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Sample records for acute ischaemic stroke

  1. Piracetam for acute ischaemic stroke.

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    Ricci, Stefano; Celani, Maria Grazia; Cantisani, Teresa Anna; Righetti, Enrico

    2012-09-12

    Piracetam has neuroprotective and antithrombotic effects that may help to reduce death and disability in people with acute stroke. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999, and previously updated in 2006 and 2009. To assess the effects of piracetam in acute, presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 15 May 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011), EMBASE (1980 to May 2011), and ISI Science Citation Index (1981 to May 2011). We also contacted the manufacturer of piracetam to identify further published and unpublished studies. Randomised trials comparing piracetam with control, with at least mortality reported and entry to the trial within three days of stroke onset. Two review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality and this was checked by the other two review authors. We contacted study authors for missing information. We included three trials involving 1002 patients, with one trial contributing 93% of the data. Participants' ages ranged from 40 to 85 years, and both sexes were equally represented. Piracetam was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in death at one month (approximately 31% increase, 95% confidence interval 81% increase to 5% reduction). This trend was no longer apparent in the large trial after correction for imbalance in stroke severity. Limited data showed no difference between the treatment and control groups for functional outcome, dependence or proportion of patients dead or dependent. Adverse effects were not reported. There is some suggestion (but no statistically significant result) of an unfavourable effect of piracetam on early death, but this may have been caused by baseline differences in stroke severity in the trials. There is not enough evidence to assess the effect of piracetam on dependence.

  2. Thrombin Generation in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

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    Ibrahim O. Balogun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke remains a global leading cause of death and disability. Traditional description of plasma biology in the aftermath of acute ischaemic stroke favours development of hypercoagulability, resulting from complex interplay between plasma and endothelial factors. However, no single assay measures the overall global coagulation process. We postulate that thrombin generation would assist in identifying coagulation abnormalities after acute stroke. Aim. To investigate the coagulation abnormalities after acute ischaemic stroke using thrombin generation. Methods. We evaluated thrombin generation, measured with calibrated automated thrombography in stroke of different aetiological types (n=170 within 48 hours of symptoms onset (baseline and in the second week (time 2 and in normal healthy volunteers (n=71. Results. Two-point thrombin generation assays showed prolonged lag time and time to peak at baseline (3.3 (2.9, 4.0 versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7; p=0.005 and (3.3 (2.9, 4.0 versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7; p=0.002, respectively, and at time 2 (3.5 (2.9, 4.2 versus 4.0 (3.1, 4.9; p=0.004 and (5.9 (5.3, 6.6 versus 6.8 (5.8, 7.7 p=0.05, respectively, in cardioembolic stroke (n=39, when compared to noncardioembolic stroke (n=117. The result was reproduced in multiple comparisons between acute ischaemic stroke subgroups and normal healthy volunteers. Endogenous thrombin potential and peak thrombin did not indicate hypercoagulability after acute ischaemic stroke, and thrombolytic therapy did not affect thrombin generation assays. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that thrombin generation in platelet poor plasma is not useful in defining hypercoagulability in acute ischaemic stroke. This is similar to observed trend in coronary artery disease and contrary to other hypercoagulable states.

  3. Osteoprotegerin concentrations and prognosis in acute ischaemic stroke

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    Jensen, Jesper Khédri; Ueland, T; Gullestad, L

    2010-01-01

    .1365-2796.2009.02163.x.Aim. Concentrations of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with the presence of vascular and cardiovascular diseases, but the knowledge of this marker in the setting of ischaemic stroke is limited. Methods and results. In 244 patients with acute ischaemic stroke (age: 69......Abstract. Jensen JK, Ueland T, Atar D, Gullestad L, Mickley H, Aukrust P, Januzzi JL (Odense University Hospital, Denmark; Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Massachusetts General Hospital, USA). Osteoprotegerin concentrations and prognosis in acute ischaemic stroke. J Intern Med 2009; doi: 10.1111/j...... +/- 13 years), samples of OPG were obtained serially from presentation to day 5. Patients with overt ischaemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation were excluded. The patients were followed for 47 months, with all-cause mortality as the sole end-point. Multivariable predictors of OPG values...

  4. The prognosis of acute symptomatic seizures after ischaemic stroke.

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    Leung, Thomas; Leung, Howan; Soo, Yannie O Y; Mok, Vincent C T; Wong, K S

    2017-01-01

    Acute symptomatic seizure (AS) after ischaemic stroke is defined as a seizure occurring ≤7 days of the stroke. There remains a lack of information on the prognosis of AS after ischaemic stroke and how it should be treated. We prospectively recruited patients after their incidents of ischaemic stroke from a population-based stroke registry. Stroke aetiology was defined according to Trial-of-ORG-10172 in acute-stroke treatment (TOAST). Patients were examined for any transient complete-occlusion with recanalisation (TCOR) and haemorrhagic transformation. The seizure outcomes were (1) acute clustering of seizures ≤7 days, (2) seizure recurrence associated with stroke recurrence beyond the 7-day period and (3) unprovoked seizure (US) >7 days. 104 patients (mean age 65 years/55% female) with AS after ischaemic stroke were identified (mean follow-up 6.17 years). Comparison of the group of patients with AS and those without seizures showed that patients with AS had significantly less large-vessel and small-vessel disease but more cardioembolisms (pstroke beyond 7 days was 13.5% at 2 years, 16.4% at 4 years and 18% at 8 years. Presence of >2 cardiovascular risk factors (pischaemic stroke may appear as acute clustering. Afterwards, seizures may occur as often with a recurrent stroke as without one within 4.2 years. We recommend the use of antiepileptic agents for up to 4 years if the underlying stroke aetiology cannot be fully treated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. SPET brain imaging with 201 diethyldithiocarbamate in acute ischaemic stroke

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    de Bruïne, J. F.; Limburg, M.; van Royen, E. A.; Hijdra, A.; Hill, T. C.; van der Schoot, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with acute ischaemic stroke were studied within 24 h after hospital admission with thallium 201 diethyldithiocarbamate single photon emission tomography (201Tl-DDC SPET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT). 201Tl-DDC is a non-redistributing agent that allows postponed imaging

  6. Theophylline as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke (TEA-Stroke)

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    Modrau, Boris; Hjort, Niels; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionEarly reperfusion of brain tissue at risk of injury (penumbra salvage) is crucial in treating acute ischaemic stroke. Neuroprotective agents may extend the time window for the reperfusion. The vasoactive agent theophylline redistributes the perfusion to ischaemic brain tissue and thus...... the collateral supply in acute ischaemic brain tissue and thus facilitate reperfusion despite proximal vessel occlusion. The primary study objective is to evaluate whether theophylline is safe and efficient in acute ischaemic stroke patients as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy.MethodsThe TEA-Stroke Trial...... theophylline as an add-on to standard thrombolytic therapy improves penumbra salvage with a reduced risk of reperfusion damage, reduced final infarct size, and improved clinical outcome....

  7. Guidelines for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

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    Alonso de Leciñana, M; Egido, J A; Casado, I; Ribó, M; Dávalos, A; Masjuan, J; Caniego, J L; Martínez Vila, E; Díez Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Álvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Díaz-Otero, F; López-Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; Gállego, J; García-Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Maestre, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Molina, C; Morales, A; Nombela, F; Purroy, F; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Simal, P; Tejada, J; Vivancos, J

    2014-03-01

    Update of Acute Ischaemic Stroke Treatment Guidelines of the Spanish Neurological Society based on a critical review of the literature. Recommendations are made based on levels of evidence from published data and studies. Organized systems of care should be implemented to ensure access to the optimal management of all acute stroke patients in stroke units. Standard of care should include treatment of blood pressure (should only be treated if values are over 185/105 mmHg), treatment of hyperglycaemia over 155 mg/dl, and treatment of body temperature with antipyretic drugs if it rises above 37.5 °C. Neurological and systemic complications must be prevented and promptly treated. Decompressive hemicraniectomy should be considered in cases of malignant cerebral oedema. Intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA should be administered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset, except when there are contraindications. Intra-arterial pharmacological thrombolysis can be considered within 6 hours, and mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours from onset, for anterior circulation strokes, while a wider window of opportunity up to 12-24 hours is feasible for posterior strokes. There is not enough evidence to recommend routine use of the so called neuroprotective drugs. Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Rehabilitation should be started as early as possible. Treatment of acute ischaemic stroke includes management of patients in stroke units. Systemic thrombolysis should be considered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset. Intra-arterial approaches with a wider window of opportunity can be an option in certain cases. Protective and restorative therapies are being investigated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Statin Use and Functional Outcome after Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, I; Uyttenboogaart, M; Koopman, K; De Keyser, J; Luijckx, G J

    Background: Preliminary findings suggest that statins may have a neuroprotective effect in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. This study investigated whether patients prior on statin therapy and treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute ischaemic stroke have a better functional

  9. Results of brain perfusion Temp in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, J.; Migneco, O.; Mahagne, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Perfusion SPECT allows immediate evaluation of cerebral ischaemia during the acute phase of stroke. Its prognostic value has been demonstrated by several studies. This prognostic value increases in comparison to clinical evaluation alone when injection is performed early after the first neurological signs. The classical three patterns fist described on PET studies by Marchal and Baron are also seen using SPECT: (pattern I) severe irreversible ischaemia with poor prognosis, (pattern III) normal study due to spontaneous reperfusion with complete clinical recovery and (pattern II) ischaemic penumbra with unpredictable prognosis. Two recent studies prove that SPECT can identify with high accuracy the extreme hemodynamic situations which are on one hand spontaneous re-perfusions (100 % sensitivity and specificity) and on the other hand the 'malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions' (82 % sensitivity and 98 % specificity). Therefore early SPECT is a valid tool to select stroke patients for thrombolytic therapy. (author)

  10. Hyperuricaemia as a prognostic factor for acute ischaemic stroke.

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    Cabrera Naranjo, F H; Saavedra Santana, P; González Hernández, A; Fabre Pi, O; Sosa-Henríquez, M

    2018-03-08

    Recent studies on uric acid as a biomarker for the prognosis of acute stroke have found conflicting results. We collected blood samples from 600 consecutively admitted patients at our tertiary hospital and analysed the relationship between uric acid levels and functional prognosis (measured using the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]). Patients who had received reperfusion therapy were excluded since this may have influenced uric acid levels. A total of 73% of patients had mRS scores ≤2; the mean uric acid level was 5.22mg/dL. We found a nonlinear relationship between functional prognosis at discharge and serum uric acid levels at admission when the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was excluded from the analysis. Serum uric acid levels in patients with acute ischaemic stroke are significantly associated with functional prognosis at discharge, although this relationship is nonlinear. In fact, poorer prognosis is associated both with very low and with very high concentrations of uric acid. This suggests a dual role of uric acid in relation to stroke: on the one hand, as an associated risk factor, and on the other, as a possible neuroprotective factor due to its antioxidant effect. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. EEG in ischaemic stroke: Quantitative EEG can uniquely inform (sub-)acute prognoses and clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finnigan, Simon; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of (sub-)acute ischaemic stroke (IS) employing quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) methods, in concert with other assessments, are reviewed. Numerous outcomes from hundreds of patients collectively indicate that (sub-)acute QEEG indices from standard systems can uniquely

  12. Diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C.; Logak, M.; Manai, R.; Samson, Y.; Rancurel, G.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery pulse sequences performed as an emergency for patients with acute ischaemic stroke. A 5-min MRI session was designed as an emergency diagnostic procedure for patients admitted with suspected acute ischaemic stroke. We reviewed routine clinical implementation of the procedure, and its sensitivity and specificity for acute ischaemic stroke over the first 8 months. We imaged 91 patients (80 min to 48 h following the onset of stroke). Clinical deficit had resolved in less than 3 h in 15 patients, and the remaining 76 were classified as stroke (59) or stroke-like (17) after hospital discharge. Sensitivity of MRI for acute ischaemic stroke was 98 %, specificity 100 %. MRI provided an immediate and accurate picture of the number, site, size and age of ischaemic lesions in stroke and simplified diagnosis in stroke-like episodes. The feasibility and high diagnostic accuracy of emergency MRI in acute stroke strongly support its routine use in a stroke centre. (orig.)

  13. [Endovascular treatment in acute ischaemic stroke. A stroke care plan for the region of Madrid].

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    Alonso de Leciñana, M; Díaz-Guzmán, J; Egido, J A; García Pastor, A; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Vivancos, J; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2013-09-01

    Endovascular therapies (intra-arterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy) after acute ischaemic stroke are being implemented in the clinical setting even as they are still being researched. Since we lack sufficient data to establish accurate evidence-based recommendations for use of these treatments, we must develop clinical protocols based on current knowledge and carefully monitor all procedures. After review of the literature and holding work sessions to reach a consensus among experts, we developed a clinical protocol including indications and contraindications for endovascular therapies use in acute ischaemic stroke. The protocol includes methodology recommendations for diagnosing and selecting patients, performing revascularisation procedures, and for subsequent patient management. Its objective is to increase the likelihood of efficacy and treatment benefit and minimise risk of complications and ineffective recanalisation. Based on an analysis of healthcare needs and available resources, a cooperative inter-hospital care system has been developed. This helps to ensure availability of endovascular therapies to all patients, a fast response time, and a good cost-to-efficacy ratio. It includes also a prospective register which serves to monitor procedures in order to identify any opportunities for improvement. Implementation of endovascular techniques for treating acute ischaemic stroke requires the elaboration of evidence-based clinical protocols and the establishment of appropriate cooperative healthcare networks guaranteeing both the availability and the quality of these actions. Such procedures must be monitored in order to improve methodology. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Dehydration is an independent predictor of discharge outcome and admission cost in acute ischaemic stroke.

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    Liu, C-H; Lin, S-C; Lin, J-R; Yang, J-T; Chang, Y-J; Chang, C-H; Chang, T-Y; Huang, K-L; Ryu, S-J; Lee, T-H

    2014-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of admission dehydration on the discharge outcome in acute ischaemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 4311 ischaemic and 1371 hemorrhagic stroke patients from the stroke registry of Chang Gung healthcare system were analyzed. The eligible patients were identified according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. In total, 2570 acute ischaemic and 573 acute hemorrhagic stroke patients were finally recruited. According to the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to creatinine (Cr) ratio (BUN/Cr), these patients were divided into dehydrated (BUN/Cr ≥ 15) and non-dehydrated (BUN/Cr dehydration had higher infection rates (P = 0.006), worse discharge BI (62.8 ± 37.4 vs. 73.4 ± 32.4, P dehydration. However, acute hemorrhagic stroke with or without admission dehydration showd no difference in admission costs (P = 0.618) and discharge outcomes (BI, P = 0.058; mRS, P = 0.058). Admission dehydration is associated with worse discharge outcomes and higher admission costs in acute ischaemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  15. The imaging of ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggard, Nigel; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Griffiths, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Stroke is a clinical syndrome of a rapidly developing focal neurological deficit that may be classified for practical purposes into ischaemic and haemorrhagic. The role of imaging is to exclude mimics of ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage and confirm the presence of an ischaemic stroke. Computed tomography (CT) remains the investigation of choice to exclude acute intracranial haemorrhage but diffusion weighted magnetic resonance (MR) has proved to be a sensitive method of detecting early ischaemic infarction. Perfusion weighted MR allows further assessment at the same examination that could help guide the clinician in the risk/benefit analysis of treatment with thrombolytics or neuroprotective agents under evaluation. This can also be achieved with CT. This review article discusses the imaging of ischaemic stroke, relating the pathophysiology of stroke to it. It deals separately in more detail with these newer MR techniques. Hoggard, N. et al. (2001)

  16. Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker is associated with higher contrast agent dosage in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Schaefer, Tabea; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Rozanski, Michal; Ebinger, Martin; Jungehuelsing, Gerhard J.

    2015-01-01

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of contrast agent dosage on HARM incidence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We prospectively included 529 acute ischaemic stroke patients (204 females, median age 71 years). Patients underwent a first stroke-MRI within 24 hours from symptom onset and had a follow-up on day 2. The contrast agent Gadobutrol was administered to the patients for perfusion imaging or MR angiography. The total dosage was calculated as ml/kg body weight and ranged between 0.04 and 0.31 mmol/kg on the first examination. The incidence of HARM was evaluated on day 2 FLAIR images. HARM was detected in 97 patients (18.3 %). HARM incidence increased significantly with increasing dosages of Gadobutrol. Also, HARM positive patients were significantly older. HARM was not an independent predictor of worse clinical outcome, and we did not find an association with increase risk of haemorrhagic transformation. A higher dosage of Gadobutrol in acute stroke patients on initial MRI is associated with increased HARM incidence on follow-up. MRI studies on BBB should therefore standardize contrast agent dosages. (orig.)

  17. Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker is associated with higher contrast agent dosage in acute ischaemic stroke

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    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Schaefer, Tabea; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Rozanski, Michal; Ebinger, Martin [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Jungehuelsing, Gerhard J. [Stiftung des Buergerlichen Rechts, Juedisches Krankenhaus Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of contrast agent dosage on HARM incidence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We prospectively included 529 acute ischaemic stroke patients (204 females, median age 71 years). Patients underwent a first stroke-MRI within 24 hours from symptom onset and had a follow-up on day 2. The contrast agent Gadobutrol was administered to the patients for perfusion imaging or MR angiography. The total dosage was calculated as ml/kg body weight and ranged between 0.04 and 0.31 mmol/kg on the first examination. The incidence of HARM was evaluated on day 2 FLAIR images. HARM was detected in 97 patients (18.3 %). HARM incidence increased significantly with increasing dosages of Gadobutrol. Also, HARM positive patients were significantly older. HARM was not an independent predictor of worse clinical outcome, and we did not find an association with increase risk of haemorrhagic transformation. A higher dosage of Gadobutrol in acute stroke patients on initial MRI is associated with increased HARM incidence on follow-up. MRI studies on BBB should therefore standardize contrast agent dosages. (orig.)

  18. Reduced kidney function and outcome in acute ischaemic stroke: relationship to arterial hypertension and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Attilio; Pittavini, Loretta; Ferri, Carla; De Angelis, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a dangerous long-term complication of kidney failure, yet its occurrence early in disease is poorly characterized. Our aim was to investigate the association of reduced kidney function, hypertension and diabetes with acute ischaemic stroke and the outcome thereof. In this prospective cohort study, the association of reduced kidney function, hypertension and diabetes with stroke and 2-year all-cause mortality was investigated. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula in 13 365 consecutive patients (671 with acute ischaemic stroke) admitted to our clinical facility over a 12-month period. Ischaemic stroke, after adjustment for age and gender, was significantly associated with eGFR stroke. Age and gender-adjusted survival analysis by Cox regression showed an association of mortality with reduced eGFR alone (HR = 4.29, 95% CI 1.02-19.60). In patients acutely admitted to hospital, reduced kidney function, hypertension and diabetes are independently associated with ischaemic stroke, but do not exert a synergic effect. After hospital discharge, mortality is strongly associated with reduced eGFR but with neither hypertension nor diabetes.

  19. INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN ACUTE ISCHAEMIC STROKE IN RELATION TO CLINICAL SEVERITY AND EARLY OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biochemical markers of inflammation could be useful to predict severity of stroke in acute phase. Stroke is the third cause of mortality and the first cause of disability. Recent literature have demonstrated that inflammation contributes to all phases of atherosclerosis. The results of researchers suggest that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. The aim of the study is to assess the1. Level of peripheral inflammatory markers in acute ischaemic stroke and their relation to severity of acute stroke. 2. Value of inflammatory markers in predicting the short-term outcome and disability at the end of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective case control study for 6 months done from September 2014 to August 2016 in 100 patients of acute ischaemic stroke within first 5 days of symptom onset in comparison >18 years of age with 50 age and sex matched controls. Blood samples for all cases and controls were sent for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR, hs-C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, serum ferritin, serum albumin and S. gamma-glutamyl transferase at admission. RESULTS The mean values of ESR, NLR, hs-CRP in all the cases are higher when compared to the controls and are statistically significant, whereas the mean values of MPV, S. ferritin, S. albumin and GGT in cases are lower when compared to controls, but are within normal range and difference is statistically significant except ferritin. ESR, hs-CRP has significant correlation with severity of acute ischaemic stroke. The mean values of these markers increased with increase in severity. Serum albumin has significant correlation with severity of acute ischaemic stroke with mean values of these markers decreasing with increase in severity of stroke. There is no significant correlation of the inflammatory markers in present study with the short-term outcome. CONCLUSION Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non

  20. Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B; Boza-Serrano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL...

  1. High serum levels of sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 are associated with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Wei; Wang, En; Bao, Yu-Yan; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Ming; Hu, Xiao-Fei; Jin, Xiao-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) are potent antagonists of Wnt signalling and might therefore play important roles in cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether serum sclerostin and Dkk-1 levels are associated with acute ischaemic stroke and specific stroke subtypes. Serum levels of sclerostin and Dkk-1 were measured by ELISA on day 1 and on day 6 after stroke in 62 patients with large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke, on day 1 after stroke in 62 age- and gender-matched patients with small-artery occlusion (SAO) stroke and on admission in 62 healthy controls. Stroke severity was determined based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and by measuring stroke volume on diffusion-weighted imaging. Outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on day 90. Compared with controls, serum sclerostin and Dkk-1 levels were significantly higher in both patients with LAA stroke and with SAO stroke, and no difference was detected between the stroke subtypes. Sclerostin and Dkk-1 levels remained stable between the first and sixth day after stroke in the patients with LAA stroke. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate sclerostin and Dkk-1 as markers of a high risk of stroke and produced area under curve values of 0.773 and 0.776. Adjusted logistic regression showed that serum sclerostin and Dkk-1 levels remained as independent markers of stroke. No correlations were found between sclerostin or Dkk-1 levels and stroke severity or stroke outcome. High serum levels of sclerostin and Dkk-1 are associated with acute ischaemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. No Relation between Body Temperature and Arterial Recanalization at Three Days in Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Marjolein; van der Worp, HB; Horsch, Alexander D.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert J.; Velthuis, BK

    2015-01-01

    Background Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine hours after

  3. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  4. Pharmacotherapy prior to and in acute ischaemic stroke. The use of pharmacotherapy and drug-associated outcomes in real world practice - findings from the Polish Hospital Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewada, Maciej; Sarzyńska-Długosz, Iwona Marta; Skowrońska, Marta; Kamiński, Bogumił; Kobayashi, Adam; Członkowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a preventable disease and acute ischaemic stroke can be effectively treated. Specific pharmacotherapy is recommended in either prevention or acute ischemic stroke treatment. We aimed to evaluate the use and the early and late outcomes impact of drugs administered before and in acute ischaemic stroke in a real world practice. Ischaemic stroke patients hospitalized between 1st March 2007 and 29th February 2008 and reported in Polish Hospital Stroke Registry were analysed. Fully anonymous data were collected with standardized, web-based questionnaire with authorized access. Multivariate regression models were used to adjust for case-mix and evaluate the impact of drugs used prior to or in acute ischaemic stroke on outcomes. The early outcomes were defined as in-hospital mortality or poor outcome (death or dependency - modified Rankin Scale  3) at hospital discharge, while late outcomes covered one-year survival. A total number of 26 153 ischaemic stroke patients (mean age: 71.8 years; females: 51.6%) was reported. The ana-lysis of pharmacotherapy showed that preventive use of hypo-tensive agents, anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation, antiplatelets and statins is inadequate. Regression models confirmed some expected drug benefits and additionally revealed that antihypertensive drugs or aspirin used prior to stroke and oral anticoagulants or statins used in hospital were associated with better stroke outcome. The prevention of ischaemic stroke needs to be monitored and improved. Evidence-based treatment of acute ischaemic stroke requires further promotion. The benefits of acute ischaemic stroke treatment with statins require to be confirmed in randomized controlled settings.

  5. Differentiation of density of ischaemic brain tissue in computed tomography with respect to neurological deficit in acute and subacute period of ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotko-Waszczeniuk, O.; Lukasiewicz, A.; Janica, J.; Lebkowska, U.; Pyd, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The detection of ischaemic brain tissue by a CT depends on degree and time of hypoperfusion. The aim of the present study was to establish interrelation between morphologic changes in CT scans and clinical classification of focal neurological deficit. Material/Methods: We analyzed data from 139 consecutive patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study at Clinic of Neurology University Hospital in Bialystok, at which emergency CT for patients suspected of having acute (>6 h) ischaemic stroke was performed. Next follow up nonenhanced CT scans were obtained between 7 and 10 day after admission. Results: In general, the presence of an ischaemic hypo density in a patient with signs and symptoms of acute stroke signifies irreversible infarction. In hyper acute and acute stage of ischaemic stroke focal decreased attenuation was about 10-20 HU. In subacute stage focal parenchymal hypo density further decreased to 20-30 HU. Patients with mild neurological deficit and quick recovery had smaller focal areas of infarct with slight density changes compared to larger territory of infarct extent in patients with severe neurologic symptoms. Conclusions: In subacute stage of ischaemic stroke extent of parenchymal changes and degree of hypo density correlates with stroke severity and may have some prognostic significance. (authors)

  6. The effects of temporary hyperglycemia on the prognosis of stroke in patients with acute ischaemıc stroke

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    Soner Kılıc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, frequency of temporary hyperglycemia and effects of the hyperglycemia on the severity and prognosis of stroke were examined in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. MATERIAL and METHODS: One hundred patients, who applied for acute ischaemic stroke and met the inclusion criteria, were included in the study. Patients were diveded into three groups: normoglycemic, temporary hyperglycemic and diabetes mellitus (DM, according to the baseline blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT test and HbA1c value. These groups’ National Institue of Stroke Scale (NIHSS, Fugl–Meyer (FM and Functional Independence Measure (FIM scores were measured at baseline and at the 3rd month of the follow up; then, these data were compared in terms of the severity and prognosis of stroke. In addition, according to the fasting blood glucose, hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients becoming permanent diabetics were evaluated. ANOVA, Paired t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Of the patients 52 were normoglycemic, 21 were hyperglycemic and 27 were diabetic. At the 3rd month of the follow up, 28 patients died. Three patients with temporary hyperglycemia became permanent DM. At baseline, severity of stroke as measured by NIHSS, FM and FIM scores was lower, which was statistically significant (p0.05. Each of the three groups showed significant improvements at the 3rd month after stroke (p<0.05. Normoglycemia group showed the more improvement than diabetic group. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was concluded that temporary hyperglycemia was not infrequent in patients with ischaemic stroke, and that all forms of hyperglycemia played negative role in the severity and prognosis of stroke. It was determined that follow up of temporary hyperglycemia was important for secondary care of these patients.

  7. Apparent diffusion coefficient mapping of infarcted tissue and the ischaemic penumbra in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Koussy, M.; Loevblad, K.O.; Kiefer, C.; Zeller, O.; Buerki, M.; Oswald, H.; Schroth, G.; Arnold, M.; Wels, T.

    2002-01-01

    MRI assessment of diffusion changes in acute cerebral ischaemia necessitates analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). We used the concept of relative weighted mean ADC (rwmADC) to obtain an accurate estimate of the extent of infarcted tissue. We studied ten patient with of acute ischaemic stroke, using diffusion- and perfusion- weighted MRI. The rwmADC was used to calculate a corrected ADC-lesion volume (DLVR), which was compared with the diffusion-lesion volume (DLV), initial perfusion lesion volumes and the follow-up infarct volume on T2-weighted images. We looked at correlations between the MRI and clinical findings. DLVR was closest to the final infarct size and had the best clinicoradiological correlation (r=0.77). Weighting the mean ADC within the ischaemic and normal parenchyma can give a more correct estimate of the volume of infarcted brain parenchyma, thus improving the definition of the penumbra. (orig.)

