headache, elevated serum pancreatic enzymes, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition, a few cases of interstitial pneumonia associated with their use have been reported in the Japanese literature. Here we describe a patient who developed drug-induced acute lung injury shortly after the administration of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin. A 38-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus developed acute respiratory failure 1 day after administration of vildagliptin. Chest computed tomography revealed nonsegmental ground-glass opacities in her lungs. There was no evidence of bacterial pneumonia or any other cause of her respiratory manifestations. After discontinuation of vildagliptin, she recovered fully from her respiratory disorder. She received insulin therapy for her diabetes mellitus, and her subsequent clinical course has been uneventful. The period of drug exposure in previously reported cases of patients with drug-induced interstitial pneumonia caused by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor varied from several days to over 6 months. In the present case, our patient developed interstitial pneumonia only 1 day after the administration of vildagliptin. The precise mechanism of her vildagliptin-induced lung injury remains uncertain, but physicians should consider that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor-induced lung injury, although rare, may appear acutely, even within days after administration of this drug.

  8. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  9. Sterile inflammation in acute liver injury: myth or mystery?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation during liver injury normally serves as a mechanism for cleaning up debris and as a stimulant for regeneration. However, aberrant levels of inflammation can provoke further liver injury and inhibit regeneration through the release of damaging reactive oxygen species. Considerable effort has gone into understanding the mechanisms that control the switch between healthy and pathological inflammation. The identification of a receptor system that detects damage-associated molecular pa...

  10. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injured (TRALI): Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, P; Carrasco, R; Romero-Dapueto, C; Castillo, R.L

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI. A common theme among the experimental TRALI models is the central importance of neutrophils in mediating the early immune response, and lung vascular injury. Central clinical symptoms are dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis and pulmonary secretions, altogether with other hemodynamic alterations, such as hypotension and fever. Complementary to these clinical findings, long-term validated animal models for TRALI should allow the determination of the cellular targets for TRALI-inducing alloantibodies as well as delineation of the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanisms, and key molecular mediators of the pathology. Diagnostic criteria have been established and preventive measures have been implemented. These actions have contributed to the reduction in the overallnumber of fatalities. However, TRALI still remains a clinical problem. Any complication suspected of TRALI should immediately be reported. PMID:26312100

  11. Resveratrol ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury via NLRP3 inflammasome modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Kai; Fei, Dongsheng; Gong, Rui; Cao, Yanhui; Pan, Shangha; Zhao, Mingran; Zhao, Mingyan

    2016-12-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome plays a pivotal role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI), accelerating IL-1β and IL-18 release and inducing lung inflammation. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, has anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of oxidation, leukocyte priming, and production of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on NLRP3 inflammasome in lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 3mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce ALI. Resveratrol treatment alleviated the LPS-induced lung pathological damage, lung edema and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, resveratrol reversed the LPS-mediated elevation of IL-1β and IL-18 level in the BAL fluids. In lung tissue, resveratrol also inhibited the LPS-induced NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, resveratrol administration not only suppressed the NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, NF-κB activity and ROS production in the LPS-treated mice, but also inhibited the LPS-induced thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) protein expression and interaction of TXNIP-NLRP3 in lung tissue. Meanwhile, resveratrol obviously induced SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression in the LPS-challenged mice. Taken together, our study suggests that resveratrol protects against LPS-induced lung injury by NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition. These findings further suggest that resveratrol may be of great value in the treatment of ALI and a potential and an effective pharmacological agent for inflammasome-relevant diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, on the lung functions in a saline lavage-induced model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutova, P; Mikolka, P; Kolomaznik, M; Rezakova, S; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2017-09-22

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with deterioration of alveolar-capillary lining and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. Whereas a selective phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast has exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties, this study evaluated if its intravenous delivery can influence inflammation, edema formation, and respiratory parameters in rabbits with a lavage-induced model of ALI. ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with roflumilast i.v. (1 mg/kg; ALI+Rofl), and healthy ventilated controls (Control), and were ventilated for following 4 h. Respiratory parameters (blood gases, ventilatory pressures, lung compliance, oxygenation indexes etc.) were measured and calculated regularly. At the end of experiment, animals were overdosed by anesthetics. Total and differential counts of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were estimated microscopically. Lung edema was expressed as wet/dry lung weight ratio. Treatment with roflumilast reduced leak of cells (P<0.01), particularly of neutrophils (P<0.001), into the lung, decreased lung edema formation (P<0.01), and improved respiratory parameters. Concluding, the results indicate a future potential of PDE4 inhibitors also in the therapy of ALI.

  13. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Critical in Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lauren G; Massey, Veronica L; Siow, Deanna L; Torres-Gonzáles, Edilson; Warner, Nikole L; Luyendyk, James P; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Roman, Jesse; Arteel, Gavin E

    2017-09-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure is a clinically important risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanisms by which alcohol sensitizes the lung to development of this disease are poorly understood. We determined the role of the antifibrinolytic protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in alcohol enhancement of experimental endotoxin-induced ALI. Wild-type, PAI-1-/-, and integrin β3-/- mice were fed ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid or a control diet for 6 weeks, followed by systemic LPS challenge. LPS administration triggered coagulation cascade activation as evidenced by increased plasma thrombin-antithrombin levels and pulmonary fibrin deposition. Ethanol-exposed animals showed enhanced PAI-1 expression and pulmonary fibrin deposition with coincident exaggeration of pulmonary inflammatory edematous injury. PAI-1 deficiency markedly reduced pulmonary fibrin deposition and greatly reduced inflammation and injury without impacting upstream coagulation. Interestingly, pulmonary platelet accumulation was effectively abolished by PAI-1 deficiency in ethanol/LPS-challenged mice. Moreover, mice lacking integrin αIIBβ3, the primary platelet receptor for fibrinogen, displayed a dramatic reduction in early inflammatory changes after ethanol/LPS challenge. These results indicate that the mechanism whereby alcohol exaggerates LPS-induced lung injury requires PAI-1-mediated pulmonary fibrin accumulation, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby alcohol contributes to inflammatory ALI by enhancing fibrinogen-platelet engagement.

  14. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI.

  15. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI.

  16. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10 triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice.

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    Francesca Farina

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases; accumulating evidences point to a new role for air pollution in CNS diseases. The purpose of our study is to investigate PM10sum effects on lungs and extra pulmonary tissues. Milano PM10sum has been intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid, lung parenchyma, heart and brain were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, cytokines, ET-1, HO-1, MPO, iNOS, cytotoxicity (LDH, ALP, Hsp70, Caspase8-p18, Caspase3-p17 for a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (Cyp1B1 and for TLR4 pathway activation. Brain was also investigated for CD68, TNF-α, GFAP. In blood, cell counts were performed while plasma was screened for endothelial activation (sP-selectin, ET-1 and for inflammation markers (TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β, MPO. Genes up-regulation (HMOX1, Cyp1B1, IL-1β, MIP-2, MPO and miR-21 have been investigated in lungs and blood. Inflammation in the respiratory tract of PM10sum-treated mice has been confirmed in BALf and lung parenchyma by increased PMNs percentage, increased ET-1, MPO and cytokines levels. A systemic spreading of lung inflammation in PM10sum-treated mice has been related to the increased blood total cell count and neutrophils percentage, as well as to increased blood MPO. The blood-endothelium interface activation has been confirmed by significant increases of plasma ET-1 and sP-selectin. Furthermore PM10sum induced heart endothelial activation and PAHs metabolism, proved by increased ET-1 and Cyp1B1 levels. Moreover, PM10sum causes an increase in brain HO-1 and ET-1. These results state the translocation of inflammation mediators, ultrafine particles, LPS, metals associated to PM10sum, from lungs to bloodstream, thus triggering a systemic reaction, mainly involving heart and brain. Our results provided additional insight into the toxicity

  17. Neutrophils Promote Mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate-Induced Lung Inflammation via the Mincle Pathway.

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    Wook-Bin Lee

    Full Text Available Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM, a cord factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, is an important regulator of immune responses during Mtb infections. Macrophages recognize TDM through the Mincle receptor and initiate TDM-induced inflammatory responses, leading to lung granuloma formation. Although various immune cells are recruited to lung granulomas, the roles of other immune cells, especially during the initial process of TDM-induced inflammation, are not clear. In this study, Mincle signaling on neutrophils played an important role in TDM-induced lung inflammation by promoting adhesion and innate immune responses. Neutrophils were recruited during the early stage of lung inflammation following TDM-induced granuloma formation. Mincle expression on neutrophils was required for infiltration of TDM-challenged sites in a granuloma model induced by TDM-coated-beads. TDM-induced Mincle signaling on neutrophils increased cell adherence by enhancing F-actin polymerization and CD11b/CD18 surface expression. The TDM-induced effects were dependent on Src, Syk, and MAPK/ERK kinases (MEK. Moreover, coactivation of the Mincle and TLR2 pathways by TDM and Pam3CSK4 treatment synergistically induced CD11b/CD18 surface expression, reactive oxygen species, and TNFα production by neutrophils. These synergistically-enhanced immune responses correlated with the degree of Mincle expression on neutrophil surfaces. The physiological relevance of the Mincle-mediated anti-TDM immune response was confirmed by defective immune responses in Mincle⁻/⁻ mice upon aerosol infections with Mtb. Mincle-mutant mice had higher inflammation levels and mycobacterial loads than WT mice. Neutrophil depletion with anti-Ly6G antibody caused a reduction in IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression upon TDM treatment, and reduced levels of immune cell recruitment during the initial stage of infection. These findings suggest a new role of Mincle signaling on neutrophils

  18. Prognostic and Pathogenetic Value of Combining Clinical and Biochemical Indices in Patients With Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tatsuki; Billheimer, D. Dean; Wu, William; Bernard, Gordon R.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Brower, Roy G.; Standiford, Theodore J.; Martin, Thomas R.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: No single clinical or biologic marker reliably predicts clinical outcomes in acute lung injury (ALI)/ARDS. We hypothesized that a combination of biologic and clinical markers would be superior to either biomarkers or clinical factors alone in predicting ALI/ARDS mortality and would provide insight into the pathogenesis of clinical ALI/ARDS. Methods: Eight biologic markers that reflect endothelial and epithelial injury, inflammation, and coagulation (von Willebrand factor antigen, surfactant protein D [SP-D]), tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, protein C, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were measured in baseline plasma from 549 patients in the ARDSNet trial of low vs high positive end-expiratory pressure. Mortality was modeled with multivariable logistic regression. Predictors were selected using backward elimination. Comparisons between candidate models were based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and tests of integrated discrimination improvement. Results: Clinical predictors (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation III [APACHE III], organ failures, age, underlying cause, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, plateau pressure) predicted mortality with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.82; a combination of eight biomarkers and the clinical predictors had an AUC of 0.85. The best performing biomarkers were the neutrophil chemotactic factor, IL-8, and SP-D, a product of alveolar type 2 cells, supporting the concept that acute inflammation and alveolar epithelial injury are important pathogenetic pathways in human ALI/ARDS. Conclusions: A combination of biomarkers and clinical predictors is superior to clinical predictors or biomarkers alone for predicting mortality in ALI/ARDS and may be useful for stratifying patients in clinical trials. From a pathogenesis perspective, the degree of acute inflammation and alveolar epithelial injury are highly associated with the

  19. Transfer of tolerance to collagen type V suppresses Th-17 lymphocyte mediated acute lung transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ruedi K.; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Wigfield, Christopher; Xiang, Zhuzai; Fain, Sean B.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Seroogy, Christine M.; Burlingham, William J.; Wilkes, David S.; Brand, David D.; Torrealba, Jose; Love, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rat lung allograft rejection is mediated by collagen type V (col(V)) specific Th17 cells. Adoptive transfer of these cells is sufficient to induce rejection pathology in isografts, whereas tolerance to col(V) suppresses allograft rejection. We therefore tested if regulatory T cells from tolerant rats could suppress the Th17 mediated rejection in the syngeneic model of lung transplantation. Methods Rats were subjected to syngeneic left lung transplantation and acute rejection was induced by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from col(V)-immunized rats. Tolerance was induced by intravenous (iv) injection of col(V) and spleen lymphocytes were used for adoptive transfer. CD4+ T cells were depleted using magnetic beads. Lung isografts were analyzed using micro-PET imaging and histochemistry. The transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity (TV-DTH) assay was used to analyze the Th17 response. Results Adoptive co-transfer of col(V)-specific effector cells with cells from col(V) tolerized rats suppressed severe vasculitis and bronchiolitis with parenchymal inflammation, and the expression of IL-17 transcripts in mediastinal lymph nodes induced by effector cells alone. Analysis by TV-DTH showed that the reactivity to col(V) was dependent on the presence of TNF-α and IL-17, but not IFN-γ. Depletion of CD4+ T cells from the suppressor cell population abrogated the col(V)-specific protection. Conclusion Th17 mediated acute rejection after lung transplantation is ameliorated by CD4+ col(V)-specific regulatory T cells. The mechanism for this Th17 suppression is consistent with tolerance induction to col(V). The goal of transplantation treatment therefore should target Th17 development and not suppression of T cell activation by suppressing IL-2. PMID:20029330

  20. Inflammasome-regulated cytokines are critical mediators of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinay, Tamás; Kim, Young Sam; Howrylak, Judie; Hunninghake, Gary M; An, Chang Hyeok; Fredenburgh, Laura; Massaro, Anthony F; Rogers, Angela; Gazourian, Lee; Nakahira, Kiichi; Haspel, Jeffrey A; Landazury, Roberto; Eppanapally, Sabitha; Christie, Jason D; Meyer, Nuala J; Ware, Lorraine B; Christiani, David C; Ryter, Stefan W; Baron, Rebecca M; Choi, Augustine M K

    2012-06-01

    Despite advances in clinical management, there are currently no reliable diagnostic and therapeutic targets for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The inflammasome/caspase-1 pathway regulates the maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-18). IL-18 is associated with injury in animal models of systemic inflammation. We sought to determine the contribution of the inflammasome pathway in experimental acute lung injury and human ARDS. We performed comprehensive gene expression profiling on peripheral blood from patients with critical illness. Gene expression changes were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and IL-18 levels were measured in the plasma of the critically ill patients. Wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in IL-18 or caspase-1 were mechanically ventilated using moderate tidal volume (12 ml/kg). Lung injury parameters were assessed in lung tissue, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In mice, mechanical ventilation enhanced IL-18 levels in the lung, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. IL-18-neutralizing antibody treatment, or genetic deletion of IL-18 or caspase-1, reduced lung injury in response to mechanical ventilation. In human patients with ARDS, inflammasome-related mRNA transcripts (CASP1, IL1B, and IL18) were increased in peripheral blood. In samples from four clinical centers, IL-18 was elevated in the plasma of patients with ARDS (sepsis or trauma-induced ARDS) and served as a novel biomarker of intensive care unit morbidity and mortality. The inflammasome pathway and its downstream cytokines play critical roles in ARDS development.

  1. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Akiko; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA) at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL), expiration sound pressure level (ESPL), and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I) were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The E/I data in the frequency range of 100-400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF]) were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=-0.55 and r=-0.58; logPC20: r=-0.46 and r=-0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively). The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea) and V50%pred sound recordings could be used to identify sites of local airway inflammation.

  2. The LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates lung inflammation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis.

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    Abdulaleem Alnajar

    Full Text Available Fibrogenesis is usually initiated when regenerative processes have failed and/or chronic inflammation occurs. It is characterised by the activation of tissue fibroblasts and dysregulated synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. FHL2 (four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 is a scaffolding protein that interacts with numerous cellular proteins, regulating signalling cascades and gene transcription. It is involved in tissue remodelling and tumour progression. Recent data suggest that FHL2 might support fibrogenesis by maintaining the transcriptional expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and the excessive synthesis and assembly of matrix proteins in activated fibroblasts. Here, we present evidence that FHL2 does not promote bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but rather suppresses this process by attenuating lung inflammation. Loss of FHL2 results in increased expression of the pro-inflammatory matrix protein tenascin C and downregulation of the macrophage activating C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN. Consequently, FHL2 knockout mice developed a severe and long-lasting lung pathology following bleomycin administration due to enhanced expression of tenascin C and impaired activation of inflammation-resolving macrophages.

  3. Carbon nanotubes induce inflammation but decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, D; Follot, S; Gentilhomme, E; Flahaut, E; Arnaud, R; Dabouis, V; Castellarin, C; Debouzy, J C

    2010-06-04

    With the rapid spread of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applications, the respiratory toxicity of these compounds has attracted the attention of many scientists. Several studies have reported that after lung administration, CNTs could induce granuloma, fibrosis, or inflammation. By comparison with the mechanisms involved with other toxic particles such as asbestos, this effect could be attributed to an increase of oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to test this hypothesis in vivo. Mice were intranasally instilled with 1.5mg/kg of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). Six, 24, or 48h after administration, inflammation and localisation of DWCNTs in lungs were microscopically observed. Local oxidative perturbations were investigated using ESR spin trapping experiments, and systemic inflammation was assessed by measuring the plasma concentration of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IGF-1, Leptin, G-CSF, and VEGF. Examination of lungs and the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the plasma (Leptin and IL-6 at 6h) confirmed the induction of an inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory reaction was accompanied by a decrease in the local oxidative stress. This effect could be attributed to the scavenger capability of pure CNTs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products attenuate allergic lung inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Koponen, Ismo K

    2016-01-01

    , and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene, is used as a fragrance in numerous consumer products. When limonene reacts with the pulmonary irritant ozone, a complex mixture of gas and particle phase products is formed, which causes sensory irritation. This study investigated whether limonene, ozone...... or the reaction mixture can exacerbate allergic lung inflammation and whether airway irritation is enhanced in allergic BALB/cJ mice. Naïve and allergic (ovalbumin sensitized) mice were exposed via inhalation for three consecutive days to clean air, ozone, limonene or an ozone-limonene reaction mixture. Sensory......, it was found that limonene and the ozone-limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. Ozone induced sensory irritation in both naïve and allergic mice. However, allergic but not naïve mice were protected from pulmonary irritation induced by ozone. This study...

  5. Pharmacological characterisation of anti-inflammatory compounds in acute and chronic mouse models of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

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    Mok Joanie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate compounds being developed to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are typically assessed using either acute or chronic mouse smoking models; however, in both systems compounds have almost always been administered prophylactically. Our aim was to determine whether the prophylactic effects of reference anti-inflammatory compounds in acute mouse smoking models reflected their therapeutic effects in (more clinically relevant chronic systems. Methods To do this, we started by examining the type of inflammatory cell infiltrate which occurred after acute (3 days or chronic (12 weeks cigarette smoke exposure (CSE using female, C57BL/6 mice (n = 7-10. To compare the effects of anti-inflammatory compounds in these models, mice were exposed to either 3 days of CSE concomitant with compound dosing or 14 weeks of CSE with dosing beginning after week 12. Budesonide (1 mg kg-1; i.n., q.d., roflumilast (3 mg kg-1; p.o., q.d. and fluvastatin (2 mg kg-1; p.o., b.i.d. were dosed 1 h before (and 5 h after for fluvastatin CSE. These dose levels were selected because they have previously been shown to be efficacious in mouse models of lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF leukocyte number was the primary endpoint in both models as this is also a primary endpoint in early clinical studies. Results To start, we confirmed that the inflammatory phenotypes were different after acute (3 days versus chronic (12 weeks CSE. The inflammation in the acute systems was predominantly neutrophilic, while in the more chronic CSE systems BALF neutrophils (PMNs, macrophage and lymphocyte numbers were all increased (p Conclusions These results demonstrate that the acute, prophylactic systems can be used to identify compounds with therapeutic potential, but may not predict a compound's efficacy in chronic smoke exposure models.

  6. Water-soluble phenol TS-13 combats acute but not chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshchikova, Elena; Tkachev, Victor; Lemza, Anna; Sharkova, Tatyana; Kandalintseva, Natalya; Vavilin, Valentin; Safronova, Olga; Zenkov, Nikolay

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the synthetic water-soluble phenolic antioxidant TS-13 (sodium 3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate), an inducer of the redox-dependent Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling system, in experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation. Acute local inflammation was induced by intraplantar carrageenan injection into rat hind paws, and acute systemic inflammation was modeled by intravenous zymosan injection (in rats) or LPS-induced endotoxic shock (in mice). Chronic inflammation was investigated in rat models of air pouch and collagen-induced arthritis. The effects of TS-13 treatment were estimated by changes in the intensity of inflammation (paw edema, liver infiltration, animal survival, exudation, and clinical score of arthritis) and by the effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by leukocytes from peripheral blood and inflammatory exudates. We found the significant increase in expression of mRNA, content of protein and activity of a well-characterized Nrf2 target enzyme glutathione S-transferase P1, as well as nuclear extract protein binding to the ARE consensus sequence in liver of mice fed with diet containing TS-13. TS-13 markedly attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema, reduced blood granulocyte number and volume density of liver infiltrates in the systemic zymosan-induced inflammation model, and increased mice survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock. However, TS-13 administration did not influence cell and protein exudation into air pouches and suppressed clinical manifestation of collagen-induced polyarthritis only at early stages. Nevertheless, TS-13 inhibited the generation of ROS by leukocytes in all inflammation models. The data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system are more prominent against acute innate-mediated inflammation than chronic immune inflammation. This narrows the potential therapeutic efficacy of ARE inducers in inflammation treatment.

  7. Life-threatening acute lung injury after gamma butyrolactone ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerwen, M; Scheper, H; Touw, D J; van Nieuwkoop, C

    2015-03-01

    We describe a case of a 44-year-old woman with a borderline personality disorder and chronic gamma- butyrolactone (GBL) use who presented with progressive dyspnoea and an altered mental status. A high anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute lung injury was diagnosed. We hypothesise this was caused by GBL. In this case report we describe the diagnostic process and possible pathophysiological mechanisms that may have led to this life-threatening condition.

  8. Low molecular weight heparin prevents CLP-induced acute lung injury in rats by anti-inflammatory coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Yong-Hua

    2013-02-01

    The aim of our study was to observe the influence of low molecular Weight heparin (LMWH) on systemic inflammation, including high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and protective effect on acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture(CLP). Discuss the mechanism of this effect. 144 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (A), normal treatment group (B), the LMWH treatment group (C), n=48.Group A received a sham operation and the other groups were underwent CLP operation. Groups A and B accepted intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of normal saline (NS) at a dose of 2.0 ml/kg and ceftriaxone (30 mg/kg), Group C were intraperitoneal injection additional LMWH (150 U/kg) except saline and ceftriaxone. Observe points were made at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 h, the rats were anesthetized and killed, mortality, lungs wet/dry ratio and Pathology change were determined. HMGB-1 mRNA, protein of lung tissues was calculated by RT-PCR and Western blot. TNF-α and IL-6 of blood plasma calculated by ELSIA. There was significantly different in each index between A and B group (pCLP group, there was a significant decrease in the lung injury, the mortality, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression on lung tissues (pCLP-induced inflammation. As a result, LMWH ameliorated lung pathology and reduces mortality in CLP-induced systemic inflammation in a rat model. This effect may be mediated through the inhibition of axis of inflammation and coagulation.

  9. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  10. Effects of pressure support and pressure-controlled ventilation on lung damage in a model of mild extrapulmonary acute lung injury with intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cintia L; Santos, Raquel S; Moraes, Lillian; Samary, Cynthia S; Felix, Nathane S; Silva, Johnatas D; Morales, Marcelo M; Huhle, Robert; Abreu, Marcelo G; Schanaider, Alberto; Silva, Pedro L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2017-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) may co-occur with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Lung-protective controlled mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been recommended in ARDS. However, mechanical ventilation with spontaneous breathing activity may be beneficial to lung function and reduce lung damage in mild ARDS. We hypothesized that preserving spontaneous breathing activity during pressure support ventilation (PSV) would improve respiratory function and minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) compared to pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) in mild extrapulmonary acute lung injury (ALI) with IAH. Thirty Wistar rats (334±55g) received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intraperitoneally (1000μg) to induce mild extrapulmonary ALI. After 24h, animals were anesthetized and randomized to receive PCV or PSV. They were then further randomized into subgroups without or with IAH (15 mmHg) and ventilated with PCV or PSV (PEEP = 5cmH2O, driving pressure adjusted to achieve tidal volume = 6mL/kg) for 1h. Six of the 30 rats were used for molecular biology analysis and were not mechanically ventilated. The main outcome was the effect of PCV versus PSV on mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in lung tissue. Regardless of whether IAH was present, PSV resulted in lower mean airway pressure (with no differences in peak airway or peak and mean transpulmonary pressures) and less mRNA expression of biomarkers associated with lung inflammation (IL-6) and fibrogenesis (type III procollagen) than PCV. In the presence of IAH, PSV improved oxygenation; decreased alveolar collapse, interstitial edema, and diffuse alveolar damage; and increased expression of surfactant protein B as compared to PCV. In this experimental model of mild extrapulmonary ALI associated with IAH, PSV compared to PCV improved lung function and morphology and reduced type 2 epithelial

  11. Types of Acute Lung Injury and Fat Embolism

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    Ye. A. Kameneva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of diagnosing acute lung injury (ALI and fat embolism (FE. Subjects and methods: Forty-seven patients with severe concomitant trauma (SCT, divided into three groups by the severity of shock and injury, were examined. The parameters of the scales rating ALI severity, lipid metabolism, hemostatic system, and hemodynamic monitoring were analyzed. Results. Three types of acute lung injury were identified in FE depending on clinical laboratory parameters: the patients having a shockogenicity index of less than 14 scores had significantly activated coagulation hemostasis and suppressed fibrinolytic system. Those with a shockogenicity index of 15 to 22 scores developed hemostatic disorders as activated coagulation hemostasis throughout the study and considerably activated fibrinolytic system, the levels of atherogenic very low density lipoproteins (LVDL and triglycerides increased. The patients with a shockogenicity index of more than 23 scores developed hemostatic disorders, such as pronounced activation of the blood coagulation system and suppression of the fibrinolytic system. The manifestation of ALI increased with the elevated concentrations of LVDL and triglycerides, hypercoagulation by hemo-viscosimetric parameters and reduced platelets, lower oxygenation index, and decreased oxygen consumption. Conclusion. A scheme of development of the types of ALI and FE has been proposed. Key words: severe injury, acute lung injury, fat embolism, types of diagnosis.

  12. Risk Factors for Mortality and Outcomes in Pediatric Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Flávia F; Troster, Eduardo J; Oliveira, Cindy S; Faria, Aline; Lucena, Michelle; João, Paulo R D; Saad, Everardo D; Foronda, Flávia A K; Delgado, Artur F; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow

    2015-09-01

    Children admitted to PICUs often present with or develop respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventilation. We prospectively identified children admitted to three general PICUs, with the goal of identifying risk factors for mortality. Prospective multicenter observational study. Three general PICUs, two in São Paulo and one in Curitiba, Brazil. Children aged between 1 month and 15 years, consecutively admitted between August 2008 and July 2010, with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome that developed at least 12 hours after invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation. None. We used logistic regression models to explore the relationship between death and independent variables. Of 3,046 patients admitted to the three PICUs, 1,658 patients underwent mechanical ventilation, and 84 fulfilled the acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Nearly 60% were boys, and the median age was 31 months. Pressure control/assist control was the initial mode of mechanical ventilation in 86% of cases, and the median durations of mechanical ventilation and PICU stay were 12 and 15 days, respectively. None of the eight patients with acute lung injury died, whereas 33 of 76 of the remaining patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome died, for an overall mortality rate of 39.3% (95% CI, 28.8-50.6%). In different multivariate logistic regression model, the number of organ dysfunctions at admission, peak inspiratory pressure, airway pressure gradient on day 1, and the mean airway pressure gradient over the first 7 days of mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with mortality. Mortality is high in pediatric acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanical ventilation-associated risk factors for death among such patients are potential targets for intervention.

  13. Exposing the developing lung to hyperoxic gas: effects on lung development and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation later in life

    OpenAIRE

    Bouch, Sheena Innes

    2017-01-01

    Owing to lung immaturity, infants born preterm are often administered high levels of oxygen (hyperoxia). However, prolonged hyperoxia can cause oxidative stress and inflammation and can alter lung development, which may contribute to later lung disease. Previous experimental studies of neonatal hyperoxia have largely used oxygen concentrations greater than 80%. There is a need to study the long-term effects of milder oxygen concentrations, which reflect current clinical practice. Preterm infa...

  14. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  15. Inflammation of vertebral bone associated with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihmanli, I.; Kanberoglu, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Karaarslan, E. [Intermed Medical Center, Nisantasi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with characteristic findings on radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis report having inflammation of both the vertebra itself and the longus colli muscle diagnosed on MRI. In patients with neck pain, acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis, even if these patients had vertebral pathological signals on MRI. (orig.)

  16. Multiple exposures to swine barn air induce lung inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness

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    Willson Philip

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine farmers repeatedly exposed to the barn air suffer from respiratory diseases. However the mechanisms of lung dysfunction following repeated exposures to the barn air are still largely unknown. Therefore, we tested a hypothesis in a rat model that multiple interrupted exposures to the barn air will cause chronic lung inflammation and decline in lung function. Methods Rats were exposed either to swine barn (8 hours/day for either one or five or 20 days or ambient air. After the exposure periods, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR to methacholine (Mch was measured and rats were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood and lung tissues. Barn air was sampled to determine endotoxin levels and microbial load. Results The air in the barn used in this study had a very high concentration of endotoxin (15361.75 ± 7712.16 EU/m3. Rats exposed to barn air for one and five days showed increase in AHR compared to the 20-day exposed and controls. Lungs from the exposed groups were inflamed as indicated by recruitment of neutrophils in all three exposed groups and eosinophils and an increase in numbers of airway epithelial goblet cells in 5- and 20-day exposure groups. Rats exposed to the barn air for one day or 20 days had more total leukocytes in the BALF and 20-day exposed rats had more airway epithelial goblet cells compared to the controls and those subjected to 1 and 5 exposures (P Conclusion We conclude that multiple exposures to endotoxin-containing swine barn air induce AHR, increase in mucus-containing airway epithelial cells and lung inflammation. The data also show that prolonged multiple exposures may also induce adaptation in AHR response in the exposed subjects.

  17. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma

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    Shimoda T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terufumi Shimoda,1 Yasushi Obase,2 Yukio Nagasaka,3 Hiroshi Nakano,1 Akiko Ishimatsu,1 Reiko Kishikawa,1 Tomoaki Iwanaga1 1Clinical Research Center, Fukuoka National Hospital, Fukuoka, 2Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 3Kyoto Respiratory Center, Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Patients and methods: Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL, expiration sound pressure level (ESPL, and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO. Results: The E/I data in the frequency range of 100–400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF] were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=–0.55 and r=–0.58; logPC20: r=–0.46 and r=–0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively. The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea and V50%pred <80%, suggesting inflammation throughout the airway. Asthmatic subjects with FeNO <70 ppb showed high or low E/I MF levels depending on the recording position, indicating uneven airway inflammation. Conclusion: E/I LF and E/I MF are more useful LSA parameters for evaluating airway inflammation in bronchial asthma; 7-point lung

  18. Use of metal oxide nanoparticle band gap to develop a predictive paradigm for oxidative stress and acute pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xia, Tian; Meng, Huan; Low-Kam, Cecile; Liu, Rong; Pokhrel, Suman; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Linjiang; Rallo, Robert; Damoiseaux, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Mädler, Lutz; Cohen, Yoram; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre E

    2012-05-22

    We demonstrate for 24 metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles that it is possible to use conduction band energy levels to delineate their toxicological potential at cellular and whole animal levels. Among the materials, the overlap of conduction band energy (E(c)) levels with the cellular redox potential (-4.12 to -4.84 eV) was strongly correlated to the ability of Co(3)O(4), Cr(2)O(3), Ni(2)O(3), Mn(2)O(3), and CoO nanoparticles to induce oxygen radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This outcome is premised on permissible electron transfers from the biological redox couples that maintain the cellular redox equilibrium to the conduction band of the semiconductor particles. Both single-parameter cytotoxic as well as multi-parameter oxidative stress assays in cells showed excellent correlation to the generation of acute neutrophilic inflammation and cytokine responses in the lungs of C57 BL/6 mice. Co(3)O(4), Ni(2)O(3), Mn(2)O(3), and CoO nanoparticles could also oxidize cytochrome c as a representative redox couple involved in redox homeostasis. While CuO and ZnO generated oxidative stress and acute pulmonary inflammation that is not predicted by E(c) levels, the adverse biological effects of these materials could be explained by their solubility, as demonstrated by ICP-MS analysis. These results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the toxicity of a large series of MOx nanoparticles in the lung premised on semiconductor properties and an integrated in vitro/in vivo hazard ranking model premised on oxidative stress. This establishes a robust platform for modeling of MOx structure-activity relationships based on band gap energy levels and particle dissolution. This predictive toxicological paradigm is also of considerable importance for regulatory decision-making about this important class of engineered nanomaterials.

  19. Use of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Band Gap to Develop a Predictive Paradigm for Oxidative Stress and Acute Pulmonary Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xia, Tian; Meng, Huan; Low-Kam, Cecile; Liu, Rong; Pokhrel, Suman; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Linjiang; Rallo, Robert; Damoiseaux, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Mädler, Lutz; Cohen, Yoram; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate for 24 metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles that it is possible to use conduction band energy levels to delineate their toxicological potential at cellular and whole animal levels. Among the materials, the overlap of conduction band energy (Ec) levels with the cellular redox potential (−4.12 to −4.84 eV) was strongly correlated to the ability of Co3O4, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3 and CoO nanoparticles to induce oxygen radicals, oxidative stress and inflammation. This outcome is premised on permissible electron transfers from the biological redox couples that maintain the cellular redox equilibrium to the conduction band of the semiconductor particles. Both single parameter cytotoxic as well as multi-parameter oxidative stress assays in cells showed excellent correlation to the generation of acute neutrophilic inflammation and cytokine responses in the lungs of CB57 Bl/6 mice. Co3O4, Ni2O3, Mn2O3 and CoO nanoparticles could also oxidize cytochrome c as a representative redox couple involved in redox homeostasis. While CuO and ZnO generated oxidative stress and acute pulmonary inflammation that is not predicted by Ec levels, the adverse biological effects of these materials could be explained by their solubility, as demonstrated by ICP-MS analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to predict the toxicity of a large series of MOx nanoparticles in the lung premised on semiconductor properties and an integrated in vitro/in vivo hazard ranking model premised on oxidative stress. This establishes a robust platform for modeling of MOx structure-activity relationships based on band gap energy levels and particle dissolution. This predictive toxicological paradigm is also of considerable importance for regulatory decision-making about this important class of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:22502734

  20. Acute inflammation in horizontal incompletely impacted third molar with radiolucency in the elderly

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    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Masahide Ishizuka, Takayuki Uchihashi, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Although radiolucency has been shown as a risk of infection, the poorly understood effects of aging on radiolucency correlate with acute pericoronitis, which has a high risk of infection extending any complications. We reviewed the records of 346 consecutive patients aged more than 41 years to evaluate whether pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars is related to acute inflammation. The frequency of acute inflammation in teeth with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown was similar to that in teeth without; however, the odds ratio of acute inflammation exhibited in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 41–50 years was 9.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67–57.29; P <<0.05, and in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 51–60 years was 26.25 (95% CI: 2.94–234.38; P < 0.01. The odds ratio of severe acute inflammation exhibited in men aged more than 61 years compared to men aged 41–50 years was 16.67 (95% CI: 1.76–158.27; P < 0.01. These odds ratios indicate an association of acute pericoronitis, including the severe forms of acute inflammation that result from pericoronitis, with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in the elderly.Keywords: radiolucency, mandible, third molar, acute inflammation, aging

  1. Diosmetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Activating the Nrf2 Pathway and Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinmei; Ci, Xinxin; Wen, Zhongmei; Peng, Liping

    2017-04-06

    Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical syndrome of diffuse lung inflammation with high mortality rates and limited therapeutic methods. Diosmetin, an active component from Chinese herbs, has long been noticed because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diosmetin on LPS-induced ALI model and unveil the possible mechanisms. Our results revealed that pretreatment with diosmetin effectively alleviated lung histopathological changes, which were further evaluated by lung injury scores. Diosmetin also decreased lung wet/ dry ratios, as well as total protein levels, inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine (eg. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) overproduction in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Additionally, increased MPO, MDA and ROS levels induced by LPS were also markly suppressed by diosmetin. Furthermore, diosmetin significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 along with its target gene HO-1 and blocked the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the lung tissues, which might be central to the protective effects of diosmetin. Further supporting these results, in vitro experiments also showed that diosmetin activated Nrf2 and HO-1, as well as inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome in both RAW264.7 and A549 cells. The present study highlights the protective effects of diosmetin on LPS-induced ALI via activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome, bringing up the hope of its application as a therapeutic drug towards LPS-induced ALI.

  2. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  3. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Ishizuka, Masahide; YASUDA, KOUICHI; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95%...

  4. Role of acid-sensing ion channel 3 in sub-acute-phase inflammation

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    Chen Chien-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-mediated hyperalgesia involves tissue acidosis and sensitization of nociceptors. Many studies have reported increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in inflammation and enhanced ASIC3 channel activity with pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the role of ASIC3 in inflammation remains inconclusive because of conflicting results generated from studies of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/- or dominant-negative mutant mice, which have shown normal, decreased or increased hyperalgesia during inflammation. Results Here, we tested whether ASIC3 plays an important role in inflammation of subcutaneous tissue of paw and muscle in ASIC3-/- mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or carrageenan by investigating behavioral and pathological responses, as well as the expression profile of ion channels. Compared with the ASIC3+/+ controls, ASIC3-/- mice showed normal thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia with acute (4-h intraplantar CFA- or carrageenan-induced inflammation, but the hyperalgesic effects in the sub-acute phase (1–2 days were milder in all paradigms except for thermal hyperalgesia with CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, carrageenan-induced primary hyperalgesia was accompanied by an ASIC3-dependent Nav1.9 up-regulation and increase of tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium currents. CFA-inflamed muscle did not evoke hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- or ASIC3+/+ mice, whereas carrageenan-induced inflammation in muscle abolished mechanical hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- mice, as previously described. However, ASIC3-/- mice showed attenuated pathological features such as less CFA-induced granulomas and milder carrageenan-evoked vasculitis as compared with ASIC3+/+ mice. Conclusion We provide a novel finding that ASIC3 participates in the maintenance of sub-acute-phase primary hyperalgesia in subcutaneous inflammation and mediates the process of granuloma formation and vasculitis in intramuscular inflammation.

  5. Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products attenuate allergic lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Koponen, Ismo K; Sørli, Jorid B; Paidi, Maya D; Hansen, Søren W K; Clausen, Per Axel; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Wolkoff, Peder; Larsen, Søren Thor

    2016-11-01

    Inhalation of indoor air pollutants may cause airway irritation and inflammation and is suspected to worsen allergic reactions. Inflammation may be due to mucosal damage, upper (sensory) and lower (pulmonary) airway irritation due to activation of the trigeminal and vagal nerves, respectively, and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene, is used as a fragrance in numerous consumer products. When limonene reacts with the pulmonary irritant ozone, a complex mixture of gas and particle phase products is formed, which causes sensory irritation. This study investigated whether limonene, ozone or the reaction mixture can exacerbate allergic lung inflammation and whether airway irritation is enhanced in allergic BALB/cJ mice. Naïve and allergic (ovalbumin sensitized) mice were exposed via inhalation for three consecutive days to clean air, ozone, limonene or an ozone-limonene reaction mixture. Sensory and pulmonary irritation was investigated in addition to ovalbumin-specific antibodies, inflammatory cells, total protein and surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hemeoxygenase-1 and cytokines in lung tissue. Overall, airway allergy was not exacerbated by any of the exposures. In contrast, it was found that limonene and the ozone-limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. Ozone induced sensory irritation in both naïve and allergic mice. However, allergic but not naïve mice were protected from pulmonary irritation induced by ozone. This study showed that irritation responses might be modulated by airway allergy. However, aggravation of allergic symptoms was observed by neither exposure to ozone nor exposure to ozone-initiated limonene reaction products. In contrast, anti-inflammatory properties of the tested limonene-containing pollutants might attenuate airway allergy.

  6. Peripheral inflammation acutely impairs human spatial memory via actions on medial temporal lobe glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Doeller, Christian F; Voon, Valerie; Burgess, Neil; Critchley, Hugo D

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation impairs cognitive performance and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Rodent studies demonstrated key roles for inflammatory mediators in many processes critical to memory, including long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. They also demonstrated functional impairment of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures by systemic inflammation. However, human data to support this position are limited. Sequential fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography together with experimentally induced inflammation was used to investigate effects of a systemic inflammatory challenge on human MTL function. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning was performed in 20 healthy participants before and after typhoid vaccination and saline control injection. After each scanning session, participants performed a virtual reality spatial memory task analogous to the Morris water maze and a mirror-tracing procedural memory control task. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data demonstrated an acute reduction in human MTL glucose metabolism after inflammation. The inflammatory challenge also selectively compromised human spatial, but not procedural, memory; this effect that was independent of actions on motivation or psychomotor response. Effects of inflammation on parahippocampal and rhinal glucose metabolism directly mediated actions of inflammation on spatial memory. These data demonstrate acute sensitivity of human MTL to mild peripheral inflammation, giving rise to associated functional impairment in the form of reduced spatial memory performance. Our findings suggest a mechanism for the observed epidemiologic link between inflammation and risk of age-related cognitive decline and progression of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials induced pulmonary surfactant inhibition, cytotoxicity, inflammation and lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunan; Yang, Yi; Xu, Bolong; Wang, Shunhao; Li, Bin; Ma, Juan; Gao, Jie; Zuo, Yi Y; Liu, Sijin

    2017-12-01

    Environmental exposure and health risk upon engineered nanomaterials are increasingly concerned. The family of mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) is a rising star in nanotechnology for multidisciplinary research with versatile applications in electronics, energy and gas storage, and biomedicine. Meanwhile, there is mounting concern on their environmental health risks due to the growing production and usage of MCNs. The lung is the primary site for particle invasion under environmental exposure to nanomaterials. Here, we studied the comprehensive toxicological profile of MCNs in the lung under the scenario of moderate environmental exposure. It was found that at a low concentration of 10μg/mL MCNs induced biophysical inhibition of natural pulmonary surfactant. Moreover, MCNs at similar concentrations reduced viability of J774A.1 macrophages and lung epithelial A549 cells. Incubating with nature pulmonary surfactant effectively reduced the cytotoxicity of MCNs. Regarding the pro-inflammatory responses, MCNs activated macrophages in vitro, and stimulated lung inflammation in mice after inhalation exposure, associated with lung fibrosis. Moreover, we found that the size of MCNs played a significant role in regulating cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory potential of this nanomaterial. In general, larger MCNs induced more pronounced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects than their smaller counterparts. Our results provided valuable information on the toxicological profile and environmental health risks of MCNs, and suggested that fine-tuning the size of MCNs could be a practical precautionary design strategy to increase safety and biocompatibility of this nanomaterial. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Importance of surface characteristics of QUARTZ DQ 12 for acute inflammation

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    Albrecht, C.; Becher, A.; Scins, R.P.F.; Hoehr, D.; Unfried, K.; Knaapen, A.M.; Borm, P.J.A. [Institut fuer medizinische Forschung (IUF), Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Although quartz is known to induce inflammation in rat lungs, mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The importance of particle surface characteristics was investigated in vivo after intratracheal instillation of different preparations of quartz in rat lungs. Three days after instillation of 2 mg DQ12 quartz, or DQ12 coated with polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) or Aluminium lactate (AL), lungs of female Wistar rats were lavaged in situ to determine markers of inflammation. Control rats received saline or the coating substances alone. DQ12 induced a marked inflammatory response, as indicated by a significant increase in the number of neutrophils and macrophages, as well as in the levels of b-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. None of these inflammatory markers was increased for both coated quartz preparations, with the exception of neutrophil influx which was also increased after treatment with AL quartz. Our results indicate that surface characteristics are important in the onset of quartz-induced lung inflammation which could imply a different development of persistent inflammation. This will be investigated in later follow-up time points of the same animal study. (orig.)

  9. Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate early damage in a ventilated pig model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuben Moodley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have shown promise in treating inflammatory lung conditions. We hypothesised that human MSC (hMSC can improve ALI/ARDS through their anti-inflammatory actions. We subjected pigs (n = 6 to intravenous oleic acid (OA injury, ventilation and hMSC infusion, while the controls (n = 5 had intravenous OA, ventilation and an infusion vehicle control. hMSC were infused 1 h after the administration of OA. The animals were monitored for additional 4 h. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, a transcription factor that mediates several inflammatory pathways was reduced in hMSC treated pigs compared to controls (p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in lung injury, assessed by histological scoring in hMSC treated pigs versus controls (p = 0.063. There was no difference in neutrophil counts between hMSC-treated pigs and controls. Within 4 h, there was no difference in the levels of IL-10 and IL-8 pre- and post-treatment with hMSC. In addition, there was no difference in hemodynamics, lung mechanics or arterial blood gases between hMSC treated animals and controls. Subsequent studies are required to determine if the observed decrease in inflammatory transcription factors will translate into improvement in inflammation and in physiological parameters over the long term.

  10. Inhibition of adenosine kinase attenuates acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, David; Streißenberger, Ariane; Morote-García, Julio C.; Granja, Tiago F.; Schneider, Mariella; Straub, Andreas; Boison, Detlev; Rosenberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Extracellular adenosine has tissue protective potential in several conditions. Adenosine levels are regulated by a close interplay between nucleoside transporters and adenosine kinase (ADK). Based on evidence of the role of ADK in regulating adenosine levels during hypoxia, we evaluated the effect of ADK on lung injury. Furthermore, we tested the influence of a pharmacological approach to blocking ADK on the extent of lung injury. Design Prospective experimental animal study. Setting University based research laboratory. Subjects In vitro cell lines, wildtype (Wt) and ADK+/− mice. Methods We tested the expression of ADK during inflammatory stimulation in vitro and in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation in vivo. Studies using the ADK promoter were performed in vitro. Wt and ADK+/− mice were subjected to LPS inhalation. Pharmacological inhibition of ADK was performed in vitro, and its effect on adenosine uptake was evaluated. The pharmacological inhibition was also performed in vivo, and the effect on lung injury was assessed. Measurements and Results We observed the repression of ADK by pro-inflammatory cytokines and found a significant influence of NF-κB on regulation of the ADK promoter. Mice with endogenous ADK repression (ADK+/−) showed reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the alveolar space, decreased total protein and myeloperoxidase levels, and lower cytokine levels in the alveolar lavage fluid. The inhibition of ADK by 5-iodotubercidine increased the extracellular adenosine levels in vitro, diminished the transmigration of neutrophils and improved the epithelial barrier function. The inhibition of ADK in vivo showed protective properties, reducing the extent of pulmonary inflammation during lung injury. Conclusions Taken together, these data show that ADK is a valuable target for reducing the inflammatory changes associated with lung injury and should be pursued as a therapeutic option. PMID:26491864

  11. Protective Ventilation of Preterm Lambs Exposed to Acute Chorioamnionitis Does Not Reduce Ventilation-Induced Lung or Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Samantha K.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Crossley, Kelly J.; Gill, Andrew W.; Kluckow, Martin; Zahra, Valerie; Wong, Flora Y.; Pichler, Gerhard; Galinsky, Robert; Miller, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response. Methods Pregnant ewes (n = 18) received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6), or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5) or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7) for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury. Results LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02) and cell death (p<0.05) in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups. Conclusions Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor

  12. Protective ventilation of preterm lambs exposed to acute chorioamnionitis does not reduce ventilation-induced lung or brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Barton

    Full Text Available The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response.Pregnant ewes (n = 18 received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6, or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5 or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7 for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury.LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02 and cell death (p<0.05 in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups.Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor to WM injury in infants exposed

  13. The triterpenoid CDDO limits inflammation in preclinical models of cystic fibrosis lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziady, Assem G.; Shank, Samuel L.; Eastman, Jean F.; Davis, Pamela B.

    2009-01-01

    Excessive inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is a contributor to progressive pulmonary decline. Effective and well-tolerated anti-inflammatory therapy may preserve lung function, thereby improving quality and length of life. In this paper, we assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) in preclinical models of CF airway inflammation. In our experiments, mice carrying the R117H Cftr mutation have significantly reduced airway inflammatory responses to both LPS and flagellin when treated with CDDO before inflammatory challenge. Anti-inflammatory effects observed include reduced airway neutrophilia, reduced concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and reduced weight loss. Our findings with the synthetic triterpenoids in multiple cell culture models of CF human airway epithelia agree with effects previously described in other disease models (e.g., neoplastic cells). These include the ability to reduce NF-κB activation while increasing nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity. As these two signaling pathways appear to be pivotal in regulating the net inflammatory response in the CF airway, these compounds are a promising potential anti-inflammatory therapy for CF lung disease. PMID:19700644

  14. Interleukin-17 Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Intervention in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Daniel; Taylor, Patricia; Fletcher, Dave; van Heeckeren, Rolf; Eastman, Jean; van Heeckeren, Anna; Davis, Pamela; Chmiel, James F; Pearlman, Eric; Bonfield, Tracey L

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by an excessive neutrophilic inflammatory response within the airway as a result of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR) expression and function. Interleukin-17A induces airway neutrophilia and mucin production associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, which is associated with the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis. The objectives of this study were to use the preclinical murine model of cystic fibrosis lung infection and inflammation to investigate the role of IL-17 in CF lung pathophysiology and explore therapeutic intervention with a focus on IL-17. Cftr-deficient mice (CF mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice) infected with P. aeruginosa had robust IL-17 production early in the infection associated with a persistent elevated inflammatory response. Intratracheal administration of IL-17 provoked a neutrophilic response in the airways of WT and CF animals which was similar to that observed with P. aeruginosa infection. The neutralization of IL-17 prior to infection significantly improved the outcomes in the CF mice, suggesting that IL-17 may be a therapeutic target. We demonstrate in this report that the pathophysiological contribution of IL-17 may be due to the induction of chemokines from the epithelium which is augmented by a deficiency of Cftr and ongoing inflammation. These studies demonstrate the in vivo contribution of IL-17 in cystic fibrosis lung disease and the therapeutic validity of attenuating IL-17 activity in cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

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    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  16. Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone-induced acute lung toxicity: comparison with Tc-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gamze Kapa; Ozdogan, O; Guneri, S; Tamc, B; Durak, H

    2006-11-01

    This case demonstrates the use of Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone (AD)-induced lung toxicity. The aim of this presentation is also to discuss different scintigraphic modalities in the diagnosis and follow up in AD-induced lung toxicity. A 77-year-old man, with a suspicious AD-induced acute lung toxicity, underwent Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy and Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy. Rapid alveolar clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was found during AD therapy and increased lung uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO was also demonstrated. These findings supported the diagnosis AD lung toxicity. After cessation of therapy, Tc-99m DTPA alveolar clearance was decreased. Although there was some decrease in L/H and L/B ratios of Tc-99m HMPAO after 3 weeks of stopping therapy, Tc-99m HMPAO uptake in the lungs was still continued. This finding may be the result of ongoing pulmonary inflammation as a result of the long half-life of AD. Compared with Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy may have a role in the diagnosis of AD lung toxicity. Nevertheless, there is a need for longitudinal studies investigating patients under AD therapy using follow-up Tc-9m HMPAO scintigraphy.