  8. Clinical implications of eye deviation on admission CT examination of acute ischaemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payabvash, S; Qureshi, I; Qureshi, A I

    2016-12-01

    To determine the frequency and prognostic value of eye deviation detected on the admission computed tomography (CT) of acute ischaemic stroke patients. The clinical and imaging data from the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trials 1 and 2 were analysed. Two reviewers evaluated all admission CT images for the presence of eye deviation, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRs) scores were ascertained. Disability or death was defined as mRS score >2, at 3-month follow-up. Of 1,223 patients included in the present series, 352 (28.8%) had rightward and 331 (27.1%) had leftward eye deviation on admission CT. Patients with eye deviation on CT had higher admission NIHSS score and larger middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarct volume (based on ASPECTS). The presence of eye deviation on CT was associated with higher rates of haemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours (19.8% versus 13.5%, p=0.004), and higher rates of disability or death at 3-month follow-up (53.1% versus 35.7%, pMediation analysis showed that radiological eye deviation relation with higher rate of disability or death is predominantly due to its association with higher admission NIHSS scores, lower ASPECTS, and to a lesser extent patients' older age. The presence of eye deviation on CT examination of acute ischaemic stroke patients is associated with larger anterior circulation stroke volumes, higher risk of 24-hour haemorrhagic transformation, and 3-month disability or death. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in essential hypertensive patients with acute ischaemic stroke

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    S. P. Zhemanyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP has been identified as a risk factor for various health disorders, including stroke onsets. Hypertension is one of the crucial health problem among adult Ukrainian. Due to the importance of elevated BP in stroke causality, BP measurement remains critical. However, it is limited information about value in clinical practice of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data in hypertensive patients with inadequately controlled BP with acute stroke compared with those individuals who has no vascular onset. The aim of the study was to determine ABPM parameters in essential hypertensive patients with ischaemic hemisphere stroke. Materials and methods. A total of 114 study participants were analyzed (mean age 62 (56;72 years, 40 % women. We divided them into two groups according to the level of 24-h systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP, and the results of clinical examination. The first group (n=83 were inadequately controlled essential hypertensive individuals with high systolic or/and diastolic BP level according to the ABMP results, and the second one (n=31 were EH patients with an acute hemispheric ischaemic stroke (IS. Diagnosis of stroke was confirmed with clinical examination and computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging results, and ABPM was conducted in 4.2±2.3 days after the stroke onset. Results. We had statistician difference (p<0.001 between groups of such parameters, as average SBP (diurnal, daytime, nighttime; diurnal pulse BP; SBP load (p<0.05; the diurnal AASI (p<0.05; circadian rhythm of DBP (p<0.05. No differences were found between the groups in morning surge calculated as speed and amplitude of the BP climbed in morning hours both for SBP (P=0.422 and P=0.395, respectively and DBP (P=0.860 and P=0.337, respectively. Conclusion. In the present study, we evaluated the ABPM parameters in inadequately controlled essential hypertensive individuals with and without acute ischaemic hemispheric stroke

  10. Collateral circulation is an independent radiological predictor of outcome after thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, T.; Koch, C.; Eckert, B.; Grzyska, U.; Freitag, H.J.; Zeumer, H.; Becker, V.; Kroemer, H.; Heesen, C.; Roether, J.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the type of vascular occlusion, recanalisation and collateralisation are predictive of outcome after thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. We carried out angiography and local intra-arterial (97) or systemic (14) thrombolysis within 6 h of the onset in patients with an ischaemic stroke in the territory of the internal carotid artery. Early ischaemic signs (EIS) on pretreatment CT and angiographic findings were classified and analysed in relation to clinical outcome at 3 months. A favourable outcome (Barthel index [BI]≥ 90) was found in 40% of patients with an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery trunk whereas intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery (''carotid T occlusion'') was followed by death or severe disability (BI<50) in 87%. Significant univariate predictors of favourable outcome were occlusion type (P<0.01), recanalisation (P<0.01) and collateralisation (P<0.01). However, multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship only between collateralisation and favourable outcome (odds ratio 5.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3-26.7, P=0.02). EIS were not predictive in either case. Occlusion type and recanalisation, are related to outcome only if adequate collateralisation prevents infarction until recanalisation occurs. (orig.)

  11. SPET brain imaging with thallium 201 diethyldithiocarbamate in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruine, J.F. de; Limburg, M.; Royen, E.A. van; Hijdra, A.; Hill, T.C.; Schoot, J.B. van der; Amsterdam Univ.; New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with acute ischaemic stroke were studied within 24 h after hospital admission with thallium diethyldithiocarbamate Tl 201 single photon emission tomography ( 201 Tl-DDC SPET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT). 201 Tl-DDC is a non-redistributing agent that allows postponed imaging after early administration and early therapeutic intervention. In 16 patients both investigations were performed within 24 h after stroke onset. The sensitivity of SPET was 94% and of CT 81% in the first 24 h, when hypodensity and obliteration of sulci were used as CT reading criteria. When only hypodensity was used as a criterion, the sensitivity of CT was 50% in this group. Sensitivity of CT compared with SPET became increasingly better in patients with older infarcts (1-18 days). In two-thirds of patients, the lesion demonstrated on SPET was larger than that on CT, and this was especially so with older infarcts. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis occurred in 69% of patients. The high sensitivity of 201 Tl-DDC SPET in the first 24 h after ischaemic stroke and the favourable properties of this radiopharmaceutical make it a method of interest in the assessment of initial perfusion defects in early experimental stroke therapies. (orig.)

  12. The role of cardiac disease parameters in predicting the results of Holter monitoring in patients with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmuri, Kiran; Hughes, Andrew; Coles, David; Ahmad, Omar; Neeman, Teresa; Lueck, Christian

    2012-07-01

    There is limited evidence supporting the routine use of Holter monitoring (HM) in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of HM and determine whether any cardiac disease parameter(s) would permit more focused targeting of HM. We performed a retrospective evaluation of HM in patients with acute ischaemic stroke admitted to our hospital over a one-year period to assess diagnostic yield and whether certain cardiac disease parameters were correlated with HM results. The diagnostic yield was 9%, the number needed to screen was 11, and the cost to detect one clinically significant case was AUS$1,300. Apart from age, stratifying patients by cardiac disease parameters did not predict HM result. This strengthens the use of HM in all patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke of unknown aetiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic value of single-photon emission tomography in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, C.J.; Bolster, A.A.; Tytler, S.; Murray, G.D.; Corrigall, R.S.; Adams, F.G.; Lees, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) is widely used in the investigation of acute stroke. We investigated the relationship between SPET data and functional outcome in a large group of acute stroke patients. One hundred and eight patients underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET after acute ischaemic stroke. We categorised the clinical presentation according to the Oxford classification of acute stroke. Outcome was measured 1 year after stroke using mortality and the Barthel Index for survivors. SPET scans were interpreted without reference to the clinical data using a semi-automatic technique. Three experienced observers determined the presence of luxury perfusion using suitably scaled SPET images in conjunction with the CT scan. Both SPET volume and severity of deficit were significantly negatively correlated with Barthel Index at 1 year (r s =-0.310, P s =-0.316, P s =-0.606, P s =-0.492, P 2 =0.073, df=1, P=0.79) with good functional outcome (Barthel score ≥60). Stepwise logistic regression identified Oxford classification, total deficit volume and patient's age as significant predictors of functional outcome. Overall predictive accuracy was 72%. Predictive accuracy was better in patients who received SPET within 16 h of stroke onset. SPET provides useful information about the functional outcome of acute stroke at 1 year. However, the accuracy of prediction decreases the longer SPET is delayed. Prognostication using SPET in combination with clinical assessment and other investigations may also be considered. (orig.). With 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Hospital arrival time and functional outcome after acute ischaemic stroke: results from the PREMIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Jiménez, C; Ruiz-Sandoval, J L; Chiquete, E; Vega-Arroyo, M; Arauz, A; Murillo-Bonilla, L M; Ochoa-Guzmán, A; Carrillo-Loza, K; Ramos-Moreno, A; Barinagarrementeria, F; Cantú-Brito, C

    2014-05-01

    Information regarding hospital arrival times after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has mainly been gathered from countries with specialised stroke units. Little data from emerging nations is available. We aim to identify factors associated with achieving hospital arrival times of less than 1, 3, and 6 hours, and analyse how arrival times are related to functional outcomes after AIS. We analysed data from patients with AIS included in the PREMIER study (Primer Registro Mexicano de Isquemia Cerebral) which defined time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. The functional prognosis at 30 days and at 3, 6, and 12 months was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale. Among 1096 patients with AIS, 61 (6%) arrived in <1 hour, 250 (23%) in <3 hours, and 464 (42%) in <6 hours. The factors associated with very early (<1 hour) arrival were family history of ischemic heart disease and personal history of migraines; in <3 hours: age 40-69 years, family history of hypertension, personal history of dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease, and care in a private hospital; in <6 hours: migraine, previous stroke, ischaemic heart disease, care in a private hospital, and family history of hypertension. Delayed hospital arrival was associated with lacunar stroke and alcoholism. Only 2.4% of patients underwent thrombolysis. Regardless of whether or not thrombolysis was performed, arrival time in <3 hours was associated with lower mortality at 3 and 6 months, and with fewer in-hospital complications. A high percentage of patients had short hospital arrival times; however, less than 3% underwent thrombolysis. Although many factors were associated with early hospital arrival, it is a priority to identify in-hospital barriers to performing thrombolysis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploratory study of plasma total homocysteine and its relationship to short-term outcome in acute ischaemic stroke in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awosanya Gbolahan O

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke, and may have a negative impact on the course of ischaemic stroke. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as it relates to stroke in Africans is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and short-term impact of hyperhomocysteinemia in Nigerians with acute ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that Hcy levels are significantly higher than in normal controls, worsen stroke severity, and increase short-term case fatality rates following acute ischaemic stroke. Methods The study employed both a case-control and prospective follow-up design to study hospitalized adults with first – ever acute ischaemic stroke presenting within 48 hours of onset. Clinical histories, neurological evaluation (including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores on admission were documented. Total plasma Hcy was determined on fasting samples drawn from controls and stroke cases (within 24 hours of hospitalization. Outcome at 4 weeks was assessed in stroke patients using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. Results We evaluated 155 persons (69 acute ischaemic stroke and 86 healthy controls. The mean age ± SD of the cases was 58.8 ± 9.8 years, comparable to that of controls which was 58.3 ± 9.9 years (T = 0.32; P = 0.75. The mean duration of stroke (SD prior to hospitalization was 43.5 ± 38.8 hours, and mean admission NIHSS score was 10.1 ± 7.7. Total fasting Hcy in stroke patients was 10.2 ± 4.6 umol/L and did not differ significantly from controls (10.1 ± 3.6 umol/L; P = 0.88. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined by plasma Hcy levels > 90th percentile of controls (>14.2 umol/L in women and >14.6 umol/L in men, was present in 7 (10.1% stroke cases and 11 (12.8% controls (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.31 – 2.39; P > 0.05. In multiple regression analysis admission NIHSS score (but not plasma Hcy was a significant determinant of 4

  16. Observer reliability of CT angiography in the assessment of acute ischaemic stroke: data from the Third International Stroke Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mair, Grant; Farrall, Andrew J.; Sellar, Robin J.; Mollison, Daisy; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Division of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kummer, Ruediger von [Dresden University Stroke Centre, University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Adami, Alessandro [Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Hospital, Stroke Center, Department of Neurology, Negrar (Italy); White, Philip M. [Stroke Research Group, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Adams, Matthew E. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Yan, Bernard [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Neurovascular Research Group, Parkville (Australia); Demchuk, Andrew M. [Calgary Stroke Program, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Calgary (Canada); Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Samji, Karim; Baird, Andrew J. [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Boyd, Elena V. [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harrow (United Kingdom); Cohen, Geoff; Perry, David; Sandercock, Peter A.G. [University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Lindley, Richard [University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital Clinical School and The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney (Australia); Collaboration: The IST-3 Collaborative Group

    2014-10-07

    CT angiography (CTA) is often used for assessing patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Only limited observer reliability data exist. We tested inter- and intra-observer reliability for the assessment of CTA in acute ischaemic stroke. We selected 15 cases from the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3, ISRCTN25765518) with various degrees of arterial obstruction in different intracranial locations on CTA. To assess inter-observer reliability, seven members of the IST-3 expert image reading panel (>5 years experience reading CTA) and seven radiology trainees (<2 years experience) rated all 15 scans independently and blind to clinical data for: presence (versus absence) of any intracranial arterial abnormality (stenosis or occlusion), severity of arterial abnormality using relevant scales (IST-3 angiography score, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score, Clot Burden Score), collateral supply and visibility of a perfusion defect on CTA source images (CTA-SI). Intra-observer reliability was assessed using independently repeated expert panel scan ratings. We assessed observer agreement with Krippendorff's-alpha (K-alpha). Among experienced observers, inter-observer agreement was substantial for the identification of any angiographic abnormality (K-alpha = 0.70) and with an angiography assessment scale (K-alpha = 0.60-0.66). There was less agreement for grades of collateral supply (K-alpha = 0.56) or for identification of a perfusion defect on CTA-SI (K-alpha = 0.32). Radiology trainees performed as well as expert readers when additional training was undertaken (neuroradiology specialist trainees). Intra-observer agreement among experts provided similar results (K-alpha = 0.33-0.72). For most imaging characteristics assessed, CTA has moderate to substantial observer agreement in acute ischaemic stroke. Experienced readers and those with specialist training perform best. (orig.)

  17. Observer reliability of CT angiography in the assessment of acute ischaemic stroke: data from the Third International Stroke Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, Grant; Farrall, Andrew J.; Sellar, Robin J.; Mollison, Daisy; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Kummer, Ruediger von; Adami, Alessandro; White, Philip M.; Adams, Matthew E.; Yan, Bernard; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Samji, Karim; Baird, Andrew J.; Boyd, Elena V.; Cohen, Geoff; Perry, David; Sandercock, Peter A.G.; Lindley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) is often used for assessing patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Only limited observer reliability data exist. We tested inter- and intra-observer reliability for the assessment of CTA in acute ischaemic stroke. We selected 15 cases from the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3, ISRCTN25765518) with various degrees of arterial obstruction in different intracranial locations on CTA. To assess inter-observer reliability, seven members of the IST-3 expert image reading panel (>5 years experience reading CTA) and seven radiology trainees (<2 years experience) rated all 15 scans independently and blind to clinical data for: presence (versus absence) of any intracranial arterial abnormality (stenosis or occlusion), severity of arterial abnormality using relevant scales (IST-3 angiography score, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score, Clot Burden Score), collateral supply and visibility of a perfusion defect on CTA source images (CTA-SI). Intra-observer reliability was assessed using independently repeated expert panel scan ratings. We assessed observer agreement with Krippendorff's-alpha (K-alpha). Among experienced observers, inter-observer agreement was substantial for the identification of any angiographic abnormality (K-alpha = 0.70) and with an angiography assessment scale (K-alpha = 0.60-0.66). There was less agreement for grades of collateral supply (K-alpha = 0.56) or for identification of a perfusion defect on CTA-SI (K-alpha = 0.32). Radiology trainees performed as well as expert readers when additional training was undertaken (neuroradiology specialist trainees). Intra-observer agreement among experts provided similar results (K-alpha = 0.33-0.72). For most imaging characteristics assessed, CTA has moderate to substantial observer agreement in acute ischaemic stroke. Experienced readers and those with specialist training perform best. (orig.)

  18. Reperfusion Strategies for Acute Ischaemic Stroke From Past to Present: An Overview Towards Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Canavero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely reperfusion of brain ischaemic tissue is the main therapeutic target for acute stroke. In the last few decades many recanalisation strategies have been studied by randomised controlled trials (RCTs, including intravenous (IV, intra-arterial (IA, and combined approaches. Clinical research is addressed to identify the drug associated with the better reperfusion properties and the lower rate of side-effects. To date, according to current evidence-based guidelines, IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is the only approved treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS within 4.5 hours from onset. Other IV thrombolytics, such as tenecteplase and desmoteplase, have shown promising results in preliminary RCTs and are currently being investigated to produce further evidence. Endovascular catheter-based treatments (including IA administration of thrombolytics or mechanical thrombectomy have quite inferior feasibility, being performed only by stroke-trained interventional neuroradiologists. Until a few months ago, many trials had investigated the safety and efficacy of endovascular techniques compared with IV tPA without consistent results, limiting their application to patients with contraindications or poor response to IV tPA. More recently, the Multicenter Randomized Clinical trial of Endovascular treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN, Endovascular treatment for Small Core and Anterior circulation Proximal occlusion with Emphasis on minimizing CT to recanalization times (ESCAPE, and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits–Intra-arterial (EXTEND-IA trial results have demonstrated the superiority of endovascular procedures associated with standard care in AIS due to proximal arterial occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation. These data are going to change the current decision-making process and the care pathway in AIS patients.

  19. Serum uric acid levels and outcome during admission in acute ischaemic stroke, depending on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana; Robles, Nicolás Roberto

    2018-02-26

    The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and stroke is controversial. The discrepancies in the results could be due to the uneven setting of comorbidity. It is known that hyperuricaemia increases in parallel with the decline in renal function; however, there are few studies that adjust for renal disease. To investigate the relationship between SUA levels in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke according to the presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and clinical outcomes during admission. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patients recruited through a unicentric stroke registry. The sample was divided according to its quartiles of SUA. Renal disease was defined based on the haematocrit, urea and Gender (HUGE) formula. The outcome was determined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Statistically robust methods were used with R (version 3.3.2). A total of 412 patients (53.8% male) were analysed. The NIHSS score decreased as the SUA levels increased (p function (p stroke (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.88, p = 0.004). Our results support the hypothesis that hyperuricaemia plays a protective role in the prognosis of stroke, independently from renal function, and that even in patients with chronic kidney disease, it remains as a protective agent.

  20. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Murray, Veronica; Berge, Eivind; del Zoppo, Gregory; Sandercock, Peter; Lindley, Richard L; Cohen, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) improved functional outcome in patients treated soon after acute ischaemic stroke in randomised trials, but licensing is restrictive and use varies widely. The IST-3 trial adds substantial new data. We therefore assessed all the evidence from randomised trials for rt-PA in acute ischaemic stroke in an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched for randomised trials of intravenous rt-PA versus control given within 6 h of onset of acute ischaemic stroke up to March 30, 2012. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI in the primary analysis for prespecified outcomes within 7 days and at the final follow-up of all patients treated up to 6 h after stroke. Findings In up to 12 trials (7012 patients), rt-PA given within 6 h of stroke significantly increased the odds of being alive and independent (modified Rankin Scale, mRS 0–2) at final follow-up (1611/3483 [46·3%] vs 1434/3404 [42·1%], OR 1·17, 95% CI 1·06–1·29; p=0·001), absolute increase of 42 (19–66) per 1000 people treated, and favourable outcome (mRS 0–1) absolute increase of 55 (95% CI 33–77) per 1000. The benefit of rt-PA was greatest in patients treated within 3 h (mRS 0–2, 365/896 [40·7%] vs 280/883 [31·7%], 1·53, 1·26–1·86, p<0·0001), absolute benefit of 90 (46–135) per 1000 people treated, and mRS 0–1 (283/896 [31·6%] vs 202/883 [22·9%], 1·61, 1·30–1·90; p<0·0001), absolute benefit 87 (46–128) per 1000 treated. Numbers of deaths within 7 days were increased (250/2807 [8·9%] vs 174/2728 [6·4%], 1·44, 1·18–1·76; p=0·0003), but by final follow-up the excess was no longer significant (679/3548 [19·1%] vs 640/3464 [18·5%], 1·06, 0·94–1·20; p=0·33). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (272/3548 [7·7%] vs 63/3463 [1·8%], 3·72, 2·98–4·64; p<0·0001) accounted for most of the early excess deaths. Patients older than 80 years achieved similar

  1. Carotid artery stenting versus no stenting assisting thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Arnholm, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    stroke. METHODS: International and regional electronic databases will be searched to identify eligible randomised clinical trials. To identify further published, unpublished, or on-going and planned trials searches of Google Scholar, Worldwide Food and Drug Administrations, Worldwide Medicines Agencies...... will be applied to these searches. Randomised clinical trials will be included for assessing benefits and harms and quasi-randomised studies, and observational studies will be included for assessing harms of the intervention. Meta-analyses will be performed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane...... and harms of this intervention and assesses whether carotid stenting should be encouraged or avoided in acute ischaemic stroke and identify targets for further research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016033346....

  2. Platelet degranulation and monocyte-platelet complex formation are increased in the acute and convalescent phases after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, Dominick J H

    2004-06-01

    Flow cytometric studies suggest that platelets are activated in ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). However, few studies have measured circulating leucocyte-platelet complexes in this patient population. Whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify the expression of CD62P-, CD63-, and PAC1-binding, and the percentages of leucocyte-platelet complexes in acute (1-27 d, n = 79) and convalescent (79-725 d, n = 70) ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients compared with controls without CVD (n = 27). We performed a full blood count, and measured plasma levels of soluble P-selectin, soluble E-selectin, and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) as additional markers of platelet and\\/or endothelial cell activation. The median percentage CD62P expression and the median percentage monocyte-platelet complexes were higher in both acute and convalescent CVD patients than controls (P <\\/= 0.02). The mean white cell count and mean VWF:Ag levels were significantly elevated in the acute and convalescent phases after ischaemic stroke or TIA (P <\\/= 0.02). Otherwise, there was no significant increase in any other marker of platelet or endothelial activation in CVD patients. There was a positive correlation between the percentage expression of CD62P and the percentages of both neutrophil-platelet and monocyte-platelet complexes in the acute phase, and the percentages of all leucocyte-platelet complexes in the convalescent phase after ischaemic CVD. This study provides evidence for ongoing excessive platelet and\\/or endothelial activation in ischaemic CVD patients despite treatment with antithrombotic therapy.

  3. Factors influencing outcome in acute ischaemic stroke : outcome scales, the role of blood glucose and rtPA treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes several aspects that influence outcome in acute ischaemic strok. In the first part, two frequently used outcome scales - the Barthel index and modified Rankin scale - are studied and for both scales, optimal endpoints for stroke trials are proposed. In the second part, the

  4. Randomized assessment of imatinib in patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, N; Thorén, M; Höjeberg, B; Käll, T-B; Laska, A-C; Sjöstrand, C; Höijer, J; Almqvist, H; Holmin, S; Lilja, A; Fredriksson, L; Lawrence, D; Eriksson, U; Ahmed, N

    2017-03-01

    Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to restore blood-brain barrier integrity and reduce infarct size, haemorrhagic transformation and cerebral oedema in stroke models treated with tissue plasminogen activator. We evaluated the safety of imatinib, based on clinical and neuroradiological data, and its potential influence on neurological and functional outcomes. A phase II randomized trial was performed in patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. A total of 60 patients were randomly assigned to four groups [3 (active): 1 (control)]; the active treatment groups received oral imatinib for 6 days at three dose levels (400, 600 and 800 mg). Primary outcome was any adverse event; secondary outcomes were haemorrhagic transformation, cerebral oedema, neurological severity on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 7 days and at 3 months and functional outcomes on the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Four serious adverse events were reported, which resulted in three deaths (one in the control group and two in the 400-mg dose group; one patient in the latter group did not receive active treatment and the other received two doses). Nonserious adverse events were mostly mild, resulting in full recovery. Imatinib ameliorated neurological outcomes with an improvement of 0.6 NIHSS points per 100 mg imatinib (P = 0.02). For the 800-mg group, the mean unadjusted and adjusted NIHSS improvements were 4 (P = 0.037) and 5 points (P = 0.012), respectively, versus controls. Functional independence (mRS 0-2) increased by 18% versus controls (61 vs. 79; P = 0.296). This phase II study showed that imatinib is safe and tolerable and may reduce neurological disability in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis after ischaemic stroke. A confirmatory randomized trial is currently underway. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The

  5. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  6. Acute post-stroke blood pressure relative to premorbid levels in intracerebral haemorrhage versus major ischaemic stroke: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bull, Linda M; Silver, Louise E; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background It is often assumed that blood pressure increases acutely after major stroke, resulting in so-called post-stroke hypertension. In view of evidence that the risks and benefits of blood pressure-lowering treatment in acute stroke might differ between patients with major ischaemic stroke and those with primary intracerebral haemorrhage, we compared acute-phase and premorbid blood pressure levels in these two disorders. Methods In a population-based study in Oxfordshire, UK, we recruited all patients presenting with stroke between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2012. We compared all acute-phase post-event blood pressure readings with premorbid readings from 10-year primary care records in all patients with acute major ischaemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >3) versus those with acute intracerebral haemorrhage. Findings Of 653 consecutive eligible patients, premorbid and acute-phase blood pressure readings were available for 636 (97%) individuals. Premorbid blood pressure (total readings 13 244) had been measured on a median of 17 separate occasions per patient (IQR 8–31). In patients with ischaemic stroke, the first acute-phase systolic blood pressure was much lower than after intracerebral haemorrhage (158·5 mm Hg [SD 30·1] vs 189·8 mm Hg [38·5], pblood pressure after intracerebral haemorrhage was substantially higher than premorbid levels (mean increase of 40·7 mm Hg, pblood pressure also increased steeply in the days and weeks before intracerebral haemorrhage (regression pblood pressure reading after primary intracerebral haemorrhage was more likely than after ischaemic stroke to be the highest ever recorded (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·3–5·2, pblood pressure within 3 h of onset was 50 mm Hg higher, on average, than the maximum premorbid level whereas that after ischaemic stroke was 5·2 mm Hg lower (pblood pressure is substantially raised compared with usual premorbid levels after intracerebral haemorrhage, whereas acute

  7. The validity and reliability of signs of early infarction on CT in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dippel, D.W.J.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Kooten, F. van; Koudstaal, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that subtle signs of early cerebral infarction on CT are important indicators of outcome and of the effect of thrombolytic treatment in acute ischaemic stroke. We studied these signs prospectively, in 260 patients with an anterior circulation stroke from a European-Australian randomised trial of lubeluzole in acute ischaemic stroke. Interobserver reliability was assessed by means of the χ statistic. The validity of the early signs was assessed by comparing the assessments of the first CT with another CT at 1 week after the onset of stroke, and with stroke outcome at 12 weeks. Each initial CT study was assessed by two of a group of five reviewers, who were blinded to each other's assessments and to the findings on the follow-up CT. The images were assessed twice, once without clinical information and again after disclosure of the side (left or right hemisphere) of the lesion. All reviewers were experienced clinicians with a special interest and training in vascular neurology and CT. The median time between stroke onset and the first CT was 3.2 h; 59 % of the patients were imaged within 3 h and 77 % within 6 h. More than half of the patients (52 %) had a large middle cerebral artery territory (MCA) infarct on follow-up CT. Chance-adjusted interobserver agreement (χ) for any early infarct was 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.15 to 0.39). Agreement (χ) on the extent of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and on the indication for treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was fair: 0.37 and 0.35, respectively. Patients with early signs of an infarct of more than 1/3 of the MCA territory were more likely to have a large MCA infarct on follow-up CT (odds ratio 5.7, 95 % confidence interval 2.8-11.5); the positive and negative predictive value of these signs was 81 % and 57 %, respectively. Chance-adjusted interobserver agreement on early, subtle signs of a large MCA territory infarct on CT by neurologists was thus no

  8. Prediction of outcome in patients with suspected acute ischaemic stroke with CT perfusion and CT angiography: the Dutch acute stroke trial (DUST) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert Jan; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Horsch, Alexander D; Luitse, Merel J A; Niesten, Joris M; Mali, Willem P T M; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2014-02-25