  17. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

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    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  18. Effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Smith, Joshua R; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Harms, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    A high-fat meal (HFM) induces an increase in blood lipids (postprandial lipemia; PPL), systemic inflammation, and acute airway inflammation. While acute exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, it is unknown whether exercise prior to an HFM will translate to reduced airway inflammation post-HFM. Our purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on airway inflammation post-HFM and to identify whether any protective effect of exercise on airway inflammation was associated with a reduction in PPL or systemic inflammation. In a randomized cross-over study, 12 healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men (age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 5.5 cm; weight, 78.5 ± 11.7 kg) consumed an HFM (1 g fat/1 kg body weight) 12 h following exercise (EX; 60 min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake) or without exercise (CON). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO; measure of airway inflammation), triglycerides (TG), and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6) were measured while fasted at 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. FENO increased over time (2 h: CON, p = 0.001; EX, p = 0.002, but not by condition (p = 0.991). TG significantly increased 2 and 4 h post-HFM (p 0.05). There were no relationships between FENO and TG or systemic inflammatory markers for any time point or condition (p > 0.05). In summary, an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to an HFM did not change postprandial airway inflammation or lipemia in healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men.

  19. Critical Role for CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immune Complex-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunguang; Wu, Min; Cao, Jay; Tang, Huifang; Zhu, Mei; Johnson, Peter F.; Gao, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), particularly C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, are known to participate in the regulation of many genes associated with inflammation. However, very little is known regarding the activation and functions of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ in acute lung inflammation and injury. Here we show that both C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ activation are triggered in lungs and in alveolar macrophages following intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. We further show that mice carrying a targeted deletion of the C/EBPβ gene displayed significant attenuation of the permeability index (lung vascular leak of albumin), lung neutrophil accumulation (MPO activity), total number of white blood cells, and neutrophils in bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluids compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the mutant mice expressed considerably less TNF-α, IL-6, and CXC/CC chemokine and sICAM-1 proteins in BAL fluids, and corresponding mRNAs in the IgG immune complex-injured lung, compared to wild-type mice. These phenotypes were associated with a significant reduction in morphological lung injury. In contrast, C/EBPδ deficiency had no effect on IgG immune complex-induced lung injury. IgG immune complex-stimulated C/EBPβ-deficient alveolar macrophages released significantly less TNF-α, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC), and MIP-1α compared to wild-type cells. Similar decreases in IgG immune complex-induced inflammatory mediator production were observed following siRNA ablation of C/EBPβ in a murine alveolar macrophage cell line. These findings implicate C/EBPβ as a critical regulator of IgG immune complex-induced inflammatory responses and injury in the lung. PMID:22732594

  20. The clinical significance of lung hypoexpansion in acute childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spottswood, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, 601 Children' s Lane, Norfolk, VA 23507 (United States); Allison, Kelley Z.; Narla, Lakshmana D.; Lowry, Patricia A. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Lopatina, Olga A.; Sethi, Narinder N. [School of Medicine, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA (United States); Nettleman, Mary D. [Department of Internal Medicine, B-427 Clinical Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Many children experiencing acute asthmatic episodes have chest radiographs, which may show lung hyperinflation, hypoinflation, or normal inflation. Lung hypoinflation may be a sign of respiratory fatigue and poor prognosis. To compare the clinical course in children with asthma according to the degree of lung inflation on chest radiographs. We conducted a retrospective study during a 24-month period (from July 1999 to July 2001) of children aged 0-17 years, who presented to a pediatric emergency department or outpatient clinic with an asthma exacerbation. Chest radiographs obtained at presentation were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the admission status of the patient. The correlation between hypoinflation and hospital admission was assessed in three age groups: 0-2 years, 3-5 years, and 6-17 years. Hypoinflation on chest radiographs was significantly correlated with hospital admission for children aged 6-17 years (odds ratio 16.00, 95% confidence interval 1.89-135.43). The inter-reader agreement for interpretation of these radiographs was strong, with a kappa score of 0.76. Hypoinflation was not correlated with admission in younger children. Lung hypoinflation is associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission in children aged 6 years or older. Therefore, hypoinflation was a poor prognostic sign and may warrant more aggressive therapy. (orig.)

  1. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bengtson

    Full Text Available We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse, except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3 and hepatic (Saa1 acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90 without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.

  2. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina B; Kyjovska, Zdenka O; Berthing, Trine; Skaug, Vidar; Levin, Marcus; Koponen, Ismo K; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Booth, Timothy J; Alonso, Beatriz; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Thomsen, Birthe L; Troelsen, Jesper T; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3) and hepatic (Saa1) acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90 without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.

  3. Pulmonary inflammation and cell death in mice after acute exposure to air particulate matter from an industrial region of Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astort, F; Sittner, M; Ferraro, S A; Orona, N S; Maglione, G A; De la Hoz, A; Tasat, D R

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that air particulate matter (PM) can increase respiratory morbidity and mortality being the lungs the main target organ to PM body entrance. Even more, several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that air PM has a wide toxicity spectra depending among other parameters, on its size, morphology, and chemical composition. The Reconquista River is the second most polluted river from Buenos Aires, and people living around its basin are constantly exposed to its contaminated water, soil and air. However, the air PM from the Reconquista River (RR-PMa) has not been characterized, and its biological impact on lung has yet not been assessed. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to study (1) RR-PMa morphochemical characteristic and (2) RR-PMa lung acute effects after intranasal instillation exposure through the analysis of three end points: oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. A single acute exposure of RR-PMa (1 mg/kg body weight) after 24 h caused significant (p differences between exposed RR-PMa and control mice. These data demonstrate that air PM from the Reconquista River induce lung oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death therefore represents a potential hazard to human health.

  4. CD73+ regulatory T cells contribute to adenosine-mediated resolution of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrentraut, Heidi; Clambey, Eric T; McNamee, Eoin N; Brodsky, Kelley S; Ehrentraut, Stefan F; Poth, Jens M; Riegel, Ann K; Westrich, Joseph A; Colgan, Sean P; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2013-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar injury and uncontrolled inflammation. Since most cases of ALI resolve spontaneously, understanding the endogenous mechanisms that promote ALI resolution is important to developing effective therapies. Previous studies have implicated extracellular adenosine signaling in tissue adaptation and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesized a functional contribution for the endogenous production of adenosine during ALI resolution. As a model, we administered intratracheal LPS and observed peak lung injury at 3 d, with resolution by d 14. Treatment with pegylated adenosine-deaminase to enhance extracellular adenosine breakdown revealed impaired ALI resolution. Similarly, genetic deletion of cd73, the pacemaker for extracellular adenosine generation, was associated with increased mortality (0% wild-type and 40% in cd73(-/-) mice; P<0.05) and failure to resolve ALI adequately. Studies of inflammatory cell trafficking into the lungs during ALI resolution revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) express the highest levels of CD73. While Treg numbers in cd73(-/-) mice were similar to controls, cd73-deficient Tregs had attenuated immunosuppressive functions. Moreover, adoptive transfer of cd73-deficient Tregs into Rag(-/-) mice emulated the observed phenotype in cd73(-/-) mice, while transfer of wild-type Tregs was associated with normal ALI resolution. Together, these studies implicate CD73-dependent adenosine generation in Tregs in promoting ALI resolution.

  5. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  6. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Kohki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disorder characterized by acute respiratory failure, resulting from severe, destructive lung inflammation and irreversible lung fibrosis. We evaluated the use of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or SHED-derived serum-free conditioned medium (SHED-CM) as treatments for bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice acute lung injury (ALI), exhibiting several pathogenic features associated with the human disease ARDS. Mice with BLM-induced ALI with or without SHED or SHED-CM treatment were examined for weight loss and survival. The lung tissue was characterized by histological and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effects of SHED-CM on macrophage differentiation in vitro were also assessed. A single intravenous administration of either SHEDs or SHED-CM attenuated the lung injury and weight loss in BLM-treated mice and improved their survival rate. Similar recovery levels were seen in the SHEDs and SHED-CM treatment groups, suggesting that SHED improves ALI by paracrine mechanisms. SHED-CM contained multiple therapeutic factors involved in lung-regenerative mechanisms. Importantly, SHED-CM attenuated the BLM-induced pro-inflammatory response and generated an anti-inflammatory/tissue-regenerating environment, accompanied by the induction of anti-inflammatory M2-like lung macrophages. Furthermore, SHED-CM promoted the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into M2-like cells, which expressed high levels of Arginase1, CD206 and Ym-1. Our results suggest that SHED-secreted factors provide multifaceted therapeutic effects, including a strong M2-inducing activity, for treating BLM-induced ALI. This work may open new avenues for research on stem cell-based ARDS therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

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    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  9. VBP15, a glucocorticoid analogue, is effective at reducing allergic lung inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Damsker

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lower respiratory tract associated with airway hyperreactivity and mucus obstruction in which a majority of cases are due to an allergic response to environmental allergens. Glucocorticoids such as prednisone have been standard treatment for many inflammatory diseases for the past 60 years. However, despite their effectiveness, long-term treatment is often limited by adverse side effects believed to be caused by glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription. This has led to the pursuit of compounds that retain the anti-inflammatory properties yet lack the adverse side effects associated with traditional glucocorticoids. We have developed a novel series of steroidal analogues (VBP compounds that have been previously shown to maintain anti-inflammatory properties such as NFκB-inhibition without inducing glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the lead compound, VBP15, in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. We show that VBP15 is as effective as the traditional glucocorticoid, prednisolone, at reducing three major hallmarks of lung inflammation--NFκB activity, leukocyte degranulation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from human bronchial epithelial cells obtained from patients with asthma. Moreover, we found that VBP15 is capable of reducing inflammation of the lung in vivo to an extent similar to that of prednisone. We found that prednisolone--but not VBP15 shortens the tibia in mice upon a 5 week treatment regimen suggesting effective dissociation of side effects from efficacy. These findings suggest that VBP15 may represent a potent and safer alternative to traditional glucocorticoids in the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory diseases.

  10. Effects of ultrafine particles-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Clara cell protein (CC16), the main secretory product of bronchiolar Clara cells, plays an important protective role in the respiratory tract against oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFP)-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells and CC16 in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Methods Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFP (507 μg/m3 for 24 h) or filtered air immediately prior to allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vehicle prior and during EC-UFP inhalation. CC16 was measured up to one week after allergen challenge in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in serum. The relative expression of CC16 and TNF-α mRNA were measured in lung homogenates. A morphometrical analysis of mucus hypersecretion and electron microscopy served to investigate goblet cell metaplasia and Clara cell morphological alterations. Results In non sensitized mice EC-UFP inhalation caused alterations in CC16 concentration, both at protein and mRNA level, and induced Clara cell hyperplasia. In sensitized mice, inhalation of EC-UFP prior to OVA challenge caused most significant alterations of BALF and serum CC16 concentration, BALF total protein and TNF-α relative expression compared to relevant controls; their Clara cells displayed the strongest morphological alterations and strongest goblet cell metaplasia occurred in the small airways. NAC strongly reduced both functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation. PMID:20420656

  11. Effects of ultrafine particles-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Francesca; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; van Miert, Erik; Takenaka, Shinji; Karg, Erwin; Blume, Cornelia; Mempel, Martin; Schulz, Holger; Bernard, Alfred; Behrendt, Heidrun

    2010-04-26

    Clara cell protein (CC16), the main secretory product of bronchiolar Clara cells, plays an important protective role in the respiratory tract against oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFP)-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells and CC16 in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFP (507 microg/m(3) for 24 h) or filtered air immediately prior to allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vehicle prior and during EC-UFP inhalation. CC16 was measured up to one week after allergen challenge in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in serum. The relative expression of CC16 and TNF-alpha mRNA were measured in lung homogenates. A morphometrical analysis of mucus hypersecretion and electron microscopy served to investigate goblet cell metaplasia and Clara cell morphological alterations. In non sensitized mice EC-UFP inhalation caused alterations in CC16 concentration, both at protein and mRNA level, and induced Clara cell hyperplasia. In sensitized mice, inhalation of EC-UFP prior to OVA challenge caused most significant alterations of BALF and serum CC16 concentration, BALF total protein and TNF-alpha relative expression compared to relevant controls; their Clara cells displayed the strongest morphological alterations and strongest goblet cell metaplasia occurred in the small airways. NAC strongly reduced both functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation.

  12. Effects of Flavonoids from French Marigold (Florets of Tagetes patula L. on Acute Inflammation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yasukawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major components patuletin and patulitrin were isolated from French marigold (florets of Tagetes patula. Patuletin and patulitrin were found to inhibit acute inflammation in mice. Oral administration of patuletin and patulitrin significantly suppressed hind-paw edema induced by carrageenin and histamine, while topical application of patuletin and patulitrin significantly inhibited ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and arachidonic acid. Thus, oral and topical administration of patuletin and patulitrin inhibited acute inflammation in mice. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory efficacy of French marigold.

  13. Effects of Flavonoids from French Marigold (Florets of Tagetes patula L.) on Acute Inflammation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Ken; Kasahara, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    The major components patuletin and patulitrin were isolated from French marigold (florets of Tagetes patula). Patuletin and patulitrin were found to inhibit acute inflammation in mice. Oral administration of patuletin and patulitrin significantly suppressed hind-paw edema induced by carrageenin and histamine, while topical application of patuletin and patulitrin significantly inhibited ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and arachidonic acid. Thus, oral and topical administration of patuletin and patulitrin inhibited acute inflammation in mice. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory efficacy of French marigold. PMID:24175111

  14. Adaptations in responsiveness of brainstem pain-modulating neurons in acute compared with chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R; Heinricher, Mary M

    2013-06-01

    Despite similar behavioral hypersensitivity, acute and chronic pain have distinct neural bases. We used intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant to directly compare activity of pain-modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in acute vs chronic inflammation. Heat-evoked and von Frey-evoked withdrawal reflexes and corresponding RVM neuronal activity were recorded in lightly anesthetized animals either during the first hour after complete Freund's adjuvant injection (acute) or 3 to 10 days later (chronic). Thermal and modest mechanical hyperalgesia during acute inflammation were associated with increases in the spontaneous activity of pain-facilitating ON-cells and suppression of pain-inhibiting OFF-cells. Acute hyperalgesia was reversed by RVM block, showing that the increased activity of RVM ON-cells is necessary for acute behavioral hypersensitivity. In chronic inflammation, thermal hyperalgesia had resolved but mechanical hyperalgesia had become pronounced. The spontaneous discharges of ON- and OFF-cells were not different from those in control subjects, but the mechanical response thresholds for both cell classes were reduced into the innocuous range. RVM block in the chronic condition worsened mechanical hyperalgesia. These studies identify distinct contributions of RVM ON- and OFF-cells to acute and chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia. During early immune-mediated inflammation, ON-cell spontaneous activity promotes hyperalgesia. After inflammation is established, the antinociceptive influence of OFF-cells is dominant, yet the lowered threshold for the OFF-cell pause allows behavioral responses to stimuli that would normally be considered innocuous. The efficacy of OFF-cells in counteracting sensitization of ascending transmission pathways could therefore be an important determining factor in development of chronic inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Pathway focused protein profiling indicates differential function for IL-1B, -18 and VEGF during initiation and resolution of lung inflammation evoked by carbon nanoparticle exposure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamelmann Eckard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonaceous nanoparticles possess an emerging source of human exposure due to the massive release of combustion products and the ongoing revolution in nanotechnology. Pulmonary inflammation caused by deposited nanoparticles is central for their adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with favourable lung physiology are at lower risk for particulate matter associated respiratory diseases probably due to efficient control of inflammation and repair process. Therefore we selected a mouse strain C3H/HeJ (C3 with robust lung physiology and exposed it to moderately toxic carbon nanoparticles (CNP to study the elicited pulmonary inflammation and its resolution. Methods 5 μg, 20 μg and 50 μg CNP were intratracheally (i.t. instilled in C3 mice to identify the optimal dose for subsequent time course studies. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed using histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL analysis and by a panel of 62 protein markers. Results 1 day after instillation of CNP, C3 mice exhibited a typical dose response, with the lowest dose (5 μg representing the 'no effect level' as reflected by polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN, and BAL/lung concentrations of pro-inflammatory proteins. Histological analysis and BAL-protein concentration did not reveal any evidence of tissue injury in 20 μg CNP instilled animals. Accordingly time course assessment of the inflammatory response was performed after 3 and 7 days with this dose (20 μg. Compared to day 1, BAL PMN counts were significantly decreased at day 3 and completely returned to normal by day 7. We have identified protein markers related to the acute response and also to the time dependent response in lung and BAL. After complete resolution of PMN influx on day 7, we detected elevated concentrations of 20 markers that included IL1B, IL18, FGF2, EDN1, and VEGF in lung and/or BAL. Biological pathway analysis revealed these factors to be involved in a

  16. Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer: common driver of pulmonary cachexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Judith J M; Langen, Ramon C J; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2014-12-01

    In this article, a putative role of systemic inflammation as a driver of pulmonary cachexia induced by either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or nonsmall cell lung cancer is reviewed. Gaps in current translational research approaches are discussed and alternative strategies are proposed to provide new insights. Activation of the ubiquitin proteasome system has generally been considered a cause of pulmonary cachexia, but current animal models lack specificity and evidence is lacking in nonsmall cell lung cancer and conflicting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Recent studies have shown activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in both nonsmall cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Myonuclear loss, as a consequence of increased apoptotic events in myofibers, has been suggested in cancer-cachexia-associated muscle atrophy. Plasma transfer on myotube cultures can be used to detect early inflammatory signals in patients and presence of atrophy-inducing activity within the circulation. Comparative clinical research between nonsmall cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in different disease stages is useful to unravel disease-specific versus common denominators of pulmonary cachexia.

  17. Systemic inflammation in young adults is associated with abnormal lung function in middle age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kalhan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is associated with reduced lung function in both healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Whether systemic inflammation in healthy young adults is associated with future impairment in lung health is uncertain.We evaluated the association between plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP in young adults and lung function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort study. Higher year 7 fibrinogen was associated with greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC between years 5 and 20 (439 mL in quartile 4 vs. 398 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001 and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1 (487 mL in quartile 4 vs. 446 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001 independent of cigarette smoking, body habitus, baseline lung function and demographic factors. Higher year 7 CRP was also associated with both greater loss of FVC (455 mL in quartile 4 vs. 390 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001 and FEV(1 (491 mL in quartile 4 vs. 442 mL in quartile 1, P = 0.001. Higher year 7 fibrinogen and CRP were associated with abnormal FVC at year 20 (odds ratio (OR per standard deviation 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.30-1.75 for fibrinogen and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.14-1.59 for CRP. Higher year 5 fibrinogen was additionally associated with abnormal FEV(1. A positive interaction was observed between pack-years cigarette smoking and year 7 CRP for the COPD endpoint, and among participants with greater than 10 pack-years of cigarette exposure, year 7 CRP was associated with greater odds of COPD at year 20 (OR per standard deviation 1.53 (95% CI: 1.08-2.16.Systemic inflammation in young adults is associated with abnormal lung function in middle age. In particular, elevated CRP may identify vulnerability to COPD among individuals who smoke.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00005130.

  18. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

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    Joshua B. Lewis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP, respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal

  19. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B; Milner, Dallin C; Lewis, Adam L; Dunaway, Todd M; Egbert, Kaleb M; Albright, Scott C; Merrell, Brigham J; Monson, Troy D; Broberg, Dallin S; Gassman, Jason R; Thomas, Daniel B; Arroyo, Juan A; Reynolds, Paul R

    2016-10-17

    It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating

  20. Sex differences in prostaglandin biosynthesis in neutrophils during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Simona; Rossi, Antonietta; Krauth, Verena; Dehm, Friederike; Troisi, Fabiana; Bilancia, Rossella; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Werz, Oliver; Sautebin, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    The severity and course of inflammatory processes differ between women and men, but the biochemical mechanisms underlying these sex differences are elusive. Prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators linked to inflammation. We demonstrated superior LT biosynthesis in human neutrophils and monocytes, and in mouse macrophages from females, and we confirmed these sex differences in vivo where female mice produced more LTs during zymosan-induced peritonitis versus males. Here, ...

  1. Deciphering the key molecular and cellular events in neutrophil transmigration during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Krishnamurthy, Kandamaran; Manikandan, Jayapal; Pakeerappa, Praveen N; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes circulating in our blood to the sites of infection or tissue damage is the key phenomenon in the acute inflammatory response(s). Among the leukocytes, neutrophils are primarily recruited into the areas of acute inflammation. When neutrophils interact with activated endothelium of the blood vessels, they become migratory and cross the endothelial layer of the blood vessel wall in a process called as leukocyte extravasation. Identifying and understanding the gene regul...

  2. Endogenous expression pattern of resolvin D1 in a rat model of self-resolution of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Zai-ping; Gui, Ping; Xia, Weiyi; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zhang, Xing-cai; Deng, Qing-zhu; Xuan, Wei; Marie, Christelle; Wang, Lin-lin; Wu, Qing-ping; Wang, Tingting; Lin, Yun

    2014-11-01

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid, has been reported to promote a biphasic activity in anti-inflammatory response and regulate inflammatory resolution. The present study aimed to determine the endogenous expression pattern of RvD1 in a rat model of self-resolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and inflammation. The ARDS model was induced by administrating LPS (2mg/kg) via tracheotomy in 138 male Sprague-Dawley rats. At specified time points, lung injury and inflammation were respectively assessed by lung histology and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine levels. The expression of endogenous RvD1 was detected by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that histological lung injury peaked between 6h (LPS6h) and day 3, followed by recovery over 4-10 days after LPS administration. Lung tissue polymorph nuclear cell (PMN) was significantly increased at LPS6h, and peaked between 6h to day 2. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased at LPS6h and remained higher over day 10 as compared to baseline. Intriguingly, the endogenous RvD1 expression was decreased gradually during the first 3 days, followed by almost completely recovery over days 9-10. The finding indicated that endogenous RvD1 underwent a decrease in expression followed by gradual increase that was basically coincident with the lung injury recovery in a rat model of self-resolution LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation. Our results may help define the optimal therapeutic window for endogenous RvD1 to prevent or treat LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  4. Toward computational identification of multiscale "tipping points" in acute inflammation and multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary; Nieman, Gary; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2012-11-01

    Sepsis accounts annually for nearly 10% of total U.S. deaths, costing nearly $17 billion/year. Sepsis is a manifestation of disordered systemic inflammation. Properly regulated inflammation allows for timely recognition and effective reaction to injury or infection, but inadequate or overly robust inflammation can lead to Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). There is an incongruity between the systemic nature of disordered inflammation (as the target of inflammation-modulating therapies), and the regional manifestation of organ-specific failure (as the subject of organ support), that presents a therapeutic dilemma: systemic interventions can interfere with an individual organ system's appropriate response, yet organ-specific interventions may not help the overall system reorient itself. Based on a decade of systems and computational approaches to deciphering acute inflammation, along with translationally-motivated experimental studies in both small and large animals, we propose that MODS evolves due to the feed-forward cycle of inflammation → damage → inflammation. We hypothesize that inflammation proceeds at a given, "nested" level or scale until positive feedback exceeds a "tipping point." Below this tipping point, inflammation is contained and manageable; when this threshold is crossed, inflammation becomes disordered, and dysfunction propagates to a higher biological scale (e.g., progressing from cellular, to tissue/organ, to multiple organs, to the organism). Finally, we suggest that a combination of computational biology approaches involving data-driven and mechanistic mathematical modeling, in close association with studies in clinically relevant paradigms of sepsis/MODS, are necessary in order to define scale-specific "tipping points" and to suggest novel therapies for sepsis.

  5. Genetic Deletion and Pharmacological Inhibition of PI3Kγ Reduces Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation and Lung Damage in Mice with Cystic Fibrosis-Like Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Galluzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation is a key feature of progressive lung damage in cystic fibrosis (CF. Thus, reducing airway inflammation is a major goal to prevent lung damage in CF. However, current anti-inflammatory drugs have shown several limits. PI3Kγ plays a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment and activation; in the present study we determined the effects of genetic deletion and pharmacologic inhibition of PI3Kγ on airway inflammation and structural lung damage in a mouse model of CF lung disease. Methods. βENaC overexpressing mice (βENaC-Tg were backcrossed with PI3Kγ-deficient (PI3KγKO mice. Tissue damage was assessed by histology and morphometry and inflammatory cell number was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of a specific PI3Kγ inhibitor (AS-605240 on inflammatory cell number in BALF. Results. Genetic deletion of PI3Kγ decreased neutrophil numbers in BALF of PI3KγKO/βENaC-Tg mice, and this was associated with reduced emphysematous changes. Treatment with the PI3Kγ inhibitor AS-605240 decreased the number of neutrophils in BALF of βENaC-Tg mice, reproducing the effect observed with genetic deletion of the enzyme. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the biological efficacy of both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kγ in reducing chronic neutrophilic inflammation in CF-like lung disease in vivo.

  6. NK Cells Alleviate Lung Inflammation by Negatively Regulating Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Cui, Lulu; Yu, Guang; Yang, Xiaolu; Chen, Youhai; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-04-15

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in orchestrating type II immune responses. However, the cellular mechanisms of group 2 innate lymphoid cell regulation remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that activated NK cells inhibited the proliferation of, as well as IL-5 and IL-13 production by, ILC2s in vitro via IFN-γ. In addition, in a murine model of ILC2 expansion in the liver, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, an NK cell-activating agent, inhibited ILC2 proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production, and eosinophil recruitment. Such effects of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid were abrogated in NK cell-depleted mice and in IFN-γ-deficient mice. Adoptively transferring wild-type NK cells into NK cell-depleted mice resulted in fewer ILC2s induced by IL-33 compared with the transfer of IFN-γ-deficient NK cells. Importantly, during the early stage of papain- or bleomycin-induced lung inflammation, depletion of NK cells resulted in increased ILC2 numbers and enhanced cytokine production by ILC2s, as well as aggravated eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia. Collectively, these data show that NK cells negatively regulate ILC2s during the early stage of lung inflammation, which represents the novel cellular interaction between two family members of ILCs. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. The NLRP3 inflammasome in pathogenic particle and fibre-associated lung inflammation and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Mutlay; Mossman, Brooke T

    2016-09-20

    The concept of the inflammasome, a macromolecular complex sensing cell stress or danger signals and initiating inflammation, was first introduced approximately a decade ago. Priming and activation of these intracellular protein platforms trigger the maturation of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, most notably, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, to promulgate innate immune defenses. Although classically studied in models of gout, Type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis, the importance and mechanisms of action of inflammasome priming and activation have recently been elucidated in cells of the respiratory tract where they modulate the responses to a number of inhaled pathogenic particles and fibres. Most notably, inflammasome activation appears to regulate the balance between tissue repair and inflammation after inhalation of pathogenic pollutants such as asbestos, crystalline silica (CS), and airborne particulate matter (PM). Different types of fibres and particles may have distinct mechanisms of inflammasome interaction and outcome. This review summarizes the structure and function of inflammasomes, the interplay between various chemokines and cytokines and cell types of the lung and pleura after inflammasome activation, and the events leading to the development of non-malignant (allergic airway disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asbestosis, silicosis) and malignant (mesothelioma, lung cancer) diseases by pathogenic particulates. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of communication between cells of the immune system, target cells of these diseases, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulation of inflammasome-mediated events.

  8. Acute lung injury: what have we learned from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A C; Mullen, P G; Fowler, A A

    1993-08-01

    In 1950, Carl John Wiggers, philosopher and physiologist, wrote, "Reactions to definite types of stimulation may be observed or recorded, and concealed phenomena may be revealed by the use of apparatus that transforms them into forms that are recognizable by human senses. But complete understanding of physiological reactions often necessitates extensive operative procedures and sometimes the ultimate sacrifice of life. For this reason experimentation on animals is indispensable." Acute lung injury is still a significant cause of death in the developed world, and modern pharmacology and intensive care have failed to alter the clinical course of this complex condition. In the past decade, there was an explosion in understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury, and with this has come the development of a new generation of agents that may provide a tool with which to combat this disorder. Use of animal model systems led to this greater understanding and is currently at the heart of evaluating the new therapeutic agents. This review briefly addresses the contribution animal model systems have made to what appear to be a watershed in attempts to obviate the effects of this mortal condition.

  9. VEGF Promotes Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C.; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A. A.; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M.

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associated ALI. Up to 60% of the mice showed dyspnea, airway obstruction and hypoxemia and died between days 7 and 12 post-infection. The most common pathological findings were pleural effusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, consistent with increased lung vessel permeability, while the blood-brain barrier was intact. Malaria-associated ALI correlated with high levels of circulating VEGF, produced de novo in the spleen, and its blockage led to protection of mice from this syndrome. In addition, either splenectomization or administration of the anti-inflammatory molecule carbon monoxide led to a significant reduction in the levels of sera VEGF and to protection from ALI. The similarities between the physiopathological lesions described here and the ones occurring in humans, as well as the demonstration that VEGF is a critical host factor in the onset of malaria-associated ALI in mice, not only offers important mechanistic insights into the processes underlying the pathology related with malaria but may also pave the way for interventional studies. PMID:20502682

  10. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, JapanAbstract: Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95% CI: 1.13–10.16, p < 0.05 and that of exhibiting severe acute inflammation was 15.38 (95% CI: 3.56–66.49, p < 0.0001, indicating an association of acute pericoronitis in diabetes. The frequency of radiolucency below the crown and below the root in diabetics was similar to that in nondiabetics. However, the odds ratio of exhibiting both radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation under the diabetic condition was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.60–14.73, p < 0.01, whereas that of diabetics showing both radiolucency below the root and acute inflammation was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.06–3.74, p = 0.74. Radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation were associated with diabetes, but that below root and acute inflammation were not associated with diabetes, indicating that the region below the crown carries susceptibility to acute pericoronitis, whereas the periodontium shows a protective effect against acute pericoronitis.Keywords: radiolucency, acute inflammation, mandible, third molar, diabetes, periodontium

  11. Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Hansen, Thomas

    Inflammation is an intricate response relying on the activation and response of both the innate immune system and the infected tissue to remove a threat. The pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB pathway has been studied extensively, among others because of its key role in regulation of inflammation. However...

  12. Two opposite extremes of adiposity similarly reduce inflammatory response of antigen-induced acute joint inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Silveira, A.L.; Tavares, L.P.; Rodrigues, D.F.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Sousa, L.P.; Teixeira, M.M.; Amaral, F.A.; Ferreira, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute inflammation is a normal response of tissue to an injury. During this process, inflammatory mediators are produced and metabolic alterations occur. Adipose tissue is metabolically activated, and upon food consumption, it disrupts the inflammatory response. However, little is known

  13. Inhibitors of inflammation and endogenous surfactant pool size as modulators of lung injury with initiation of ventilation in preterm sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polglase Graeme R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in tracheal aspirates correlate with the development of BPD in preterm infants. Ventilation of preterm lambs increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and causes lung inflammation. Objective We tested the hypothesis that selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory signaling would decrease lung inflammation induced by ventilation in preterm newborn lambs. We also examined if the variability in injury response was explained by variations in the endogenous surfactant pool size. Methods Date-mated preterm lambs (n = 28 were operatively delivered and mechanically ventilated to cause lung injury (tidal volume escalation to 15 mL/kg by 15 min at age. The lambs then were ventilated with 8 mL/kg tidal volume for 1 h 45 min. Groups of animals randomly received specific inhibitors for IL-8, IL-1, or NF-κB. Unventilated lambs (n = 7 were the controls. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung samples were used to quantify inflammation. Saturated phosphatidylcholine (Sat PC was measured in BALF fluid and the data were stratified based on a level of 5 μmol/kg (~8 mg/kg surfactant. Results The inhibitors did not decrease the cytokine levels or inflammatory response. The inflammation increased as Sat PC pool size in BALF decreased. Ventilated lambs with a Sat PC level > 5 μmol/kg had significantly decreased markers of injury and lung inflammation compared with those lambs with Conclusion Lung injury caused by high tidal volumes at birth were decreased when endogenous surfactant pool sizes were larger. Attempts to decrease inflammation by blocking IL-8, IL-1 or NF-κB were unsuccessful.

  14. Suppressive effects of the expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride on quartz-induced lung inflammation in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Shohei; Yokohira, Masanao; Yamakawa, Keiko; Nakano-Narusawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Shota; Hashimoto, Nozomi; Imaida, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Surfactant proteins (SPs) are essential to respiratory structure and function. The expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride is clinically prescribed to stimulate pulmonary surfactant and airway serous secretion. Therefore, ambroxol hydrochloride may affect SP production and pulmonary inflammation. Lung toxicity of fine particles of various materials has been examined previously in our in vivo bioassay using the intratracheal (i.t.) instillation approach. In the present study, we evaluated modulatory effects of ambroxol hydrochloride on quartz-induced lung inflammation in F344 rats. Male 6-week-old F344 rats were exposed by i.t. instillation to 2 mg of quartz particles suspended in 0.2 mL of saline. Ambroxol hydrochloride was administered at 0, 12, and 120 ppm in rat basal diet for 28 days, and then formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung, liver, and kidney samples were prepared. No changes in general condition, body and organ weights, or food consumption upon exposure to quartz were noted. The mean ambroxol intake in rats of the 12 ppm group was comparable to the human conventional dose. Histopathology of lung lesions was evaluated, and the degree of inflammation was scored. At 120 ppm, ambroxol hydrochloride significantly decreased individual lung inflammation scores for pulmonary edema and lymph follicle proliferation around the bronchiole, as well as the total inflammation score, in quartz-treated rats. Expression of SP-C in the type II alveolar cells and macrophages was greater in inflammatory lesions than in non-inflamed areas. Ambroxol treatment did not affect expression of SP-B and SP-C. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ambroxol hydrochloride relieves quartz-induced lung inflammation.

  15. Genetic Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Deficiency Enhances Nonviable Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daiki; Fujimoto, Kenta; Hirose, Rika; Yamanaka, Hiroko; Homme, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Miura, Noriko; Ohno, Naohito; Aratani, Yasuaki

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutated phagocyte NADPH oxidase, resulting in reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the mechanism underlying hyperinfection in CGD is well understood, the basis for inflammatory disorders that arise in the absence of evident infection has not been fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phagocyte NADPH oxidase deficiency on lung inflammation induced by nonviable Candida albicans (nCA). Mice deficient in this enzyme (CGD mice) showed more severe neutrophilic pneumonia than nCA-treated wild-type mice, which exhibited significantly higher lung concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC). Neutralization of these proinflammatory mediators significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration. In vitro, production of IL-1β and TNF-α from neutrophils and that of KC from macrophages was enhanced in nCA-stimulated neutrophils from CGD mice. Expression of IL-1β mRNA was higher in the stimulated CGD neutrophils than in the stimulated wild-type cells, concomitant with upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and its upstream regulator extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Pretreatment with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor significantly enhanced IL-1β production in the wild-type neutrophils stimulated with nCA. These results suggest that lack of ROS production because of NADPH oxidase deficiency results in the production of higher levels of proinflammatory mediators from neutrophils and macrophages, which may at least partly contribute to the exacerbation of nCA-induced lung inflammation in CGD mice.

  16. Low-grade systemic inflammation: a partial mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Jonathan; Trouiller, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Chérot-Kornobis, Natalie; Ciuchete, Alina; Edmé, Jean-Louis; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-01-01

    An association has been consistently found between diabetes mellitus and decreased lung function. We evaluated to what extent low-grade inflammation (as measured by the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) could explain this relationship. A sample of 1878 middle-aged adults from the cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement survey without self-reported pulmonary and atherosclerosis disease was included. A mediation analysis was performed to assess and quantify the hs-CRP level as a mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function. Diabetes was associated with higher hs-CRP level (+22.9%, 95% confidence interval = [5.1, 43.6]). The hs-CRP (>4 vs. ≤1 mg/L) was associated with lower percentage predicted values for the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (-4% [-6.1, -1.9]) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (-4.4% [-6.5, -2.3]). Diabetes was associated with FEV1 (-3.5% [-5.8, -1.3]) and FVC (-3.6% [-5.9, -1.3]). The proportion of the effect that is mediated by hs-CRP was 12% [2.4, 37] and 13% [3.7, 39.4] for FEV1 and FVC, respectively. Our results suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation could only explain a small part of the relationship between diabetes and lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Topical alpha-selective p38 MAP kinase inhibition reduces acute skin inflammation in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Medicherla

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Satyanarayana Medicherla, Jing Ying Ma, Mamtha Reddy, Irina Esikova, Irene Kerr, Fabiola Movius, Linda S Higgins, Andrew A ProtterScios Inc, Fremont, CA , USAAbstract: Certain skin pathologies, including psoriasis, are thought to be immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Available literature clearly indicates the involvement of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, T cells, and macrophages, their cytokines, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Neutrophils play an important role in the formation of acute inflammatory changes in psoriasis. Acute inflammation or acute flares in psoriasis remain poorly addressed in clinical medicine. In this communication, we first establish a simple and reproducible model for studying neutrophil-mediated acute skin inflammation. Using the hairless guinea pig, due to the similarity of skin architecture to that of human, acute inflammation was induced with an intradermal injection of 50 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS in 50 μL solution. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity was measured by MPO-positive neutrophils and shown to increase for 24-hours post-injection. Simultaneously, the level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK was documented for 48-hours post-LPS injection in the skin. Next, we used this model to examine the therapeutic potential of an α-selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469. A comparison of topical application of SCIO-469 at 5 mg/mL or 15 mg/mL to vehicle revealed that SCIO-469 dose-dependently reduces acute skin inflammation and that this effect is statistically significant at the higher dose. Further examination of tissues that received this dose also revealed statistically significant reduction of MPO activity, phosphorylated p38 MAPK, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-2. These data suggest that the α-selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, acts as a topical anti-inflammatory agent via the p38 MAPK pathway to reduce neutrophil induced acute

  18. Metabolomics and its application to acute lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Stringer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a rapidly expanding field of systems biology that is gaining significant attention in many areas of biomedical research. Also known as metabonomics, it comprises the analysis of all small molecules or metabolites that are present within an organism or a specific compartment of the body. Metabolite detection and quantification provide a valuable addition to genomics and proteomics, and give unique insights into metabolic changes that occur in tangent to alterations in gene and protein activity that are associated with disease. As a novel approach to understanding disease, metabolomics provides a snapshot in time of all metabolites present in a biological sample such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, and many other specimens that may be obtained from either patients or experimental models. In this article, we review the burgeoning field of metabolomics in its application to acute lung diseases, specifically pneumonia and acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS. We also discuss the potential applications of metabolomics for monitoring exposure to aerosolized environmental toxins. Recent reports have suggested that metabolomics analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS approaches may provide clinicians with the opportunity to identify new biomarkers that may predict progression to more severe disease, such as sepsis, which kills many patients each year. In addition, metabolomics may provide more detailed phenotyping of patient heterogeneity which is needed to achieve the goal of precision medicine. However, although several experimental and clinical metabolomics studies have been conducted assessing the application of the science to acute lung diseases, only incremental progress has been made. Specifically, little is known about the metabolic phenotypes of these illnesses. These data are needed to substantiate metabolomics biomarker credentials so that clinicians can employ them for clinical

  19. Metabolomics and Its Application to Acute Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Kathleen A.; McKay, Ryan T.; Karnovsky, Alla; Quémerais, Bernadette; Lacy, Paige

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is a rapidly expanding field of systems biology that is gaining significant attention in many areas of biomedical research. Also known as metabonomics, it comprises the analysis of all small molecules or metabolites that are present within an organism or a specific compartment of the body. Metabolite detection and quantification provide a valuable addition to genomics and proteomics and give unique insights into metabolic changes that occur in tangent to alterations in gene and protein activity that are associated with disease. As a novel approach to understanding disease, metabolomics provides a “snapshot” in time of all metabolites present in a biological sample such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, and many other specimens that may be obtained from either patients or experimental models. In this article, we review the burgeoning field of metabolomics in its application to acute lung diseases, specifically pneumonia and acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS). We also discuss the potential applications of metabolomics for monitoring exposure to aerosolized environmental toxins. Recent reports have suggested that metabolomics analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) approaches may provide clinicians with the opportunity to identify new biomarkers that may predict progression to more severe disease, such as sepsis, which kills many patients each year. In addition, metabolomics may provide more detailed phenotyping of patient heterogeneity, which is needed to achieve the goal of precision medicine. However, although several experimental and clinical metabolomics studies have been conducted assessing the application of the science to acute lung diseases, only incremental progress has been made. Specifically, little is known about the metabolic phenotypes of these illnesses. These data are needed to substantiate metabolomics biomarker credentials so that clinicians can employ them for clinical decision

  20. Acute coronary syndrome and acute kidney injury: role of inflammation in worsening renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Jorge; Springall, Rashidi; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Arana-Martinez, Julio-C; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Bojalil, Rafael

    2017-07-26

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), a common complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stays. The role of cytokines and other mediators is unknown in AKI induced by an ACS (ACS-AKI), leading to several unanswered questions. The worsening of renal function is usually seen as a dichotomous phenomenon instead of a dynamic change, so evaluating changes of the renal function in time may provide valuable information in the ACS-AKI setting. The aim of this study was to explore inflammatory factors associated to de novo kidney injury induced by de novo cardiac injury secondary to ACS. One hundred four consecutive patients with ACS were initially included on the time of admission to the Coronary Unit of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología in Mexico City, from February to May 2016, before any invasive procedure, imaging study, diuretic or anti-platelet therapy. White blood count, hemoglobin, NT-ProBNP, troponin I, C-reactive protein, albumin, glucose, Na + , K + , blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, creatinine (Cr), endothelin-1 (ET-1), leukotriene-B4, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, resolvin-D1 (RvD1), lipoxin-A4 (LXA4), interleukin-1β, -6, -8, and -10 were measured. We finally enrolled 78 patients, and subsequently we identified 15 patients with ACS-AKI. Correlations were obtained by a Spearman rank test. Low-rank regression, splines regressions, and also protein-protein/chemical interactions and pathways analyses networks were performed. Positive correlations of ΔCr were found with BUN, admission Cr, GRACE score, IL-1β, IL-6, NT-ProBNP and age, and negative correlations with systolic blood pressure, mean-BP, diastolic-BP and LxA4. In the regression analyses IL-10 and RvD1 had positive non-linear associations with ΔCr. ET-1 had also a positive association. Significant non-linear associations were seen with NT-proBNP, admission Cr, BUN

  1. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Christopher B; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24h. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3(-) or NO2(-). Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tissue remodeling following acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury is characterized by a severe disruption of alveolo-capillary structures and includes a variety of changes in lung cell populations. Evidence suggests the occurrence of rupture of the basement membranes and interstitial matrix remodeling during acute lung injury. The dynamic equilibrium of the extracellular matrix (ECM under physiological conditions is a consequence of the balance between the regulation of synthesis and degradation of ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs represent a group of enzymes involved in the degradation of most of the components of the ECM and therefore participate in tissue remodeling associated with pathological situations such as acute lung injury. MMP activity is regulated by proteolytic activation of the latent secreted proenzyme and by interaction with specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This review details our knowledge of the involvement of MMPs, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9, in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  3. Acute Lung Injury: Making the Injured Lung Perform Better and Rebuilding Healthy Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    chemotherapeutic agents, themselves, cause a syndrome with features of ALI. The pathology and pathophysiology of ALI are very complex and include features...pediatric lung disease, hypothyroidism , and neurological impairment (Krude et al., 2002). Inability to access the presumed very rare, multipo- tent...Schnabel, D., Neitzel, H., Tönnies, H., Weise, D., Lafferty, A., Schwarz, S., et al. (2002). Choreoathetosis, hypothyroidism , and pulmonary

  4. Acute Lung Injury: Making Injured Lungs Perform Better and Rebuilding Healthy Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    derived, highly scalable, and since they can be readily derived from individual mice (or humans) they thereby circumvent immune and ethical issues... placentas collected during delivery, and mucosal cells collected by scraping or swab)? N/A Will the research data in this study be gathered through non...is typically depleted in ALI/ARDS, resulting in decreased lung compliance and increased risk of barotrauma. In vivo studies using normal guinea pigs

  5. Transplantation of Menstrual Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes the Repair of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyu Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs have been shown to be good therapeutic tools in diseases such as ovarian failure and cardiac fibrosis. However, relevant studies of MenSCs in ALI have not yet proceeded. We hypothesized that MenSC could attenuate the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ALI and promote the repair of damaged lung. ALI model was induced by LPS in C57 mice, and saline or MenSCs were administered via tail vein after four hours. The MenSCs were subsequently detected in the lungs by a live imaging system. The MenSCs not only improved pulmonary microvascular permeability and attenuated histopathological damage, but also mediated the downregulation of IL-1β and the upregulation of IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and the damaged lung. Immunohistochemistry revealed the increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the reduced expression of caspase-3 indicating the beneficial effect of MenSCs. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF was also upregulated after MenSCs administrated. As shown using transwell co-culture, the MenSCs also could improve the viability of BEAS-2B cells and inhibit LPS-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that MenSC-based therapies could be promising strategies for treating ALI.

  6. Acute lung injury: effects of prone positioning on cephalocaudal distribution of lung inflation--CT assessment in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Im, Jung-Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Young Il; Lee, Min Woo; Ryu, Ho-Geol; Bahk, Jae-Hyon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2005-01-01

    To quantify cephalocaudal gradient of lung inflation in acute lung injury in a dog model in prone versus supine position. Experiments were performed in accordance with Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, as approved by National Research Council (National Institutes of Health), and were approved by committee on care and use of animals in research at Seoul National University Hospital. After induction of acute lung injury with intravenous injection of oleic acid, dogs were randomized to be ventilated in either prone (n = 6) or supine (n = 6) position. Spiral computed tomography (CT) and hemodynamic measurement were performed sequentially on an hourly basis. Volume and mean attenuation of lung were measured quantitatively by using software to evaluate each CT section. Cephalocaudal gradient of mean lung attenuation, distribution of gas and tissue, and alveolar expansion were assessed. Functional residual capacity and net alveolar expansion of entire lung were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with Friedman, sign, and Mann-Whitney tests. Mean lung attenuation increased gradually from apex to base of lung in supine position. Thus, inflation gradient along cephalocaudal axis was found. Gas was located predominantly in upper lung, whereas tissue was dominant in lower lung in supine position. In supine group, cephalocaudal inflation gradient showed no significant change from baseline up to 4 hours. After prone positioning, cephalocaudal inflation gradient was reduced, and gas and tissue proportions became more uniform along cephalocaudal axis. In prone group, absolute values of cephalocaudal inflation gradient at time points of prone positioning for 1, 2, and 3 hours were significantly lower than baseline values (P lung was not altered significantly. Functional residual capacity was unchanged by prone positioning. In acute lung injury, prone positioning induced more uniform distribution of gas and tissue along cephalocaudal axis by reducing

  7. A prospective study of immune and inflammation markers and risk of lung cancer among female never smokers in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Qiuyin; Hu, Wei; Shelton, Gloriana; Ji, Bu-Tian; Pinto, Ligia A; Kemp, Troy J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Hildesheim, Allan; Lan, Qing

    2017-10-01

    There is a paucity of data on risk factors for lung cancer among never smokers. Here, we have carried out the first large study of circulating inflammation markers and lung cancer risk among female never smokers in Shanghai. A study of 248 lung cancer cases in female never smokers and 263 controls was nested within the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 75221), matched by dates of birth and blood collection (mean follow-up time = 7.5 years). Prediagnostic plasma levels of 65 inflammation markers were measured using a Luminex bead-based assay. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Nine of 61 evaluable markers were statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk among never smoking Chinese women (P-trend across categories 7.5 years prior to diagnosis. Markers involved in various aspects of the immune response were associated with subsequent lung cancer risk, implicating inflammation in the etiology of lung cancer among female never smokers. Published by Oxford University Press 2017.

  8. Inhaled nitric oxide exacerbated phorbol-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Hsu, Kang; Wang, David

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in isolated rat lung. Typical acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. PMA (2 microg/kg) elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability, (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pretreatment with inhaled NO (30 ppm) significantly exacerbated acute lung injury. All of the parameters reflective of lung injury increased significantly except PAP (P<0.05). Coadministration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mM) attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO in PMA-induced lung injury, except for PAP. In addition, L-NAME (5 mM) significantly attenuated PMA-induced acute lung injury except for PAP. These experimental data suggest that inhaled NO significantly exacerbated acute lung injury induced by PMA in rats. L-NAME attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO.