    Prediction of clinical outcome in the acute stage of ischaemic stroke can be difficult when based on patient characteristics, clinical findings and on non-contrast CT. CT perfusion and CT angiography may provide additional prognostic information and guide treatment in the early stage. We present the study protocol of the Dutch acute Stroke Trial (DUST). The DUST aims to assess the prognostic value of CT perfusion and CT angiography in predicting stroke outcome, in addition to patient characteristics and non-contrast CT. For this purpose, individualised prediction models for clinical outcome after stroke based on the best predictors from patient characteristics and CT imaging will be developed and validated. The DUST is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in 1500 patients with suspected acute ischaemic stroke. All patients undergo non-contrast CT, CT perfusion and CT angiography within 9 hours after onset of the neurological deficits, and, if possible, follow-up imaging after 3 days. The primary outcome is a dichotomised score on the modified Rankin Scale, assessed at 90 days. A score of 0-2 represents good outcome, and a score of 3-6 represents poor outcome. Three logistic regression models will be developed, including patient characteristics and non-contrast CT (model A), with addition of CT angiography (model B), and CT perfusion parameters (model C). Model derivation will be performed in 60% of the study population, and model validation in the remaining 40% of the patients. Additional prognostic value of the models will be determined with the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration plots, assessment of goodness-of-fit, and likelihood ratio tests. This study will provide insight in the added prognostic value of CTP and CTA parameters in outcome prediction of acute stroke patients. The prediction models that will be developed in this study may help guide future treatment decisions in the acute stage of

  9. Safety of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke including concomitant neoplastic disease sufferers - experience from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, P; Brola, W; Szczuchniak, W; Fudala, M; Sobota, A

    2015-06-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS), brain haemorrhage and cerebral venous thrombosis can occur as an early and late complication of cancer in the clinical course. Cancer patients are at increased risk for stroke from direct and indirect effects of their malignancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between neoplastic disease and the long-term outcome, mortality and the presence of haemorrhagic complications in patients with acute IS treated with i.v. thrombolysis. We retrospectively evaluated the demographic and clinical data of 495 Caucasian patients with acute IS and 40 patients with IS and concomitant neoplastic disease who were consecutively treated from 2006 to 2013 in two experienced stroke centres. In analysed group, there were 7.8% of patients with cancer [50.0% male, mean age 72.3 ± 9.3; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale - 13 (range 9.5-17)]. Cancer was diagnosed before i.v.-thrombolysis in 28 (70.0%) patients. After 3 months of follow up, 60% of patients were independent (mRS 0-2) compared with the group of patients without cancer - 55% (p = 0.54), 17.5% died (18.4%; p = 0.89), 12.4% suffered haemorrhagic transformation (HT) (17.6%; p = 0.41) and 2.5% experienced SICH (4.4%; p = 0.56, respectively). Other clinical complications were not found. A multivariate analysis showed no impact of neoplastic disease on unfavourable outcomes [modified Rankin scale 3-6)] after 3 months (p = 0.15). Intravenous thrombolysis performed in Caucasian stroke patients with past or current neoplastic diseases, but not in the course of chemo- and radiotherapy, can be a safe and effective method of treatment. In making decision on the thrombolytic treatment, the risk of bleeding complications and the life expectancy should be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ginkgo biloba extract improved cognitive and neurological functions of acute ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Xinjiang; Fang, Qi; Zhou, Junshan; Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Xu, Biyun; Wu, Yanfeng; Qian, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in acute ischaemic stroke and its impact on the recurrence of vascular events. Methods We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, blinded, controlled clinical trial enrollingpatients with an onset of acute stroke within 7 days from five hospitals in China Jiangsu Province. Participants were assigned to the GBE group (450 mg GBE with 100 mg aspirin daily) or the control group (100 mg aspirin daily) for 6 months. The primary outcome was the decline in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were other neuropsychological tests of cognitive and neurological function, the the incidence of adverse events and vascular events. Results 348 patients were enrolled: 179 in the GBE group and 169 in the control group. With 18 patients lost to follow-up, the dropout rate was 5.17%. Admission data between two groups were similar, but in the GBE group there was a marked slow down in the decline in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores (−2.77±0.21 vs −1.99±0.23, P=0.0116 (30 days); −3.34±0.24 vs −2.48±0.26, P=0.0165 (90 days); −4.00±0.26 vs −2.71±0.26, P=0.0004 (180 days)) compared with controls. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at 12 and 30 days, the modified Rankin Scale scores for independent rate at 30, 90 and 180 days, and the Barthel Index scores at 30, 90 and 180 days in the GBE group were significantly improved compared with controls. Improvements were also observedin GBE groups for Mini-Metal State Examination scores of 30, 90 and 180 days, Webster’s digit symbol test scores at 30 days and Executive Dysfunction Index scores at 30 and 180 days. No significant differences were seen in the incidence of adverse events or vascular events. Conclusions We conclude that GBE in combination with aspirin treatment alleviated cognitive and neurological deficits after acute ischaemic stroke without increasing

  11. Impact of heart rate on admission on mortality and morbidity in acute ischaemic stroke patients - results from VISTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, C H; Erdur, H; Grittner, U; Schneider, A; Piper, S K; Scheitz, J F; Wellwood, I; Bath, P M W; Diener, H-C; Lees, K R; Endres, M

    2016-12-01

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with worse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its predictive value in acute stroke patients is less well established. We investigated the effects of HR on admission in acute ischaemic stroke patients. Using the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) database, the association between HR in acute stroke patients without atrial fibrillation and the pre-defined composite end-point of (recurrent) ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), myocardial infarction (MI) and vascular death within 90 days was analysed. Pre-defined secondary outcomes were the composite end-point components and any death, decompensated heart failure and degree of functional dependence according to the modified Rankin Scale after 90 days. HR was analysed as a categorical variable (quartiles). In all, 5606 patients were available for analysis (mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 13; mean age 67 years; mean HR 77 bpm; 44% female) amongst whom the composite end-point occurred in 620 patients (11.1%). Higher HR was not associated with the composite end-point. The frequencies of secondary outcomes were 3.2% recurrent stroke (n = 179), 0.6% TIA (n = 35), 1.8% MI (n = 100), 6.8% vascular death (n = 384), 15.0% any death (n = 841) and 2.2% decompensated heart failure (n = 124). Patients in the highest quartile (HR> 86 bpm) were at increased risk for any death [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.40 (1.11-1.75)], decompensated heart failure [adjusted hazard ratio 2.20 (1.11-4.37)] and worse modified Rankin Scale [adjusted odds ratio 1.29 (1.14-1.52)]. In acute stroke patients, higher HR (>86 bpm) is linked to mortality, heart failure and higher degree of dependence after 90 days but not to recurrent stroke, TIA or MI. © 2016 EAN.

  12. Optimising MR perfusion imaging: comparison of different software-based approaches in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaafs, Lars-Arne; Porter, David; Audebert, Heinrich J.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Villringer, Kersten

    2016-01-01

    Perfusion imaging (PI) is susceptible to confounding factors such as motion artefacts as well as delay and dispersion (D/D). We evaluate the influence of different post-processing algorithms on hypoperfusion assessment in PI analysis software packages to improve the clinical accuracy of stroke PI. Fifty patients with acute ischaemic stroke underwent MRI imaging in the first 24 h after onset. Diverging approaches to motion and D/D correction were applied. The calculated MTT and CBF perfusion maps were assessed by volumetry of lesions and tested for agreement with a standard approach and with the final lesion volume (FLV) on day 6 in patients with persisting vessel occlusion. MTT map lesion volumes were significantly smaller throughout the software packages with correction of motion and D/D when compared to the commonly used approach with no correction (p = 0.001-0.022). Volumes on CBF maps did not differ significantly (p = 0.207-0.925). All packages with advanced post-processing algorithms showed a high level of agreement with FLV (ICC = 0.704-0.879). Correction of D/D had a significant influence on estimated lesion volumes and leads to significantly smaller lesion volumes on MTT maps. This may improve patient selection. (orig.)

  13. Optimising MR perfusion imaging: comparison of different software-based approaches in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaafs, Lars-Arne [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Academic Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology and Center for Stroke Research, Berlin (Germany); Porter, David [Fraunhofer Institute for Medical Image Computing MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Audebert, Heinrich J. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B.; Villringer, Kersten [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Academic Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology and Center for Stroke Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Perfusion imaging (PI) is susceptible to confounding factors such as motion artefacts as well as delay and dispersion (D/D). We evaluate the influence of different post-processing algorithms on hypoperfusion assessment in PI analysis software packages to improve the clinical accuracy of stroke PI. Fifty patients with acute ischaemic stroke underwent MRI imaging in the first 24 h after onset. Diverging approaches to motion and D/D correction were applied. The calculated MTT and CBF perfusion maps were assessed by volumetry of lesions and tested for agreement with a standard approach and with the final lesion volume (FLV) on day 6 in patients with persisting vessel occlusion. MTT map lesion volumes were significantly smaller throughout the software packages with correction of motion and D/D when compared to the commonly used approach with no correction (p = 0.001-0.022). Volumes on CBF maps did not differ significantly (p = 0.207-0.925). All packages with advanced post-processing algorithms showed a high level of agreement with FLV (ICC = 0.704-0.879). Correction of D/D had a significant influence on estimated lesion volumes and leads to significantly smaller lesion volumes on MTT maps. This may improve patient selection. (orig.)

  14. Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (Find-AFRANDOMISED): an open-label randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Rolf; Gröschel, Klaus; Gelbrich, Götz; Hamann, Gerhard F; Kermer, Pawel; Liman, Jan; Seegers, Joachim; Wasser, Katrin; Schulte, Anna; Jürries, Falko; Messerschmid, Anna; Behnke, Nico; Gröschel, Sonja; Uphaus, Timo; Grings, Anne; Ibis, Tugba; Klimpe, Sven; Wagner-Heck, Michaela; Arnold, Magdalena; Protsenko, Evgeny; Heuschmann, Peter U; Conen, David; Weber-Krüger, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for recurrent ischaemic stroke, but often remains undiagnosed in patients who have had an acute ischaemic stroke. Enhanced and prolonged Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring might increase detection of atrial fibrillation. We therefore investigated whether enhanced and prolonged rhythm monitoring was better for detection of atrial fibrillation than standard care procedures in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Find-AF randomised is an open-label randomised study done at four centres in Germany. We recruited patients with acute ischaemic stroke (symptoms for 7 days or less) aged 60 years or older presenting with sinus rhythm and without history of atrial fibrillation. Patients were included irrespective of the suspected cause of stroke, unless they had a severe ipsilateral carotid or intracranial artery stenosis, which were the exclusion criteria. We used a computer-generated allocation sequence to randomly assign patients in a 1:1 ratio with permuted block sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8, stratified by centre, to enhanced and prolonged monitoring (ie, 10-day Holter-electrocardiogram [ECG]-monitoring at baseline, and at 3 months and 6 months of follow-up) or standard care procedures (ie, at least 24 h of rhythm monitoring). Participants and study physicians were not masked to group assignment, but the expert committees that adjudicated endpoints were. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (30 sec or longer) within 6 months after randomisation and before stroke recurrence. Because Holter ECG is a widely used procedure and not known to harm patients, we chose not to assess safety in detail. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01855035. Between May 8, 2013, and Aug 31, 2014, we recruited 398 patients. 200 patients were randomly assigned to the enhanced and prolonged monitoring group and 198 to the standard care group. After 6

  15. Reperfusion facilitates reversible disruption of the human blood-brain barrier following acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Zhang, Sheng; Yan, Shenqiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Shi, Feina; Lou, Min; Ding, Xinfa; Parsons, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to detect early changes of the blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), with or without reperfusion, and find out whether BBBP can predict clinical outcomes. Consecutive AIS patients imaged with computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) before and 24 h after treatment were included. The relative permeability-surface area product (rPS) was calculated within the hypoperfused region (rPS hypo-i ), non-hypoperfused region of ischaemic hemisphere (rPS nonhypo-i ) and their contralateral mirror regions (rPS hypo-c and rPS nonhypo-c ). The changes of rPS were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of unfavourable outcome. Fifty-six patients were included in the analysis, median age was 76 (IQR 62-81) years and 28 (50%) were female. From baseline to 24 h after treatment, rPS hypo-i , rPS nonhypo-i and rPS hypo-c all decreased significantly. The decreases in rPS hypo-i and rPS hypo-c were larger in the reperfusion group than non-reperfusion group. The rPS hypo-i at follow-up was a predictor for unfavourable outcome (OR 1.131; 95% CI 1.018-1.256; P = 0.022). Early disruption of BBB in AIS is reversible, particularly when greater reperfusion is achieved. Elevated BBBP at 24 h after treatment, not the pretreatment BBBP, predicts unfavourable outcome. (orig.)

  16. Semi-automatic software based detection of atrial fibrillation in acute ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, M N; Snoer, A; Ali, A M

    2017-01-01

    continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring. Extended monitoring detects more PAF but is limited by costs due to manual analysis. Interpretive software might be a reasonable screening tool. The aim was to validate the performance and utility of Pathfinder SL software compared to manual analysis. METHODS: In all......, 135 ischaemic stroke patients with no prior history of PAF or atrial fibrillation and who had done a 7-day continuous electrocardiogram monitoring (Holter) were included. Manual analysis was compared with Pathfinder SL software including a systematic control of registered events. RESULTS: Seventeen...... (12.6%) patients were diagnosed with PAF (atrial fibrillation > 30 s). Pathfinder SL software including a systematic control of events registered 16 (94.1%) patients with PAF. Manually 15 (88.2%) patients were detected with PAF. Pathfinder SL had a negative predictive value of 99% and sensitivity...

  17. Quantifying the risk of heart disease following acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of over 50 000 participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Trishna; Hasan, Nazeeha; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Slark, Julia; Bentley, Paul; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective Following an acute stroke, there is a high risk of recurrence. However, the leading cause of mortality following a stroke is due to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) but that risk has not been robustly quantified. We sought to reliably quantify the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) in the absence of a known cardiac history. Setting A meta-analysis study. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for potential studies up to October 2015. Included studies reported an acute cerebral ischaemic event and followed for CAD or MI within 1 year in patients without known IHD. Using arcsine transformed proportions for meta-analysis, studies were combined using a generic inverse variance random-effects model to calculate the pooled standardised mean difference and 95% CIs. These were interpreted as the percentage prevalence of CAD or incidence of MI following AIS. Results 17 studies with 4869 patients with AIS demonstrated a mean average of asymptomatic CAD in 52%. Anatomical methods of CAD detection revealed a prevalence of asymptomatic ≥50% coronary stenosis in 32% (95% CI 19% to 47%; pischaemic stroke revealed an overall risk of MI in the year following stroke of 3% (95% CI 1% to 5%; pischaemic stroke with no cardiac history have more than 50% coronary stenosis and 3% are at risk of developing MI within a year. Our findings provide a reliable quantitative measure of the risk of IHD following AIS in patients with no cardiac history. PMID:26792217

  18. Quantifying the risk of heart disease following acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of over 50,000 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Trishna; Hasan, Nazeeha; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Slark, Julia; Bentley, Paul; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-20

    Following an acute stroke, there is a high risk of recurrence. However, the leading cause of mortality following a stroke is due to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) but that risk has not been robustly quantified. We sought to reliably quantify the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) in the absence of a known cardiac history. A meta-analysis study. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for potential studies up to October 2015. Included studies reported an acute cerebral ischaemic event and followed for CAD or MI within 1 year in patients without known IHD. Using arcsine transformed proportions for meta-analysis, studies were combined using a generic inverse variance random-effects model to calculate the pooled standardised mean difference and 95% CIs. These were interpreted as the percentage prevalence of CAD or incidence of MI following AIS. 17 studies with 4869 patients with AIS demonstrated a mean average of asymptomatic CAD in 52%. Anatomical methods of CAD detection revealed a prevalence of asymptomatic ≥ 50% coronary stenosis in 32% (95% CI 19% to 47%; pischaemic stroke revealed an overall risk of MI in the year following stroke of 3% (95% CI 1% to 5%; pischaemic stroke with no cardiac history have more than 50% coronary stenosis and 3% are at risk of developing MI within a year. Our findings provide a reliable quantitative measure of the risk of IHD following AIS in patients with no cardiac history. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoubashman, Omid; Reich, Arno; Gindullis, Mirco; Schulz, Joerg B.; Frohnhofen, Katharina; Pjontek, Rastislav; Brockmann, Marc-Alexander; Wiesmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities (PCHD) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke. Data of 102 consecutive patients who received post-interventional CT scans within 4.5 h after mechanical thrombectomy were analysed retrospectively. Sixty-two of 102 patients (60.8 %) had PCHD on their post-interventional CT scans. The most common site of PCHD was the basal ganglia. PCHD were persisting in 13 of 62 patients (21.0 %), and transient in the remaining 49 patients (79.0 %) within 24 h. Four patients with PCHD and four patients without PCHD suffered from parenchymal haemorrhage. Neither ASA nor Clopidogrel, Tirofiban or rtPA were risk factors for PCHD. Final infarction size was congruent with or bigger than areas of PCHD in 93.3 % of cases in our series. PCHD was not a risk factor for parenchymal haemorrhage in our series. The occurrence of PCHD was strongly related to the prior presence of infarction. PCHD was also a strong predictor for final infarction size. (orig.)

  20. Clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoubashman, Omid [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany); Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Reich, Arno; Gindullis, Mirco; Schulz, Joerg B. [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Frohnhofen, Katharina; Pjontek, Rastislav; Brockmann, Marc-Alexander; Wiesmann, Martin [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities (PCHD) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke. Data of 102 consecutive patients who received post-interventional CT scans within 4.5 h after mechanical thrombectomy were analysed retrospectively. Sixty-two of 102 patients (60.8 %) had PCHD on their post-interventional CT scans. The most common site of PCHD was the basal ganglia. PCHD were persisting in 13 of 62 patients (21.0 %), and transient in the remaining 49 patients (79.0 %) within 24 h. Four patients with PCHD and four patients without PCHD suffered from parenchymal haemorrhage. Neither ASA nor Clopidogrel, Tirofiban or rtPA were risk factors for PCHD. Final infarction size was congruent with or bigger than areas of PCHD in 93.3 % of cases in our series. PCHD was not a risk factor for parenchymal haemorrhage in our series. The occurrence of PCHD was strongly related to the prior presence of infarction. PCHD was also a strong predictor for final infarction size. (orig.)

  1. National survey on perioperative anaesthetic management in the endovascular treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Kräuchi, O; Valencia, L; Iturri, F; Mariscal Ortega, A; López Gómez, A; Valero, R

    2018-01-01

    To assess the anaesthetic management of treatment for endovascular acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) in Spain. A survey was designed by the SEDAR Neuroscience Section and sent to the Spanish anaesthesiology departments with a primary stroke centre between July and November 2016. Of the 47 hospitals where endovascular treatment of AIS is performed, 37 anaesthesiology departments participated. Thirty responses were obtained; three of which were eliminated due to duplication (response rate of 72.9%). Health coverage for AIS endovascular treatment was available 24hours a day in 63% of the hospitals. The anaesthesiologist in charge of the procedure was physically present in the hospital in 55.3%. There was large inter-hospital variability in non-standard monitoring and type of anaesthesia. The most important criterion for selecting type of anaesthesia was multidisciplinary choice made by the anaesthesiologist, neurologist and neuroradiologist (59.3%). The duration of time from arrival to arterial puncture was 10-15minutes in 59.2%. In 44.4%, systolic blood pressure was maintained between 140-180mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure<105mmHg. Glycaemic levels were taken in 81.5% of hospitals. Intravenous heparinisation was performed during the procedure in 66.7% with different patterns of action. In cases of moderate neurological deterioration with no added complications, 85.2% of the included hospitals awakened and extubated the patients. The wide variability observed in the anaesthetic management and the organization of the endovascular treatment of AIS demonstrates the need to create common guidelines for anaesthesiologists in Spain. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke with large vessel occlusion: the experience of a regional stroke service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCusker, M.W.; Robinson, S.; Looby, S.; Power, S.; Ti, J.P.; Grech, R.; Galvin, L.; O'Hare, A.; Brennan, P.; O'Kelly, P.; O'Brien, P.; Collins, R.; Dolan, E.; Williams, D.J.; Thornton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience of a regional stroke referral service with endovascular treatment for patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion. Materials and methods: A prospective review was undertaken of 93 consecutive cases receiving endovascular treatment for AIS over a 42-month period (January 2010 to June 2013). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), location of large vessel occlusion, details of endovascular procedure, and degree of reperfusion achieved (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction [TICI] score) were recorded. Mortality and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) were measured at 90 days. Results: The mean patient age was 62 years (range 26–87 years). The mean NIHSS at presentation was 16 (range 6–29). All patients had confirmed proximal large-artery occlusion on computed tomography (CT) angiography: 87 in the anterior circulation, six in the posterior circulation. Of the 93 patients treated, 64 (69%) received intravenous thrombolysis. Successful reperfusion (TICI grade 2a to 3) was achieved in 80 (86%) cases. There were 13 (14%) cases of failed vessel recanalisation (TICI grade 0). Good functional outcome (mRS ≤2) was achieved in 51 (55%) cases. The 90-day mortality was 20 (22%) cases. Fifty-seven (61%) cases were transferred from outside centres. There was no significant increase in morbidity or mortality for transferred patients. Conclusion: Successful endovascular recanalisation can result in good functional outcomes for patients with AIS and large vessel occlusion. Our interventional neuroradiology service provides endovascular treatment as part of a regional stroke service without increase in morbidity or mortality for patients transferred from outside institutions. - Highlights: • Acute stoke patients may benefit from transfer to a specialist centre for endovascular treatment. • The authors offer endovascular treatment for suitable patients as part of a regional stroke service.

  3. Current concepts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI perfusion-diffusion assessment in acute ischaemic stroke: a review & an update for the clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Roldan-Valadez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several medical societies published joint statements about imaging recommendations for acute stroke and transient ischaemic attack patients. In following with these published guidelines, we considered it appropriate to present a brief, practical and updated review of the most relevant concepts on the MRI assessment of acute stroke. Basic principles of the clinical interpretation of diffusion, perfusion, and MRI angiography (as part of a global MRI protocol are discussed with accompanying images for each sequence. Brief comments on incidence and differential diagnosis are also included, together with limitations of the techniques and levels of evidence. The purpose of this article is to present knowledge that can be applied in day-to-day clinical practice in specialized stroke units or emergency rooms to attend patients with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack according to international standards.

  4. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, François; Tardy, Jean; Albucher, Jean-François; Thalamas, Claire; Berard, Emilie; Lamy, Catherine; Bejot, Yannick; Deltour, Sandrine; Jaillard, Assia; Niclot, Philippe; Guillon, Benoit; Moulin, Thierry; Marque, Philippe; Pariente, Jérémie; Arnaud, Catherine; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2011-02-01

    Hemiplegia and hemiparesis are the most common deficits caused by stroke. A few small clinical trials suggest that fluoxetine enhances motor recovery but its clinical efficacy is unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate whether fluoxetine would enhance motor recovery if given soon after an ischaemic stroke to patients who have motor deficits. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients from nine stroke centres in France who had ischaemic stroke and hemiplegia or hemiparesis, had Fugl-Meyer motor scale (FMMS) scores of 55 or less, and were aged between 18 years and 85 years were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned, using a computer random-number generator, in a 1:1 ratio to fluoxetine (20 mg once per day, orally) or placebo for 3 months starting 5-10 days after the onset of stroke. All patients had physiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the change on the FMMS between day 0 and day 90 after the start of the study drug. Participants, carers, and physicians assessing the outcome were masked to group assignment. Analysis was of all patients for whom data were available (full analysis set). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00657163. 118 patients were randomly assigned to fluoxetine (n=59) or placebo (n=59), and 113 were included in the analysis (57 in the fluoxetine group and 56 in the placebo group). Two patients died before day 90 and three withdrew from the study. FMMS improvement at day 90 was significantly greater in the fluoxetine group (adjusted mean 34·0 points [95% CI 29·7-38·4]) than in the placebo group (24·3 points [19·9-28·7]; p=0·003). The main adverse events in the fluoxetine and placebo groups were hyponatraemia (two [4%] vs two [4%]), transient digestive disorders including nausea, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain (14 [25%] vs six [11%]), hepatic enzyme disorders (five [9%] vs ten [18%]), psychiatric disorders (three [5%] vs four [7%]), insomnia (19 [33%] vs 20 [36%]), and partial

  5. Current status of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator dosage for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; You, Shoujiang; Sato, Shoichiro; Yang, Jie; Carcel, Cheryl; Zheng, Danni; Yoshimura, Sohei; Anderson, Craig S; Sandset, Else Charlotte; Robinson, Thompson; Chalmers, John; Sharma, Vijay K

    2018-03-01

    The optimal dose of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) remains controversial, especially in Asian countries. We aimed to update the evidence regarding the use of low-dose versus standard-dose rtPA. We performed a systematic literature search across MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from inception to 22 August 2016 to identify all related studies. The outcomes were death or disability (defined by modified Rankin Scale 2-6), death, and symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH). Where possible, data were pooled for meta-analysis with ORs and corresponding 95% CIs by means of random-effects or fixed-effects meta-analysis. We included 26 observational studies and 1 randomised controlled trial with a total of 23 210 patients. Variable doses of rtPA were used for thrombolysis of AIS in Asia. Meta-analysis shows that low-dose rtPA was not associated with increased risk of death or disability (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33), or death (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.01), or decreased risk of sICH (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.72). The results remained consistent when sensitivity analyses were performed including only low-dose and standard-dose rtPA or only Asian studies. Our review shows small difference between the outcomes or the risk profile in the studies using low-dose and/or standard-dose rtPA for AIS. Low-dose rtPA was not associated with lower risk of death or disability, death alone, or sICH.

  6. A large web-based observer reliability study of early ischaemic signs on computed tomography. The Acute Cerebral CT Evaluation of Stroke Study (ACCESS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Wardlaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early signs of ischaemic stroke on computerised tomography (CT scanning are subtle but CT is the most widely available diagnostic test for stroke. Scoring methods that code for the extent of brain ischaemia may improve stroke diagnosis and quantification of the impact of ischaemia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We showed CT scans from patients with acute ischaemic stroke (n = 32, with different patient characteristics and ischaemia signs to doctors in stroke-related specialties world-wide over the web. CT scans were shown twice, randomly and blindly. Observers entered their scan readings, including early ischaemic signs by three scoring methods, into the web database. We compared observers' scorings to a reference standard neuroradiologist using area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC analysis, Cronbach's alpha and logistic regression to determine the effect of scales, patient, scan and observer variables on detection of early ischaemic changes. Amongst 258 readers representing 33 nationalities and six specialties, the AUCs comparing readers with the reference standard detection of ischaemic signs were similar for all scales and both occasions. Being a neuroradiologist, slower scan reading, more pronounced ischaemic signs and later time to CT all improved detection of early ischaemic signs and agreement on the rating scales. Scan quality, stroke severity and number of years of training did not affect agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale observer reliability studies are possible using web-based tools and inform routine practice. Slower scan reading and use of CT infarct rating scales improve detection of acute ischaemic signs and should be encouraged to improve stroke diagnosis.