  9. Action mechanism of apoptosis in the development of acute lung injury after severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-li SHI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the role of apoptosis in the development of acute lung injury (ALI after severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and its mechanism via Notch/Hes signal transduction pathway in the pathologic process. Methods Fifty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into, sham group (n=8 and model group (n=42. Tissue samples of model group were collected randomly at 3 (n=10, 6 (n=10, 12 (n=10 and 24h (n=12 after model establishment. Tissue collection of Sham group was conducted at 3h. Left lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D was calculated; Histological scores of pancreatic and lung tissues were assessed under microscope; myeloperoxidase (MPO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α of lung tissues were determined by enzymatic-chemical method and radioimmunoassay method respectively. Apoptosis of lung cells was evaluated by TUNEL assay followed by calculation of apoptosis index. Protein levels of Notch-1, Hes-1 and Hes-5 were also detected semi-quantitatively by Western blotting. Results The lung tissue W/D of model rats exhibited a gradual increment at the prior 12 hours, and the ratio was significantly higher than that of sham group at each time point (P<0.01 while it reached the peak at 12h time point. Pancreatic and lung pathological scores of model groups were increased at all time points and significantly higher than sham group (P<0.01. Lung pathological scores of model groups achieved a peak at 12h. Meanwhile, lung MPO and TNF-α of model groups showed the same increment trend at each time points. The apoptosis index (AI of lung cells in model groups were higher than that in sham group (P<0.01. Compared with sham group, the model groups showed lower protein expression levels of Notch-1, especially at 3, 6 and 12h (P<0.05. Notch-1 protein expression level of 12h group was lower than that of 3, 6 and 24h groups (P<0.01. Correlation analysis found that apoptosis of lung cells was significantly negatively related to histopathological

  10. Open Tracheostomy Gastric Acid Aspiration Murine Model of Acute Lung Injury Results in Maximal Acute Nonlethal Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Ravi; Kutscher, Hilliard L; Mullan, Barbara A; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R

    2017-02-26

    Acid pneumonitis is a major cause of sterile acute lung injury (ALI) in humans. Acid pneumonitis spans the clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by neutrophilic alveolitis, and injury to both alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium. Clinically, ARDS is defined by acute onset of hypoxemia, bilateral patchy pulmonary infiltrates and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Human studies have provided us with valuable information about the physiological and inflammatory changes in the lung caused by ARDS, which has led to various hypotheses about the underling mechanisms. Unfortunately, difficulties determining the etiology of ARDS, as well as a wide range of pathophysiology have resulted in a lack of critical information that could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies. Translational animal models are valuable when their pathogenesis and pathophysiology accurately reproduce a concept proven in both in vitro and clinical settings. Although large animal models (e.g., sheep) share characteristics of the anatomy of human trachea-bronchial tree, murine models provide a host of other advantages including: low cost; short reproductive cycle lending itself to greater data acquisition; a well understood immunologic system; and a well characterized genome leading to the availability of a variety of gene deletion and transgenic strains. A robust model of low pH induced ARDS requires a murine ALI that targets mainly the alveolar epithelium, secondarily the vascular endothelium, as well as the small airways leading to the alveoli. Furthermore, a reproducible injury with wide differences between different injurious and non-injurious insults is important. The murine gastric acid aspiration model presented here using hydrochloric acid employs an open tracheostomy and recreates a pathogenic scenario that reproduces the low pH pneumonitis injury in humans. Additionally, this model can be used to examine interaction of a

  11. A quantifiable proliferative burst of tissue macrophages restores homeostatic macrophage populations after acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Luke C; Rosas, Marcela; Smith, Paul J; Fraser, Donald J; Jones, Simon A; Taylor, Philip R

    2011-08-01

    Macrophage (MØ) biology is routinely modelled in the peritoneal cavity, a vascular tissue readily infiltrated by leukocytes during inflammation. After several decades of study, no consensus has emerged regarding the importance of in situ proliferation versus peripheral monocyte recruitment for the maintenance of tissue resident MØs. By applying specific measures of mitosis, we have monitored tissue MØ proliferation during newborn development, adulthood and acute resolving inflammation in young adult mice. Despite the vascular nature of the tissue and ease of peripheral leukocyte entry, tissue MØs in the newborn increase in number by local proliferation. On the contrary, in the adult, tissue MØ proliferation is considerably reduced and most likely provides homeostatic control of cell numbers. Importantly, during an acute inflammatory response, when substantial numbers of inflammatory MØs are recruited from the circulation, tissue-resident MØs survive and then undergo a transient and intense proliferative burst in situ to repopulate the tissue. Our data indicate that local proliferation is a general mechanism for the self-sufficient renewal of tissue MØs during development and acute inflammation and not one restricted to non-vascular tissues, which has implications for the therapeutic modulation of MØ activity during the resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Lung inflammation and genotoxicity following pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles in ApoE-/- mice

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    Ladefoged Ole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxic and inflammatory potential of 5 different types of nanoparticles were studied in a sensitive model for pulmonary effects in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-/-. We studied the effects instillation or inhalation Printex 90 of carbon black (CB and compared CB instillation in ApoE-/- and C57 mice. Three and 24 h after pulmonary exposure, inflammation was assessed by mRNA levels of cytokines in lung tissue, cell composition, genotoxicity, protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Results Firstly, we found that intratracheal instillation of CB caused far more pulmonary toxicity in ApoE-/- mice than in C57 mice. Secondly, we showed that instillation of CB was more toxic than inhalation of a presumed similar dose with respect to inflammation in the lungs of ApoE-/- mice. Thirdly, we compared effects of instillation in ApoE-/- mice of three carbonaceous particles; CB, fullerenes C60 (C60 and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT as well as gold particles and quantum dots (QDs. Characterization of the instillation media revealed that all particles were delivered as agglomerates and aggregates. Significant increases in Il-6, Mip-2 and Mcp-1 mRNA were detected in lung tissue, 3 h and 24 h following instillation of SWCNT, CB and QDs. DNA damage in BAL cells, the fraction of neutrophils in BAL cells and protein in BAL fluid increased statistically significantly. Gold and C60 particles caused much weaker inflammatory responses. Conclusion Our data suggest that ApoE-/- model is sensitive for evaluating particle induced inflammation. Overall QDs had greatest effects followed by CB and SWCNT with C60 and gold being least inflammatory and DNA-damaging. However the gold was used at a much lower mass dose than the other particles. The strong effects of QDs were likely due to Cd release. The surface area of the instilled dose correlated well the inflammatory response for low toxicity particles.

  13. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  14. Curcumin reduces lung inflammation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Lv, Jian-Ning; Li, Hui; Jiao, Bo; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yan-Qin; Zhang, Ming; Shan, Hu; Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Wu, Run-Miao; Li, Ya-Li

    2017-05-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory, heterogeneous airway disease affecting millions of people around the world. Curcumin has been found to have anti-inflammatory and antifibrosis effects. Researchers reported that curcumin regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in lots of cells. However, whether curcumin regulates the levels of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in lung tissues and DCs (dendritic cells) remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the effects of curcumin on DCs and asthma. C57BL/6 mice immunized with OVA (ovalbumin) were challenged thrice with an aerosol of OVA every second day for 8 days. Dexamethasone or curcumin was administered intraperitoneally to OVA-immunized C57BL/6 mice on day 24 once a day for 9 days. Mice were analyzed for effects of curcumin on asthma, inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine levels in lung tissue. DCs were isolated from mouse bone morrow. The surface markers CD40, CD86 and CD11c of DCs was detected by FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) and the function of DCs was detected by mixed lymphocyte reaction. The expression of GSK-3β and β-catenin was detected by Western Blot. Results showed that OVA increased the number of inflammatory factors in BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), elevated lung inflammation scores in mice. Curcumin dose-dependently reversed the alterations induced by OVA in the asthmatic mice. Curcumin activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in DCs and asthmatic mouse lungs. Curcumin could influence the morphology and function of DCs, ease asthma symptom and inflammatory reaction through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These results provide new evidence new evidence for application of curcumin on asthma.

  15. Interleukin-22 reduces lung inflammation during influenza A virus infection and protects against secondary bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stoyan; Renneson, Joelle; Fontaine, Josette; Barthelemy, Adeline; Paget, Christophe; Fernandez, Elodie Macho; Blanc, Fany; De Trez, Carl; Van Maele, Laurye; Dumoutier, Laure; Huerre, Michel-René; Eberl, Gérard; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Gosset, Pierre; Renauld, Jean Christophe; Sirard, Jean Claude; Faveeuw, Christelle; Trottein, François

    2013-06-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has redundant, protective, or pathogenic functions during autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Here, we addressed the potential role of IL-22 in host defense and pathogenesis during lethal and sublethal respiratory H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We show that IL-22, as well as factors associated with its production, are expressed in the lung tissue during the early phases of IAV infection. Our data indicate that retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt)-positive αβ and γδ T cells, as well as innate lymphoid cells, expressed enhanced Il22 transcripts as early as 2 days postinfection. During lethal or sublethal IAV infections, endogenous IL-22 played no role in the control of IAV replication and in the development of the IAV-specific CD8(+) T cell response. During lethal infection, where wild-type (WT) mice succumbed to severe pneumonia, the lack of IL-22 did not accelerate or delay IAV-associated pathogenesis and animal death. In stark contrast, during sublethal IAV infection, IL-22-deficient animals had enhanced lung injuries and showed a lower airway epithelial integrity relative to WT littermates. Of importance, the protective effect of endogenous IL-22 in pulmonary damages was associated with a more controlled secondary bacterial infection. Indeed, after challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae, IAV-experienced Il22(-/-) animals were more susceptible than WT controls in terms of survival rate and bacterial burden in the lungs. Together, IL-22 plays no major role during lethal influenza but is beneficial during sublethal H3N2 IAV infection, where it limits lung inflammation and subsequent bacterial superinfections.

  16. Postmortem changes in lungs in severe closed traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available V.А. Tumanskіy, S.І. Ternishniy, L.M. Tumanskaya Pathological changes in the lungs were studied in the work of 42 patiens who died from severe closed intracranial injury (SCII. It was complicated with acute respiratory insufficient (ARI. The most modified subpleural areas were selected from every lobe of the lungs for pathological studies. Prepared histological sections were stained by means of hemotoxylin and eosin and by Van Giеson for light microscopy. The results of the investigation have shown absence of the significant difference of pathological changes in the lungs of patients who died from ARI because of severe brain injury and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Pathognomic pathological changes in the lungs as a result of acute lung injury syndrome (ALIS were found in deceased patients on the third day since the SCII (n=8. There was a significant bilateral interstitial edema and mild alveolar edema with the presence of red and blood cells in the alveoli, vascular plethora of the septum interalveolar and stasis of blood in the capillaries, the slight pericapillary leukocyte infiltration, subpleural hemorrhage and laminar pulmonary atelectasis. In deceased patients on 4-6 days after SCII that was complicated with ARI (n=14, morphological changes had been detected in the lungs. It was pathognomic for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS with local pneumonic to be layered. A significant interstitial pulmonary edema was observed in the respiratory part of the lungs. The edema has spread from the walls of the alveoli into the interstitial spaces of the bronchioles and blood vessels, and also less marked serous-hemorrhagic alveolar edema with presence of the fibrin in the alveoli and macrophages. The ways of intrapleural lymphatic drainage were dilatated. Histopathological changes in the lungs of those who died on the 7-15th days after severe closed craniocerebral injury with ARI to be complicated (n=12 have been indicative of two

  17. An anti-human ICAM-1 antibody inhibits rhinovirus-induced exacerbations of lung inflammation.

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    Stephanie Traub

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV cause the majority of common colds and acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Effective therapies are urgently needed, but no licensed treatments or vaccines currently exist. Of the 100 identified serotypes, ∼90% bind domain 1 of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 as their cellular receptor, making this an attractive target for development of therapies; however, ICAM-1 domain 1 is also required for host defence and regulation of cell trafficking, principally via its major ligand LFA-1. Using a mouse anti-human ICAM-1 antibody (14C11 that specifically binds domain 1 of human ICAM-1, we show that 14C11 administered topically or systemically prevented entry of two major groups of rhinoviruses, HRV16 and HRV14, and reduced cellular inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokine induction and virus load in vivo. 14C11 also reduced cellular inflammation and Th2 cytokine/chemokine production in a model of major group HRV-induced asthma exacerbation. Interestingly, 14C11 did not prevent cell adhesion via human ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions in vitro, suggesting the epitope targeted by 14C11 was specific for viral entry. Thus a human ICAM-1 domain-1-specific antibody can prevent major group HRV entry and induction of airway inflammation in vivo.

  18. Fipronil induces lung inflammation in vivo and cell death in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowsky, Kaitlin; Sethi, Ram S; Gill, Jatinder P S; Singh, Baljit

    2016-01-01

    Fipronil is an insecticide that acts at the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels in the central nervous systems of target organisms. The use of fipronil is increasing across the globe. Presently, very little data exist on the potential impact of exposure to fipronil on the lungs. We studied effects of intranasal (N = 8) and oral (N = 8) treatment with fipronil (10 mg/kg) on lungs of mice. Control mice were given groundnut oil orally (N = 7) or ethanol intranasally (N = 7) as these were the vehicles for respective treatments. Hematoxylin-eosin stained lung sections showed normal histology in the control lungs compared to the thickened alveolar septa, disruption of the airways epithelium and damage to vascular endothelium in the intranasal and the oral groups. Mice exposed to fipronil either orally or intranasally showed increased von Willebrand factor staining in the endothelium and septal capillaries. Compared to the control mice, TLR4 expression in airway epithelium was increased in mice treated intranasally but not orally with fipronil. Oral fipronil reduced TLR9 staining in the airway epithelium but intranasal exposure caused intense staining in the alveolar septa and airway epithelium. There were higher numbers of TLR4 positive cells in alveolar septa in lungs of mice treated intranasally (P = 0.010) compared to the respective control and orally treated mice but no significant differences between treatments for TLR9 positive stained cells (P = 0.226). The U937 macrophage cells exposed to fipronil at concentrations of 0.29 μm to 5.72 μm/ml over 3- or 24-hour showed significant increase in cell death at higher concentrations of fipronil (P fipronil on TLR4 (P = 0.49) or TLR9 (P = 0.94) expression on macrophage cell line. While both oral or intranasal fipronil treatments induced signs of lung inflammation, the number TLR4-positive septal cells was increased only following intranasal treatment

  19. How inflammation underlies physical and organ function in acutely admitted older medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Petersen, Janne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether systemic inflammation in acutely admitted older medical patients (age >65 years) is associated with physical performance and organ dysfunction. Organ dysfunction´s association with physical performance, and whether these associations are mediated by systemic...... inflammation, was also investigated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in an Emergency Department. Physical performance was assessed by handgrip strength and de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI), and organ dysfunction by FI-OutRef, the number of standard blood tests outside the reference range. Systemic...... physical performance measures (pphysical performance (all p

  20. Effect of corticosteroid on lung parenchyma remodeling at an early phase of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Patricia R M; Souza, Alba B; Faffe, Debora S; Pássaro, Caroline P; Santos, Flávia B; Negri, Elnara M; Lima, Januário G M; Contador, Renata S; Capelozzi, Vera L; Zin, Walter A

    2003-09-15

    In vivo (lung resistive and viscoelastic pressures and static elastance) and in vitro (tissue resistance, elastance, and hysteresivity) respiratory mechanics were analyzed 1 and 30 days after saline (control) or paraquat (P [10 and 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally]) injection in rats. Additionally, P10 and P25 were treated with methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg intravenously) at 1 or 6 hours after acute lung injury (ALI) induction. Collagen and elastic fibers were quantified. Lung resistive and viscoelastic pressures and static elastance were higher in P10 and P25 than in the control. Tissue elastance and resistance augmented from control to P10 (1 and 30 days) and P25. Hysteresivity increased in only P25. Methylprednisolone at 1 or 6 hours attenuated in vivo and in vitro mechanical changes in P25, whereas P10 parameters were similar to the control. Collagen increment was dose and time dependent. Elastic fibers increased in P25 and at 30 days in P10. Corticosteroid prevented collagen increment and avoided elastogenesis. In conclusion, methylprednisolone led to a complete maintenance of in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics in mild lesion, whereas it minimized the changes in tissue impedance and extracellular matrix in severe ALI. The beneficial effects of the early use of steroids in ALI remained unaltered at Day 30.

  1. Time course of early histopathological lung changes in an ovine model of acute lung injury and pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Daniel L; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2013-01-01

    Large animal models are valuable tools in biological and medical lung research. Despite the existence of established large animal models, the scientific progress requires more detailed description and expansion of established methods. Previously, we established an ovine model of acute lung injury and subsequent bacterial instillation into the lungs. The current study was designed to assess the time course of early lung histopathological alterations in a large animal model. Injury was induced by smoke inhalation and instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs. After 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours, respectively, lung tissue was harvested and histopathological changes were evaluated (n = 4 each). Additional four sheep received no injury and only lung tissue was taken. In injured animals, bronchial obstruction score increased over time and was significantly elevated from 12 to 24 hours (P lung histopathological alterations following acute lung injury and pulmonary infection and may help optimizing the timing of study interventions and evaluation time points in future experiments with this model.

  2. Biomarkers of acute lung injury: worth their salt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfoot Alastair G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The validation of biomarkers has become a key goal of translational biomedical research. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of biomarkers in the management of acute lung injury (ALI and related research. Biomarkers should be sensitive and specific indicators of clinically important processes and should change in a relevant timeframe to affect recruitment to trials or clinical management. We do not believe that they necessarily need to reflect pathogenic processes. We critically examined current strategies used to identify biomarkers and which, owing to expedience, have been dominated by reanalysis of blood derived markers from large multicenter Phase 3 studies. Combining new and existing validated biomarkers with physiological and other data may add predictive power and facilitate the development of important aids to research and therapy.

  3. Does airway pressure release ventilation alter lung function after acute lung injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Smith, D B

    1995-03-01

    During airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), tidal ventilation occurs between the increased lung volume established by the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the relaxation volume of the respiratory system. Concern has been expressed that release of CPAP may cause unstable alveoli to collapse and not reinflate when airway pressure is restored. To compare pulmonary mechanics and oxygenation in animals with acute lung injury during CPAP with and without APRV. Experimental, subject-controlled, randomized crossover investigation. Anesthesiology research laboratory, University of South Florida College of Medicine Health Sciences Center. Ten pigs of either sex. Acute lung injury was induced with an intravenous infusion of oleic acid (72 micrograms/kg) followed by randomly alternated 60-min trials of CPAP with and without APRV. Continuous positive airway pressure was titrated to produce an arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of at least 95% (FIO2 = 0.21). Airway pressure release ventilation was arbitrarily cycled to atmospheric pressure 10 times per minute with a release time titrated to coincide with attainment of respiratory system relaxation volume. Cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous pH, blood gas tensions, hemoglobin concentration and oxyhemoglobin saturation, central venous pressure, pulmonary and systemic artery pressures, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, airway gas flow, airway pressure, and pleural pressure were measured. Tidal volume (VT), dynamic lung compliance, intrapulmonary venous admixture, pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. Central venous infusion of oleic acid reduced PaO2 from 94 +/- 4 mm Hg to 52 +/- 9 mm Hg (mean +/- 1 SD) (p arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (96.6 +/- 1.4% vs 96.9 +/- 1.3%) did not. Intrapulmonary venous admixture (9 +/- 3% vs 11 +/- 5%) and oxygen delivery (469 +/- 67 mL/min vs 479

  4. Erythropoietin augments the cytokine response to acute endotoxin-induced inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Taudorf, Sarah; Lundby, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) offers protection against ischemia, hemorrhagic shock and systemic inflammation in many tissues and it has been suggested that EPO has anti-inflammatory effects. With the aim of investigating the potential acute anti-inflammatory effects of EPO ...... with endotoxin, the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were enhanced by 5- and 40-fold, respectively, whereas the endotoxin-induced increase in IL-10 response was not influenced by EPO. In contrast to our hypothesis, we find that EPO augments the acute inflammatory effect.......Recent studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) offers protection against ischemia, hemorrhagic shock and systemic inflammation in many tissues and it has been suggested that EPO has anti-inflammatory effects. With the aim of investigating the potential acute anti-inflammatory effects of EPO...... in a human in vivo model of acute systemic low-grade inflammation, we measured circulating inflammatory mediators after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) bolus injection (0.1 ng/kg of body weight) in young healthy male subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups...

  5. Hypoxemic Patients With Bilateral Infiltrates Treated With High-Flow Nasal Cannula Present a Similar Pattern of Biomarkers of Inflammation and Injury to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-Acilu, Marina; Marin-Corral, Judith; Vázquez, Antonia; Ruano, Laura; Magret, Mònica; Ferrer, Ricard; Masclans, Joan R; Roca, Oriol

    2017-11-01

    To examine whether patients with acute hypoxemia and bilateral opacities treated with high-flow nasal cannula and acute respiratory distress syndrome patients who were directly mechanically ventilated are similar in terms of lung epithelial, endothelial, and inflammatory biomarkers. Prospective, multicenter study. ICUs at three university tertiary hospitals. Intubated and nonintubated patients admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemia (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300) and bilateral opacities. None. Either high-flow nasal cannula or mechanical ventilation was initiated, at the discretion of the attending physician. We measured plasma biomarkers of lung epithelial injury (receptor for advanced glycation end products and surfactant protein D) and endothelial injury (angiopoietin-2) and inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-33 and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) within 24 hours of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Propensity score matching was performed using six different variables (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, PaO2/FIO2, origin of acute respiratory distress syndrome, steroids, renal failure and need for vasopressors). Nonhypoxemic mechanically ventilated critically ill patients and healthy volunteers served as controls. Of the 170 patients enrolled, 127 (74.7%) were intubated and 43 (25.3%) were treated with high-flow nasal cannula at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. After propensity score matching (39 high-flow nasal cannula patients vs 39 mechanical ventilation patients), no significant differences were observed in receptor for advanced glycation end products, surfactant protein D, angiopoietin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-33, and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 between matched patients who were treated with high-flow nasal cannula and those who were intubated at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. After matching, no differences in mortality

  6. Occurrence of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with the oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Riis, Bente; Pressler, Tacjana

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) liberated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We formulated the hypothesis that oxidation...... the 1st and up to the 25th year of their chronic lung infection. The level of oxidized guanine moiety 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is a frequently investigated DNA oxidative lesion, was measured. Hypermutable P. aeruginosa isolates were found in the sputum bacterial population of 54...

  7. Interleukin 6 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein - markers of inflammation in acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănescu, C; Serban, D; Dascălu, A M; Oprescu, S M; Savlovschi, C

    2013-01-01

    The rate of incidence of acute appendicitis is 12% in the case of male patients and 25% in case of women, which represents about 7% of the world population. The appendectomy rate has remained constant (i.e. 10 out of 10,000 patients per year). Appendicitis most often occurs in patients aged between 11-40 years, on the threshold between the third and fourth decades, the average age being 31.3 years. Since the first appendectomy performed by Claudius Amyand (1681/6 -1740), on December, 6th, 1735 to our days, i.e., 270 years later, time has confirmed the efficiency of both the therapy method and the surgical solution. The surgical cure in case of acute appendicitis has proved to be acceptable within the most widely practised techniques in general surgery. The variety of clinical forms has reached all age ranges, which in its turn has resulted in a large number of semiotic signs. In the case of acute appendicitis, interdisciplinarity has allowed the transfer of concept and methodology transfer among many areas of expertise, aimed at a better, minute understanding of the inflammatory event itself. Acute appendicitis illustrates inflammation development at digestive level and provides for a diagnostic and paraclinical exploration which continually upgrades. The recent inclusion in the studies of the Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)- type inflammation markers has laid the foundation of the latter's documented presence in the case of acute appendicitis-related inflammation. Proof of the correlation between the histopathological, clinical and evolutive forms can be found by identifying and quantifying these inflammation markers. The importance of studying inflammation markers allows us to conduct studies going beyond the prognosis of the various stages in which these markers were identified. The present article shows the results of a 1-year monitoring of the inflammation markers' values for Interleukin-6 and Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)-types, both pre

  8. Blocking triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tian; Zhou, Yong; Li, Ping; Duan, Jia-Xi; Liu, Yong-Ping; Sun, Guo-Ying; Wan, Li; Dong, Liang; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with high mortality and uncontrolled inflammation plays a critical role in ALI. TREM-1 is an amplifier of inflammatory response, and is involved in the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. NLRP3 inflammasome is a member of NLRs family that contributes to ALI. However, the effect of TREM-1 on NLRP3 inflammasome and ALI is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of TREM-1 modulation on LPS-induced ALI and activation of the NLRP3 inflamm...

  9. Inflammatory mechanisms in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Moldoveanu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available B Moldoveanu1, P Otmishi1, P Jani1, J Walker1,2, X Sarmiento3, J Guardiola1, M Saad1, Jerry Yu11Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA, 40292; 2Department of Respiratory Therapy, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY, USA, 40205; 3Intensive Care Medicine Service, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain 08916Abstract: Inflammation is the body’s response to insults, which include infection, trauma, and hypersensitivity. The inflammatory response is complex and involves a variety of mechanisms to defend against pathogens and repair tissue. In the lung, inflammation is usually caused by pathogens or by exposure to toxins, pollutants, irritants, and allergens. During inflammation, numerous types of inflammatory cells are activated. Each releases cytokines and mediators to modify activities of other inflammatory cells. Orchestration of these cells and molecules leads to progression of inflammation. Clinically, acute inflammation is seen in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, whereas chronic inflammation is represented by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Because the lung is a vital organ for gas exchange, excessive inflammation can be life threatening. Because the lung is constantly exposed to harmful pathogens, an immediate and intense defense action (mainly inflammation is required to eliminate the invaders as early as possible. A delicate balance between inflammation and anti-inflammation is essential for lung homeostasis. A full understanding of the underlying mechanisms is vital in the treatment of patients with lung inflammation. This review focuses on cellular and molecular aspects of lung inflammation during acute and chronic inflammatory states.Keywords: inflammation, lung, inflammatory mediators, cytokines

  10. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Ishizuka, Masahide; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95% CI: 1.13–10.16, p pericoronitis in diabetes. The frequency of radiolucency below the crown and below the root in diabetics was similar to that in nondiabetics. However, the odds ratio of exhibiting both radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation under the diabetic condition was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.60–14.73, p pericoronitis, whereas the periodontium shows a protective effect against acute pericoronitis. PMID:23674902

  11. Lung inflammation and genotoxicity following pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles in ApoE-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Jacobsen, Nicklas; Møller, Peter; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

    2009-01-01

    of three carbonaceous particles; CB, fullerenes C-60 (C-60) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as gold particles and quantum dots (QDs). Characterization of the instillation media revealed that all particles were delivered as agglomerates and aggregates. Significant increases in Il-6, Mip-2...... and Mcp-1 mRNA were detected in lung tissue, 3 h and 24 h following instillation of SWCNT, CB and QDs. DNA damage in BAL cells, the fraction of neutrophils in BAL cells and protein in BAL fluid increased statistically significantly. Gold and C-60 particles caused much weaker inflammatory responses....... Conclusion: Our data suggest that ApoE(-/-) model is sensitive for evaluating particle induced inflammation. Overall QDs had greatest effects followed by CB and SWCNT with C-60 and gold being least inflammatory and DNA-damaging. However the gold was used at a much lower mass dose than the other particles...

  12. HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frincke James M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17α-Ethynyl-5-androsten-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (HE3286 is a synthetic derivative of an endogenous steroid androstenetriol (β-AET, a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid deyhdroepiandrosterone (DHEA, with broad anti-inflammatory activities. We tested the ability of this novel synthetic steroid with improved pharmacological properties to limit non-productive lung inflammation in rodents and attempted to gauge its immunological impact. Methods and Results In mice, oral treatment with HE3286 (40 mg/kg significantly (p in vivo (ovalbumin immunization. When mice treated for two weeks with HE3286 were challenged with K. pneumoniae, nearly identical survival kinetics were observed in vehicle-treated, HE3286-treated and untreated groups. Conclusions HE3286 represents a novel, first-in-class anti-inflammatory agent that may translate certain benefits of β-AET observed in rodents into treatments for chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease.

  13. Metabolic pathways of lung inflammation revealed by high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) of H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Joshua D; Hu, Xin; Ko, Eun-Ju; Park, Soojin; Lee, Young-Tae; Orr, Michael; Fernandes, Jolyn; Uppal, Karan; Kang, Sang-Moo; Jones, Dean P; Go, Young-Mi

    2016-11-01

    Influenza is a significant health concern worldwide. Viral infection induces local and systemic activation of the immune system causing attendant changes in metabolism. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) uses advanced mass spectrometry and computational methods to measure thousands of metabolites inclusive of most metabolic pathways. We used HRM to identify metabolic pathways and clusters of association related to inflammatory cytokines in lungs of mice with H1N1 influenza virus infection. Infected mice showed progressive weight loss, decreased lung function, and severe lung inflammation with elevated cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ] and increased oxidative stress via cysteine oxidation. HRM showed prominent effects of influenza virus infection on tryptophan and other amino acids, and widespread effects on pathways including purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and glycerophospholipids. A metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) of the aforementioned inflammatory cytokines was used to determine the relationship of metabolic responses to inflammation during infection. This cytokine-MWAS (cMWAS) showed that metabolic associations consisted of distinct and shared clusters of 396 metabolites highly correlated with inflammatory cytokines. Strong negative associations of selected glycosphingolipid, linoleate, and tryptophan metabolites with IFN-γ contrasted strong positive associations of glycosphingolipid and bile acid metabolites with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 had strong positive associations with vitamin D, purine, and vitamin E metabolism. The detailed metabolic interactions with cytokines indicate that targeted metabolic interventions may be useful during life-threatening crises related to severe acute infection and inflammation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Rat strain differences in levels and effects of chronic inflammation due to intratracheal instillation of quartz on lung tumorigenesis induced by DHPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yuko; Yokohira, Masanao; Hashimoto, Nozomi; Yamakawa, Keiko; Kishi, Sosuke; Ninomiya, Fumiko; Kanie, Shohei; Saoo, Kousuke; Imaida, Katsumi

    2014-10-01

    Chronic inflammatory effects of single intratracheal instillation (i.t.) of quartz on rat lung tumorigenesis were examined using 4 different animal models. At first, in order to determine an appropriate dose of quartz i.t. to promote lung tumorigenesis, F344 male rats were administrated single 0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 4 mg quartz/rat after initiation by N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine (DHPN). Further studies were performed to examine strain differences of the effects of chronic inflammation caused by quartz i.t. in 3 strains of rat, i.e. F344, Wistar-Hannover and SD. Each was instilled with 2mg quartz/rat after DHPN administration and sacrificed in week 24. In addition, strain differences in generation of inflammation were determined at days 1 and 28. Finally, for determination of long-term effects period, F344 and Wistar-Hannover rats were similarly treated, but the experiment was terminated at week 52. In F344 rats, the tumor areas in DHPN treated groups showed a tendency to increase along with the dose of quartz. F344 rats demonstrated the highest and Wistar-Hannover rats the lowest sensitivity to quartz in acute and chronic phases in the 3 strains. In 52 week, in F344 rats, the multiplicity of tumors and the serum concentration of IL-6 in the group treated with DHPN and quartz were significantly increased. The present experiments indicated that chronic inflammation due to quartz instillation exerted promoting effects on lung carcinogenesis in F344, SD and Wistar-Hannover rats. The strain differences in tumor promotion appeared to correlate with inflammatory reactions to quartz and increase of IL-6. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondria Targeted Peptide Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Controls Inflammation and Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Lung Injury

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    Liu-Long Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a common and devastating disease, which results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and secondary lung injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are closely related to lung injury in diverse disease models. No studies have demonstrated the effects of mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury. Methods: Immediately after injury, mice in the treatment groups received a daily, single-dose intraperitoneal injection of SS-31 and for the next 2 days. The sham and SCI groups also received a daily single dose of vehicle (DMSO and 0.9% NaCl, 1: 3. The lung tissue of mice was examined after SCI, and tissue damage, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction were recorded. Results: SS-31 treatment attenuated lung edema and tissue damage. Furthermore, SS-31 treatment reduced apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, the number of total macrophages and M1 macrophages, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, SS-31 treatment attenuated reactive oxygen species levels, reversed mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusions: Collectively, our results demonstrate that SS-31 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, controls inflammatory responses, and alleviates the severity of lung damage in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury.

  16. Role of Complement C5 in Experimental Blunt Chest Trauma-Induced Septic Acute Lung Injury (ALI.

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    Miriam Kalbitz

    Full Text Available Severe blunt chest trauma is associated with high mortality. Sepsis represents a serious risk factor for mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. In septic patients with ARDS complement activation products were found to be elevated in the plasma. In single models like LPS or trauma complement has been studied to some degree, however in clinically highly relevant double hit models such as the one used here little data is available. Here, we hypothesized that absence of C5 is correlated with a decreased inflammatory response in trauma induced septic acute lung injury.12 hrs after DH in mice the local and systemic cytokines and chemokines were quantified by multiplex bead array or ELISA, activated caspase-3 by western blot. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Sidak's multiple comparison test (significance, p≤ 0.05.In lung tissue interleukin (IL-6, monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF was elevated in both C5-/- mice and wildtype littermates (wt, whereas caspase-3 was reduced in lungs after DH in C5-/- mice. Systemically, reduced keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC levels were observed after DH in C5-/- compared to wt mice. Locally, lung myeloperoxidase (MPO, protein, IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated after DH in C5-/- compared to wt.In the complex but clinically relevant DH model the local and systemic inflammatory immune response features both, C5-dependent and C5-independent characteristics. Activation of caspase-3 in lung tissue after DH was C5-dependent whereas local inflammation in lung tissue was C5-independent.

  17. Role of Complement C5 in Experimental Blunt Chest Trauma-Induced Septic Acute Lung Injury (ALI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitz, Miriam; Karbach, Michael; Braumueller, Sonja; Kellermann, Philipp; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus; Perl, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Severe blunt chest trauma is associated with high mortality. Sepsis represents a serious risk factor for mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In septic patients with ARDS complement activation products were found to be elevated in the plasma. In single models like LPS or trauma complement has been studied to some degree, however in clinically highly relevant double hit models such as the one used here little data is available. Here, we hypothesized that absence of C5 is correlated with a decreased inflammatory response in trauma induced septic acute lung injury. 12 hrs after DH in mice the local and systemic cytokines and chemokines were quantified by multiplex bead array or ELISA, activated caspase-3 by western blot. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Sidak's multiple comparison test (significance, p≤ 0.05). In lung tissue interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was elevated in both C5-/- mice and wildtype littermates (wt), whereas caspase-3 was reduced in lungs after DH in C5-/- mice. Systemically, reduced keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) levels were observed after DH in C5-/- compared to wt mice. Locally, lung myeloperoxidase (MPO), protein, IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were elevated after DH in C5-/- compared to wt. In the complex but clinically relevant DH model the local and systemic inflammatory immune response features both, C5-dependent and C5-independent characteristics. Activation of caspase-3 in lung tissue after DH was C5-dependent whereas local inflammation in lung tissue was C5-independent.

  18. Effects of probiotics on ghrelin and lungs in children with acute lung injury: A double-blind randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Li; Yang, Zhongwen; Chen, Fengmin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-11-29

    To assess the effects of probiotics on serum ghrelin levels and protection for lungs in children with acute lung injury (ALI). This study was performed as a double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The eligible children with ALI were assigned to either probiotic treatment or an identical placebo for 10 days. Serum ghrelin, SP-A(surfactant protein-A), TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were assessed at baseline and at the end of trial. Meanwhile, pulmonary function test and echocardiography were examined, then VPEF (volume to peak tidal expiratory flow), TPEF/TE (the ratio of time taken to reach peak expiratory flow to total expiratory time), MAP (mean arterial pressure), and PAP (pulmonary artery pressure) were recorded. Eighty participants fulfilled the study requirements with 40 children for each group. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. Serum SP-A, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels in the probiotic group were 212.6 ± 52.9 ng/mL, 401.9 ± 56.4 pg/mL, and 245.1 ± 55.1 pg/mL on day 10, respectively, significantly lower levels compared to the control group where the same parameters were 248.2 ± 57 ng/mL, 449.4 ± 60.1 pg/mL, and 308.3 ± 92.2 pg/mL (P measurement of pulmonary function, the probiotic group demonstrated a VPEF of 26.1 ± 4.2 mL and TPEF/TE of 29.1 ± 4.7%, which were higher than the control group (24.7 ± 4.3 mL and 26.9 ± 4.7%, respectively) (P children with ALI alleviates the inflammation of lungs, improves pulmonary function and circulation by ghrelin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  20. Receptor Interacting Protein 3-Mediated Necroptosis Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice.

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    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available Necrosis amplifies inflammation and plays important roles in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Necroptosis is a newly identified programmed necrosis that is mediated by receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3. However, the potential involvement and impact of necroptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARDS remains unknown. We therefore explored the role and mechanism of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in LPS-induced ARDS. Mice were instilled with increasing doses of LPS intratracheally to induce different degrees of ARDS. Lung tissues were harvested for histological and TUNEL staining and western blot for RIP3, p-RIP3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, total and cleaved caspases-3/8. Then, wild-type and RIP3 knock-out mice were induced ARDS with 30 mg/kg LPS. Pulmonary cellular necrosis was labeled by the propidium Iodide (PI staining. Levels of TNF-a, Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-10 and HMGB1, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, neutrophil counts and total protein concentration were measured. Results showed that in high dose LPS (30mg/kg and 40mg/kg -induced severe ARDS, RIP3 protein was increased significantly, accompanied by increases of p-RIP3 and MLKL, while in low dose LPS (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg -induced mild ARDS, apoptosis was remarkably increased. In LPS-induced severe ARDS, RIP3 knock-out alleviated the hypothermia symptom, increased survival rate and ameliorated the lung tissue injury RIP3 depletion also attenuated LPS-induced increase in IL-1α/β, IL-6 and HMGB1 release, decreased tissue MPO activity, and reduced neutrophil influx and total protein concentration in BALF in severe ARDS. Further, RIP3 depletion reduced the necrotic cells in the lung and decreased the expression of MLKL, but had no impact on cleaved caspase-3 in LPS-induced ARDS. It is concluded that RIP3-mediated necroptosis is a major mechanism of enhanced inflammation and lung tissue injury in

  1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF ANTI-TNF-ALPHA siRNA CATIONIC PHOSPHOROUS DENDRIMERS NANOCOMPLEXES ADMINISTERED INTRANASALLY IN A MURINE ACUTE LUNG INJURY MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Tsapis, Nicolas; Andreana, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of many lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute lung injury. Our purpose was to design efficient carriers for lung delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alphain an acute...... demonstrated a stronger siRNA complexation, a higher cellular uptake and enhanced in vitro silencing efficiency of TNF-alpha in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7, compared to morpholinium-containing dendriplexes. The better performance of the pyrrolidium dendriplexes...... was attributed to their higher pKa value leading to a stronger siRNA complexation and improved protection against enzymatic degradation resulting in a higher cellular uptake. The superior silencing effect of the pyrrolidinium dendriplexes, compared to non-complexed siRNA, was confirmed in vivo in an LPS...

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: lung inflammation evaluated with high resolution computed tomography scan is correlated to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dórame, Renzo; Mejía, Mayra; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (RA) and interstitial lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis), in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). A retrospective study of RA patients with interstitial lung disease (restrictive pattern in lung function tests and evidence of interstitial lung disease in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)). Patients were evaluated to exclude other causes of pulmonary disease. RA disease activity was measured with the CDAI index. Interstitial lung inflammation and fibrosis were determined by Kazerooni scale. We compared Kazerooni ground-glass score with the nearest CDAI score to HRCT date scan of the first medical evaluation at our institution. In nine patients, we compared the first ground-glass score with a second one after treatment with DMARDs and corticosteroids. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between RA disease activity and the Kazerooni ground-glass and fibrosis scores. Thirty-four patients were included. A positive correlation between CDAI and ground-glass scores was found (rs=0.3767, P<0.028). Fibrosis and CDAI scores were not associated (rs=-0.0747, P<0.6745). After treatment, a downward tendency in the ground-glass score was observed (median [IQR]): (2.33 [2,3] vs. 2 [1.33-2.16]), P<0.056, along with a lesser CDAI score (27 [8-43] vs. 9 [5-12]), P<0.063. There is a correlation between RA disease activity and ground-glass appearance in the HRCT of RA-ILD patients. These results suggest a positive association between RA disease activity and lung inflammation in RA-ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Thoracentesis on Intubated Patients with Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Matthew B; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Ault, Mark; Khan, Ahsan; Chung, Rex; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusions occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients, but no consensus exists regarding the clinical benefit of effusion drainage. We sought to determine the impact of thoracentesis on gas exchange in patients with differing severities of acute lung injury (ALI). A retrospective analysis was conducted on therapeutic thoracenteses performed on intubated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary center. Effusions judged by ultrasound to be 400 mL or larger were drained. Subjects were divided into groups based on their initial P:F ratios: normal >300, ALI 200 to 300, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) gases, and ventilator settings before and after the intervention were analyzed. The primary end point was the change in measures of oxygenation. Significant improvements in P:F ratios (mean ± SD) were seen only in patients with ARDS (50.4 ± 38.5, P = 0.001) and ALI (90.6 ± 161.7, P = 0.022). Statistically significant improvement was observed in the pO2 (31.1, P = 0.005) and O2 saturation (4.1, P < 0.001) of the ARDS group. The volume of effusion removed did not correlate with changes in individual patient's oxygenation. These data support the role of therapeutic thoracentesis for intubated patients with abnormal P:F ratios.

  4. Outcome of Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudzinski, Franziska C; Kaestner, Franziska; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Fähndrich, Sebastian; Seiler, Frederik; Böhmer, Philip; Linn, Oliver; Kaiser, Ralf; Haake, Hendrik; Langer, Frank; Bals, Robert; Wilkens, Heinrike; Lepper, Philipp M

    2016-03-01

    Patients with interstitial lung disease and acute respiratory failure have a poor prognosis especially if mechanical ventilation is required. To investigate the outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure in interstitial lung disease undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to recovery or transplantation. This was a retrospective analysis of all patients with interstitial lung disease and acute respiratory failure treated with or without ECMO from March 2012 to August 2015. Forty patients with interstitial lung disease referred to our intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure were included in the analysis. Twenty-one were treated with ECMO. Eight patients were transferred by air from other hospitals within a range of 320 km (linear distance) for extended intensive care including the option of lung transplant. In total, 13 patients were evaluated, and eight were finally found to be suitable for lung transplantation from an ECMO bridge. Four patients from external hospitals were de novo listed during acute respiratory failure. Six patients underwent lung transplant, and two died on the waiting list after 9 and 63 days on ECMO, respectively. A total of 14 of 15 patients who did not undergo lung transplantation (93.3%) died after 40.3 ± 27.8 days on ECMO. Five out of six patients (83.3%) receiving a lung transplant could be discharged from hospital. ECMO is a lifesaving option for patients with interstitial lung disease and acute respiratory failure provided they are candidates for lung transplantation. ECMO is not able to reverse the poor prognosis in patients that do not qualify for lung transplantation.

  5. Critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis are at increased risk for extensive gallbladder inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Marios; Ambe, Peter C; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis and surgery is the standard of care for young and fit patients. However, due to high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality, surgical management of critically ill patients remains a controversy. It is not clear, whether the increased risk of perioperative complications associated with the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis is secondary to reduced physiologic reserve per se or to the severity of gallbladder inflammation. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in a university hospital over a three-year-period was performed. The ASA scores at the time of presentation were used to categorize patients into two groups. The study group consisted of critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group was made up of fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were compared with regard to perioperative data, postoperative outcome and extent of gallbladder inflammation on histopathology. Two hundred and seventeen cases of acute cholecystitis with complete charts were available for analysis. The study group included 67 critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group included 150 fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were comparable with regard to perioperative data. Histopathology confirmed severe cholecystitis in a significant number of cases in the study group compared to the control group (37 % vs. 18 %, p = 0.03). Significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality were recorded in the study group (p < 0.05). Equally, significantly more patients from the study group were managed in the ICU (40 % vs. 8 %, p = 0.001). Critically ill patients presenting with acute cholecystitis are at increased risk for extensive gallbladder inflammation. The increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in such patients might partly be secondary to severe acute

  6. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuschel Henrike

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro

  7. Pro-Resolving lipid mediators and Mechanisms in the resolution of acute inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Christopher D.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Inflammatory responses, like all biological cascades, are shaped by a delicate balance between positive and negative feedback loops. It is now clear that in addition to positive and negative checkpoints, the inflammatory cascade rather unexpectedly boasts an additional checkpoint, a family of chemicals that actively promote resolution and tissue repair without compromising host defence. Indeed the resolution phase of inflammation is just as actively orchestrated and carefully choreographed as its induction and inhibition. In this review we explore the immunological consequences of these omega-3-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) and discuss their place within what is currently understood of the role of the arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins, lipoxins and their natural C15-epimers. We propose that treatment of inflammation should not be restricted to the use of inhibitors of the acute cascade (antagonism) but broadened to take account of the enormous therapeutic potential of inducers (agonists) of the resolution phase of inflammation. PMID:24656045

  8. Systemic inflammation in acute intermittent porphyria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storjord, E; Dahl, J A; Landsem, A; Fure, H; Ludviksen, J K; Goldbeck-Wood, S; Karlsen, B O; Berg, K S; Mollnes, T E; W Nielsen, E; Brekke, O-L

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is associated with systemic inflammation and whether the inflammation correlates with disease activity. A case-control study with 50 AIP cases and age-, sex- and place of residence-matched controls was performed. Plasma cytokines, insulin and C-peptide were analysed after an overnight fast using multiplex assay. Long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and complement activation products (C3bc and TCC) were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine porphobilinogen ratio (U-PBG, µmol/mmol creatinine), haematological and biochemical tests were performed using routine methods. Questionnaires were used to register AIP symptoms, medication and other diseases. All 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors investigated were increased significantly in symptomatic AIP cases compared with controls (P inflammation. Decreased C-peptide levels in symptomatic AIP cases indicate that reduced insulin release is associated with enhanced disease activity and reduced kidney function. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  9. TRPA1 channels mediate acute neurogenic inflammation and pain produced by bacterial endotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Victor; Alpizar, Yeranddy A.; Luis, Enoch; Tajada, Sendoa; Denlinger, Bristol; Fajardo, Otto; Manenschijn, Jan-Albert; Fernández-Peña, Carlos; Talavera, Arturo; Kichko, Tatiana; Navia, Belén; Sánchez, Alicia; Señarís, Rosa; Reeh, Peter; Pérez-García, María Teresa; López-López, José Ramón; Voets, Thomas; Belmonte, Carlos; Talavera, Karel; Viana, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial infections are accompanied by inflammation and somatic or visceral pain. These symptoms are generally attributed to sensitization of nociceptors by inflammatory mediators released by immune cells. Nociceptor sensitization during inflammation occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathway by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toxic by-product of bacterial lysis. Here we show that LPS exerts fast, membrane delimited, excitatory actions via TRPA1, a transient receptor potential cation channel that is critical for transducing environmental irritant stimuli into nociceptor activity. Moreover, we find that pain and acute vascular reactions, including neurogenic inflammation (CGRP release) caused by LPS are primarily dependent on TRPA1 channel activation in nociceptive sensory neurons, and develop independently of TLR4 activation. The identification of TRPA1 as a molecular determinant of direct LPS effects on nociceptors offers new insights into the pathogenesis of pain and neurovascular responses during bacterial infections and opens novel avenues for their treatment.

  10. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Prof. Ariella Oppenheim CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Hebrew University of Jerusalem...Lung / 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof. Ariella...Particles (VLPs), may attenuate ARDS, increasing survival and recovery from this severe clinical condition. The hypothesis was successfully

  11. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 is protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lin; Bi, Jing; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Jie; Rong, Linyi; Wang, Qin; Xu, Nuo; Zhong, Ming; Zhu, Duming; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-09-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) plays a key role in lung development, but its role in acute lung injury has not been well characterized. Lipopolysaccharide instillation caused acute lung injury, which significantly elevated lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibited surfactant protein A and C expression in lung tissue, and increased pathological injury. Pretreatment with KGF-2 improved the above lung injury parameters, partially restored surfactant protein A and C expression, and KGF-2 given 2-3 days before LPS challenge showed maximum lung injury improvement. Pretreatment with KGF-2 also markedly reduced the levels of TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β and IL-6 in BALF and the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in lung tissue. Histological analysis showed there was increased proliferation of alveolar type II epithelial cells in lung parenchyma, which reached maximal 2 days after KGF-2 instillation. Intratracheal administration of KGF-2 attenuates lung injury induced by LPS, suggesting KGF-2 may be potent in the intervention of acute lung injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Journal Club: MRI reveals acute inflammation in cortical lesions during early MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Emily M; Schleicher, Wolfgang E; Smith, Elana J; Sweet, David R; Gaudet, Andrew D

    2018-02-20

    Early multiple sclerosis is characterized by immune-associated demyelination of CNS axons. In a recent Neurology® article, Maranzano et al. evaluated MRI scans of patients with early multiple sclerosis to study the evolution of leukocortical lesions. Their novel data suggest that acute inflammation after blood-brain barrier leakage may contribute to gray matter cortical lesions in early multiple sclerosis. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Prediagnostic circulating inflammation markers and endometrial cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer (PLCO) screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Eldridge, Ronald C; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Shiels, Meredith S; Kemp, Troy J; Guillemette, Chantal; Hartge, Patricia; Sherman, Mark E; Brinton, Louise A; Black, Amanda; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Hildesheim, Allan; Berndt, Sonja I; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Pinto, Ligia; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is proposed to increase risk of developing endometrial cancer, but few prospective epidemiologic studies have investigated the relationship between circulating inflammation markers and endometrial cancer risk. In a nested case-control study within the PLCO Screening Trial we measured serum levels of 64 inflammation-related biomarkers in 284 incident endometrial cancer cases and 284 matched controls. Using multivariable logistic regression inflammation markers were evaluated individually and combined into a cross-validated inflammation score. Of 64 markers, 22 were associated with endometrial cancer risk at p inflammation score categories. Endometrial cancer risk was most pronounced among obese women with the highest inflammation score tertile (T) [10.25 (3.56-29.55) vs. normal BMI/T1]. Several inflammation markers were prospectively associated with endometrial cancer, including adipokines, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and acute phase proteins. Inverse associations with anti-inflammatory markers (IL13, IL21), other inflammation markers/mediators (CCL3, IL1B, IL23), and a robust positive association between VEGFA and endometrial cancer risk were independent of BMI and estradiol, suggesting that these factors may influence risk through other mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  14. The central role of hypothalamic inflammation in the acute illness response and cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, Kevin G; Michaelis, Katherine A; Marks, Daniel L

    2016-06-01

    When challenged with a variety of inflammatory threats, multiple systems across the body undergo physiological responses to promote defense and survival. The constellation of fever, anorexia, and fatigue is known as the acute illness response, and represents an adaptive behavioral and physiological reaction to stimuli such as infection. On the other end of the spectrum, cachexia is a deadly and clinically challenging syndrome involving anorexia, fatigue, and muscle wasting. Both of these processes are governed by inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and immune cells. Though the effects of cachexia can be partially explained by direct effects of disease processes on wasting tissues, a growing body of evidence shows the central nervous system (CNS) also plays an essential mechanistic role in cachexia. In the context of inflammatory stress, the hypothalamus integrates signals from peripheral systems, which it translates into neuroendocrine perturbations, altered neuronal signaling, and global metabolic derangements. Therefore, we will discuss how hypothalamic inflammation is an essential driver of both the acute illness response and cachexia, and why this organ is uniquely equipped to generate and maintain chronic inflammation. First, we will focus on the role of the hypothalamus in acute responses to dietary and infectious stimuli. Next, we will discuss the role of cytokines in driving homeostatic disequilibrium, resulting in muscle wasting, anorexia, and weight loss. Finally, we will address mechanisms and mediators of chronic hypothalamic inflammation, including endothelial cells, chemokines, and peripheral leukocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factor-10 (FGF-10) Mobilizes Lung-resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Protects Against Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lin; Zhou, Jian; Rong, Linyi; Seeley, Eric J; Pan, Jue; Zhu, Xiaodan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Qin; Tang, Xinjun; Qu, Jieming; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin

    2016-02-12

    FGF-10 can prevent or reduce lung specific inflammation due to traumatic or infectious lung injury. However, the exact mechanisms are poorly characterized. Additionally, the effect of FGF-10 on lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) has not been studied. To better characterize the effect of FGF-10 on LR-MSCs, FGF-10 was intratracheally delivered into the lungs of rats. Three days after instillation, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and plastic-adherent cells were cultured, characterized and then delivered therapeutically to rats after LPS intratracheal instillation. Immunophenotyping analysis of FGF-10 mobilized and cultured cells revealed expression of the MSC markers CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105, and the absence of the hematopoietic lineage markers CD34 and CD45. Multipotency of these cells was demonstrated by their capacity to differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Delivery of LR-MSCs into the lungs after LPS injury reduced the inflammatory response as evidenced by decreased wet-to-dry ratio, reduced neutrophil and leukocyte recruitment and decreased inflammatory cytokines compared to control rats. Lastly, direct delivery of FGF-10 in the lungs of rats led to an increase of LR-MSCs in the treated lungs, suggesting that the protective effect of FGF-10 might be mediated, in part, by the mobilization of LR-MSCs in lungs.