  7. An efficacy and safety comparison between different stentriever designs in acute ischaemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, R.; Pullicino, R.; Thornton, J.; Downer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the recanalisation rates and long-term functional outcomes of the Solitaire and Trevo devices; to compare these results to those from the Solitaire With the Intention For Thrombectomy (SWIFT) trial and TREVO 2 studies; and to assess for statistical differences in the outcomes between the two devices. Materials and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that utilised stentrievers in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke was conducted. The results were compared to those of the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials and outcome differences between Trevo (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) and Solitaire (ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA) were analysed statistically. Results: Solitaire had a lower mortality rate compared to Trevo (16.2% [95% confidence interval {CI}: 13.1%, 19.8%] versus 22.2% [95% CI: 10.8%, 40.2%]) and achieved a higher rate of functional independence (52.1% [95% CI: 46.3%, 57.8%] versus 47.6% [95% CI: 36.7%, 58.8%]). Statistical tests, however, failed to demonstrate significant differences in either functional outcomes or 3-month mortality rates. No significant differences were noted in weighted mean recanalisation rates between the Solitaire and Trevo groups. Conclusion: Stentrievers achieve a high rate of recanalisation and functional independence in acute ischaemic stroke and have a relatively good safety profile. No significant differences in functional outcomes, mortality, and symptomatic intra-cranial haemorrhage could be demonstrated between two popular stentrievers designs, namely Trevo and Solitaire. - Highlights: • We conducted a meta-analysis of stentrievers in acute ischaemic stroke. • We assessed recanalization rates and functional outcomes of stentrievers. • We also explored any differences between different stentriever designs. • We failed to demonstrate significant differences between Trevo and Solitaire.

  8. Comparison of carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics between patients with first-time and recurrent acute ischaemic stroke using B-mode ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Mi, Donghua; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas; Wang, Yilong; Wong, Ka Sing; Liu, Liping

    2015-06-23

    The differences between initial and recurrent stroke plaques are not defined. Hence, a nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association of stroke recurrence with the echogenic characteristics of carotid plaques in patients with ischaemic stroke. One hundred and four patients with 1-year recurrent acute ischaemic stroke were enrolled and compared with 104 control patients (first-time ischaemic stroke) matched for age, gender, stroke severity and treatment allocation. Based on the Mannheim Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Consensus (2004-2006), the number of carotid plaques and echogenicity between the two groups of patients were compared. As compared to patients with first-time stroke, those with recurrent stroke showed significantly higher prevalence of heart disease (13.46 vs 28.85%, P = 0.0066) and presence of intracranial stenosis (55.77 vs 89.90%, P stroke had a significantly higher rate of unstable plaques (80.41%) than patients with first-time stroke (64.21%, P = 0.036). Also, patients with recurrent stroke had a significantly larger number of plaques than patients with first-time stroke (P = 0.0152). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis (after adjustment for heart disease and intracranial stenosis) identified an association between 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of unstable plaques (hazard ratio 3.077; 95% CI: 1.133-8.355). Stroke recurrence is related to advanced atherosclerosis defined by carotid plaque and its characteristics.

  9. Update on the third international stroke trial (IST-3 of thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke and baseline features of the 3035 patients recruited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandercock Peter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA is approved in Europe for use in patients with acute ischaemic stroke who meet strictly defined criteria. IST-3 sought to improve the external validity and precision of the estimates of the overall treatment effects (efficacy and safety of rtPA in acute ischaemic stroke, and to determine whether a wider range of patients might benefit. Design International, multi-centre, prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE trial of intravenous rtPA in acute ischaemic stroke. Suitable patients had to be assessed and able to start treatment within 6 hours of developing symptoms, and brain imaging must have excluded intracranial haemorrhage and stroke mimics. Results The initial pilot phase was double blind and then, on 01/08/2003, changed to an open design. Recruitment began on 05/05/2000 and closed on 31/07/2011, by which time 3035 patients had been included, only 61 (2% of whom met the criteria for the 2003 European approval for thrombolysis. 1617 patients were aged over 80 years at trial entry. The analysis plan will be finalised, without reference to the unblinded data, and published before the trial data are unblinded in early 2012. The main trial results will be presented at the European Stroke Conference in Lisbon in May 2012 with the aim to publish simultaneously in a peer-reviewed journal. The trial result will be presented in the context of an updated Cochrane systematic review. We also intend to include the trial data in an individual patient data meta-analysis of all the relevant randomised trials. Conclusion The data from the trial will: improve the external validity and precision of the estimates of the overall treatment effects (efficacy and safety of iv rtPA in acute ischaemic stroke; provide: new evidence on the balance of risk and benefit of intravenous rtPA among types of patients who do not clearly meet the terms of the current EU approval; and

  10. Predictors of early arrival at the emergency department in acute ischaemic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, C

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: A requirement of an effective acute stroke service is the early arrival of patients to the hospital emergency department (ED). This will allow the possible use of thrombolytic therapy or other acute interventions within a limited time window. AIMS: We investigated the predictors of early arrival in a single hospital serving a mixed urban and rural catchment area. METHODS: A retrospective review of all case notes for 1 year was performed. RESULTS: Of 105 acute strokes, 91 were cerebral infarcts and a total of 71 cases presenting initially to the ED had timing available for analysis. 39.4% presented within 3 h, and 12.7% were potentially suitable for thrombolysis. Those living closer to the hospital were not more likely to arrive within 3 h (Z = -0.411, p = 0.68). Presenting directly to the hospital by emergency services (or private transport) was significantly associated with early arrival in a univariate comparison (p < 0.001), and in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION: The only independent predictor of early arrival to the ED is direct presentation. Improved public education of the importance of recognition of stroke symptoms and rapid contact with the emergency services will improve the early attendance following acute stroke, allowing increased use of acute stroke treatments.

  11. Citicoline in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study (ICTUS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Antoni; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Castillo, José; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose; Martínez-Vila, Eduardo; Serena, Joaquín; Segura, Tomás; Cruz, Vitor T; Masjuan, Jaime; Cobo, Erik; Secades, Julio J

    2012-07-28

    Citicoline is approved in some countries for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. The drug has shown some evidence of efficacy in a pooled analysis. We sought to confirm the efficacy of citicoline in a larger trial. We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, sequential trial in patients with moderate-to-severe acute ischaemic stroke admitted at university hospitals in Germany, Portugal, and Spain. Using a centralised minimisation process, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive citicoline or placebo within 24 h after the onset of symptoms (1000 mg every 12 h intravenously during the first 3 days and orally thereafter for a total of 6 weeks [2×500 mg oral tablets given every 12 h]). All study participants were masked. The primary outcome was recovery at 90 days measured by a global test combining three measures of success: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤1, modified Rankin score ≤1, and Barthel Index ≥95. Safety endpoints included symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage in patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, neurological deterioration, and mortality. This trial is registered, NCT00331890. 2298 patients were enrolled into the study from Nov 26, 2006, to Oct 27, 2011. 37 centres in Spain, 11 in Portugal, and 11 in Germany recruited patients. Of the 2298 patients who gave informed consent and underwent randomisation, 1148 were assigned to citicoline and 1150 to placebo. The trial was stopped for futility at the third interim analysis on the basis of complete data from 2078 patients. The final randomised analysis was based on data for 2298 patients: 1148 in citicoline group and 1150 in placebo group. Global recovery was similar in both groups (odds ratio 1·03, 95% CI 0·86-1·25; p=0·364). No significant differences were reported in the safety variables nor in the rate of adverse events. Under the circumstances of the ICTUS trial, citicoline is not efficacious in the treatment of moderate

  12. The difference between acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke risk with regard to gender and age in Finnish and Swedish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Marjukka; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Söderberg, Stefan; Eliasson, Mats; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2010-06-01

    We studied the age and gender difference between acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke risk and examined the extent to which such a difference may be explained by known risk factors. Data from Finnish and Swedish population-based cohorts including 9278 individuals were collaboratively analysed. Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease and stroke incidence were estimated using the Cox-proportional hazards model. The incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke was higher in all age groups in men than in women, and the gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. There was a 10-year lag in the development of coronary heart disease and stroke in women compared with men. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the incidence of coronary heart disease in men and women were 3.87 (2.49-6.02) and 1.71 (1.07-2.74) at age 50-59 years, and 7.22 (4.59-11.36) and 3.49 (2.18-5.57) at age 60-69 years compared with women aged 40-49 years. For ischaemic stroke, they were 2.64 (1.45-4.82) and 2.17 (1.18-3.97) at age 50-59 years, and 5.19 (2.81-9.58) and 4.89 (2.67-8.97) at age 60-69 years, respectively. Acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke events appeared approximately 10 years earlier in men than in women, and these rates remained higher in men than in women in all age groups. The gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. This may be taken into account when developing interventions and treatment strategies.

  13. Thrombus imaging in acute ischaemic stroke using thin-slice unenhanced CT: comparison of conventional sequential CT and helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eung Yeop

    2012-01-01

    Thin-slice helical unenhanced CT can be used for thrombus imaging but increases radiation exposure. Conventional sequential images obtained by multidetector CT can be reconstructed into thin-slice images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if conventional sequential unenhanced CT images can replace helical unenhanced CT for thrombus imaging. Fifty consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke underwent both 5-mm conventional sequential unenhanced CT and helical unenhanced CT. Each of the sequential and helical unenhanced CT images was subsequently reconstructed into four 1.25-mm images. Thrombus volumes and HU were measured semi-automatically using both types of unenhanced CT. Thrombus HU ratio (rHU) was calculated using the HU of the contralateral segment. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement. The mean rHUs were 1.47 ± 0.17 for sequential unenhanced CT and 1.47 ± 0.18 helical unenhanced CT (P = 0.542). The mean thrombus volumes were 124.25 ± 125.65 mm 3 and 117.84 ± 124.32 mm 3 on sequential and helical unenhanced CT images, respectively (P = 0.063). Measurement agreement between thrombus volumes from the two unenhanced CT images was high (ICC = 0.981). Thin-slice unenhanced CT images reconstructed from 5-mm sequential images can replace helical unenhanced CT for thrombus imaging in acute ischaemic stroke. circle Unenhanced CT is used to evaluate intra-arterial thrombus. (orig.)

  14. Aetiological blood biomarkers of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderer, Julian; Katan Kahles, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 5 million people die worldwide from stroke, and at least every sixth patient who survives will experience another stroke within five years [1]. We are therefore eager to advance early and rapid diagnosis, prognosis and optimal risk stratification, as well as secondary prevention. In this context, blood biomarkers may improve patient care, as they have already done in other fields in the past, for example, troponin T/I in patients with heart attacks, natriuretic peptides in patients with heart failure or PCT (procalcitonin) [2] in patients with pneumonia. In the setting of acute stroke, a blood biomarker can be any quantifiable entity that reflects the manifestation of a stroke-related process. The most fruitful implementation of stroke biomarkers is in areas where information from traditional clinical sources is limited. There may be markers, for example, to guide risk stratification, reveal stroke aetiology, identify patients who may benefit most from interventions, monitor treatment efficacy, and recognise the risk of short-term complications or unfavourable long-term outcomes. For this review we focus on blood biomarkers that could help distinguish the underlying aetiology of an ischaemic stroke. Stroke tends to be a much more heterogeneous condition than ischaemic heart disease, which is caused by atherosclerosis in the vast majority of cases. Causes of stroke include small and large vessel disease, cardioembolism, dissections, and rare vasculo- and coagulopathies, among others. Because of this heterogeneity among stroke patients, it is clear that a monolithic approach to stroke prevention or secondary prevention is not warranted. Aetiological classification is important specifically because prognosis, risk of recurrence and management options differ greatly between aetiological subtypes. Considering that today up to 30% of stroke patients still cannot be classified into a specific subtype [3], the ability to improve aetiological classification

  15. Cognitive performance after ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela R. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment after stroke affects the patient recovery process. Therefore, the identification of factors associated with cognitive outcomes is important since it allows risk profiles of stroke survivors to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive outcome of stroke outpatients and investigate associations among clinical and demographic variables, vascular risk factors, depression symptoms and functional ability; and to describe the neuropsychological profile of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study was conducted. Subjects who suffered a first-ever ischaemic stroke 6 to 10 months prior to data collection underwent neuropsychological assessment and screening for depressive symptoms and functional ability. The outcome "cognitive performance" was analyzed considering two groups: "cognitive impairment" and "no cognitive impairment". RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between cognitive impairment and female gender, age, stroke severity and functional ability. Regarding neuropsychological profile, the cognitive impairment group exhibited more generalized deficits in attention, visuospatial organization, verbal functions and verbal memory domains compared to the community control group. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cognitive impairment among patients was high, especially in women, older participants, individuals with more severe stroke, and greater impairment in functional ability. Multiple cognitive domains are affected and this may hamper recovery and negatively impact independence and quality of life after stroke.

  16. Use of acupuncture therapy as a supplement to conventional medical treatments for acute ischaemic stroke patients in an academic medical centre in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyejung; Kwon, Young Dae; Yoon, Sung Sang

    2011-10-01

    Acupuncture has served as a major complementary and alternative therapy that supplements conventional medicine and is the subject of growing public interest. This study was conducted to estimate the usage rate of acupuncture as a supplemental treatment in acute ischaemic stroke patients and to identify factors associated with the choice to use this therapy. Using the registry of stroke patients admitted to an academic medical centre in Korea, the use of acupuncture therapy was recorded and analysed, along with the patients' socio-demographic characteristics, hospital access variables, risk factors for ischaemic stroke and clinical characteristics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 2167 patients, 18% received acupuncture therapy. The choice of acupuncture therapy was significantly associated with stroke severity as well as gender, age, geographical residence and previous history of stroke. After controlling for other significant factors, there was an approximately 3.4-fold greater usage in patients with moderately severe strokes (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5-4.6) and 4.1-fold greater usage in patients with severe strokes (95% CI=2.7-6.4). The findings provide a better understanding of patients' utilization of acupuncture therapy as a supplement to conventional medical treatments and of factors associated with the utilization of acupuncture in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Strategic implications of acupuncture therapy are suggested for both health-care providers and policy makers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke lesions in a dog brain: neuropathological characterisation and comparison to human ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Barbara Blicher; Gredal, Hanne; Wirenfeldt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human....../macrophages and astrocytes. Conclusions The neuropathological changes reported in the present study were similar to findings in human patients with ischaemic stroke. The dog with spontaneous ischaemic stroke is of interest as a complementary spontaneous animal model for further neuropathological studies....... stroke patients. In order to face this apparent translational gap within stroke research, dogs with ischaemic stroke constitute an opportunity to study the neuropathology of ischaemic stroke in an animal species. Case presentation A 7 years and 8 months old female neutered Rottweiler dog suffered...

  18. Influence of cognitive impairment on the management of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, K; Bombois, S; Cordonnier, C; Hénon, H; Bordet, R; Pasquier, F; Leys, D

    2014-03-01

    Because of ageing of the population, it is more and more frequent to treat ischaemic stroke patients with pre-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). Currently, there is no specific recommendation on ischaemic stroke management in these patients, both at the acute stage and in secondary prevention. However, these patients are less likely to receive treatments proven effective in randomised controlled trials, even in the absence of contra-indication. To review the literature to assess efficacy and safety of validated therapies for acute ischaemic stroke and secondary prevention in PSCI patients. Most randomised trials did not take into account the pre-stroke cognitive status. The few observational studies conducted at the acute stage or in secondary prevention, did not provide any information that the benefit could be either lost or replaced by harm in the presence of PSCI. There is no reason not to treat ischaemic stroke patients with PSCI according to the currently available recommendations for acute management and secondary prevention. Further observational studies are needed and pre-stroke cognition should be taken into account in future stroke trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute recanalization of carotid stenosis is not proper: an experimental ischaemic stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingtao; Hafeez, Adam; Yu, Wang; Ren, Changhong; Geng, Xiaokun; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Shimeng; Zhang, Ying; Mao, Ruili; Zhou, Jiying; Ding, Yuchuan; Ji, Xunming

    2015-05-01

    In a rat common carotid artery (CCA) stenosis model, the author determined the function of blood-brain barrier (BBB) at different time points and established an optimal time for CCA recanalization in rats with CCA stenosis combined with cerebral infarction. Common carotid artery severe stenosis combined with cerebral infarction was divided into two groups: CCA stenosis group (n = 48) and CCA stenosis recanalization group (n = 48). Common carotid artery stenosis recanalization was opened at time points of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14  days. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, neurological behaviour, motor function, brain water content and immunohistochemistry of laminin and fibronectin were used to assess brain injury. The peak systolic velocity (PSV) determined by colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was used to assess blood flow of the CCA. In contrast to CCA stenosis without recanalization, in which severe neurological deficits and foot fault were observed at 1, 2 and 3  days, significantly less neurological deficits at 14 days and less foot fault placing at 5, 7 and 14  days were observed after recanalization (P vs acute phase), the levels of basal laminar proteins were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by vascular recanalization in both the ischaemic core and penumbra. Peak systolic velocity of CCA after recanalization reached the control level without stenosis. Our study suggests that the optimal time to open the CCA stenosis complicating cerebral infarction is at or after 7  days of CCA stenosis.

  20. Reliability of point-of-care coagulometer measurements in patients with acute ischaemic stroke receiving intravenous fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Alonso, D; Fayos-Vidal, F; Martí-Fàbregas, J; Prats-Sánchez, L; Marín-Bueno, R; Martínez-Domeño, A; Delgado-Mederos, R; Camps-Renom, P

    2017-09-25

    Speed of administration conditions the effectiveness of intravenous fibrinolysis in treating acute ischaemic stroke. To reduce the risk of haemorrhagic complications, the intervention is contraindicated in certain cases, such as where the International Normalised Ratio (INR) is ≥ 1.7. This study aimed to determine the reliability of point-of-care INR readings (POC-INR) taken using the CoaguChek ® XS portable coagulometer compared to laboratory results (L-INR). We conducted a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients admitted to our centre with acute ischaemic stroke and who were treated with intravenous fibrinolysis, over a period of 4 years. Patients' INR was measured with a portable coagulometer and in the laboratory. Results were compared using the paired-sample t test; using L-INR results as a reference value, ROC analysis was performed to determine POC-INR with greater predictive value. The study included 210 patients with a mean age of 74.3±11.5 years old; 18 (8.6%) were taking vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (OAC). There were no significant differences between the 2 INR measurements in the population as a whole (POC-INR-L-INR difference: 0.001±0.085; P=.82). In subgroup analysis, the results coincided for patients taking OACs (0.001±0.081; P=.42) and those with L-INR ≤ 1.2 (0.008±0.081; P=.16). For L-INR>1.2, however, the portable coagulometer underestimated INR (0.058±0.095; P=.01). Through ROC analysis, POC-INR < 1.6 was found to be the cut-off point with greatest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.97%) for identifying patients eligible for intravenous fibrinolysis (L-INR < 1.7). POC-INR shows a good correlation with L-INR. Our results suggest that the best threshold to predict an L-INR < 1.7 is POC-INR < 1.6. Internal validation studies for POC-INR should be considered in all treatment centres. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening, prevalence and ethnic variation of diabetes mellitus in people with acute stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a cross-sectional study in Northland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Steven Wm; McGrath, Nicole N

    2016-06-10

    To assess our prevalence and screening rate for diabetes and pre-diabetes in people presenting with acute stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in Northland, New Zealand, as well as identifying discrepancies between Māori and non-Māori, rates of atrial fibrillation (AF) and effect of metformin on stroke. Data was collected retrospectively on people diagnosed with stroke or TIA in Northland, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014. 345 people presented with acute stroke/TIA. 49.5% had dysglycaemia: 24.3% diabetes, 25.2% pre-diabetes. An HbA1c was performed on 70.4%. Māori had more diabetes (41.6%) than non-Māori (19.4%), with an HbA1c 12 mmol/mol (3.2%) higher, and were 12 years younger on average. There was no difference in AF prevalence between people with and without diabetes, and in the proportion of severe stroke (total anterior circulation infarction) between people with diabetes on metformin and those not. The prevalence of dysglycaemia in acute stroke/TIA in Northland is high. The goal of universal HbA1c screening in stroke is not being met. Māori have stroke younger, and a higher prevalence of diabetes may partially explain this. No association between diabetes and AF was found, nor evidence that metformin may be protective against larger strokes.

  2. The prevalence of peripheral arteriopathy is higher in ischaemic stroke as compared with transient ischaemic attack and intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Hagen B; Köhrmann, Martin; Mauer, Christoph; Lücking, Hannes; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd; Schwab, Stefan; Schellinger, Peter D

    2010-08-01

    There is little data on the association of peripheral arterial disease and stroke. We aimed to assess the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in acute stroke and to identify the predisposing factors for peripheral arterial disease in a stroke cohort. We enrolled all consecutive patients who were admitted to our stroke- and neurocritical care units with the diagnosis of a transient ischaemic attack, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke over a period of 5 months. As controls, we analysed 50 nonvascular neurological patients who were matched to age. Upon admission, assessment of the ankle brachial index was performed in all patients. The only exclusion criteria was decompensated congestive heart failure. Altogether, we compared 374 stroke patients (95 transient ischaemic attack, 231 ischaemic, and 48 haemorrhagic strokes) and 50 nonstroke controls. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the control group was 14%. There was a trend towards a higher prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in stroke patients (chi(2)-test: P=0.051; prevalence peripheral arterial disease in transient ischaemic attack: 16.8%, ischaemic stroke: 32%, and haemorrhagic stroke: 20.8%). A higher proportion of ischaemic stroke patients were peripheral arterial disease-positive, compared with transient ischaemic attack patients (P=0.005) and controls (P=0.011), respectively. Multivariate regression analyses identified the parameters age, arterial hypertension, current or former smokers and a history of cardiovascular events to be predisposing factors of peripheral arterial disease. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in stroke. By now, it is clear that: * peripheral arterial disease is more commonly found in stroke than in nonstroke patients * ischaemic stroke patients show the highest prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and * peripheral arterial disease in stroke is related to common vascular risk factors.

  3. Feasibility of progesterone treatment for ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire L; Bath, Philip M

    2016-03-01

    Two multi-centre phase III clinical trials examining the protective potential of progesterone following traumatic brain injury have recently failed to demonstrate any improvement in outcome. Thus, it is timely to consider how this impacts on the translational potential of progesterone treatment for ischaemic stroke. A wealth of experimental evidence supports the neuroprotective properties of progesterone, and associated metabolites, following various types of central nervous system injury. In particular, for ischaemic stroke, studies have also begun to reveal possible mechanisms of such neuroprotection. However, the results in traumatic brain injury now question whether further clinical development of progesterone for ischaemic stroke is relevant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Is it important to classify ischaemic stroke?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-five percent of all ischemic events remain classified as cryptogenic. This study was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of diagnosis of ischaemic stroke based on information given in the medical notes. It was tested by applying the clinical information to the (TOAST) criteria. Hundred and five patients presented with acute stroke between Jan-Jun 2007. Data was collected on 90 patients. Male to female ratio was 39:51 with age range of 47-93 years. Sixty (67%) patients had total\\/partial anterior circulation stroke; 5 (5.6%) had a lacunar stroke and in 25 (28%) the mechanism of stroke could not be identified. Four (4.4%) patients with small vessel disease were anticoagulated; 5 (5.6%) with atrial fibrillation received antiplatelet therapy and 2 (2.2%) patients with atrial fibrillation underwent CEA. This study revealed deficiencies in the clinical assessment of patients and treatment was not tailored to the mechanism of stroke in some patients.

  5. Animal models of ischaemic stroke and characterisation of the ischaemic penumbra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Christopher; Arroja, Mariana M; Reid, Emma; Macrae, I Mhairi

    2017-09-18

    Over the past forty years, animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia have allowed us to identify the critical cerebral blood flow thresholds responsible for irreversible cell death, electrical failure, inhibition of protein synthesis, energy depletion and thereby the lifespan of the potentially salvageable penumbra. They have allowed us to understand the intricate biochemical and molecular mechanisms within the 'ischaemic cascade' that initiate cell death in the first minutes, hours and days following stroke. Models of permanent, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and embolic stroke have been developed each with advantages and limitations when trying to model the complex heterogeneous nature of stroke in humans. Yet despite these advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke-induced cell death with numerous targets identified and drugs tested, a lack of translation to the clinic has hampered pre-clinical stroke research. With recent positive clinical trials of endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke the stroke community has been reinvigorated, opening up the potential for future translation of adjunctive treatments that can be given alongside thrombectomy/thrombolysis. This review discusses the major animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia highlighting their advantages and limitations. Acute imaging is crucial in longitudinal pre-clinical stroke studies in order to identify the influence of acute therapies on tissue salvage over time. Therefore, the methods of identifying potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: from randomised clinical trials to daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dirks (Maaike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, as in most Western countries, stroke is a major contributor to the total burden of disease, with an estimated 39,600 hospital admissions, 9,000 deaths, and approximately 241,600 people living with the consequences of a stroke in 2009.1 Fortunately, improvements are

  7. A novel snake venom-derived GPIb antagonist, anfibatide, protects mice from acute experimental ischaemic stroke and reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Ting; Fan, Man-Li; Hou, Shi-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yi; Barry, Devin M; Jin, Hui; Luo, Sheng-Yong; Kong, Feng; Lau, Lit-Fui; Dai, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Lan-Lan

    2015-08-01

    Ischaemic stroke is a serious disease with limited therapy options. Glycoprotein (GP)Ib binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF) exposed at vascular injury initiates platelet adhesion and contributes to platelet aggregation. GPIb has been suggested as an effective target for antithrombotic therapy in stroke. Anfibatide is a GPIb antagonist derived from snake venom and we investigated its protective effect on experimental brain ischaemia in mice. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced by 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). These mice were then treated with anfibatide (4, 2, 1 μg·kg(-1) ), injected i.v., after 90 min of MCAO, followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Tirofiban, a GPIIb/IIIα antagonist, was used as a positive control. Twenty-four hours after MCAO, anfibatide-treated mice showed significantly improved ischaemic lesions in a dose-dependent manner. The mice had smaller infarct volumes, less severe neurological deficits and histopathology of cerebrum tissues compared with the untreated MCAO mice. Moreover, anfibatide decreased the amount of GPIbα, vWF and accumulation of fibrin(ogen) in the vasculature of the ischaemic hemisphere. Tirofiban had similar effects on infarct size and fibrin(ogen) deposition compared with the MCAO group. Importantly, the anfibatide-treated mice showed a lower incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage and shorter tail bleeding time compared with the tirofiban-treated mice. Our data indicate anfibatide is a safe GPIb antagonist that exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Anfibatide is a promising candidate that could be beneficial for the treatment of ischaemic stroke. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Time to angiographic reperfusion and clinical outcome after acute ischaemic stroke: an analysis of data from the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS III) phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Pooja; Yeatts, Sharon D; Mazighi, Mikael; Broderick, Joseph P; Liebeskind, David S; Demchuk, Andrew M; Amarenco, Pierre; Carrozzella, Janice; Spilker, Judith; Foster, Lydia D; Goyal, Mayank; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko Y; Jauch, Edward C; Haley, E Clarke; Vagal, Achala; Tomsick, Thomas A

    2014-06-01

    The IMS III trial did not show a clinical benefit of endovascular treatment compared with intravenous alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) alone for moderate or severe ischaemic strokes. Late reperfusion of tissue that was no longer salvageable could be one explanation, as suggested by previous exploratory studies that showed an association between time to reperfusion and good clinical outcome. We sought to validate this association in a preplanned analysis of data from the IMS III trial. We used data for patients with complete proximal arterial occlusions in the anterior circulation who received endovascular treatment and achieved angiographic reperfusion (score on Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale of grade 2-3) during the endovascular procedure (within 7 h of symptom onset). We used logistic regression to model good clinical outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 3 months) as a function of the time to reperfusion. We prespecified variables to be considered for adjustment, including age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, sex, and baseline blood glucose concentration. Of 240 patients who were otherwise eligible for inclusion in our analysis, 182 (76%) achieved angiographic reperfusion. Mean time from symptom onset to reperfusion (ie, procedure end) was 325 min (SD 52). Increased time to reperfusion was associated with a decreased likelihood of good clinical outcome (unadjusted relative risk for every 30-min delay 0·85 [95% CI 0·77-0·94]; adjusted relative risk 0·88 [0·80-0·98]). Delays in time to angiographic reperfusion lead to a decreased likelihood of good clinical outcome in patients after moderate to severe stroke. Rapid reperfusion could be crucial for the success of future acute endovascular trials. US National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of dual energy CT in differentiating between brain haemorrhage and contrast medium after mechanical revascularisation in acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijssen, M.P.M.; Stadler, A.A.R.; Zwam, W. van; Graaf, R. de; Postma, A.A.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Oostenbrugge, R.J. van; Klotz, E.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of dual energy computed tomography (DE-CT) in intra-arterially treated acute ischaemic stroke patients to discriminate between contrast extravasation and intracerebral haemorrhage. Thirty consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients following intra-arterial treatment were examined with DE-CT. Simultaneous imaging at 80 kV and 140 kV was employed with calculation of mixed images. Virtual unenhanced non-contrast (VNC) images and iodine overlay maps (IOM) were calculated using a dedicated brain haemorrhage algorithm. Mixed images alone, as ''conventional CT'', and DE-CT interpretations were evaluated and compared with follow-up CT. Eight patients were excluded owing to a lack of follow-up or loss of data. Mixed images showed intracerebral hyperdense areas in 19/22 patients. Both haemorrhage and residual contrast material were present in 1/22. IOM suggested contrast extravasation in 18/22 patients; in 16/18 patients this was confirmed at follow-up. The positive predictive value (PPV) of mixed imaging alone was 25 %, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 91 % and accuracy of 63 %. The PPV for detection of haemorrhage with DE-CT was 100 %, with an NPV of 89 % and accuracy improved to 89 %. Dual energy computed tomography improves accuracy and diagnostic confidence in early differentiation between intracranial haemorrhage and contrast medium extravasation in acute stroke patients following intra-arterial revascularisation. (orig.)