  16. Dexmedetomidine Alleviates Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyue; Wu, Di; Yang, Yang; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a specific agonist of α2-adrenoceptor, has been reported to have extensive pharmacological effects. In this study, we focused on the protective effect of Dex on hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury and further explored its possible molecular mechanisms. The model of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury was established by continuous inhalation of oxygen (FiO2= 0.90) for 7 d in neonatal rats in vivo. The in vitro experiments were carried out in LPS/ATP or hyperoxia-treated RAW264.7 cells. ELISA, western blot, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemistry staining assays were performed and the commercial kits were used to assess the beneficial effect of Dex on hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury. According to our results, Dex treatment attenuated hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury via decreasing the lung wet/dry(W/D) weight ratio and mitigating pathomorphologic changes. Moreover, the oxidative stress injury, inflammatory reaction, and apoptosis in lung epithelial cells were inhibited by Dex treatment. In addition, the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was restrained by Dex both in lung tissue in vivo and RAW264.7 cells in vitro. These data provide evidence that Dex may ameliorate hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, which suggests a potential clinical application of Dex in long-term supplemental oxygen therapy. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Inhibition of inflammatory responses by ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, in a murine model of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao; Wang, Ling; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether ambroxol inhibits inflammatory responses in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Mice (n=295) were first intratracheally instilled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce ALI and then received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either normal saline (NS), ambroxol (30 or 90 mg/kg per day) or dexamethasone (2.5 or 5 mg/kg per day) for 7 days. Metabolism (n=10, each), lung morphology (n=5, each) and wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (n=10, each) were studied. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1) and the protein concentration (n=5 or 7, each) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were measured. Mice with LPS-induced ALI that were treated with ambroxol at a dosage of 90 mg/kg per day significantly gained weight compared to the control and dexamethasone-treated groups. Ambroxol and dexamethasone significantly reduced the lung hemorrhage, edema, exudation, neutrophil infiltration and total lung injury histology score at 24 and 48 h. In addition, ambroxol and dexamethasone significantly attenuated the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio at 24 and 48 h (pambroxol- and dexamethasone-treated groups were significantly reduced at 24 and 48 h. The protein in BAL, an index of vascular permeability, was also significantly decreased in the ambroxol- and dexamethasone-treated groups (pAmbroxol inhibited proinflammatory cytokines, reduced lung inflammation and accelerated recovery from LPS-induced ALI.

  18. Correlation of measurable serum markers of inflammation with lung levels following bilateral femur fracture in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Benjamin W; Volkmer, Dustin; Yong, Sherri; Himes, Ryan D; Lauing, Kristen; Morgan, Michele; Stover, Michael D; Callaci, John J

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Evaluation of the systemic inflammatory status following major orthopedic trauma has become an important adjunct in basing post-injury clinical decisions. In the present study, we examined the correlation of serum and lung inflammatory marker levels following bilateral femur fracture. Materials and methods 45 Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham operation or bilateral femoral intramedullary pinning and mid-diaphyseal closed fracture via blunt guillotine. Animals were euthanized at specific time points after injury. Serum and lung tissue were collected, and 24 inflammatory markers were analyzed by immunoassay. Lung histology was evaluated by a blinded pathologist. Results Bilateral femur fracture significantly increased serum markers of inflammation including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, KC/GRO, MCP-1, and WBC. Femur fracture significantly increased serum and lung levels of IL-1a and KC/GRO at 6 hours. Lung levels of IL-6 demonstrated a trend towards significance. Histologic changes in pulmonary tissue after fracture included pulmonary edema and bone elements including cellular hematopoietic cells, bone fragments and marrow emboli. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate that bilateral femur fracture with fixation in rats results in increases in serum markers of inflammation. Among the inflammatory markers measured, rise in the serum KC/GRO (CINC-1), a homolog to human IL-8, correlated with elevated levels of lung KC/GRO. Ultimately, analysis of serum levels of KC/GRO (CINC-1), or human IL-8, may be a useful adjunct to guide clinical decisions regarding surgical timing. PMID:21442011

  19. Intermittent Hypoxia Contributes to the Lung Damage by Increased Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Disbalance in Protease/Antiprotease System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleta, I; Stöckigt, F; Juergens, U R; Pizarro, C; Schrickel, J W; Kristiansen, G; Nickenig, G; Skowasch, D

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent hypoxia as a surrogate of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with different cardiovascular complications. However, the effects of intermittent hypoxia on the lung tissue are less known. Therefore, the aim of our present study was to investigate if intermittent hypoxia may influence oxidative stress, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease system in the lung. Additionally, potential protective properties of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative drugs have been evaluated. 32 mice were divided into four groups: (1) intermittent hypoxia, (2) intermittent hypoxia with infliximab, (3) intermittent hypoxia with L-glutathione, and (4) normoxia. After 4 weeks, lungs and blood were collected. Levels of reactive oxygen species in the lung were calculated by L-O12-enhanced chemiluminescence. CD68-positive lung macrophages were detected by immunofluorescence. Concentrations of elastase and desmosine in lung and of alpha-1-antitrypsin in blood were calculated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to a control, intermittent hypoxia augmented the release of free oxygen radicals, expression of CD68+ macrophages, and concentration of elastase in the lung tissue. Despite increased blood levels of protective alpha-1-antitrypsin, concentrations of desmosine-degradation product of elastin were higher versus control. The application of anti-inflammatory infliximab und anti-oxidative L-glutathione prevented at least partly the above-observed hypoxia-associated changes. Intermittent hypoxia contributes to the lung damage by increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and disbalance in protease/antiprotease system. Infliximab and L-glutathione may prevent adverse hypoxia-induced lung alternations.

  20. EVALUATION OF DIPYRIDAMOLE ON ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MODELS OF INFLAMMATION IN MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Netravathi B, Hiremath Shrishail V , Suranagi Vijayalakshmi V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis and its complications remains the major cause of death and premature disability. Atherogenesis involves elements of inflammation, a process that now provides a unifying theme in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anti-platelet drugs are currently used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our study evaluated the influence of dipyridamole on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200g were divided into three groups i.e. control, Aspirin and dipyridamole (n=6 animals in each group. The effect of dipyridamole, administered orally, on inflammation was studied using acute (carrageenan induced rat paw edema and sub-acute (cotton pellet granuloma and histopathological examination of grass piths models. Experiment was conducted according to the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA guidelines. Analysis was done using one way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Test of Dunnets. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Dipyridamole showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema in acute model (P<0.01 and granuloma dry weight, in sub acute model of inflammation when compared to control (P<0.01. Histopathological examination of grass pith revealed markedly reduced fibroblasts, granulation tissue, fibrous tissue and collagen in dipyridamole group when compared to control. Conclusion: Dipyridamole exhibited a significant anti inflammatory activity in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

  1. Differential role of lipocalin-2 during immune-complex mediated acute and chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Machiah, Deepa; Aitken, Jesse D; Putty, Kalyani; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Chassaing, Benoit; Parkos, Charles A; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an innate immune protein expressed by a variety of cells and is highly upregulated during several pathological conditions including immune-complex (IC) mediated inflammatory/autoimmune disorders. However, the function of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation is largely unknown. Therefore our objective was to investigate the role of Lcn2 in IC-mediated diseases. Methods The upregulation of Lcn2 was determined by ELISA in three different mouse models of IC-mediated autoimmune disease: systemic lupus erythematosus, collagen-induced arthritis and serum-induced arthritis. The in vivo role of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation was investigated using Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. Results Lcn2 levels were significantly elevated in all the three autoimmune disease models. Further, in an acute skin inflammation model, Lcn2KO mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in inflammation with histopathological analysis revealing strikingly reduced immune cell infiltration compared to WT mice. Administration of recombinant Lcn2 to Lcn2KO mice restored inflammation to levels observed in WT mice. Neutralization of Lcn2 using a monoclonal antibody significantly reduced inflammation in WT mice. In contrast, Lcn2KO mice developed more severe serum-induced arthritis compared to WT mice. Histological analysis revealed extensive tissue and bone destruction with significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration but considerably more macrophage migration in Lcn2KO mice when compared to WT. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Lcn2 may regulate immune cell recruitment to the site of inflammation, a process essential for the controlled initiation, perpetuation and resolution of inflammatory processes. Thus, Lcn2 may present a promising target in the treatment of IC-mediated inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. PMID:23280250

  2. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, JapanAbstract: Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in m...

  3. Rac2 is involved in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation leading to pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Narcy; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Chung, Kerri L; Davidson, Courtney; Rey-Parra, Juliana; Chao, Danny V; Thebaud, Bernard; Lacy, Paige; Vliagoftis, Harissios

    2014-06-27

    Pulmonary fibrotic diseases induce significant morbidity and mortality, for which there are limited therapeutic options available. Rac2, a ras-related guanosine triphosphatase expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, is a crucial molecule regulating a diversity of mast cell, macrophage, and neutrophil functions. All these cell types have been implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in a variety of animal models. For the studies described here we hypothesized that Rac2 deficiency protects mice from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To determine the role of Rac2 in pulmonary fibrosis we used a bleomycin-induced mouse model. Anesthetized C57BL/6 wild type and rac2-/- mice were instilled intratracheally with bleomycin sulphate (1.25 U/Kg) or saline as control. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected at days 3 and 7 of treatment and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). On day 21 after bleomycin treatment, we measured airway resistance and elastance in tracheotomized animals. Lung sections were stained for histological analysis, while homogenates were analyzed for hydroxyproline and total collagen content. BLM-treated rac2-/- mice had reduced MMP-9 levels in the BAL on day 3 and reduced neutrophilia and TNF and CCL3/MIP-1α levels in the BAL on day 7 compared to BLM-treated WT mice. We also showed that rac2-/- mice had significantly lower mortality (30%) than WT mice (70%) at day 21 of bleomycin treatment. Lung function was diminished in bleomycin-treated WT mice, while it was unaffected in bleomycin-treated rac2-/- mice. Histological analysis of inflammation and fibrosis as well as collagen and hydroxyproline content in the lungs did not show significant differences between BLM-treated rac2-/- and WT and mice that survived to day 21. Rac2 plays an important role in bleomycin-induced lung injury. It is an important signaling molecule leading to BLM-induced mortality and it also mediates the physiological changes seen in the airways

  4. The role of inflammation and interleukin-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available James Galea,1 David Brough21Manchester Academic Health Sciences Center, Brain Injury Research Group, Clinical Sciences Building, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Manchester, UKAbstract: Acute cerebrovascular disease can affect people at all stages of life, from neonates to the elderly, with devastating consequences. It is responsible for up to 10% of deaths worldwide, is a major cause of disability, and represents an area of real unmet clinical need. Acute cerebrovascular disease is multifactorial with many mechanisms contributing to a complex pathophysiology. One of the major processes worsening disease severity and outcome is inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin (IL-1 family are now known to drive damaging inflammatory processes in the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature describing the role of IL-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease and to provide an update on our current understanding of the mechanisms of IL-1 production. We also discuss the recent literature where the effects of IL-1 have been targeted in animal models, thus reviewing potential future strategies that may limit the devastating effects of acute cerebrovascular disease.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, stroke, inflammation, microglia, interleukin-1, caspase-1

  5. Transfer of tolerance to collagen type V suppresses T-helper-cell-17 lymphocyte-mediated acute lung transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ruedi K; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Wigfield, Christopher; Xiang, Zhuzai; Fain, Sean B; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Seroogy, Christine M; Burlingham, William J; Wilkes, David S; Brand, David D; Torrealba, Jose; Love, Robert B

    2009-12-27

    Rat lung allograft rejection is mediated by collagen type V (col(V)) specific T-helper-cell 17 (Th17) cells. Adoptive transfer of these cells is sufficient to induce rejection pathology in isografts, whereas tolerance to col(V) suppresses allograft rejection. Therefore, we tested whether regulatory T cells from tolerant rats could suppress the Th17-mediated rejection in the syngeneic model of lung transplantation. Rats were subjected to syngeneic left lung transplantation, and acute rejection was induced by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from col(V)-immunized rats. Tolerance was induced by intravenous injection of col(V), and spleen lymphocytes were used for adoptive transfer. CD4+ T cells were depleted using magnetic beads. Lung isografts were analyzed using micro-positron emission tomography imaging and histochemistry. The transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity assay was used to analyze the Th17 response. Adoptive cotransfer of col(V)-specific effector cells with cells from col(V)-tolerized rats suppressed severe vasculitis and bronchiolitis with parenchymal inflammation, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-17 transcripts in mediastinal lymph nodes induced by effector cells alone. Analysis by transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity showed that the reactivity to col(V) was dependent on the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-17 but not interferon-gamma. Depletion of CD4+ T cells from the suppressor cell population abrogated the col(V)-specific protection. Th17-mediated acute rejection after lung transplantation is ameliorated by CD4+ col(V)-specific regulatory T cells. The mechanism for this Th17 suppression is consistent with tolerance induction to col(V). The goal of transplantation treatment, therefore, should target Th17 development and not suppression of T-cell activation by suppressing IL-2.

  6. The effects of morin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing the lung NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianzhu, Zhang; Shihai, Yang; Juan, Du

    2014-12-01

    In previous study, the anti-inflammatory effect of morin had been found. In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of morin on acute lung injury using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The protein level of lung NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was measured by Western blotting. The data showed that treatment with the morin markedly attenuated inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased lung NLRP3 inflammasome protein level, and improved SOD activity and inhibited MPO activity. Histological studies demonstrated that morin substantially inhibited LPS-induced neutrophils in lung tissue compared with model group. The results indicated that the morin had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice.

  7. Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Pieter R.; Dixon, Barry; Levi, Marcel; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Data from interventional trials of systemic anticoagulation for sepsis inconsistently suggest beneficial effects in case of acute lung injury (ALI). Severe systemic bleeding due to anticoagulation may have offset the possible positive effects. Nebulization of anticoagulants may allow for improved

  8. Monitoring of recruitment and derecruitment by electrical impedance tomography in a model of acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, P. W.; Vazquez de Anda, G.; Böhm, S. H.; Faes, T. J.; Lachmann, B.; Postmus, P. E.; de Vries, P. M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a noninvasive system for obtaining information about alveolar recruitment and derecruitment in a model of acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Nine anesthetized pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Electrical impedance

  9. Comparison of acute and convalescent biomarkers of inflammation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism treated with systemic fibrinolysis vs. placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lauren K; Nordenholz, Kristen E; Courtney, Mark; Kabrhel, Christopher; Jones, Alan E; Rondina, Matthew T; Diercks, Deborah B; Klinger, James R; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-01

    : Previous studies have associated biomarkers indicative of acute inflammation with pulmonary embolism, which may amplify coagulation, inhibit fibrinolysis and increase risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence. The aim of this study was to measure inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers in acute submassive pulmonary embolism at diagnosis and 3-month follow-up and to test the impact of treatment with fibrinolysis. Secondary analysis of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial including patients with submassive pulmonary embolism. Blood samples were obtained within 24 h of diagnosis and prior to bolus-dose tenecteplase (TNK) or placebo; all patients received standard anticoagulation and blood was redrawn 3 months later. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory [Interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO)] and hemostatic [plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and D-dimer] biomarkers were quantified. The median values of the biomarkers of inflammation (IL-6, CRP, MPO) were all significantly decreased at 3-month follow-up, ranging from a 60 to 91% reduction over this time period. Concentrations of PAI-1 and fibrinogen did not change significantly. D-dimer concentration at 3-month follow-up was lower in patients treated with fibrinolysis vs. placebo and appeared to have a trend toward significance (placebo 310 vs. TNK 220 ng/ml, P = 0.051). Acute pulmonary embolism causes marked but transient inflammation, as demonstrated by the significant elevation in the inflammatory biomarkers at diagnosis, followed by their reduction in more than 80% of patients at 3-month follow-up.

  10. Hemoglobin-induced lung vascular oxidation, inflammation, and remodeling contribute to the progression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and is attenuated in rats with repeated-dose haptoglobin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David C; Baek, Jin Hyen; Hassell, Kathryn; Nuss, Rachelle; Eigenberger, Paul; Lisk, Christina; Loomis, Zoe; Maltzahn, Joanne; Stenmark, Kurt R; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Buehler, Paul W

    2015-05-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an approved treatment in Japan for trauma, burns, and massive transfusion-related hemolysis. Additional case reports suggest uses in other acute hemolytic events that lead to acute kidney injury. However, Hp's protective effects on the pulmonary vasculature have not been evaluated within the context of mitigating the consequences of chronic hemoglobin (Hb) exposure in the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to hemolytic diseases. This study was performed to assess the utility of chronic Hp therapy in a preclinical model of Hb and hypoxia-mediated PH. Rats were simultaneously exposed to chronic Hb infusion (35 mg per day) and hypobaric hypoxia for 5 weeks in the presence or absence of Hp treatment (90 mg/kg twice a week). Hp inhibited the Hb plus hypoxia-mediated nonheme iron accumulation in lung and heart tissue, pulmonary vascular inflammation and resistance, and right-ventricular hypertrophy, which suggests a positive impact on impeding the progression of PH. In addition, Hp therapy was associated with a reduction in critical mediators of PH, including lung adventitial macrophage population and endothelial ICAM-1 expression. By preventing Hb-mediated pathology, Hp infusions: (1) demonstrate a critical role for Hb in vascular remodeling associated with hypoxia and (2) suggest a novel therapy for chronic hemolysis-associated PH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammation and Rupture of a Congenital Pericardial Cyst Manifesting Itself as an Acute Chest Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertker, Robert A; Cheong, Benjamin Y C; Lufschanowski, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a remote history of supraventricular tachycardia and hyperlipidemia, who presented with recurrent episodes of acute-onset chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed no evidence of acute coronary syndrome. A chest radiograph revealed a prominent right-sided heart border. A suspected congenital pericardial cyst was identified on a computed tomographic chest scan, and stranding was noted around the cyst. The patient was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the pain initially abated. Another flare-up was treated similarly. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was then performed after symptoms had resolved, and no evidence of the cyst was seen. The suspected cause of the patient's chest pain was acute inflammation of a congenital pericardial cyst with subsequent rupture and resolution of symptoms.

  12. Targeting Extracellular Histones with Novel RNA Bio drugs for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0179 TITLE: Targeting Extracellular Histones with Novel RNA Bio- drugs for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Extracellular Histones with Novel RNA Bio- drugs for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...preclinical animal models and human clinical trials. Furthermore, as a drug to prevent the development of MODS/ARDS and ALI in high risk patients, these bio

  13. FIRST REPORT OF TRANSFUSION-RELATED ACUTE LUNG INJURY (TRALI)IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Galvani; Slavica Maver; Gordana Soldatović; Irena Kramar

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a major cause of lethal side effects associated with transfusion of blood and blood components. TRALI is defined as a new acutenoncardiogenic pulmonary oedema as seen on the frontal radiography of lungs, manifested with the shortness of breath, hypoxemia, hypotension and fever, all occurring duringor within 6 h after transfusion.TRALI is rarely diagnosed and can be confused with other causes of acute respiratoryfailure. It occurs ...

  14. Implication of Acute Lung Injury in the Pathogenesis of Hemostatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sinkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the implication of acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the pathogenesis of hemostatic disorders, by studying the arteriovenous difference between hemostatic parameters. Subjects and methods. Venous and arterial hemostases were studied in 95 patients treated in an intensive care unit. Three groups were identified, which included: 1 50 patients with an uncomplicated postoperative period and without any organ incompetence; 2 21 patients with primary lung injury; and 3 24 patients with secondary lung injury. Groups 2 and 3 patients were divided according to the degree of acute lung injury. Results. The arterial blood of patients with the uncomplicated postoperative period shows a lower coagulability than venous blood; there is no arteriovenous difference between fibrinolytic activity and platelet levels. The coagulation activity of arterial blood increases in primary lung injury; the higher fibrinolytic activity of arterial blood is a compensatory mechanism in moderate lung injury. Later on, in evolving ARDS, the hemostasiological balance between the pulmonary and systemic circulations impairs; disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC develops in both arterial and venous beds. Venous blood coagulability increases in secondary lung injury. By regulating the hemostatic system, the lungs produce a lower coagulation activity of and a higher fibrinolytic activity of arterial blood in ALI. With the development of ARDS, this function triples and DIC spreads to the arterial bed. Conclusion. The lung maintains the hemostasiological balance between the pulmonary and systemic circulations, by holding activated platelets and by enhancing the fibrinolytic activity of the blood flowing from it. The inducer of DIC is the suppressed fibrinolysis of the lesser circulation in patients with primary lung injury and hyperco-agulation in the greater circulation in patients with secondary lung injury. Key words

  15. Blood transfusion : Transfusion-related acute lung injury: back to basics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening disease affecting the lungs. TRALI can develop within 6 hours after transfusion and almost all patients with TRALI require mechanical ventilation at the intensive care department. Nevertheless up to 40% of patients do not recover

  16. Lung tissue remodeling in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Alba Barros de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, and evolves progressively with three phases: exsudative, fibroproliferative, and fibrotic. In the exudative phase, there are interstitial and alveolar edemas with hyaline membrane. The fibropro­liferative phase is characterized by exudate organization and fibroelastogenesis. There is proliferation of type II pneumocytes to cover the damaged epithelial surface, followed by differentiation into type I pneumocytes. The fibroproliferative phase starts early, and its severity is related to the patient?s prognosis. The alterations observed in the phenotype of the pulmonary parenchyma cells steer the tissue remodeling towards either progressive fibrosis or the restoration of normal alveolar architecture. The fibrotic phase is characterized by abnormal and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The dynamic control of collagen deposition and degradation is regulated by metalloproteinases and their tissular regulators. The deposition of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ARDS patients needs better study. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling, in normal conditions or in several pulmonary diseases, such as ARDS, results from a complex mechanism that integrate the transcription of elements that destroy the matrix protein and produce activation/inhibition of several cellular types of lung tissue. This review article will analyze the ECM organization in ARDS, the different pulmonary parenchyma remodeling mechanisms, and the role of cytokines in the regulation of the different matrix components during the remodeling process.