  10. Impaired nocturnal melatonin in acute phase of ischaemic stroke: cross-sectional matched case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, P A; Terzieva, D D; Dimitrov, B D

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative data on melatonin in stroke patients are scarce. A gender- and age-matched cross-sectional case-control study in 33 patients with ischaemic stroke was performed and associations between nocturnal melatonin and other factors (e.g. cortisol) were evaluated. Clinical and laboratory (e.g. melatonin and cortisol) measurements (03.00 h and 08.00 h) with statistical techniques [e.g. multifactorial regressions, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and curvilinear estimations] were used. We identified mean value and 95% confidence interval (CI) (69.70 pg/ml; 95% CI = 53.86-85.54) for control levels of nocturnal melatonin in healthy subjects. The patients with stroke had lower melatonin (48.1 +/- 35.9 pg/ml) and higher cortisol (297.3 +/- 157.8 nmol/l) at 03.00 h (P 0.05). Stroke was the strongest factor of disturbed nocturnal cortisol (P melatonin depended on stroke (P = 0.010) and gender (P = 0.018). At the same time, vice versa, only nocturnal measures were associated with an increased probability of the presence of stroke (accuracy > 75%, Pmodel melatonin with 1.0 pg/ml might be associated with > 2% increase in the probability of the presence of stroke [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.020; 95% CI = 1.002-1.037] was also suggested. The ROC curve (0.67, P = 0.0119) and optimisation techniques indicated that a novel best cut-off melatonin in the view of the presence of stroke (OR = 3.12, P = 0.0463) might exist. The classification performance of such a cut-off might be confirmed by existing nocturnal melatonin and cortisol differences between the sub-groups; potential differences in diurnal melatonin were also suggested. In conclusion, a novel melatonin cut-off of 51.5 pg/ml may be associated with the presence of ischaemic stroke. As a single marker (84% sensitivity, 74% specificity), it is hypothesised that modelling performance was independent of age, gender and cortisol. These new results, including the suggested hypothesis, might be further tested in

  11. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-High blood pressure (BP) is present in approximate to 80% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. There are few data examining the relationship between admission BP and acute CT findings. Methods-TAIST was a randomized...

  12. Renal Function Predicts Outcomes in Patients with Ischaemic Stroke and Haemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarska, Katarzyna; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Bachórzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated renal function and the impact of renal function on in-hospital outcomes in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. We collected data from 766 patients with stroke; 637 (83.2 %) with ischaemic and 129 with haemorrhagic one. The mean serum creatinine on admission in patients with both types of stroke, who died, was significantly higher than in those who survived. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of mortality in patients with ischaemic stroke were: ischemic heart disease or prior myocardial infarction, diabetes, admission glucose and eGFR on admission. Also, multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of mortality in patients with haemorrhagic stroke were: age and admission glucose. Patients with haemorrhagic stroke, in particular with acute kidney injury during hospitalisation had significantly worse outcomes than patients with ischaemic stroke. Assessment of kidney function is prerequisite to employ the necessary measures to decrease the risk of in-hospital mortality among patients with acute stroke. Appropriate approach to patients with renal dysfunction (adequate hydration, avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs, drug dose adjustment etc) should be considered as preventive and therapeutic strategies in the management of acute stroke. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Editor's choice - Safety of carotid endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, L K; Venermo, M; Troëng, T

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have been published on the safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Registry reports have been recommended in order to gather large study groups. DESIGN: A retrospective, registry based, case controlled study on prospectively gathered data...... from Sweden, the capital region of Finland, and from Denmark, including 30 days of follow up. METHODS: The study group was a consecutive series of 5526 patients who had CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis during a 4.5 year period. Among these, 202 (4%) had IVT prior to surgery, including 117...... having CEA within 14 days, and 59 within 7 days of thrombolysis. IVT as well as CEA were performed following established guidelines. The median time from index symptom to CEA was 12 days (range 0-130, IQR 7-21). RESULTS: The 30 day combined stroke and death rate was 3.5% (95% CI 1.69-6.99) for those...

  14. Sex differences in ischaemic stroke: potential cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Anjali; Moser, Hope; McCullough, Louise D

    2017-04-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. More women than men have strokes each year, in part because women live longer. Women have poorer functional outcomes, are more likely to need nursing home care and have higher rates of recurrent stroke compared with men. Despite continued advancements in primary prevention, innovative acute therapies and ongoing developments in neurorehabilitation, stroke incidence and mortality continue to increase due to the aging of the U.S. Sex chromosomes (XX compared with XY), sex hormones (oestrogen and androgen), epigenetic regulation and environmental factors all contribute to sex differences. Ischaemic sensitivity varies over the lifespan, with females having an "ischaemia resistant" phenotype that wanes after menopause, which has recently been modelled in the laboratory. Pharmacological therapies for acute ischaemic stroke are limited. The only pharmacological treatment for stroke approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which must be used within hours of stroke onset and has a number of contraindications. Pre-clinical studies have identified a number of potentially efficacious neuroprotective agents; however, nothing has been effectively translated into therapy in clinical practice. This may be due, in part, to the overwhelming use of young male rodents in pre-clinical research, as well as lack of sex-specific design and analysis in clinical trials. The review will summarize the current clinical evidence for sex differences in ischaemic stroke, and will discuss sex differences in the cellular mechanisms of acute ischaemic injury, highlighting cell death and immune/inflammatory pathways that may contribute to these clinical differences. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3-4.5 h after acute ischaemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Nils; Ahmed, Niaz; Dávalos, Antoni; Hacke, Werner; Millán, Mónica; Muir, Keith; Roine, Risto O; Toni, Danilo; Lees, Kennedy R

    2008-10-11

    Intravenous alteplase is approved for use within 3 h of ischaemic stroke onset, although a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials suggests treatment benefit up to 4.5 h. We compared outcome in patients treated between 3 h and 4.5 h versus those treated within 3 h, who were recorded in the in the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke (SITS), a prospective internet-based audit of the International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (ISTR). We compared 664 patients presenting with ischaemic stroke and given intravenous altepase (0.9 mg/kg total dose) between 3 h and 4.5 h with 11 865 patients treated within 3 h. All patients were otherwise compliant with European summary of product characteristics criteria and had been documented in the international stroke treatment registry between Dec 25, 2002, and Nov 15, 2007. Outcome measures were symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage within 24 h (haemorrhage type 2 associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] > or = 4 points deterioration), and mortality and independence (modified Rankin scale of 0-2) at 3 months. In the 3-4.5-h cohort, treatment was started at a median of 55 min later after symptom onset (195 min [IQR 187-210] vs 140 min [115-165], p<0.0001), median age was 3 years younger (65 years [55-73] vs 68 years [58-74], p<0.0001), and stroke severity was lower (NIHSS score 11 [7-16] vs 12 [8-17], p<0.0001) than in the 3-h cohort. We recorded no significant differences between the 3-4.5-h cohort and the within 3-h cohort for any outcome measure--rate of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage: 2.2% (14 of 649) versus 1.6% (183 of 11 681) (odds ratio [OR] 1.18 [95% CI 0.89-1.55], p=0.24; adjusted OR 1.32 [1.00-1.75], p=0.052); mortality: 12.7% (70 of 551) versus 12.2% (1263 of 10 368) (OR 1.02 [0.90-1.17]; p=0.72; adjusted OR 1.15 [1.00-1.33]; p=0.053); and independence: 58.0% (314 of 541) versus 56.3% (5756 of 10231) (OR 1.04 [0.95-1.13], p=0.42; adjusted OR 0.93 [0.84-1.03], p=0

  16. Three-dimensional black-blood contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of intraluminal thrombi in patients with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2018-03-19

    This study evaluated the utility of three-dimensional (3D), black-blood (BB), contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of intraluminal thrombi in acute stroke patients. Forty-seven patients with acute stroke involving the anterior circulation underwent MRI examination within 6 h of clinical onset. Cerebral angiography was used as the reference standard. In a blinded manner, two neuroradiologists interpreted the following three data sets: (1) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) + 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI; (2) DWI + susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI); (3) DWI + 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI + SWI. Of these patients, 47 had clots in the middle cerebral artery and four had clots in the anterior cerebral artery. For both observers, the area under the curve (Az) for data sets 1 and 3, which included 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI, was significantly greater than it was for data set 2, which did not include 3D BB contrast-enhanced MR imaging (observer 1, 0.988 vs 0.904, p = 0.001; observer 2, 0.988 vs 0.894, p = 0.000). Three-dimensional BB contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of intraluminal thrombi compared to conventional MRI methods in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. • BB contrast-enhanced MRI helps clinicians to assess the intraluminal clot • BB contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of intraluminal thrombi • BB contrast-enhanced MRI for clot detection has a higher sensitivity.

  17. Survival and clinical outcome of dogs with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredal, H; Toft, N; Westrup, U; Motta, L; Gideon, P; Arlien-Søborg, P; Skerritt, G C; Berendt, M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered excellent in seven of 17 (41%) 30-day survivors. Another seven 30-day survivors experienced new acute neurological signs within 6-17months of the initial stroke event; in two of those cases a new ischaemic stroke was confirmed by MRI. In conclusion, dogs with ischaemic stroke have a fair to good prognosis in terms of survival and clinical outcome. However, owners should be informed of the risk of acute death within 30days and of the possibility of new neurological events in survivors. Mortality was increased in dogs with right-sided lesions in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute stroke: a comparison of different CT perfusion algorithms and validation of ischaemic lesions by follow-up imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abels, Benjamin; Villablanca, J.P.; Tomandl, Bernd F.; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    To compare ischaemic lesions predicted by different CT perfusion (CTP) post-processing techniques and validate CTP lesions compared with final lesion size in stroke patients. Fifty patients underwent CT, CTP and CT angiography. Quantitative values and colour maps were calculated using least mean square deconvolution (LMSD), maximum slope (MS) and conventional singular value decomposition deconvolution (SVDD) algorithms. Quantitative results, core/penumbra lesion sizes and Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS) were compared among the algorithms; lesion sizes and ASPECTS were compared with final lesions on follow-up MRI + MRA or CT + CTA as a reference standard, accounting for recanalisation status. Differences in quantitative values and lesion sizes were statistically significant, but therapeutic decisions based on ASPECTS and core/penumbra ratios would have been the same in all cases. CTP lesion sizes were highly predictive of final infarct size: Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) for CTP versus follow-up lesion sizes in the recanalisation group were 0.87, 0.82 and 0.61 (P < 0.001) for LMSD, MS and SVDD, respectively, and 0.88, 0.87 and 0.76 (P < 0.001), respectively, in the non-recanalisation group. Lesions on CT perfusion are highly predictive of final infarct. Different CTP post-processing algorithms usually lead to the same clinical decision, but for assessing lesion size, LMSD and MS appear superior to SVDD. (orig.)

  19. A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF SERUM CALCIUM ALBUMIN AND URIC ACID AS PREDICTOR OF NEUROLOGICAL SEVERITY AND SHORT-TERM OUTCOME IN ACUTE ISCHAEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Subramanyam S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide, the second most common cause of dementia and the third leading cause of death. It is unclear whether serum uric acid promotes or protects against the cerebrovascular disease. Hence, a search for other risk factors is the need of the hour. The aim of the study is to study the role of serum uric acid, serum calcium and serum albumin in acute ischaemic stroke and its effect on stroke outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out in ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, over a period of 18 months in 100 cases of who met the inclusion criteria were studied. Patients presenting within 72 hours of onset and aged ≥40 years were included in this study. Apart from routine investigations, serum albumin, calcium and uric acid levels were done in all patients. RESULTS Out of 100 patients, 63% were males and 37% were females. Ratio was 1.7:1. Majority of stroke population are between 50 to 69 years. Hypertension constitutes the major risk factor in this population as 79% of population is hypertensive. Serum calcium, albumin and uric acid values had a highly significant correlation with neurological severity by NIHSS scores (p<0.001 and with the short-term outcome by Barthel index (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Serum albumin, serum calcium and serum uric acid values can predict initial neurologic severity and short-term outcome in AIS.

  20. Understanding clinicians' decisions to offer intravenous thrombolytic treatment to patients with acute ischaemic stroke: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brún, Aoife; Flynn, Darren; Joyce, Kerry; Ternent, Laura; Price, Christopher; Rodgers, Helen; Ford, Gary A; Lancsar, Emily; Rudd, Matthew; Thomson, Richard G

    2014-07-09

    Intravenous thrombolysis is an effective emergency treatment for acute ischaemic stroke for patients meeting specific criteria. Approximately 12% of eligible patients in England, Wales and Northern Ireland received thrombolysis in the first quarter of 2013, yet as many as 15% are eligible to receive treatment. Suboptimal use of thrombolysis may have been largely attributable to structural factors; however, with the widespread implementation of 24/7 hyper acute stroke services, continuing variation is likely to reflect differences in clinical decision-making, in particular the influence of ambiguous areas within the guidelines, licensing criteria and research evidence. Clinicians' perceptions about thrombolysis may now exert a greater influence on treatment rates than structural/service factors. This research seeks to elucidate factors influencing thrombolysis decision-making by using patient vignettes to identify (1) patient-related and clinician-related factors that may help to explain variation in treatment and (2) associated trade-offs in decision-making based on the interplay of critical factors. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) will be conducted to better understand how clinicians make decisions about whether or not to offer thrombolysis to patients with acute ischaemic stroke. To inform the design, exploratory work will be undertaken to ensure that (1) all potentially influential factors are considered for inclusion; and (2) to gain insights into the 'grey areas' of patient factors. A fractional factorial design will be used to combine levels of patient factors in vignettes, which will be presented to clinicians to allow estimation of the variable effects on decisions to offer thrombolysis. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle University Research Ethics Committee. The results will be disseminated in peer review publications and at national conferences. Findings will be translated into continuing professional development activities

  1. Deteriorating ischaemic stroke. cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, ferritin, systemic blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, diabetes, stroke severity, and CT infarction-volume as predictors of deteriorating ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne; Boysen, Gudrun; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth

    2002-01-01

    Although the causes of neurological deterioration in acute cerebral infarction have not yet been identified, many variables have been associated with deterioration. The aim of this study was to investigate deteriorating ischaemic stroke....

  2. Safety and efficacy of multipotent adult progenitor cells in acute ischaemic stroke (MASTERS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David C; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Clark, Wayne M; Savitz, Sean I; Ford, Gary A; Chiu, David; Yavagal, Dileep R; Uchino, Ken; Liebeskind, David S; Auchus, Alexander P; Sen, Souvik; Sila, Cathy A; Vest, Jeffrey D; Mays, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence and interactive voice and web response system to assign patients aged 18-83 years with moderately severe acute ischaemic stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 8-20 to treatment with intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells (400 million or 1200 million cells) or placebo between 24 h and 48 h after symptom onset. Patients were ineligible if there was a change in NIHSS of four or more points during at least a 6 h period between screening and randomisation, had brainstem or lacunar infarct, a substantial comorbid disease, an inability to undergo an MRI scan, or had a history of splenectomy. In group 1, patients were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 400 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through 7 days. In group 2, patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 1200 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through the first 7 days. In group 3, patients were enrolled, randomly assigned, and stratified by baseline NIHSS score to receive 1200 million cells or placebo in a 1:1 ratio within 24-48 h. Patients, investigators, and clinicians were masked to treatment assignment. The primary safety outcome was dose-limiting toxicity effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was global stroke recovery, which combines dichotomised results from the modified Rankin scale, change in NIHSS score from baseline, and

  3. Specific cardiac disorders in 402 consecutive patients with ischaemic cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Capmany, Ramón; Arboix, Adrià; Casañas-Muñoz, Roser; Anguera-Ferrando, Nuria

    2004-06-01

    To determine the cardiological substrate in acute stroke patients presenting with a cardioembolic stroke subtype. Data of 402 consecutive patients with cardioembolic stroke (cerebral infarction, n=347; transient ischaemic attack, n=55) were collected from a prospective hospital-based stroke registry in which data on 2000 stroke patients over a 10-year period were included. In all patients, specific cardiac disorders were identified by physical examination and results of electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography. Holter monitoring and more sensitive techniques of cardiac imaging were used in selected cases. Cardioembolic cerebral ischaemia accounted for 20% of all acute strokes (25% of ischaemic cerebrovascular events). Cardiac sources of embolism included the following: (a) structural cardiac disorders associated with arrhythmia (n=232), the most frequent being left ventricular hypertrophic hypertensive disease (n=120) and rheumatic mitral valve disease (n=49); (b) structural cardiac disease with sustained sinus rhythm (n=81), the most frequent being systolic left ventricular dysfunction of both ischaemic (n=35) or non-ischaemic (n=24) aetiology; and (c) isolated atrial dysrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, n=88 and atrial flutter, n=1). Hypertrophic hypertensive cardiac disease complicated with atrial fibrillation was the most frequent cardiac source of emboli in cardioembolic stroke. Other important cardiac sources were isolated atrial fibrillation, rheumatic mitral valve disease, and systolic left ventricular dysfunction of ischaemic and non-ischaemic cause. The incidence of traditional emboligenous-prone cardiac disorders, such as mitral valve prolapse and mitral annular calcification was low.

  4. Evolution of DWI signal abnormalities after transient ischemic attack and minor ischaemic stroke

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, A

    2011-05-01

    Background: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signal abnormality after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) predicts early stroke, independently of other risk markers included in the ABCD3-I score. Early stroke recurrence detected on follow-up DWI after the acute-phase DWI may identify patients at high risk for subsequent clinicalstrokesstroke, cognitive impairment, and seizures. We aimed to determine the evolution of acute DWI lesions and rate of new ischaemic lesion (NIL) occurrence on follow-up DWI after TIA and minor stroke.\\r\

  5. Management of Ischaemic Stroke: The Role of the Neurosurgeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of neurosurgeons in the management of ischaemic stroke. METHODS: We looked at the contributions that a neurosurgeon may be able to make in the care of the patient with an ischaemic stroke. The emphasis was on preventive and curative interventions in the surgical armamentarium of ...

  6. Presence of multi-segment clot sign on dynamic CT angiography: a predictive imaging marker of recanalisation and good outcome in acute ischaemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feina; Chen, Zhicai; Gong, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Meixia; Liebeskind, David S; Lou, Min

    2018-03-13

    To investigate the value of multi-segment clot (MSC) sign on dynamic CT angiography (CTA) in predicting recanalisation and outcome after reperfusion therapy in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) with large artery occlusion (LAO). We retrospectively reviewed data of anterior circulation LAO patients from a prospectively collected database for consecutive AIS patients who underwent perfusion CT (CTP) before treatment. MSC sign was defined as the presence of multiple segments on dynamic CTA derived from CTP data. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin score 0-3 at 90 days. A total of 181 LAO patients were enrolled. MSC sign was present in 73 (40.3%) patients. When compared with patients without MSC sign, patients with MSC sign had a significantly higher rate of recanalisation (76.7% versus 56.5%, p = 0.005) and good outcome (67.1% versus 51.0%, p = 0.035). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that MSC sign was an independent predictor for both recanalisation (OR [95% CI] = 2.237 [1.069-4.681]; p = 0.033) and good outcome (OR [95% CI] = 2.715 [1.154-6.388]; p = 0.022) after adjustment. The MSC sign is a good indicator for recanalisation and good outcome after reperfusion therapy in anterior circulation LAO patients. • MSC sign was present in about 40% acute anterior circulation LAO patients. • MSC sign is a predictor for recanalisation after reperfusion treatment. • Patients with MSC sign have a better outcome.

  7. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Jonathan; Lees, Kennedy R; Lyden, Patrick; Blackwell, Lisa; Albers, Gregory; Bluhmki, Erich; Brott, Thomas; Cohen, Geoff; Davis, Stephen; Donnan, Geoffrey; Grotta, James; Howard, George; Kaste, Markku; Koga, Masatoshi; von Kummer, Ruediger; Lansberg, Maarten; Lindley, Richard I; Murray, Gordon; Olivot, Jean Marc; Parsons, Mark; Tilley, Barbara; Toni, Danilo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Wahlgren, Nils; Wardlaw, Joanna; Whiteley, William; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Baigent, Colin; Sandercock, Peter; Hacke, Werner

    2014-11-29

    Alteplase is effective for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke but debate continues about its use after longer times since stroke onset, in older patients, and among patients who have had the least or most severe strokes. We assessed the role of these factors in affecting good stroke outcome in patients given alteplase. We did a pre-specified meta-analysis of individual patient data from 6756 patients in nine randomised trials comparing alteplase with placebo or open control. We included all completed randomised phase 3 trials of intravenous alteplase for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke for which data were available. Retrospective checks confirmed that no eligible trials had been omitted. We defined a good stroke outcome as no significant disability at 3-6 months, defined by a modified Rankin Score of 0 or 1. Additional outcomes included symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (defined by type 2 parenchymal haemorrhage within 7 days and, separately, by the SITS-MOST definition of parenchymal type 2 haemorrhage within 36 h), fatal intracranial haemorrhage within 7 days, and 90-day mortality. Alteplase increased the odds of a good stroke outcome, with earlier treatment associated with bigger proportional benefit. Treatment within 3·0 h resulted in a good outcome for 259 (32·9%) of 787 patients who received alteplase versus 176 (23·1%) of 762 who received control (OR 1·75, 95% CI 1·35-2·27); delay of greater than 3·0 h, up to 4·5 h, resulted in good outcome for 485 (35·3%) of 1375 versus 432 (30·1%) of 1437 (OR 1·26, 95% CI 1·05-1·51); and delay of more than 4·5 h resulted in good outcome for 401 (32·6%) of 1229 versus 357 (30·6%) of 1166 (OR 1·15, 95% CI 0·95-1·40). Proportional treatment benefits were similar irrespective of age or stroke severity. Alteplase significantly increased the odds of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (type 2 parenchymal haemorrhage definition 231 [6·8%] of 3391 vs 44 [1·3%] of 3365, OR 5·55, 95% CI 4·01-7·70

  8. The role of chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation on outcomes of ischaemic stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahsan A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    and diabetes mellitus lead to impairment of renal function and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, CKD is increasingly prevalent in the elderly population and is an independent predictor of stroke recurrence, mortality and poor clinical outcomes after acute ischaemic stroke (1). This article...

  9. Acute Ischaemic Colitis- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Basra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischaemic colitis (AIC is being increasingly recognised as an uncommon cause of abdominal pain associated with fresh bleeding per rectum. It is paramount to maintain a high index of suspicion and adopt appropriate management strategies to avoid complications and inappropriate interventions. In this paper, we describe a case of AIC and review literature pertinent to the management of this condition. Keywords: Ischaemic colitis, acute abdomen, management.

  10. The URICO-ICTUS study, a phase 3 study of combined treatment with uric acid and rtPA administered intravenously in acute ischaemic stroke patients within the first 4.5 h of onset of symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Sergio; Cánovas, David; Castellanos, Mar; Gállego, Jaime; Martí-Fèbregas, Joan; Segura, Tomás; Chamorro, Angel

    2010-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a major contributor to brain damage in patients with ischaemic stroke. Uric acid (UA) is a potent endogenous antioxidant molecule. In experimental ischaemia in rats, the exogenous administration of uric acid is neuroprotective and enhances the effect of rtPA. Moreover, in acute stroke patients receiving rtPA within 3 h of stroke onset, the intravenous administration of uric acid is safe, prevents an early decline in uric acid levels and reduces an early increase in oxidative stress markers and in active matrix metalloproteinase nine levels. To determine whether the combined treatment with uric acid and rtPA is superior to rtPA alone in terms of clinical efficacy in acute ischaemic stroke patients treated within the first 4.5 h of onset of symptoms. Multicentre, interventional, randomised, double-blind and vehicle-controlled efficacy study with parallel assignment (1 : 1). Estimated enrolment: 420 patients over 3 years, starting in January 2010. Treatment arms included patients will receive a single intravenous infusion of 1 g of UA dissolved in a vehicle (500 ml of 0.1% lithium carbonate and 5% mannitol) (n=210) or vehicle alone (n=210). the study will include patients older than 18 years, treated with rtPA within the first 4.5 h of clinical onset and with a baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score >6 and or =4 points of increase in the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score).