  17. Cigarette smoke worsens lung inflammation and impairs resolution of influenza infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jessica E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke has both pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure are linked to an increased incidence and severity of respiratory virus infections, but underlying mechanisms are not well defined. We hypothesized, based on prior gene expression profiling studies, that upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by short term smoke exposure would be protective against a subsequent influenza infection. Methods BALB/c mice were subjected to whole body smoke exposure with 9 cigarettes/day for 4 days. Mice were then infected with influenza A (H3N1, Mem71 strain, and analyzed 3 and 10 days later (d3, d10. These time points are the peak and resolution (respectively of influenza infection. Results Inflammatory cell influx into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF, inflammatory mediators, proteases, histopathology, viral titres and T lymphocyte profiles were analyzed. Compared to smoke or influenza alone, mice exposed to smoke and then influenza had more macrophages, neutrophils and total lymphocytes in BALF at d3, more macrophages in BALF at d10, lower net gelatinase activity and increased activity of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 in BALF at d3, altered profiles of key cytokines and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, worse lung pathology and more virus-specific, activated CD8+ T lymphocytes in BALF. Mice smoke exposed before influenza infection had close to 10-fold higher lung virus titres at d3 than influenza alone mice, although all mice had cleared virus by d10, regardless of smoke exposure. Smoke exposure caused temporary weight loss and when smoking ceased after viral infection, smoke and influenza mice regained significantly less weight than smoke alone mice. Conclusion Smoke induced inflammation does not protect against influenza infection. In most respects, smoke exposure worsened the host response to influenza. This animal model may be useful in studying how smoke worsens

  18. Relevance of Lung Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Failure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezière, Gilbert A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assesses the potential of lung ultrasonography to diagnose acute respiratory failure. Methods: This observational study was conducted in university-affiliated teaching-hospital ICUs. We performed ultrasonography on consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure, comparing lung ultrasonography results on initial presentation with the final diagnosis by the ICU team. Uncertain diagnoses and rare causes (frequency syndrome), lung sliding, and alveolar consolidation and/or pleural effusion. Combined with venous analysis, these items were grouped to assess ultrasound profiles. Results: Predominant A lines plus lung sliding indicated asthma (n = 34) or COPD (n = 49) with 89% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Multiple anterior diffuse B lines with lung sliding indicated pulmonary edema (n = 64) with 97% sensitivity and 95% specificity. A normal anterior profile plus deep venous thrombosis indicated pulmonary embolism (n = 21) with 81% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Anterior absent lung sliding plus A lines plus lung point indicated pneumothorax (n = 9) with 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Anterior alveolar consolidations, anterior diffuse B lines with abolished lung sliding, anterior asymmetric interstitial patterns, posterior consolidations or effusions without anterior diffuse B lines indicated pneumonia (n = 83) with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The use of these profiles would have provided correct diagnoses in 90.5% of cases. Conclusions: Lung ultrasound can help the clinician make a rapid diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure, thus meeting the priority objective of saving time. PMID:18403664

  19. Relevance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure: the BLUE protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel A; Mezière, Gilbert A

    2008-07-01

    This study assesses the potential of lung ultrasonography to diagnose acute respiratory failure. This observational study was conducted in university-affiliated teaching-hospital ICUs. We performed ultrasonography on consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure, comparing lung ultrasonography results on initial presentation with the final diagnosis by the ICU team. Uncertain diagnoses and rare causes (frequencysyndrome), lung sliding, and alveolar consolidation and/or pleural effusion. Combined with venous analysis, these items were grouped to assess ultrasound profiles. Predominant A lines plus lung sliding indicated asthma (n=34) or COPD (n=49) with 89% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Multiple anterior diffuse B lines with lung sliding indicated pulmonary edema (n=64) with 97% sensitivity and 95% specificity. A normal anterior profile plus deep venous thrombosis indicated pulmonary embolism (n=21) with 81% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Anterior absent lung sliding plus A lines plus lung point indicated pneumothorax (n=9) with 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Anterior alveolar consolidations, anterior diffuse B lines with abolished lung sliding, anterior asymmetric interstitial patterns, posterior consolidations or effusions without anterior diffuse B lines indicated pneumonia (n=83) with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The use of these profiles would have provided correct diagnoses in 90.5% of cases. Lung ultrasound can help the clinician make a rapid diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure, thus meeting the priority objective of saving time.

  20. Role of hydrogen sulfide in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Madhav; Wong, Fei Ling; Fu, Di; Lau, Hon Yen; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Moore, Philip K

    2005-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a naturally occurring gas with potent vasodilator activity. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) utilize L-cysteine as substrate to form H2S. Of these two enzymes, cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) is believed to be the key enzyme that forms H2S in the cardiovascular system. Whilst H2S has been reported to relax precontracted rat arteries in vitro and to lower blood pressure in the rat, its effect in an inflammatory condition such as acute pancreatitis has not previously been reported. In this paper, we report the presence of H2S synthesizing enzyme activity and CSE (as determined by mRNA signal) in the pancreas. Also, prophylactic, as well as therapeutic, treatment with the CSE inhibitor, DL-propargylglycine (PAG), significantly reduced the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis and associated lung injury, as determined by 1) hyperamylasemia [plasma amylase (U/L) (control, 1204+/-59); prophylactic treatment: placebo, 10635+/-305; PAG, 7904+/-495; therapeutic treatment: placebo, 10427+/-470; PAG, 7811+/-428; Psequestration in the pancreas [pancreatic myeloperoxidase oxidase (MPO) activity (fold increase over control) (prophylactic treatment: placebo, 5.78+/-0.63; PAG, 2.97+/-0.39; therapeutic treatment: placebo, 5.48+/-0.52; PAG, 3.03+/-0.47; PH2S in regulating the severity of pancreatitis and associated lung injury and raise the possibility that H2S may exert similar activity in other forms of inflammation.

  1. Distamycin A Inhibits HMGA1-Binding to the P-Selectin Promoter and Attenuates Lung and Liver Inflammation during Murine Endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Rebecca M.; Lopez-Guzman, Silvia; Riascos, Dario F.; Macias, Alvaro A.; Layne, Matthew D.; Cheng, Guiying; Harris, Cailin; Chung, Su Wol; Reeves, Raymond; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Perrella, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The architectural transcription factor High Mobility Group-A1 (HMGA1) binds to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA and forms transcription factor complexes (“enhanceosomes”) that upregulate expression of select genes within the inflammatory cascade during critical illness syndromes such as acute lung injury (ALI). AT-rich regions of DNA surround transcription factor binding sites in genes critical for the inflammatory response. Minor groove binding drugs (MGBs), such as Distamycin A (Dist A), interfere with AT-rich region DNA binding in a sequence and conformation-specific manner, and HMGA1 is one of the few transcription factors whose binding is inhibited by MGBs. Objectives To determine whether MGBs exert beneficial effects during endotoxemia through attenuating tissue inflammation via interfering with HMGA1-DNA binding and modulating expression of adhesion molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Administration of Dist A significantly decreased lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia. In intravital microscopy studies, Dist A attenuated neutrophil-endothelial interactions in vivo following an inflammatory stimulus. Endotoxin induction of P-selectin expression in lung and liver tissue and promoter activity in endothelial cells was significantly reduced by Dist A, while E-selectin induction was not significantly affected. Moreover, Dist A disrupted formation of an inducible complex containing NF-κB that binds an AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. Transfection studies demonstrated a critical role for HMGA1 in facilitating cytokine and NF-κB induction of P-selectin promoter activity, and Dist A inhibited binding of HMGA1 to this AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter in vivo. Conclusions/Significance We describe a novel targeted approach in modulating lung and liver inflammation in vivo during murine endotoxemia through decreasing binding of HMGA1 to a distinct AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. These studies highlight

  2. Distamycin A inhibits HMGA1-binding to the P-selectin promoter and attenuates lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Baron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The architectural transcription factor High Mobility Group-A1 (HMGA1 binds to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA and forms transcription factor complexes ("enhanceosomes" that upregulate expression of select genes within the inflammatory cascade during critical illness syndromes such as acute lung injury (ALI. AT-rich regions of DNA surround transcription factor binding sites in genes critical for the inflammatory response. Minor groove binding drugs (MGBs, such as Distamycin A (Dist A, interfere with AT-rich region DNA binding in a sequence and conformation-specific manner, and HMGA1 is one of the few transcription factors whose binding is inhibited by MGBs.To determine whether MGBs exert beneficial effects during endotoxemia through attenuating tissue inflammation via interfering with HMGA1-DNA binding and modulating expression of adhesion molecules.Administration of Dist A significantly decreased lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia. In intravital microscopy studies, Dist A attenuated neutrophil-endothelial interactions in vivo following an inflammatory stimulus. Endotoxin induction of P-selectin expression in lung and liver tissue and promoter activity in endothelial cells was significantly reduced by Dist A, while E-selectin induction was not significantly affected. Moreover, Dist A disrupted formation of an inducible complex containing NF-kappaB that binds an AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. Transfection studies demonstrated a critical role for HMGA1 in facilitating cytokine and NF-kappaB induction of P-selectin promoter activity, and Dist A inhibited binding of HMGA1 to this AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter in vivo.We describe a novel targeted approach in modulating lung and liver inflammation in vivo during murine endotoxemia through decreasing binding of HMGA1 to a distinct AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. These studies highlight the ability of MGBs to function as molecular tools for dissecting

  3. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found...... in brain tissue of patients with ALF we investigated whether hyperammonemia could induce adenosine release in brain tissue. Since adenosine is a potent vasodilator and modulator of cerebral metabolism we furthermore studied the effect of adenosine receptor ligands on intracranial pressure (ICP......) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18...

  4. Role of inflammation and infection in the pathogenesis of human acute liver failure: Clinical implications for monitoring and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mhairi C; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2016-07-14

    Acute liver failure is a rare and devastating clinical condition. At present, emergency liver transplantation is the only life-saving therapy in advanced cases, yet the feasibility of transplantation is affected by the presence of systemic inflammation, infection and resultant multi-organ failure. The importance of immune dysregulation and acquisition of infection in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure and its associated complications is now recognised. In this review we discuss current thinking regarding the role of infection and inflammation in the pathogenesis of and outcome in human acute liver failure, the implications for the management of such patients and suggest directions for future research.

  5. Suppressive effects of the expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride on quartz-induced lung inflammation in F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanie, Shohei; Yokohira, Masanao; Yamakawa, Keiko; Nakano-Narusawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Shota; Hashimoto, Nozomi; IMAIDA, KATSUMI

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SPs) are essential to respiratory structure and function. The expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride is clinically prescribed to stimulate pulmonary surfactant and airway serous secretion. Therefore, ambroxol hydrochloride may affect SP production and pulmonary inflammation. Lung toxicity of fine particles of various materials has been examined previously in our in vivo bioassay using the intratracheal (i.t.) instillation approach. In the present study, we evaluated modu...

  6. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiellaro, Marília [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Correa-Costa, Matheus [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana, E-mail: adrilino@usp.br [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. - Highlights: • Formaldehyde exposure does not cause lung inflammation in pregnant rats. • Formaldehyde exposure suppresses allergic lung inflammation in the offspring. • Formaldehyde exposure induces oxidative stress in uterine environment.

  7. Acute inflammation promotes early cellular stimulation of the epithelial and stromal compartments of the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintar, Amado A; Doll, Andreas; Leimgruber, Carolina; Palmeri, Claudia M; Roth, Felix D; Maccioni, Mariana; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2010-08-01

    It has been proposed that prostatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. However, little information is available about the prostatic reaction to bacterial compounds in vivo. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the early effects of bacterial infection on rat ventral prostate compartments. Using a rat model of acute bacterial prostatitis by Escherichia coli, we analyzed the histological and ultrastructural changes in the prostate at 24, 48, and 72 hr postinfection. Prostatic tissues were immunostained for prostatic binding protein (PBP), ACTA2, ErbB1, and ErbB2 receptors, TUNEL, and markers of cell proliferation. Dot and Western blots for PBP, ACTA2, ErbB1, ErbB2, and TGFbeta1 were also performed. The prostatic epithelium became hypertrophied, with increases in PBP and ErbB1 expression at 24 hr postinfection. Moreover, inflammation induced the expression of ErbB2, a receptor strongly involved in carcinogenesis. These alterations were more pronounced at 48 hr, but the epithelium also showed apoptosis and finally atrophy at 72 hr postinfection, with a decrease in PBP and ErbB receptors. Interestingly, the epithelial cells exhibited a high level of proliferation in response to the bacteria. The stromal reaction to acute inflammation was initially characterized by smooth muscle hypertrophy. Afterwards, muscle cells acquired a secretory phenotype, with a reduction in ACTA2 at 72 hr postinfection. Prostatic inflammation, even at the early stages, promotes atrophic and proliferative changes, and the upregulation of ErbB receptors together with dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that repetitive reinfections could lead to uncontrolled growth in the prostate gland. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Inflammation-induced acute phase response in skeletal muscle and critical illness myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Claudia; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Schmidt, Franziska; Hamati, Jida; Kny, Melanie; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Wollersheim, Tobias; Koch, Susanne; Krebs, Martin; Schulz, Herbert; Lodka, Doerte; Saar, Kathrin; Labeit, Siegfried; Spies, Claudia; Hubner, Norbert; Spranger, Joachim; Spuler, Simone; Boschmann, Michael; Dittmar, Gunnar; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Fielitz, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a major risk factor for critical-illness myopathy (CIM) but its pathogenic role in muscle is uncertain. We observed that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) expression was upregulated in muscle of critically ill patients. To test the relevance of these responses we assessed inflammation and acute-phase response at early and late time points in muscle of patients at risk for CIM. Prospective observational clinical study and prospective animal trial. Two intensive care units (ICU) and research laboratory. 33 patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores ≥ 8 on 3 consecutive days within 5 days in ICU were investigated. A subgroup analysis of 12 patients with, and 18 patients without CIM (non-CIM) was performed. Two consecutive biopsies from vastus lateralis were obtained at median days 5 and 15, early and late time points. Controls were 5 healthy subjects undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. A septic mouse model and cultured myoblasts were used for mechanistic analyses. Early SAA1 expression was significantly higher in skeletal muscle of CIM compared to non-CIM patients. Immunohistochemistry showed SAA1 accumulations in muscle of CIM patients at the early time point, which resolved later. SAA1 expression was induced by IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human and mouse myocytes in vitro. Inflammation-induced muscular SAA1 accumulation was reproduced in a sepsis mouse model. Skeletal muscle contributes to general inflammation and acute-phase response in CIM patients. Muscular SAA1 could be important for CIM pathogenesis. ISRCTN77569430.

  9. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    harvested 24 hrs post insult; C. VLP-treated and 2CLP-operated harvested 24 hrs post insult; D1,2. VLPtreated and 2CLP-operated harvested 4 days post ...insult; E. VLP-treated and 2CLP-operated harvested 12 days post insult. Magnification x400. 11 12 Lungs of the sacrificed rats were...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0125 TITLE: "Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory

  10. [Lung ultrasound in acute and critical care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, P M; Seibel, A; Aichinger, G; Steigerwald, M; Dorr, K; Scheiermann, P; Schellhaas, S; Cuca, C; Breitkreutz, R

    2012-07-01

    The development of modern critical care lung ultrasound is based on the classical representation of anatomical structures and the need for the assessment of specific sonography artefacts and phenomena. The air and fluid content of the lungs is interpreted using few typical artefacts and phenomena, with which the most important differential diagnoses can be made. According to a recent international consensus conference these include lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, lung point, reverberation artefacts, subpleural consolidations and intrapleural fluid collections. An increased number of B-lines is an unspecific sign for an increased quantity of fluid in the lungs resembling interstitial syndromes, for example in the case of cardiogenic pulmonary edema or lung contusion. In the diagnosis of interstitial syndromes lung ultrasound provides higher diagnostic accuracy (95%) than auscultation (55%) and chest radiography (72%). Diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary embolism can be achieved at the bedside by evaluating subpleural lung consolidations. Detection of lung sliding can help to detect asymmetrical ventilation and allows the exclusion of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound-based diagnosis of pneumothorax is superior to supine anterior chest radiography: for ultrasound the sensitivity is 92-100% and the specificity 91-100%. For the diagnosis of pneumothorax a simple algorithm was therefore designed: in the presence of lung sliding, lung pulse or B-lines, pneumothorax can be ruled out, in contrast a positive lung point is a highly specific sign of the presence of pneumothorax. Furthermore, lung ultrasound allows not only diagnosis of pleural effusion with significantly higher sensitivity than chest x-ray but also visual control in ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis.

  11. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  12. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  13. Intratendinous Injection of Hyaluronate Induces Acute Inflammation: A Possible Detrimental Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Hyaluronate (HA is therapeutic for tendinopathy, but an intratendinous HA injection is usually painful; thus, it is not suggested for clinical practice. However, there are no studies on the histopathological changes after an intratendinous HA injection. We hypothesized that an HA injection would induce more-acute inflammation than that induced by an injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into 4 post-injection groups (n = 8: day 3, day 7, day 28, and day 42. HA (0.1 c.c. was, using ultrasound guidance, intratendinously injected into each left Achilles tendon, and PBS (0.1 c.c. into each right one. For each group, both Achilles tendons of 3 control-group rats (n = 6 were given only needle punctures. The histopathological score, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophage densities, interleukin (IL-1β expression, and the extent of neovascularization were evaluated. In both experimental groups, each Achilles tendon showed significant histopathological changes and inflammation compatible with acute tendon injury until day 42. The HA group showed more-significant (p < 0.05 histopathological changes, higher ED1+ and ED2+ macrophage density, and higher IL-1β expression than did the PBS group. The neovascularization area was also significantly (p < 0.05 greater in the HA group, except on day 3. Both HA and PBS induced acute tendon injury and inflammation, sequential histopathological changes, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophage accumulation, IL-1β expression, and neovascularization until post-injection day 42.HA induced more-severe injury than did PBS. Therefore, an intratendinous HA injection should be avoided.

  14. [Features of lung tissue cell membrane lipid composition under acute emotional stress in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netiukhaĭlo, L G; Tarasenko, L M

    2001-01-01

    The lipid composition of the lung plasmatic membrane in rats which have been under the acute emotional pain stress action is studied. These results are compared with the control group of animals. It is shown that at acute stress the changes of lipid composition of the lung plasmatic membranes are manifested in decrease the phospholipids and increase of cholesterol levels. The correlation of phospholipids/cholesterol in plasmic membranes in the lungs decreases at stress. At the same time the decrease of triglyceroles and diglyceroles contents is observed as well as the increase of fat acids' number. The changes that take place in the lipid contents of the lung plasmatic membranes at acute stress can play an essential role in the mechanism of cell damage development.

  15. A comparison of biologically variable ventilation to recruitment manoeuvres in a porcine model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rector Edward S

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically variable ventilation (return of physiological variability in rate and tidal volume using a computer-controller was compared to control mode ventilation with and without a recruitment manoeuvre – 40 cm H2O for 40 sec performed hourly; in a porcine oleic acid acute lung injury model. Methods We compared gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and measured bronchoalveolar fluid for inflammatory cytokines, cell counts and surfactant function. Lung injury was scored by light microscopy. Pigs received mechanical ventilation (FIO2 = 0.3; PEEP 5 cm H2O in control mode until PaO2 decreased to 60 mm Hg with oleic acid infusion (PaO2/FIO2 2O was added after injury. Animals were randomized to one of the 3 modes of ventilation and followed for 5 hr after injury. Results PaO2 and respiratory system compliance was significantly greater with biologically variable ventilation compared to the other 2 groups. Mean and mean peak airway pressures were also lower. There were no differences in cell counts in bronchoalveolar fluid by flow cytometry, or interleukin-8 and -10 levels between groups. Lung injury scoring revealed no difference between groups in the regions examined. No differences in surfactant function were seen between groups by capillary surfactometry. Conclusions In this porcine model of acute lung injury, various indices to measure injury or inflammation did not differ between the 3 approaches to ventilation. However, when using a low tidal volume strategy with moderate levels of PEEP, sustained improvements in arterial oxygen tension and respiratory system compliance were only seen with BVV when compared to CMV or CMV with a recruitment manoeuvre.

  16. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  17. Protective effect of proteins derived from Calotropis procera latex against acute inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V L; Guruprasad, B; Chaudhary, P; Fatmi, S M A; Oliveira, R S B; Ramos, M V

    2015-07-01

    The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation. Paw inflammation was also induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and PGE(2), and the inhibitory effect of LP against these mediators was compared with their respective antagonists at the time of peak effect. Treatment with LP produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation, and its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw inflammation was accompanied by reduction in the levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and normalization of tissue architecture. LP also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation induced by different inflammatory mediators, and its efficacy was comparable to their respective antagonists and more pronounced than that of diclofenac. Thus, our study shows that LP has a potential to be used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions where the role of these mediators is well established. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lu-zhu; Zhao, Shui-ping; Huang, Xian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation can be activated as a defensive response by the attack of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for ischemic tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ACS-activated inflammation on adipokine imbalance and the effects of statins on the crosstalk between inflammation and adipokine imbalance during ACS. In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1) control group; (2) SA (stable angina) group; and (3) ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day) and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day) group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations were positively correlated with resistin but negatively with adiponectin levels in humans. Our animal findings indicated higher circulating hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels in AMI mice. Atorvastatin pre-treatment dose-dependently decreased hs-CRP and resistin levels but increased adiponectin levels in mice. The consistent findings were observed about the adipose expressions of resistin and adiponectin in mice. In study in vitro, ox-LDL increased cellular resistin expressions and otherwise for adiponectin expressions, which dose-dependently reversed by the addition of atorvastatin. Therefore, our study indicates that the ACS attack activates inflammation leading to adipokine imbalance that can be ameliorated by anti-inflammation of atorvastatin.

  19. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  20. Caspase-1 activation by NLRP3 inflammasome dampens IL-33-dependent house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouri, Fahima; Guillou, Noëlline; Fauconnier, Louis; Marchiol, Tiffany; Rouxel, Nathalie; Chenuet, Pauline; Ledru, Aurélie; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Chamaillard, Mathias; Zheng, Song Guo; Trovero, Fabrice; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Ryffel, Bernhard; Togbe, Dieudonnée

    2015-08-01

    The cysteine protease caspase-1 (Casp-1) contributes to innate immunity through the assembly of NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, and NLRP6 inflammasomes. Here we ask whether caspase-1 activation plays a regulatory role in house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental allergic airway inflammation. We report enhanced airway inflammation in caspase-1-deficient mice exposed to HDM with a marked eosinophil recruitment, increased expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, as well as full-length and bioactive IL-33. Furthermore, mice deficient for NLRP3 failed to control eosinophil influx in the airways and displayed augmented Th2 cytokine and chemokine levels, suggesting that the NLPR3 inflammasome complex controls HDM-induced inflammation. IL-33 neutralization by administration of soluble ST2 receptor inhibited the enhanced allergic inflammation, while administration of recombinant IL-33 during challenge phase enhanced allergic inflammation in caspase-1-deficient mice. Therefore, we show that caspase-1, NLRP3, and ASC, but not NLRC4, contribute to the upregulation of allergic lung inflammation. Moreover, we cannot exclude an effect of caspase-11, because caspase-1-deficient mice are deficient for both caspases. Mechanistically, absence of caspase-1 is associated with increased expression of IL-33, uric acid, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) production. This study highlights a critical role of caspase-1 activation and NLPR3/ASC inflammasome complex in the down-modulation of IL-33 in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating Th2 response in HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodiesel versus diesel exposure: Enhanced pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and differential morphological changes in the mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Hatfield, Meghan K., E-mail: wla4@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Farcas, Mariana T., E-mail: woe7@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Hummer, Jon A., E-mail: qzh3@cdc.gov [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research/NIOSH/CDC, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Shurin, Michael R., E-mail: shurinmr@upmc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [NIOSH/CDC, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226 (United States); Gutkin, Dmitriy W., E-mail: dwgutkin@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kisin, Elena, E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Kagan, Valerian E., E-mail: kagan@pitt.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bugarski, Aleksandar D., E-mail: zjl1@cdc.gov [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research/NIOSH/CDC, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Department Physiology and Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D. - Highlights: • Exposure of mice to BDPM caused higher pulmonary toxicity compared to DPM. • Oxidative stress and inflammation were higher in BD vs to D exposed mice. • Inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates were seen only in lungs of mice exposed to BD. • Ineffective clearance, prolonged PM retention was present only after BD exposure.

  2. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10(-/-) mice). The IL-10(-/-) mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10(-/-) mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10−/− mice). The IL-10−/− mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10−/− mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. PMID:26032199

  4. Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure prevents pulmonary inflammation in patients without preexisting lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Esther K.; Choi, Goda; Dessing, Mark C.; Bresser, Paul; Lutter, Rene; Dzoljic, Misa; van der Poll, Tom; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Hollmann, Markus; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes aggravates lung injury in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The authors sought to determine the effects of short-term mechanical ventilation on local inflammatory responses in patients without

  5. VEGFR-3 blocking deteriorates inflammation with impaired lymphatic function and different changes in lymphatic vessels in acute and chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Jing; Qin, Li; Cao, Jing-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) pathway has a close relationship with chronic intestinal inflammation, and antilymphatic signaling pathways may repress IAL. However, whether the biologic function of lymphatic vessel is the same in severe acute intestinal inflammation still remain unknown. C57BL/6 mice were administered with 5% of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to establish severe acute colitis (SAC) model. Chronic colitis (CC) model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS fo