  11. Ischaemic stroke in patients treated with oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, L M; Cardona, P; Quesada, H; Lara, B; Rubio, F

    2016-01-01

    Cardioembolic stroke is associated with poorer outcomes. Prevention is based on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. Haemorrhage is the main complication of OACs, which are sometimes ineffective. We retrospectively reviewed 1014 consecutive patients who suffered an ischaemic stroke between 2011 and 2013, analysing those who were receiving OAC treatment at stroke onset (107 patients in total) with special attention to aetiology, outcomes, and INR value in the acute phase. The mean age (SD) was 71.9 (10) years. Patients had been treated with OACs for 5.9 (5.5) years; 98.1% of them were being treated for heart disease. INR was strokes were cardioembolic and 1.9% were atherothrombotic. Anticoagulation therapy was discontinued in 48 patients (44.9%) due to haemorrhagic transformation (24 patients), extensive infarction (23), or endarterectomy (1). Therapy was resumed in 24 patients (50%) after a mean lapse of 36 days. This was not possible in the remaining patients because of death or severe sequelae. New OACs (NOACs) were prescribed to 9 patients (18.7% of all potential candidates). At 3 months, patients with INR>1.7 in the acute phase exhibited better outcomes than patients with INR≤1.7 (mRS 0-2 in 62% vs 30.8%; death in 10% vs 38.4%; P=.0004). Some patients taking OACs suffer ischaemic strokes that are usually cardioembolic, especially if INR is below the therapeutic range. OACs can be resumed without complications, and NOACs are still underused. Despite cases in which treatment is ineffective, outcomes are better when INR is above 1.7 at stroke onset. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pandora's Box: mitochondrial defects in ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Sasan; Divani, Afshin A; Michel, Tanja M; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Vafaee, Manouchehr S; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-04-05

    Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are vascular events with serious health consequences worldwide. Recent genetic and epigenetic techniques have revealed many genetic determinants of these vascular events and simplified the approaches to research focused on ischaemic heart disease and stroke. The pathogenetic mechanisms of ischaemic heart disease and stroke are complex, with mitochondrial involvement (partially or entirely) recently gaining substantial support. Not only can mitochondrial reactive oxygen species give rise to ischaemic heart disease and stroke by production of oxidised low-density lipoprotein and induction of apoptosis, but the impact on pericytes contributes directly to the pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, publications implicate the causative role of nuclear genes in the development of ischaemic heart disease and stroke, in contrast to the potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the pathophysiology of the disorders, which is much less understood, although recent studies do demonstrate that the involvement of mitochondria and mtDNA in the development of ischaemic heart disease and stroke is likely to be larger than originally thought, with the novel discovery of links among mitochondria, mtDNA and vascular events. Here we explore the molecular events and mtDNA alterations in relation to the role of mitochondria in ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

  13. The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of poor outcomes in a Chinese population with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mean platelet volume as a risk stratification tool in the Emergency Department for evaluating patients with ischaemic stroke and TIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, N.O.; Karakurt, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of mean platelet volume in patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular complaints, and to find out its diagnostic utility in an acute setting to help risk stratification in patients with ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attacks. Methods: The prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from November 2009 to June 2010. It comprised 143 consecutive patients of acute ischaemic stroke, 39 patients of transient ischaemic attacks and 60 healthy volunteers. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis, and so were t-test, one-way analysis of variance test and correlation analysis. Statistical significance was accepted at p <0.05. Results: Mean platelet volume results were significantly higher in patients with cortical infarction and transient ischaemic attack compared to the control group (p <0.001 and p <0.002). A statistically significant increase was also noted in hospitalised patients when compared with discharged patients from the emergency department (p <0.036). A weak positive correlation was identified between the National Institute of Health Stroke Scores and mean platelet volume levels (r=0.207; p <0.001). A significant relationship was identified between mean platelet volume levels and previous stroke (p <0.005). Conclusion: The measurement of mean platelet volume levels may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information to emergency physicians caring for patients with transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke. In patients with suspected neurological ischaemic symptoms, high levels may be considered as an atherosclerotic risk factor. (author)

  15. Complexity in differentiating the expression of truncated or matured forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through zymography in rat brain tissues after acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mustafa; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-05-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. In particular, the mature forms of MMPs 2 and 9 have similar sizes and share gelatine as a common substrate. Both MMPs are upregulated in ischaemic stroke and play detrimental roles during stroke pathogenesis. Throughout this study, we demonstrated that pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 from ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate is detected either through immunoblotting or zymography because of the remarkable size difference between these enzymes (72 versus 95 kDa, respectively). However, the mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 cannot be discriminated through zymography because of the almost identical sizes of these forms (66 and 67 kDa, respectively). The use of gelatine zymography on ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate revealed a 65-kDa MMP band, corresponding to the heterogeneous band of mature MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. Furthermore, we also detected mature MMPs of 65 kDa generated from both recombinant human MMP-2 and MMP-9. Using a pull down assay in rat brain tissue homogenate with gelatine-agarose beads, we showed increased activities for both the pro and mature forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, we could not determine the origin of the respective mature MMPs from the heterogeneous band. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that the identification and quantification of mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 could not be achieved using zymography alone. Therefore, the development of a reliable technique to identify and measure the respective MMPs is needed to test new stroke therapies targeting MMP-2 and MMP-9. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The risk of ischaemic stroke in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radin, M; Schreiber, K; Cecchi, I

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most common neurological manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is ischaemic stroke. Identifying patients with APS at high risk for developing any thrombotic event remains a major challenge. In this study, the aim was to identify predictive factors of ischaemic...

  17. Efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus aspirin in acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack of atherosclerotic origin: a subgroup analysis of SOCRATES, a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Albers, Gregory W; Denison, Hans; Easton, J Donald; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Jonasson, Jenny; Kasner, Scott E; Ladenvall, Per; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-04-01

    Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy for patients with coronary atherosclerotic disease and might be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia of atherosclerotic origin. Our aim was to test for a treatment-by-ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis interaction in a subgroup analysis of patients in the Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated with Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes (SOCRATES) trial. SOCRATES was a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial of ticagrelor versus aspirin in patients aged 40 years or older with a non-cardioembolic, non-severe acute ischaemic stroke, or high-risk transient ischaemic attack from 674 hospitals in 33 countries. We randomly allocated patients (1:1) to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90, given orally) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90, given orally) within 24 h of symptom onset. Investigators classified all patients into atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic groups for the prespecified, exploratory analysis reported in this study. The primary endpoint was the time to occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. The SOCRATES trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01994720. Between Jan 7, 2014, and Oct 29, 2015, we randomly allocated 13 199 patients (6589 [50%] to ticagrelor and 6610 [50%] to aspirin). Potentially symptomatic ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis was reported in 3081 (23%) of 13 199 patients. We found a treatment-by-atherosclerotic stenosis interaction (p=0·017). 103 (6·7%) of 1542 patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the ticagrelor group and 147 (9·6%) of 1539 patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the aspirin group had an occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days (hazard ratio 0·68 [95% CI 0·53-0

  18. Heritability of young- and old-onset ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluher, A; Devan, W J; Holliday, E G; Nalls, M; Parolo, S; Bione, S; Giese, A K; Boncoraglio, G B; Maguire, J M; Müller-Nurasyid, M; Gieger, C; Meschia, J F; Rosand, J; Rolfs, A; Kittner, S J; Mitchell, B D; O'Connell, J R; Cheng, Y C

    2015-11-01

    Although the genetic contribution to stroke risk is well known, it remains unclear if young-onset stroke has a stronger genetic contribution than old-onset stroke. This study aims to compare the heritability of ischaemic stroke risk between young and old, using common genetic variants from whole-genome array data in population-based samples. This analysis included 4050 ischaemic stroke cases and 5765 controls from six study populations of European ancestry; 47% of cases were young-onset stroke (age stroke risk in these unrelated individuals, the pairwise genetic relatedness was estimated between individuals based on their whole-genome array data using a mixed linear model. Heritability was estimated separately for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke (age ≥ 55 years). Heritabilities for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke were estimated at 42% (±8%, P genetic contribution to the risk of stroke may be higher in young-onset ischaemic stroke, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 EAN.

  19. Previous infection and the risk of ischaemic stroke in Italy: the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, D; Vidale, S; Aguglia, U; Bassi, P; Cavallini, A; Galati, F; Guidetti, D; Marcello, N; Micieli, G; Pracucci, G; Rasura, M; Siniscalchi, A; Sterzi, R; Toni, D; Inzitari, D

    2015-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in new risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Acute and chronic infections could contribute to different aetiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis that lead to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae in particular increase the risk of ischaemic stroke in the population. This was a prospective case-control study involving 11 Italian stroke units. Controls were age- and sex-matched with cases, represented by patients admitted to hospital for acute ischaemic stroke. For each participant classical vascular risk factors and previous inflammatory and infectious events up to 1 month before were registered. Blood samples were collected to analyse inflammatory markers and titres of antibodies against C. pneumoniae. A total of 1002 participants were included (mean age 69 years) with 749 ischaemic stroke patients. Infections occurred within 1 month previously in 12% of the entire sample with a higher prevalence in the case group (14.4% vs. 3.9%). At multivariate analysis of the seropositivity of IgA antibodies against C. pneumoniae increased the risk of stroke significantly (relative risk 2.121; 95% confidence interval 1.255-3.584) and an early previous infection (up to 7 days before the event) contributed to a rise in probability of acute cerebral ischaemia (relative risk 3.692; 95% confidence interval 1.134-6.875). Early previous infections and persistent chronic infection of C. pneumoniae could contribute to increase the risk of ischaemic stroke significantly, in the elderly especially. © 2014 EAN.

  20. Comparison of serum lipid profile in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Sharif, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum lipid profile between patients of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Study Design: Cross sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2004 to February 2005. Methodology: Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 100 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes were included in the study while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from study. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan of brain was done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was done by comparison of lipid profile in two subgroups, using proportion test for any significant difference. Results: The mean age at presentation of patients with stroke was 64.2+-12 years with a male to female ratio of 3.6:1. In 100 ischaemic stroke patients, raised serum total cholesterol was seen in 42, triglyceride in 04, LDL-cholesterol in 05 and VLDL-cholesterol in 07 patients. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below the normal reference in 31 cases. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides was raised in 05 patients each, LDL-cholesterol in 09 and VLDL-cholesterol in 03 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below normal in 04 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. On comparison, there were significantly greater number of patients with raised serum cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol in ischaemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found on comparing serum values of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke for triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: Ischaemic stroke patients had high serum total cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to

  1. Pre-stroke use of beta-blockers does not affect ischaemic stroke severity and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, S.; Haentjens, P.; De Smedt, A.; Brouns, R.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Luijckx, G. J.; De Keyser, J.

    Background and purpose: It is unclear whether pre-stroke beta-blockers use may influence stroke outcome. This study evaluates the independent effect of pre-stroke use of beta-blockers on ischaemic stroke severity and 3 months functional outcome. Methods: Pre-stroke use of beta-blockers was

  2. Ischaemic stroke in hyperthyroidism without cardiac arrhythmia - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between hyperthyroidism and stroke is well established in the setting of atrial fibrillation. However there is limited literature for ischaemic stroke occurring in hyperthyroidism without cardiac arrhythmia. No such case had been described in South East Nigeria. METHOD: This report highlights ...

  3. Prevalence of renal dysfunction in ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack patients with or without atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, M; Horstmann, S; Rizos, T; Rauch, G; Zorn, M; Veltkamp, R

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a higher risk of stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). There are limited data on the comorbidity of renal dysfunction and AF in stroke patients. Our aim was to determine the frequency of kidney dysfunction in ischaemic stroke patients with and without AF. In a prospectively collected, single center cohort of acute ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients, glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation on admission. Renal function was graded into five categories (cat.): cat. 1, eGRF ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m(2); cat. 2, 60-89; cat. 3, 30-59; cat. 4, 15-29; cat. 5, stroke, 547 TIA; median age 71.0) were included. Median eGFR was 78.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (interquartile range 61/95); 21.1% were in cat. 3, 2.1% in cat. 4, 0.7% in cat. 5. In all, 535 patients (23.5%) suffered from AF; 28.0% of these were in cat. 3, 2.6% and 0.8% in cat. 4 and cat. 5, respectively. In multivariable analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.1], diabetes (OR 1.8), heart failure (OR 1.7) and AF (OR 1.4) were independently associated with kidney dysfunction (eGFR stroke patients than in the general population and more common in AF-related stroke. These findings may have implications for the choice of anticoagulants. © 2014 EAN.

  4. Persistent Q fever and ischaemic stroke in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Quijada, S; Salazar-Thieroldt, E; Mora-Simón, M J

    2015-04-01

    Whether persistent or chronic Q fever may act as a risk factor for stroke is unknown. A case-control study was conducted in the Hospital Universitario de Burgos (Spain) between February 2011 and December 2012. A total of 803 samples from 634 consecutive hospitalized patients ≥65 years old were tested, of whom 111 were cases (patients with prevalent or incident ischaemic stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack) and 523 were controls (patients without ischaemic stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titres phase I and II against Q fever, and IgG antibodies levels against Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus (CMV), were determined using immunofluorescence assay and ELISA methods, respectively. Phase I IgG titres against Coxiella burnetii ≥1:256 (compatible with chronic or persistent Q fever) were detected in 16 of 110 (14.5%) cases and in 32 of 524 (6.1%) controls; P = .004, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 4.9. This ratio was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardioembolic focus, smoking, diabetes, other cardiovascular diseases, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.3). High-titre IgG antibodies (top quartile) against CMV (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.5), but not against C. pneumoniae (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.6), also were associated with ischaemic stroke after adjustment for risk factors. In conclusion, serology compatible with persistent or chronic Q fever is associated with ischaemic stroke in elderly patients. High levels of IgG antibodies against CMV, but not against C. pneumoniae, also are associated with ischaemic stroke in these patients. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, A; Costa, A; Serrão, R; Sarmento, A; Abreu, P

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide insights into the contributions of HIV infection stage, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vascular risk factors to the occurrence of ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected patients. We performed a case-control study of HIV-infected patients followed in our clinic. We compared patients hospitalized between January 2006 and June 2014 with an ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack to age- and gender-matched controls without stroke. Of 2146 patients followed in our clinic, we included 23 cases (20 men and three women; mean age 51.3 years) and 23 controls. Eighty-three per cent of cases had had a stroke and 17% a transient ischaemic attack. According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification, small-vessel occlusion was the most frequent aetiology, followed by large-artery atherosclerosis and cardioembolism. Compared with controls, stroke was statistically significantly associated with diabetes, smoking and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Illegal drug use, a low CD4 count and a high viral load were also associated with ischaemic cerebral events. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and controls in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV stage, CD4 count nadir and HIV infection time-to-event. No statistically significant differences were found concerning ART or treatment compliance. In our single centre study, we found associations of illegal drug use, HIV replication and some traditional vascular risk factors with the occurrence of ischaemic cerebral events. The paradigm of the care of HIV-infected patients is changing. Concomitant diseases in the ageing patient with HIV infection, including cerebrovascular disease, must also be addressed in view of their impacts on morbidity and mortality. Apart from controlling the HIV infection and immunosuppression with ART, vascular risk factors must also be addressed. © 2016 British HIV

  6. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Jonathan; Lees, Kennedy R; Lyden, Patrick; Blackwell, Lisa; Albers, Gregory; Bluhmki, Erich; Brott, Thomas; Cohen, Geoff; Davis, Stephen; Donnan, Geoffrey; Grotta, James; Howard, George; Kaste, Markku; Koga, Masatoshi; von Kummer, Ruediger; Lansberg, Maarten; Lindley, Richard I; Murray, Gordon; Olivot, Jean Marc; Parsons, Mark; Tilley, Barbara; Toni, Danilo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Wahlgren, Nils; Wardlaw, Joanna; Whiteley, William; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Baigent, Colin; Sandercock, Peter; Hacke, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Alteplase is effective for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke but debate continues about its use after longer times since stroke onset, in older patients, and among patients who have had the least or most severe strokes. We assessed the role of these factors in affecting good stroke outcome in patients given alteplase. Methods We did a pre-specified meta-analysis of individual patient data from 6756 patients in nine randomised trials comparing alteplase with placebo or open control. We included all completed randomised phase 3 trials of intravenous alteplase for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke for which data were available. Retrospective checks confirmed that no eligible trials had been omitted. We defined a good stroke outcome as no significant disability at 3–6 months, defined by a modified Rankin Score of 0 or 1. Additional outcomes included symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (defined by type 2 parenchymal haemorrhage within 7 days and, separately, by the SITS-MOST definition of parenchymal type 2 haemorrhage within 36 h), fatal intracranial haemorrhage within 7 days, and 90-day mortality. Findings Alteplase increased the odds of a good stroke outcome, with earlier treatment associated with bigger proportional benefit. Treatment within 3·0 h resulted in a good outcome for 259 (32·9%) of 787 patients who received alteplase versus 176 (23·1%) of 762 who received control (OR 1·75, 95% CI 1·35–2·27); delay of greater than 3·0 h, up to 4·5 h, resulted in good outcome for 485 (35·3%) of 1375 versus 432 (30·1%) of 1437 (OR 1·26, 95% CI 1·05–1·51); and delay of more than 4·5 h resulted in good outcome for 401 (32·6%) of 1229 versus 357 (30·6%) of 1166 (OR 1·15, 95% CI 0·95–1·40). Proportional treatment benefits were similar irrespective of age or stroke severity. Alteplase significantly increased the odds of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (type 2 parenchymal haemorrhage definition 231 [6·8%] of 3391 vs 44 [1·3

  7. Ischaemic stroke in children secondary to post varicella angiopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B

    2007-01-01

    Varicella in childhood is a self-limiting disease, which usually follows a benign course. However, complications, although rare, may have serious consequences. Ischaemic stroke secondary to post varicella angiopathy is a well-described complication and is estimated to account for up to a third of all strokes in infants. We present three previously healthy children who presented to our centre with ischaemic cerebrovascular infarction due to varicella angiopathy. All three children first presented within six weeks after onset of varicella infection and had MRI changes characteristic of ischaemic stroke secondary to post varicella angiopathy. While one child made an excellent recovery being left with only a minor deficit, the remaining two children were left with considerable morbidity severely affecting quality of life. The varicella vaccine has been proven to be well tolerated, safe and effective. We conclude that varicella vaccination should be considered for inclusion in the vaccination schedule to prevent serious complications which while rare may have devastating consequences.

  8. Immunotherapy for arterial ischaemic stroke in childhood: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hannah B; Mallick, Andrew A; O'Callaghan, Finbar J K

    2017-05-01

    There is little evidence about either prevention or treatment of childhood arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). However, drugs that regulate the immune and inflammatory response could theoretically prevent occurrence or recurrence of AIS. Additionally, as an acute treatment, they may limit the neurological damage caused by AIS. Here, we systematically review the evidence on the use of immunotherapy in childhood AIS. A systematic review of publications in databases Embase and Medline from inception. All types of evidence were included from trials, cohorts, case-control and cross-sectional studies and case reports. 34 reports were included: 32 observational studies and 2 trials. Immunotherapy was used in two key patient groups: arteriopathy and acute infection. The majority were cases of varicella and primary angiitis of the central nervous system. All three cohorts and 80% of the case studies were treated with steroids. Recurrence rates were low. Analytical studies weakly associated steroids with lower odds of new stroke and neurological deficits, and better cognitive outcomes in the context of Moyamoya disease and tuberculosis. Immunotherapies are used in children with AIS, mainly as steroids for children with arteriopathy. However, there is currently little robust evidence to either encourage or discourage this practice. There is weak evidence consistent with the hypothesis that in certain children at risk, steroids may both reduce the risk of occurrent/recurrent stroke and enhance neurological outcomes. As the potential benefit is still uncertain, this indicates that a trial of steroids in childhood AIS may be justified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Demographics, socio-economic characteristics, and risk factor prevalence in patients with non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke in low- and middle-income countries: the OPTIC registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Halim; Labreuche, Julien; Arauz, Antonio; Bryer, Alan; Lavados, Pablo G; Massaro, Ayrton; Munoz Collazos, Mario; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Yamout, Bassem I; Vicaut, Eric; Amarenco, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of data on patients with stroke/transient ischaemic attack in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to describe the characteristics and management of patients with an ischaemic stroke and recent transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic strokes in low- or middle-income countries. The Outcomes in Patients with TIA and Cerebrovascular disease registry is an international, prospective study. Patients ≥ 45 years who required secondary prevention of stroke (either following an acute transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic strokes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ischaemic stroke) were enrolled in 17 countries in Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. The main measures of interest were risk factors, comorbidities, and socio-economic variables. Between January 2007 and December 2008, 3635 patients were enrolled in Latin America (n = 1543), the Middle East (n = 1041), North Africa (n = 834), and South Africa (n = 217). Of these, 63% had a stable, first-ever ischaemic stroke (median delay from symptom onset to inclusion, 25 days interquartile range, 7-77); 37% had an acute transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke (median delay, two-days; interquartile range, 0-6). Prevalence of diabetes was 46% in the Middle East, 29% in Latin America, 35% in South Africa, and 38% in North Africa; 72% had abdominal obesity (range, 65-78%; adjusted P disease in 7.6%, and coronary artery disease in 13%. Overall, 24% of patients had no health insurance and 27% had a low educational level. In this study, patients in low- and middle-income countries had a high burden of modifiable risk factors. High rates of low educational level and lack of health insurance in certain regions are potential obstacles to risk factor control. The Outcomes in Patients with TIA and Cerebrovascular disease registry is supported by Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Stroke treatment with alteplase given 3.0-4.5 h after onset of acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS III): additional outcomes and subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhmki, Erich; Chamorro, Angel; Dávalos, Antoni; Machnig, Thomas; Sauce, Christophe; Wahlgren, Nils; Wardlaw, Joanna; Hacke, Werner

    2009-12-01

    In the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III), alteplase administered 3.0-4.5 h after the onset of stroke symptoms resulted in a significant benefit in the primary endpoint (modified Rankin scale [mRS] score 0-1) versus placebo, with no difference in mortality between the treatment groups. Compared with the 0-3 h window, there was no excess risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. We assessed the usefulness of additional endpoints and did subgroup and sensitivity analyses to further investigate the benefit of alteplase. In a double-blind, multicentre study in Europe, patients with acute ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned to intravenous alteplase (0.9 mg/kg bodyweight) or placebo. Additional outcome analyses included functional endpoints at day 90 or day 30 (mRS 0-1 [day 30], mRS 0-2, Barthel index > or =85, and global outcome statistic [day 30]) and treatment response (8-point improvement from baseline or 0-1 score on the National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS], and a stratified responder analysis by baseline NIHSS score). The subgroup analyses were based on the mRS 0-1 at day 90, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, and death. Analyses were by intention to treat and per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153036. 418 patients were assigned to alteplase and 403 to placebo. Although not significant in every case, all additional endpoints showed at least a clear trend in favour of alteplase. Alteplase was effective in various subgroups, including older patients ( or =65 years: 1.15, 0.80-1.64; p=0.230), and the effectiveness was independent of the severity of stroke at baseline (NIHSS 0-9: 1.28, 0.84-1.96; NIHSS 10-19: 1.16, 0.73-1.84; NIHSS > or =20: 2.32, 0.61-8.90; p=0.631). The incidence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage seemed to be independent of previous antiplatelet drug use (no: 2.41, 1.09-5.33; yes: 2.33, 0.79-6.90; p=0.962) and time from onset of symptoms to treatment (181

  11. Protein supplementation may enhance the spontaneous recovery of neurological alterations in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Scocchi, Marco; Iadarola, Paolo; Franciscone, Piero; Verri, Manuela; Boschi, Federica; Pasini, Evasio; Viglio, Simona

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether protein supplementation could enhance neurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke. Alimentation-independent patients with ischaemic stroke were randomly allocated to either 21 days of protein supplementation (protein-supplemented group; n=20) or to a spontaneous diet only (control group; n=21) in order to investigate the recovery of neurological changes (measured using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale). Tertiary care rehabilitation in Italy. Forty-two patients (27 male and 15 female; 66.4 +/- 11 years) 16 +/-2 days after the acute event. Supplementation with a hyperproteic nutritional formula (10% protein). NIH Stroke Scale and protein intake. At admission to rehabilitation, both groups of patients were homogeneous for demographic, clinical and functional characteristics. After 21 days from the start of the protocol, the NIH Stroke Scale was found to be enhanced in the group with supplemental proteins (-4.4 +/- 1.5 score versus -3 +/- 1.4 of control group; Pneurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke.

  12. The evaluation of cerebral oxygenation by oximetry in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet G

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the clinical significance of estimation of the regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 in the patients with ischaemic stroke by the cerebral oximetry during acute, sub-acute and chronic phases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 24 patients with ischaemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory were included. A detailed clinical examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were carried out. The rSO2 was determined by oximetery (INVOS 3100-SD bilaterally on the first, third, seventh, and fifteenth days. The blood pressure, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and the arterial blood gas values were noted too. the changes were evaluated along with Glasgow coma scale (GCS using unpaired student t-test and one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the rSO2 values in acute, subacute and chronic phases on the side of the lesion (p value < 0.05. The values of oxygen saturation gradually increased throughout the chronic phase. These values showed a positive correlation with GCS, but the results were not significant statistically. The rSO2 values were also significantly higher on the non-lesional side than those on the lesion side in the acute phase (p= 0.0034, the discrepancy disappeared during the sub-acute and chronic phases. CONCLUSION: Cerebral oximetry can be used as a measure to evaluate the cerebral oxygenation during the various phases of ischaemic stroke. It has a potential to serve as a useful marker for detection of cerebral oxygenation imbalances, to judge the effectiveness of the management and for the follow-up of patients with ischaemic stroke.

  13. Statistical analysis plan for the EuroHYP-1 trial: European multicentre, randomised, phase III clinical trial of the therapeutic hypothermia plus best medical treatment versus best medical treatment alone for acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Per; Bath, Philip M; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou, Jane; van der Worp, H Bart; Macleod, Malcolm R; Szabo, Istvan; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Schwab, Stefan

    2017-11-29

    Cooling may reduce infarct size and improve neurological outcomes in patients with ischaemic stroke. In phase II trials, cooling awake patients with ischaemic stroke has been shown to be feasible and safe, but the effects in functional outcomes has not yet been investigated in an adequately sized randomised clinical trial. The EuroHYP-1 trial is a multinational, randomised, superiority phase III clinical trial with masked outcome assessment testing the benefits and harms of therapeutic cooling in awake adult patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The outcomes dealt with here include the primary outcome the Rankin score (mRS) at day 91 +/-14 days after randomisation. The secondary and exploratory outcomes at day 91 +/-14 days unless otherwise stated encompassing: (1) death or dependency, defined as mRS score > 2; (2) death; (3) National Institutes of Health Stroke Score; (4) brain infarct size at 48 +/-24 hours; (5) EQ-5D-5 L score, and (6) WHODAS 2.0 score. Other outcomes are: the primary safety outcome serious adverse events; and the incremental cost-effectiveness, and cost utility ratios. The analysis sets include (1) the intention-to-treat population, and (2) the per protocol population. The sample size is estimated to 800 patients (5% type 1 and 20% type 2 errors). All analyses are adjusted for the protocol-specified stratification variables (nationality of centre), and the minimisation variables. In the analysis, we use ordinal regression (the primary outcome), logistic regression (binary outcomes), general linear model (continuous outcomes), and the Poisson or negative binomial model (rate outcomes). Major adjustments compared with the original statistical analysis plan encompass: (1) adjustment of analyses by nationality; (2) power calculations for the secondary outcomes; (3) to address the multiplicity problem using of a fixed-sequence testing procedure starting with the primary outcome followed by the secondary outcomes ordered according to falling

  14. Survival and clinical outcome of dogs with ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Toft, Nils; Westrup, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed....... The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day...... survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered...

  15. Enhancing cerebral perfusion with external counterpulsation after ischaemic stroke: how long does it last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Lin, Wenhua; Han, Jinghao; Chen, Xiangyan; Leung, Thomas; Soo, Yannie; Wong, Ka Sing

    2016-05-01

    External counterpulsation (ECP) is a non-invasive method used to augment cerebral perfusion in ischaemic stroke. We aimed to investigate time-course effects on blood pressure elevation and cerebral blood flow augmentation induced by ECP in ischaemic stroke. Patients with acute unilateral ischaemic stroke and large artery occlusive disease were recruited to receive 35 daily 1 h ECP treatment sessions. Serial transcranial Doppler monitoring of bilateral middle cerebral arteries was performed on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 after stroke onset. Flow velocity changes before, during and after ECP and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure data were recorded. The cerebral augmentation index (CAI) is the increase in the percentage of the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity during ECP compared with baseline. The CAI in patients with stroke was significantly higher on the ipsilateral side and on the contralateral side on day 3 (ipsilateral CAI, 9.3%; contralateral CAI, 7.2%), day 5 (7.0%; 6.7%), day 7 (6.8%; 6.0%), day 10 (6.0%; 5.1%), day 14 (4.7%; 2.6%) and day 21 (4.1%; 2.2%) after stroke onset than that in controls (-2.0%) (all pstroke. Differences in the percentage increase in the mean blood pressure did not change significantly over time in patients with stroke. Blood pressure elevation persists throughout ECP treatment, which consists of 35 sessions. However, cerebral blood flow augmentation may last at least 3 weeks and then appears to return to baseline 1 month after acute stroke onset. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke: does the distinction between small and large vessel disease remain true to type? Dutch TIA Trial Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappelle, L J; van Latum, J C; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; Koudstaal, P J; van Gijn, J

    1995-01-01

    The incidence and vascular type of recurrent ischaemic stroke was studied in patients with supratentorial transient ischaemic attacks or non-disabling ischaemic strokes, who were treated with aspirin (30 or 283 mg). Patients were divided into groups with small vessel disease (SVD) (n = 1216) or large vessel disease (LVD) (n = 1221) on the grounds of their clinical features and CT at baseline. Patients with evidence of both SVD and LVD (n = 180) were excluded from further analyses. During foll...

  17. Age dependency of ischaemic stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors in western Norway: the Bergen Norwegian Stroke Cooperation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacu, A; Fromm, A; Sand, K M; Waje-Andreassen, U; Thomassen, L; Naess, H

    2016-03-01

    Age dependency of acute ischaemic stroke aetiology and vascular risk factors have not been adequately evaluated in stroke patients in Norway. Aims of this study were to evaluate how stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors vary with age in a western Norway stroke population. Patients aged 15-100 years consecutively admitted to our neurovascular centre with acute ischaemic stroke between 2006 and 2012 were included. The study population was categorized as young (15-49 years), middle-aged (50-74 years) or elderly (≥ 75 years). Stroke aetiology was defined by TOAST criteria. Risk factors and history of cardiovascular disease were recorded. In total, 2484 patients with acute cerebral infarction were included: 1418 were males (57.3%). Mean age was 70.8 years (SD ± 14.9), 228 patients were young, 1126 middle-aged, and 1130 were elderly. The proportion of large-artery atherosclerosis and of small-vessel occlusion was highest among middle-aged patients. The proportion of cardioembolism was high at all ages, especially among the elderly. The proportion of stroke of other determined cause was highest among young patients. Some risk factors (diabetes mellitus, active smoking, angina pectoris, prior stroke and peripheral artery disease) decreased among the elderly. The proportions of several potential causes increased with age. The proportion of stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors are age dependent. Age 50-74 years constitutes the period in life where cardiovascular risk factors become manifest and stroke subtypes change. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. TXA2 synthesis and COX1-independent platelet reactivity in aspirin-treated patients soon after acute cerebral stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Juana; Lago, Aida; Moscardo, Antonio; Tembl, Jose; Parkhutik, Vera; Santos, Maria T

    2013-08-01

    The pharmacological target of aspirin is the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and thromboxane-A2 (TX) synthesis. Very few data are available on TX assessment in patients with stroke. We studied platelet TX synthesis, COX1-independent platelet reactivity, the influence of platelet-erythrocyte interactions and the potential association between platelet responses and the severity of stroke, evaluated with a clinical score (NIHSS). We examined 157 aspirin-treated patients with acute stroke or TIA, 128 aspirin-free and 15 aspirin-treated healthy subjects (HS). Collagen-induced TX, platelet recruitment in whole blood and platelets ± erythrocytes (haematocrit 40%) were assessed in patients on daily-aspirin within three days from onset. Arachidonic-acid-, ADP-, thrombin-receptor activating peptide TRAP-, and collagen-induced aggregation were also evaluated. Partial TX inhibition (aspirin-free controls) was observed in 13% of patients. This was associated with marked increases in COX1-dependent responses (arachidonic-acid- and collagen-induced aggregation and platelet recruitment; Paspirin-treated HS) were most likely to suffer severe stroke (Paspirin varied across patients. Partial TX inhibition and COX1-independent platelet hyperfunction were associated with more-severe stroke. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Terni, Eva; Giannini, Nicola; Brondi, Marco; Montano, Vincenzo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke may be a clinical expression of several inherited disorders in humans. Recognition of the underlined genetic disorders causing stroke is important for a correct diagnosis, for genetic counselling and, even if rarely, for a correct therapeutic management. Moreover, the genetics of complex diseases such the stroke, in which multiple genes interact with environmental risk factors to increase risk, has been revolutionized by the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. ...

  20. Association of ischaemic stroke subtype with long-term cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, G; Papavasileiou, V; Makaritsis, K; Milionis, H; Michel, P; Vemmos, K

    2014-08-01

    There is no strong evidence that all ischaemic stroke types are associated with high cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to investigate whether all ischaemic stroke types are associated with high cardiovascular risk. All consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke registered in the Athens Stroke Registry between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 were categorized according to the TOAST classification and were followed up for up to 10 years. Outcomes assessed were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke recurrence, and a composite cardiovascular outcome consisting of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, acute heart failure, sudden cardiac death, stroke recurrence and aortic aneurysm rupture. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to estimate the probability of each end-point in each patient group. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the independent covariates of each end-point. Two thousand seven hundred and thirty patients were followed up for 48.1 ± 41.9 months. The cumulative probabilities of 10-year cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardioembolic stroke [46.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.6-52.8], lacunar stroke (22.1%, 95% CI 16.2-28.0) or undetermined stroke (35.2%, 95% CI 27.8-42.6) were either similar to or higher than those of patients with large-artery atherosclerotic stroke (LAA) (28.7%, 95% CI 22.4-35.0). Compared with LAA, all other TOAST types had a higher probability of 10-year stroke recurrence. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, compared with patients with LAA, patients with any other stroke type were associated with similar or higher risk for the outcomes of overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke recurrence and composite cardiovascular outcome. Large-artery atherosclerotic stroke and cardioembolic stroke are associated with the highest risk for future cardiovascular events, with the latter carrying at least as high a risk as LAA stroke. © 2014 The Author

  1. C-reactive protein gene polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions in ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyun; Yu, Dan; Xu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jing; Yang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Ischaemic stroke is a heterogeneous, multifactorial disease caused by the combination of certain risk factors and genetic factors. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported to be associated with serum CRP levels. However, genetic association studies have produced conflicting results regarding the association between these SNPs and ischaemic stroke. In this paper, we conducted a population-based case-control study to determine whether two SNPs of CRP (rs1800947 and rs3093059) are associated with ischaemic stroke in Chinese Han population and to evaluate their interaction with environmental risk factors. We found that the rs1800947 GC genotype is significantly associated with the risk of ischaemic stroke, particularly the small-vessel disease and its subtype. Crossover analysis revealed that patients with the rs1800947 GC genotype and habits of smoking or drinking were more susceptible to ischaemic stroke. No association was found between the rs3093059 and ischaemic stroke.

  2. Risk factors between intracranial-extracranial atherosclerosis and anterior-posterior circulation stroke in ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Cai, Yefeng; Zhao, Min; Sun, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an important cause of stroke and remains a challenge for stroke prevention. Risk factors involved in atherosclerotic stroke and anterior and posterior circulation strokes (ACS and PCS, respectively) are different. The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in risk factors between intracranial and extracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS and ECAS), ACS and PCS, and ICAS/ECAS with ACS/PCS in a Chinese acute ischaemic stroke population. We analysed 551 ischaemic stroke patients who had been enrolled between August 2005 and July 2008. First, risk factors were compared between non-atherosclerosis, ICAS, ECAS, and combined ICAS and ECAS groups. ICAS and ECAS were assessed with transcranial Doppler and carotid colour Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Second, risk factors were compared between ACS and PCS groups. Stroke lesion was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Third, risk factors were compared in ICAS/ECAS associated with ACS/PCS. The risk factor for ICAS was high diastolic blood pressure (OR, 1.075; 95% CI, 1.016-1.138; p = 0.013), and the risk factors for ECAS were age (OR, 1.113; 95% CI, 1.046-1.183; p = 0.001) and low density lipoprotein (OR, 1.450; 95% CI, 1.087-1.935; p = 0.012). Hypertension (OR, 1.090; 95% CI, 1.001-1.109; p = 0.027) was associated with PCS. Age (OR, 1.026; 95% CI, 1.011-1.128; p = 0.003), male gender (OR, 2.278; 95% CI, 1.481-3.258; p = 0.003) and age (OR, 1.067; 95% CI, 1.013-1.123; p = 0.014), scores of NIHSS (OR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.012-1.130; p = 0.018) were risk factors for ICAS and ECAS with ACS, respectively. Risk factors are different between ICAS and ECAS, ACS and PCS, and ICAS/ECAS with ACS/PCS. Thus, targeted strategies are needed to consider these differences to prevent, treat and manage these diseases.

  3. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  4. High serum uric acid levels are a protective factor against unfavourable neurological functional outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fang; Li, Jiao-Xing; Sun, Xun-Sha; Lai, Rong; Sheng, Wen-Li

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid levels at the onset and prognostic outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Methods We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 1166 patients with ischaemic stroke who were hospitalized in our centre during August 2008 to November 2012. Correlations of serum uric acid levels and prognostic outcomes were analysed. Results Men had higher serum uric acid levels and better neurological functional outcomes compared with women. There was a strong negative correlation between serum uric acid levels and unfavourable neurological functional outcomes. Generalized estimated equation analysis showed that a higher serum uric acid level (>237 µmol/L) was a protective factor for neurological functional outcome in male, but not female, patients. Among five trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification subtypes, only patients with the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype had a significant protective effect of serum uric acid levels on neurological outcome. Conclusions Our study shows that high serum uric acid levels are a significant protective factor in men and in the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype in patients with ischaemic stroke. This is helpful for determining the prognostic value of serum uric acid levels for neurological outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.

  5. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Terni

    2015-06-01

    General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  6. Association of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor gene polymorphisms with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Zeng, F; Zhang, N; Huang, T; Meng, Q; Liu, Y

    2012-01-01

    To explore the association between polymorphisms of the sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor (SREBF) gene and ischaemic stroke. The SREBF1c 54G>C and SREBPF2 1784G>C genotypes were assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 446 Han Chinese ischaemic stroke patients and 355 Han Chinese control subjects without cerebrovascular disease. The frequencies of the SREBF2 1784G>C CC genotype and the C allele were significantly higher in the ischaemic stroke group than in controls. Patients with ischaemic stroke who had the SREBF2 1784G>C CC genotype had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, compared with ischaemic stroke patients and control subjects with the GC or GG genotypes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between SREBF2 1784G>C and ischaemic stroke; an inverse association was observed between HDL level and risk of ischaemic stroke. The CC genotype of the SREBF2 1784G>C polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke, possibly through decreasing the HDL level, which was inversely associated with the risk of ischaemic stroke.

  7. Diffusion-weighted imaging in ischaemic stroke: a follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Mattle, H.P.; Heid, O.; Remonda, L.; Schroth, G.

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar (EPI) MRI has been used for imaging acute ischaemic stroke. We used DWI and conventional spin-echo (SE) MRI to study the dynamics of ischaemic human stroke. We examined 30 patients (mean age 57.5 years, range 27-82 years, median 57 years) with a diagnosis of stroke. They were examined in the acute (120 min to 47 h, mean 15.3 h), subacute (8 days) and chronic (2-3 months) stages of ischaemia using clinical scores and MRI. Imaging was performed on an 1.5-T imager. Anisotropic DWI with diffusion gradients in all three axes, an isotropic tensor trace pulse DWI sequence and SE MRI were used. In all patients both DWI sequences showed a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the acute stage, even when SE images did not reveal signal abnormalities. Clinical features correlated with lesion site but not size. The ADC was initially 19.6-43 % less than that of nonischaemic tissue and increased to normal after 7 days in conventionally treated patients and after 2-5 days in patients who underwent intra-arterial fibrinolysis. In the chronic stage the ADC rose by up to 254.4 %. In patients who did not undergo fibrinolysis DWI changes correlated with the final infarct size (P < 0.05). It was possible to differentiate acute from chronic ischaemic lesions. We conclude that DWI is a sensitive and practicable tool for detecting early cerebral ischaemia. It is possible to predict in the acute stage the final size of an infarct. DWI may be helpful for clinical decisions and for monitoring therapy. (orig.)

  8. High frequency of intracranial arterial stenosis and cannabis use in ischaemic stroke in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Valérie; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Beaujeux, Rémy; Manisor, Monica; Rouyer, Olivier; Lauer, Valérie; Meyer, Nicolas; Marescaux, Christian; Geny, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Leading aetiologies of ischaemic stroke in young adults are cervico-cerebral arterial dissections and cardio-embolism, but the causes remain undetermined in a considerable proportion of cases. In a few reports, intracranial arterial stenosis has been suggested to be a potential cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The aim of our work was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics and risk factors of intracranial arterial stenosis in a prospective series of young ischaemic stroke patients. The study was based on a prospective consecutive hospital-based series of 159 patients aged 18-45 years who were admitted to our unit for an acute ischaemic stroke from October 2005 to December 2010. A structured questionnaire was used in order to assess common vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs, migraine, and, in women, oral contraceptive use. A systematic screening was performed, including the following: brain magnetic resonance imaging or, if not feasible, brain computed tomography scan, carotid and vertebral Duplex scanning and trans-cranial Doppler sonography, 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance cerebral angiography or cerebral computed tomography angiography. Long-duration electrocardiography, trans-thoracic and trans-oesophageal echocardiography were performed and laboratory blood investigations were extensive. Urine samples were screened for cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamine and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. When this initial work-up was inconclusive, trans-femoral intra-arterial selective digital subtraction angiography with reconstructed 3D images was performed. In this series, 49 patients (31%) had intracranial arterial stenosis. Other defined causes were found in 91 patients (57%), including cardio-embolism in 32 (20%), cervical dissection in 23 (14%), extracranial atherosclerosis in 7 (4%), haematological disorders in 7 (4%), small vessel disease in 1, and isolated patent

  9. Young ischaemic stroke in South Auckland: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teddy Y; Kumar, Ajay; Wong, Edward H

    2012-10-26

    To analyse the risk factors, trends in incidence and aetiology of stroke in young adults in a hospital-based population in South Auckland, New Zealand. A retrospective review of patients aged 15 years to 45 years with a discharge diagnosis of ischaemic stroke (ICD 10 Codes I63 - I65, G46, I672, I675-I679, I694- I694) from June 1 2004 to December 31, 2009. Vascular risk factors, demographic factors, stroke severity, stroke subtype, results of investigations and stroke outcome were determined from review of the hospital record (paper copy and electronic record). A total of 131 patients were identified, representing 4.6% of all stroke discharges. Over one-half of the patients were of "underdetermined cause" (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment [TOAST] criteria), (1) mainly due to incomplete investigation. Cardioembolism (16%) was the second most common cause of stroke, followed by small vessel disease and stroke of other determined aetiology (both 12.2%). Confirmed large vessel atherosclerosis (6.1%) was the least common cause of stroke in this study population. The most common risk factors were hyperlipidaemia (45.8%), hypertension (42.7%), current tobacco smoking (42.7%) and obesity (36.6%). The indigenous Maori and Pacific Island people had a higher rate of stroke, at least double of other ethnicities. The in-hospital fatality rate was 3.1%. All surviving patients were discharged home. Eighty-six percent of the survivors were independent. Our study demonstrates strokes of undetermined aetiology and cardioembolism were the most common cause of stroke in young people in South Auckland, and that Māori and Pacific Island people have a higher rate of stroke.

  10. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity.......To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity....

  11. Evaluation of the modifying effects of unfavourable genotypes on classical clinical risk factors for ischaemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Szolnoki, Z; Somogyvari, F; Kondacs, A; Szabo, M; Fodor, L; Bene, J; Melegh, B

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Ischaemic stroke is a frequent heterogeneous multifactorial disease that is affected by a number of genetic mutations and environmental factors. We hypothesised the clinical importance of the interactions between common, unfavourable genetic mutations and clinical risk factors in the development of ischaemic stroke.

  12. Determinants and Time Trends for Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Stroke in a Large Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tao, Tao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Chen, Yundai; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical epidemiology of stroke has been widely investigated in Caucasian populations, but the changes over time in the proportion of ischaemic to haemorrhagic strokes is less clear, especially in the Chinese population. Aims Our objective was to study the determinants and time trends for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, in relation to age, in a large Chinese population cohort. Methods Using a medical insurance database in the southwest of China from 2001 to 2012, time trends...

  13. Dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threapleton, D E; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2015-04-01

    Stroke risk is modifiable through many risk factors, one being healthy dietary habits. Fibre intake was associated with a reduced stroke risk in recent meta-analyses; however, data were contributed by relatively few studies, and few examined different stroke types. A total of 27,373 disease-free women were followed up for 14.4 years. Diet was assessed with a 217-item food frequency questionnaire and stroke cases were identified using English Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality records. Survival analysis was applied to assess the risk of total, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in relation to fibre intake. A total of 135 haemorrhagic and 184 ischaemic stroke cases were identified in addition to 138 cases where the stroke type was unknown or not recorded. Greater intake of total fibre, higher fibre density and greater soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and fibre from cereals were associated with a significantly lower risk for total stroke. For total stroke, the hazard ratio per 6 g/day total fibre intake was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals: 0.81-0.99). Different findings were observed for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in healthy-weight or overweight women. Total fibre, insoluble fibre and cereal fibre were inversely associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk in overweight/obese participants, and in healthy-weight women greater cereal fibre was associated with a lower ischaemic stroke risk. In non-hypertensive women, higher fibre density was associated with lower ischaemic stroke risk. Greater total fibre and fibre from cereals are associated with a lower stroke risk, and associations were more consistent with ischaemic stroke. The different observations by stroke type, body mass index group or hypertensive status indicates potentially different mechanisms.

  14. Co-morbidities and mortality associated with intracranial bleeds and ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Jason; Natalwala, Ammar; Mann, Jake; Uppal, Hardeep; Mummadi, Sangha Mitra; Haque, Amirul; Aziz, Amir; Potluri, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and acquired disability; however, there has been no comprehensive comparison of co-morbid risk factors between different stroke subtypes. The aim of this study was to compare risk factors and mortality for subdural haematoma (SDH), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. We compiled a database of all patients admitted with these conditions to a large teaching hospital in Birmingham, United Kingdom during the period 2000-2007 using the International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10th revision codes. Generalised linear models were constructed to calculate relative risks (RRs) associated with co-morbidities. In total, 4804 patients were admitted with diagnoses of SDH (1004), SAH (807), ischaemic stroke (2579) and haemorrhagic stroke (414). Patients with SDH were less likely to have pneumonia (0.492, 95% CI, 0.330-0.734; p ischaemic heart disease (0.56, 95% CI, 0.40-0.79; p ischaemic stroke. Epilepsy was positively associated with ischaemic stroke (1.94, 95% CI, 1.36-2.76; p ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes (41% and 40% respectively, vs. 73% in SDH and 64% in SAH; p < 0.001). These findings may guide clinical risk stratification, and improve the prognostic information given to patients.

  15. The impact of diabetes on coronary heart disease differs from that on ischaemic stroke with regard to the gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the diabetes related CVD risk between men and women of different ages. Methods Hazards ratios (HRs (95%CI for acute CHD and ischaemic stroke events were estimated based on data of Finnish and Swedish cohorts of 5111 women and 4167 men. Results 182 (3.6% women and 348 (8.4% men had CHD and 129 (2.5% women and 137 (3.3% men ischaemic stroke events. The multivariate adjusted HRs for acute CHD at age groups of 40–49, 50–59 and 60–69 years were 1.00 (1.94, 1.78 (4.23, 3.75 (8.40 in women (men without diabetes and 4.35 (5.40, 5.49 (9.54 and 8.84 (13.76 in women (men with diabetes. The corresponding HRs for ischaemic stroke were 1.00 (1.26, 2.48 (2.83 and 5.17 (5.11 in women (men without diabetes and 4.14 (4.91, 3.32 (6.75 and 13.91 (18.06 in women (men with diabetes, respectively. Conclusion CHD risk was higher in men than in women but difference reduced in diabetic population. Diabetes, however, increased stroke risk more in men than in women.

  16. Haemoglobin sickle D disease: A presentation with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Hasnain; Umair, Syed Farrukh

    2016-03-01

    Haemoglobin-D, Los Angeles or Haemoglobin D-Punjab is not a rare variant of haemoglobin worldwide especially in Punjab, North western India, and South Asian continent. It can be inherited rarely as homozygous causing no symptoms or heterozygous with Haemoglobin A, commonly not related to clinical symptomatology. However, these variants can co-exist rarely with other haemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia or haemoglobin-S. We describe the case of doubly heterozygous Hb-SD Punjab in a 8 year old girl who presented with ischaemic stroke. Before this case, only one case has been reported but it was with reversible hyperbilirubinaemia in Hb-SD from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. This case images the propensity for occurrence of rare phenotype within our population and underlines the importance of genotyping to avoid erroneous management and poor counseling hence preventing life altering complications which our case developed.

  17. Influence of transoesophageal echocardiography on therapy and prognosis in young patients with TIA or ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettig, T. C. D.; Bouma, B. J.; van den Brink, R. B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To determine the influence of transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on therapy and prognosis in patients with cryptogenic transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke under the age of 50 years.Methods and results. We evaluated all patients aged 50 and under who were referred to

  18. Intravenous desmoteplase in patients with acute ischaemic stroke selected by MRI perfusion-diffusion weighted imaging or perfusion CT (DIAS-2): a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Werner; Furlan, Anthony J; Al-Rawi, Yasir; Davalos, Antoni; Fiebach, Jochen B; Gruber, Franz; Kaste, Markku; Lipka, Leslie J; Pedraza, Salvador; Ringleb, Peter A; Rowley, Howard A; Schneider, Dietmar; Schwamm, Lee H; Leal, Joaquin Serena; Söhngen, Mariola; Teal, Phil A; Wilhelm-Ogunbiyi, Karin; Wintermark, Max; Warach, Steven

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that desmoteplase, a novel plasminogen activator, has clinical benefit when given 3-9 h after the onset of the symptoms of stroke in patients with presumptive tissue at risk that is identified by magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (PI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study, patients with acute ischaemic stroke and tissue at risk seen on either MRI or CT imaging were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 90 microg/kg desmoteplase, 125 microg/kg desmoteplase, or placebo within 3-9 h after the onset of symptoms of stroke. The primary endpoint was clinical response rates at day 90, defined as a composite of improvement in National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score of 8 points or more or an NIHSS score of 1 point or less, a modified Rankin scale score of 0-2 points, and a Barthel index of 75-100. Secondary endpoints included change in lesion volume between baseline and day 30, rates of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, and mortality rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00111852. Between June, 2005, and March, 2007, 193 patients were randomised, and 186 patients received treatment: 57 received 90 microg/kg desmoteplase; 66 received 125 microg/kg desmoteplase; and 63 received placebo. 158 patients completed the study. The median baseline NIHSS score was 9 (IQR 6-14) points, and 30% (53 of 179) of the patients had a visible occlusion of a vessel at presentation. The core lesion and the mismatch volumes were small (median volumes were 10.6 cm(3) and 52.5 cm(3), respectively). The clinical response rates at day 90 were 47% (27 of 57) for 90 microg/kg desmoteplase, 36% (24 of 66) for 125 microg/kg desmoteplase, and 46% (29 of 63) for placebo. The median changes in lesion volume were: 90 microg/kg desmoteplase 14.0% (0.5 cm(3)); 125 microg/kg desmoteplase 10.8% (0.3 cm(3)); placebo -10.0% (-0.9 cm(3

  19. Diaphragms of the carotid and vertebral arteries: an under-diagnosed cause of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenck, S; Labeyrie, M-A; Saint-Maurice, J-P; Tarlov, N; Houdart, E

    2014-04-01

    Diaphragms of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries as a cause of ischaemic stroke are reported and stenting of diaphragms as a therapeutic option in stroke secondary prevention is described. Five patients were cared for in our institution from 2000 to 2011 for recurrent ischaemic strokes which were classified to be of undetermined aetiology after completion of the usual investigations. Because the patients had already had ischaemic strokes in the territory of the same artery, a conventional digital subtracted angiography was performed. A diaphragm was identified on the artery that supplied the territory in which the stroke occurred. The stroke was therefore attributed to the diaphragm. Clinical and radiological data, treatment and the clinical course of the patients was retrospectively reviewed. The diaphragm was located in the vertebral artery in three cases and in the bulb of the internal carotid artery in two. In all cases cerebral MR showed ischaemic strokes of different ages downstream of the diaphragm. Stenting was performed in four cases. No patient had a symptomatic recurrent ischaemic event after stenting. Diaphragms are a rare cause of recurrent embolic strokes which are often not detected with non-invasive imaging. Stenting appears to be a therapeutic option in stroke secondary prevention. These observations suggest that conventional angiography should be performed in cases of recurrent ischaemic strokes in the territory of a single artery and in cases of ischaemic stroke of undetermined aetiology in young adults when the usual investigations are negative. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  20. Prevalence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke and their treatment among a cohort of stroke patients in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2000-10-01

    The majority of strokes are due to ischaemia. Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, hypertension and smoking. The incidence can be reduced by addressing these risk factors. This study examines the prevalence of risk factors and their treatment in a cohort of patients with ischaemic stroke registered on a Dublin stroke database.

  1. Apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Easton, J Donald; Lopes, Renato D; Bahit, M Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy...

  2. Peak plasma interleukin-6 and other peripheral markers of inflammation in the first week of ischaemic stroke correlate with brain infarct volume, stroke severity and long-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Zoppo Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischaemia initiates an inflammatory response in the brain and periphery. We assessed the relationship between peak values of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the first week after ischaemic stroke, with measures of stroke severity and outcome. Methods Thirty-seven patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively recruited. Plasma IL-6, and other markers of peripheral inflammation, were measured at pre-determined timepoints in the first week after stroke onset. Primary analyses were the association between peak plasma IL-6 concentration with both modified Rankin score (mRS at 3 months and computed tomography (CT brain infarct volume. Results Peak plasma IL-6 concentration correlated significantly (p Conclusions These data provide evidence that the magnitude of the peripheral inflammatory response is related to the severity of acute ischaemic stroke, and clinical outcome.

  3. Prevalence of symptomatic intracranial aneurysm and ischaemic stroke in pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. S.; Hennekam, R. C.; Cruysberg, J. R.; Steijlen, P. M.; Swart, J.; Tijmes, N.; Limburg, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an heritable connective tissue disorder with clinical manifestations of the ocular, dermal, and cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of symptomatic intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and ischaemic stroke (IS) in

  4. Neurological signs in 23 dogs with suspected rostral cerebellar ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Barbara Blicher; Garosi, Laurent; Skerritt, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Background: In dogs with ischaemic stroke, a very common site of infarction is the cerebellum. The aim of this study was to characterise neurological signs in relation to infarct topography in dogs with suspected cerebellar ischaemic stroke and to report short-term outcome confined...... to the hospitalisation period. A retrospective multicentre study of dogs with suspected cerebellar ischaemic stroke examined from 2010–2015 at five veterinary referral hospitals was performed. Findings from clinical, neurological, and paraclinical investigations including magnetic resonance imaging were assessed....... Results: Twenty-three dogs, 13 females and 10 males with a median age of 8 years and 8 months, were included in the study. The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (n = 9) was a commonly represented breed. All ischaemic strokes were located to the vascular territory of the rostral cerebellar artery including...

  5. Determinants and Time Trends for Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Stroke in a Large Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tao, Tao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Chen, Yundai; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical epidemiology of stroke has been widely investigated in Caucasian populations, but the changes over time in the proportion of ischaemic to haemorrhagic strokes is less clear, especially in the Chinese population. Aims Our objective was to study the determinants and time trends for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, in relation to age, in a large Chinese population cohort. Methods Using a medical insurance database in the southwest of China from 2001 to 2012, time trends in age-adjusted ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence and the contributing risk factors associated with age were investigated. Results Among 425,901 individuals without prior stroke (52.4% male, median age 54), the rate of ischaemic stroke (per 1000 patient-years) decreased between 2002–2007, then remained broadly similar between 2008–2012. The rate of haemorrhagic stroke showed a similar trend, being approximately 1.3–1.9 from 2008–2012. Compared to patients ageischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidences (rate, 95% confidential interval, CI) were higher in the elderly population (age ischaemic: 3.64, 3.33–4.00, vs 14.33, 14.01–14.60; haemorrhagic: 1.09, 1.00–1.10 vs 2.52,2.40–2.70, respectively, both pstroke rates between the elderly and the very elderly population. Ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke shared similar risk factors (age, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), vascular disease, and diabetes mellitus) (all pstroke (all pdisease (2.24, 1.49–3.37) was an additional major risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke, together with CAD and diabetes mellitus (all pischaemic stroke compared to haemorrhagic stroke with ageing. CAD, vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were major contributors to the development of hemorrhagic stroke in the very elderly Chinese population. PMID:27685332

  6. Drug treatments in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ursula G

    2013-11-01

    Stroke is an important cause of death and disability. However, about two thirds of cerebrovascular events are initially minor. They carry a high risk of potentially severe recurrent events, but they also offer an opportunity for secondary prevention to avoid such recurrences. As most recurrent events occur within a short time after the initial presentation, secondary prevention has to be started as soon as possible. Dramatic risk reduction can be achieved with well-established drugs if used in a timely manner. A standard secondary preventive regimen will address multiple vascular risk factors and will usually consist of an antiplatelet agent, a lipid lowering drug, and an antihypertensive agent. Depending on the risk factor profile of each patient, this will have to be adjusted individually, for example, taking into account the presence of cardioembolism or of stenotic disease of the brain-supplying arteries. In recent years, the approach to treating these risk factors has evolved. In addition to absolute blood pressure, blood pressure variability has emerged as an important contributing factor to stroke risk, which is affected differently by different antihypertensive agents. New oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of cerebral haemorrhage and the need for regular blood checks. The best antiplatelet regimen for stroke prevention is still uncertain, and treatment of dyslipidaemia may change if trials with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, which increase levels of HDL-cholesterol, are successful. This article reviews the current evidence for drug treatments in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Snoring as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J; Telakivi, T; Partinen, M; Heikkilä, K; Sarna, S

    1987-01-01

    The association of snoring with ischaemic heart disease and stroke was studied prospectively in 4388 men aged 40-69. The men were asked, in a questionnaire sent to them, whether they snored habitually, frequently, occasionally, or never. Hospital records and death certificates were checked for the next three years to establish how many of the men developed ischaemic heart disease or stroke: the numbers were 149 and 42, respectively. Three categories of snoring were used for analysis: habitual...

  8. Carotid endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, Lisbet Knudsen; Jensen, L P; Baekgaard, N

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has proven effective in the treatment of acute cerebral ischaemic attack in selected cases. In the presence of a carotid artery stenosis, such patients may be candidates for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Few studies have been made on the safety of CEA performed after...

  9. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a new tool to identify cardioaortic sources in ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Shadi; Liberman, Ava L; Atalay, Michael; Song, Christopher; Furie, Karen L; Kamel, Hooman; Bernstein, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Stroke of undetermined aetiology or 'cryptogenic' stroke accounts for 30-40% of ischaemic strokes despite extensive diagnostic evaluation. The role and yield of cardiac imaging is controversial. Cardiac MRI (CMR) has been used for cardiac disorders, but its use in cryptogenic stroke is not well established. We reviewed the literature (randomised trials, exploratory comparative studies and case series) on the use of CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with ischaemic stroke. The literature on the use of CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of ischaemic stroke is sparse. However, studies have demonstrated a potential role for CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with cryptogenic stroke to identify potential aetiologies such as cardiac thrombi, cardiac tumours, aortic arch disease and other rare cardiac anomalies. CMR can also provide data on certain functional and structural parameters of the left atrium and the left atrial appendage which have been shown to be associated with ischaemic stroke risk. CMR is a non-invasive modality that can help identify potential mechanisms in cryptogenic stroke and patients who may be targeted for enrolment into clinical trials comparing anticoagulation to antiplatelet therapy in secondary stroke prevention. Prospective studies are needed to compare the value of CMR as compared to transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cryptogenic stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The emerging age of endovascular treatment of acute ischaemic stroke and the role of CT angiography in patient work-up: a guide for the radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughborough, W.; Mahady, K.; Bradley, M.D.; Renowden, S.A.; Mortimer, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent trial evidence suggests that for patients suffering large-vessel occlusive stroke, endovascular therapy based on the stent-retriever technique is associated with superior clinical outcomes when compared to intravenous thrombolysis alone. The challenge now is how this service is to be delivered. This may involve both centralisation of services around large cities and development of robust networks to receive patients from district general hospitals situated further afield. Both diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology will need to expand. Furthermore, we suggest that it would be advantageous for radiology departments in those hospitals receiving hyperacute stroke patients to perform computed tomography (CT) angiography in addition to non-contrast CT, which also has implications for service delivery in these units. This could swiftly aid identification of patients who might benefit from thrombectomy and improve decision-making through demonstration of occlusive thrombus and of collateral status.

  11. Epidemiology and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yu-Shi; Song, Li-Ting; Zhong, Di; Song, A-Xia; Jia, Xi-Bei; Liu, Rui-Chan; Xie, Ru-Juan; Na, Shi-Ping

    2013-08-01

    There is growing evidence for an association between chronic renal disease (CKD) and adverse cerebrovascular events because of the overlap of several risk factors. The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of CKD and the characteristics of risk factors for CKD in the population with ischaemic stroke. This retrospective study included 571 patients with ischaemic stroke. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Renal function was assessed according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI)-CKD classification. Study demonstrated that the major factors associated with CKD in the ischaemic stroke patients were age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and serum uric acid. Diabetes mellitus (OR 4·146, 95% CI 1·047-16·418, P = 0·043), hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR 3·574, 95% CI 1·248-10·234, P = 0·018), serum uric acid (OR 1·010, 95% CI 1·006-1·013, P ischaemic stroke. The patients with ischaemic stroke may be considered as a high-risk population for CKD and be aggressively managed for CKD prevention. The high prevalence of CKD in population with ischaemic stroke prompts the need for greater public awareness about risks of CKD. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gender association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoula, Sofia; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Kostoulas, Charilaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Bouba, Ioanna; Maranis, Sotirios; Georgiou, Ioannis; Kyritsis, Athanassios P

    2011-12-01

    We examined the association of the NG011648 polymorphism (insertion/deletion) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene with ischaemic stroke occurrence, subtype of ischaemic stroke and ischaemic stroke patients' gender. Patients with first ever ischaemic stroke were recruited prospectively in a period of 18 months. Controls were matched with the patients for age, gender, and known risk factors for stroke. Demographic data, medical history, and vascular risk factors were collected. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme analysis. Stroke and control groups were compared in regard to the prevalence of the NG011648 polymorphism. One hundred and seventy-six patients with ischaemic stroke and 178 controls were recruited and genotyped for NG011648 polymorphism (I/D) of the ACE gene. No significant difference in allele and genotype distributions emerged between control and patient groups, nor in the two subtype groups of lacunars and large artery atherosclerosis. After the data were stratified by gender, a low incidence of II homozygosity in female patients versus female controls (p = 0.05) and male patients (p = 0.013, Z score: -2.49) was found. Our results indicate that I/D polymorphisms may have a role in stroke onset, in respect to gender, with a possible favourable effect of II genotype in females.

  13. Management Of Ischaemic Stroke – Recent Advances | Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to the philosophy of “watch and intervene from ischaemie damage. Thrombolytic therapy given within 3 hours of ictus has been effective but this is not feasible in Africa because of time delay and lack of neuro-imaging facilities in most centers. Contemporary management of stroke is divided into 4 phases; acute, ...

  14. Ischaemic stroke management by emergency care physicians at public sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luni, F.K.; Hamid, S.A.; Mamji, S.; Baig, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the clinicians management of patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke in the emergency departments of two large state run hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. A questionnaire was filled by 59 registered medical practitioners working at these two government hospitals who would be managing stroke patients presenting in the emergency. It was a descriptive cross sectional study designed to assess the methods used by the doctors for diagnosing and treating stroke patients. The data was collected from October to November 2007 and entered using Epi Data Entry and analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results: The preferred overall investigation for a suspected stroke patient in an emergency ward was an ECG (98%). 51% of the respondents would prescribe aspirin to most patients (300 mg by 40% respondents). Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was thought to be beneficial by 43% of doctors, low molecular weight heparin by 91%, subcutaneous heparin by 86.5%, intravenous Vitamin B complex by 20% and steroids by 39% of respondents. Regarding elevated blood pressure, 60% answered that they would manage the blood pressure according to the type of stroke and 73% responded that they would lower blood pressure when it reached greater than 150/80. 88% of the doctors answered that they would use cholesterol lowering drugs in the management of stroke patients in an emergency. 97% of the doctors recommended rehabilitation and 88% of the respondents believed that there should be separate stroke units. Conclusion: The development of a standardized protocol and stroke team is recommended which should speed the clinical assessment, decisions for early management and also increase the performance of diagnostic studies. (author)

  15. Use of emergency medical transport and impact on time to care in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olascoaga Arrate, A; Freijo Guerrero, M M; Fernández Maiztegi, C; Azkune Calle, I; Silvariño Fernández, R; Fernández Rodríguez, M; Vazquez Naveira, P; Anievas Elena, A; Iturraspe González, I; Pérez Díez, Y; Ruiz Fernández, R

    2017-01-13

    According to numerous studies, using emergency medical services (EMS) to transport stroke patients to hospitals decreases diagnostic and treatment delays. To determine the frequency of use of EMS by stroke patients in Bizkaia (Spain), analyse the factors associated with using EMS, and study the impact of EMS on time to care. We gathered data from 545 patients hospitalised for acute ischaemic stroke and recruited consecutively. Data were obtained from the patients' medical histories and interviews with the patients themselves or their companions. We studied the following variables: previous health status, stroke symptoms and severity (NIHSS), type of transport, and time to medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with use of EMS and care delays. Patients transported to hospital by the EMS accounted for 47.2% of the total. Greater stroke severity, arriving at the hospital at night, and poor functional status at baseline were found to be independently associated with use of EMS. Use of EMS was linked to earlier arrival at the hospital. Door-to-imaging times were shorter in the EMS group; however, this association disappeared after adjusting for stroke severity. Revascularisation was more frequent among patients transported by the EMS. EMS transport was associated with shorter prehospital delays. Effective health education programmes should be developed to promote EMS transport for patients with stroke symptoms. In-hospital stroke management should also be improved to reduce time to medical care. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and incident ischaemic stroke in men in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Molly M; Arnold, Alice M; Biggs, Mary L; Longstreth, W T; Smith, Nicholas L; Kizer, Jorge R; Cappola, Anne R; Hirsch, Calvin H; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2014-11-01

    Ischaemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly men. Our main objective was to examine whether testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was associated with incident ischaemic stroke in elderly men. Cohort study. Elderly men in the Cardiovascular Health Study who had no history of stroke, heart disease or prostate cancer as of 1994 and were followed until December 2010. Adjudicated ischaemic stroke. Among 1032 men (mean age 76, range 66-97), followed for a median of 10 years, 114 had an incident ischaemic stroke. Total T and free T were not significantly associated with stroke risk, while DHT had a nonlinear association with incident stroke (P = 0·006) in analyses adjusted for stroke risk factors. The lowest risk of stroke was at DHT levels of 50-75 ng/dl, with greater risk of stroke at DHT levels above 75 ng/dl or below 50 ng/dl. Results were unchanged when SHBG was added to the model. Calculated free DHT had an inverse linear association with incident ischaemic stroke with HR 0·77 (95% CI, 0·61, 0·98) per standard deviation in analyses adjusted for stroke risk factors. Dihydrotestosterone had a nonlinear association with stroke risk in which there was an optimal DHT level associated with the lowest stroke risk. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to clarify whether there is an optimal androgen range associated with the least risk of adverse outcomes in elderly men. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Telomere length and ischaemic stroke in women: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürks, M; Prescott, J; Dushkes, R; De Vivo, I; Rexrode, K M

    2013-07-01

    Telomere shortening has been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, prospective data on the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and ischaemic stroke are scarce and inconclusive. We used a nested case-control design among women participating in the prospective Nurses' Health Study. Participants provided blood samples in 1990 and were followed till 2006. Women with confirmed incident ischaemic stroke were matched to controls by age, smoking, postmenopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine RTL in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of ischaemic stroke associated with RTL, using RTL quartiles and as dichotomous according to the median. Data on RTL were available from 504 case-control pairs. Results did not suggest an association between RTL and ischaemic stroke. The odds ratio (OR) for ischaemic stroke was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.32] comparing lowest with the highest RTL quartile and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65-1.24) comparing RTL below the median with RTL above the median. Associations were unchanged after additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Further analyses suggested an association between RTL and fatal ischaemic stroke (54 case-control pairs; lowest versus highest quartile OR = 1.99, 95%CI 0.26-14.9); however, results were statistically insignificant. In this large nested case-control study among women RTL was not associated with ischaemic stroke. In light of the varying study results in the literature on the association between telomere length and stroke, additional research is warranted. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  18. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  19. Moderate hyperglycaemia is associated with favourable outcome in acute lacunar stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Koch, Marcus W; Stewart, Roy E; Vroomen, Patrick C; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; De Keyser, Jacques

    Hyperglycaemia in acute ischaemic stroke is traditionally associated with a worsened outcome. However, it is unclear whether the impact of hyperglycaemia on stroke outcome is similar in lacunar and non-lacunar infarctions. The relation between serum glucose measured within 6 h after stroke onset and

  20. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven

    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  1. Clinical review: Therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension in ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttler, Eric; Schellinger, Peter D; Aschoff, Alfred; Zweckberger, Klaus; Unterberg, Andreas; Hacke, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of patients with large hemispheric ischaemic stroke accompanied by massive space-occupying oedema represents one of the major unsolved problems in neurocritical care medicine. Despite maximum intensive care, the prognosis of these patients is poor, with case fatality rates as high as 80%. Therefore, the term 'malignant brain infarction' was coined. Because conservative treatment strategies to limit brain tissue shift almost consistently fail, these massive infarctions often are regarded as an untreatable disease. The introduction of decompressive surgery (hemicraniectomy) has completely changed this point of view, suggesting that mortality rates may be reduced to approximately 20%. However, critics have always argued that the reduction in mortality may be outweighed by an accompanying increase in severe disability. Due to the lack of conclusive evidence of efficacy from randomised trials, controversy over the benefit of these treatment strategies remained, leading to large regional differences in the application of this procedure. Meanwhile, data from randomised trials confirm the results of former observational studies, demonstrating that hemicraniectomy not only significantly reduces mortality but also significantly improves clinical outcome without increasing the number of completely dependent patients. Hypothermia is another promising treatment option but still needs evidence of efficacy from randomised controlled trials before it may be recommended for clinical routine use. This review gives the reader an integrated view of the current status of treatment options in massive hemispheric brain infarction, based on the available data of clinical trials, including the most recent data from randomised trials published in 2007.

  2. Anabolic steroids abuse-induced cardiomyopathy and ischaemic stroke in a young male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad

    2014-02-26

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects.

  3. Neuroprotection as initial therapy in acute stroke - Third report of an Ad Hoc Consensus Group Meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogousslavsky, J; De Keyser, J; Diener, HC; Fieschi, C; Hacke, W; Kaste, M; Orgogozo, JM; Pulsinelli, W; Wahlgren, NG

    1998-01-01

    Although a considerable body of scientific data is now available on neuroprotection in acute ischaemic stroke, this field is not yet established in clinical practice. At its third meeting, the European Ad Hoc Consensus Group considered the potential for neuroprotection in acute stroke and the

  4. Trends in the incidence of ischaemic stroke in young adults between 1985 and 2011: the Dijon Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoit; Jacquin, Agnès; Durier, Jérôme; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Rouaud, Olivier; Giroud, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Recent data have suggested that stroke incidence in young people may be rising. In this population-based study, we aimed to determine whether the incidence of stroke in people aged stroke (ischaemic stroke, spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and undetermined stroke) occurring in Dijon, France, from 1985 to 2011 were prospectively collected from a population-based registry. Incidence rates were calculated and temporal trends were analysed by age groups and stroke subtypes using a Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR). Risk factors and premorbid treatments were analysed. Over the 27-year study period, 4506 patients were recorded (53% women, mean age 74.6±14.4, 10.1% aged stroke incidence was noted, as was a rise in ischaemic stroke in individuals aged ischaemic stroke in people aged disease and treatment options in the population and among practitioners leading to more frequent referrals for specialised care, and improvements in stroke diagnosis. Stroke prevention must be encouraged even in young adults.

  5. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging factors that predict ischaemic stroke in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    18 F-FDG PET/CT can acquire both anatomical and functional images in a single session. We investigated which factors of 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging have potential as biomarkers for an increased risk of ischaemic stroke in cancer patients. From among cancer patients presenting with various neurological symptoms and hemiparesis, 134 were selected as eligible for this retrospective analysis. A new infarct lesion on brain MRI within 1 year of FDG PET/CT defined future ischaemic stroke. The target-to-background ratio (TBR) of each arterial segment was used to define arterial inflammation on PET imaging. Abdominal obesity was defined in terms of the area and proportion of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on a single CT slice at the umbilical level. Ischaemic stroke confirmed by MRI occurred in 30 patients. Patients with stroke had higher TBRs in the carotid arteries and abdominal aorta (P < 0.001) and a higher VAT proportion (P = 0.021) and TAT proportion (P = 0.041) than patients without stroke. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that TBRs of the carotid arteries and abdominal aorta, VAT and TAT proportions, and the presence of a metabolically active tumour were significantly associated with future ischaemic stroke. Combining PET and CT variables improved the power for predicting future ischaemic stroke. Our findings suggest that arterial FDG uptake and hypermetabolic malignancy on PET and the VAT proportion on CT could be independent predictors of future ischaemic stroke in patients with cancer and could identify those patients who would benefit from medical treatment. (orig.)

  6. Loci associated with ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (SiGN): a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of disease-associated loci through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is the leading genetic approach to the identification of novel biological pathways underlying diseases in humans. Until recently, GWAS in ischaemic stroke have been limited by small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with ischaemic stroke. We did a large-scale GWAS to identify additional susceptibility genes for stroke and its subtypes. To identify genetic loci associated with ischaemic stroke, we did a two-stage GWAS. In the first stage, we included 16 851 cases with state-of-the-art phenotyping data and 32 473 stroke-free controls. Cases were aged 16 to 104 years, recruited between 1989 and 2012, and subtypes of ischaemic stroke were recorded by centrally trained and certified investigators who used the web-based protocol, Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS). We constructed case-control strata by identifying samples that were genotyped on nearly identical arrays and were of similar genetic ancestral background. We cleaned and imputed data by use of dense imputation reference panels generated from whole-genome sequence data. We did genome-wide testing to identify stroke-associated loci within each stratum for each available phenotype, and we combined summary-level results using inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis. In the second stage, we did in-silico lookups of 1372 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from the first stage GWAS in 20 941 cases and 364 736 unique stroke-free controls. The ischaemic stroke subtypes of these cases had previously been established with the Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification system, in accordance with local standards. Results from the two stages were then jointly analysed in a final meta-analysis. We identified a novel locus (G allele at rs12122341) at 1p13.2 near TSPAN2 that was associated with large artery atherosclerosis-related stroke (first stage odds ratio

  7. Characterization of patients with recurrent ischaemic stroke using the ASCO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M E; Sauer, T; Hennerici, M G; Chatzikonstantinou, A

    2013-05-01

    The ASCO score has the advantage of allowing a more comprehensive characterization of ischaemic stroke patients and their risk factors, as reflected in different grades of evidence of atherosclerotic changes (A), small vessel disease (S), potential cardiac (C) or other (O) sources. It might also help to characterize patients with recurrent ischaemic stroke and document the etiology of stroke recurrence as well as the further development of risk factor constellations. We prospectively screened our stroke database for patients with recurrent ischaemic stroke between 2004 and 2011, and classified each stroke using ASCO. The distribution of etiologies was analysed, and changes in the ASCO score were documented for each patient. We identified 131 patients with recurrence of ischaemic stroke. At the first event, the distribution of etiologies and their grade of evidence was 97 grade 1 (A = 18/S = 32/C = 44/O = 3), six grade 2 (A = 2/S = 1/C = 3/O = 0), 199 grade 3 (A = 85/S = 83/C = 23/O = 8), 204 grade 0 (A = 26/S = 14/C = 44/O = 120) and 18 grade 9 (A = 0/S = 1/C = 17/O = 0). At stroke recurrence, 98 grade 1 (A = 16/S = 24/C = 55/O = 3), 11 grade 2 (A = 2/S = 5/C = 4/O = 0), 210 grade 3 (A = 94/S = 92/C = 13/O = 11), 171 grade 0 (A = 16/S = 9/C = 26/O = 117) and 34 grade 9 (A = 0/S = 1/C = 33/O = 0) were identified. Analysis of each individual showed a modification of the score in 85 patients (64.9%). Recurrent ischaemic stroke does not always have the same etiology as the previous one(s). Among variable changes of grade 1 etiologies, an increasing prevalence of cardioembolism--often insufficiently treated--at stroke recurrence was a major finding. ASCO proved to be highly useful to monitor risk factor constellations. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  8. volkmann's ischaemic contracture following acute compartment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... Compartment syndrome most commonly involves the forearm and lower leg. Acute compartment syndrome refers to acute ischaemia of the muscles and nerves within a compartment due to elevated intra-compartmental pressure. In 1881 Volkmann stated that the paralytic contractures that could develop in ...

  9. Exome array analysis of ischaemic stroke: results from a southern Swedish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, M; Almgren, P; Jood, K; Stanne, T M; Olsson, M; Ilinca, A; Lorentzen, E; Norrving, B; Engström, G; Melander, O; Jern, C; Lindgren, A

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a few risk loci for ischaemic stroke, but these variants explain only a small part of the genetic contribution to the disease. Coding variants associated with amino acid substitutions or premature termination of protein synthesis could have a large effect on disease risk. We performed an exome array analysis for ischaemic stroke. Patients with ischaemic stroke (n = 2385) and control subjects (n = 6077) from three Swedish studies were genotyped with the Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome BeadChip. Single-variant association analysis and gene-based tests were performed of exome variants with minor allele frequency of ischaemic stroke after Bonferroni correction (all P > 1.8 × 10 -6 for single-variant and >4.15 × 10 -6 for gene-based analysis). The strongest association in single-variant analysis was found for a missense variant in the DNAH11 gene (rs143362381; P = 5.01 × 10 -6 ). In gene-based tests, the strongest association was for the ZBTB20 gene (P = 7.9 × 10 -5 ). The GWA analysis showed that the sample was homogenous (median genomic inflation factor = 1.006). No genome-wide significant association with overall ischaemic stroke risk was found. However, previously reported associations for the PITX2 and ZFHX3 gene loci with cardioembolic stroke subtype were replicated (P = 7 × 10 -15 and 6 × 10 -3 ). This exome array analysis did not identify any single variants or genes reaching the pre-defined significance level for association with ischaemic stroke. Further studies on exome variants should be performed in even larger, well-defined and subtyped samples. © 2016 EAN.

  10. Cerebral small vessel disease, medial temporal lobe atrophy and cognitive status in patients with ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba, F; Quinn, T; Hankey, G J; Ali, M; Lees, K R; Inzitari, D

    2017-02-01

    Small vessel disease (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two common causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, traditionally considered as distinct processes. The relationship between radiological features suggestive of AD and SVD was explored, and the association of each of these features with cognitive status at 1 year was investigated in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Anonymized data were accessed from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA; a marker of AD) and markers of SVD were rated using validated ordinal visual scales. Cognitive status was evaluated with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) 1 year after the index stroke. Logistic regression models were used to investigate independent associations between (i) baseline SVD features and MTA and (ii) all baseline neuroimaging features and cognitive status 1 year post-stroke. In all, 234 patients were included, mean (±SD) age 65.7 ± 13.1 years, 145 (62%) male. Moderate to severe MTA was present in 104 (44%) patients. SVD features were independently associated with MTA (P stroke, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, MTA was the only radiological feature independently associated with cognitive impairment, defined using thresholds of MMSE ≤ 26 (odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.94) and MMSE ≤ 23 (odds ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.62). In patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease, SVD features are associated with MTA, which is a common finding in stroke survivors. SVD and AD type neurodegeneration coexist, but the AD marker MTA, rather than SVD markers, is associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment. © 2016 EAN.

  11. Ischaemic strokes in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: associations with iron deficiency and platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Shovlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary first pass filtration of particles marginally exceeding ∼7 µm (the size of a red blood cell is used routinely in diagnostics, and allows cellular aggregates forming or entering the circulation in the preceding cardiac cycle to lodge safely in pulmonary capillaries/arterioles. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations compromise capillary bed filtration, and are commonly associated with ischaemic stroke. Cohorts with CT-scan evident malformations associated with the highest contrast echocardiographic shunt grades are known to be at higher stroke risk. Our goal was to identify within this broad grouping, which patients were at higher risk of stroke. METHODOLOGY: 497 consecutive patients with CT-proven pulmonary arteriovenous malformations due to hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia were studied. Relationships with radiologically-confirmed clinical ischaemic stroke were examined using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic analyses, and platelet studies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-one individuals (12.3% had acute, non-iatrogenic ischaemic clinical strokes at a median age of 52 (IQR 41-63 years. In crude and age-adjusted logistic regression, stroke risk was associated not with venous thromboemboli or conventional neurovascular risk factors, but with low serum iron (adjusted odds ratio 0.96 [95% confidence intervals 0.92, 1.00], and more weakly with low oxygen saturations reflecting a larger right-to-left shunt (adjusted OR 0.96 [0.92, 1.01]. For the same pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, the stroke risk would approximately double with serum iron 6 µmol/L compared to mid-normal range (7-27 µmol/L. Platelet studies confirmed overlooked data that iron deficiency is associated with exuberant platelet aggregation to serotonin (5HT, correcting following iron treatment. By MANOVA, adjusting for participant and 5HT, iron or ferritin explained 14% of the variance in log-transformed aggregation-rate (p = 0

  12. Ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pak-Hei; Huang, Duo; Yip, Pok-Siu; Hai, Jojo; Tse, Hung-Fat; Chan, Tak-Mao; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lo, Wai-Kei; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the ischaemic stroke risk and benefit of warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). Our objective was to determine the risk of ischaemic stroke in a 'real-world' cohort of PD patients with AF, and clinical benefit or harm of aspirin and warfarin. This is a single-centred observational study of Chinese patients with non-valvular AF. Hospitalizations with ischaemic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) were recorded. Of 9810 patients from a hospital-based AF registry, 271 CKD patients on PD with AF (76.8 ± 12.5 years, CHA2DS2-VASc: 3.69 ± 1.83, and HAS-BLED: 2.07 ± 0.97) were identified. Amongst these PD patients, 24.7% received warfarin; 31.7% received aspirin; and 43.5% received no antithrombotic therapy. Amongst patients with no antithrombotic therapy, annual incidence of ischaemic stroke in PD patients was comparable with those non-CKD counterparts (9.32 vs. 9.30%/year). Similar to non-CKD patients, annual incidence of ischaemic stroke increased with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0-1: 5.76 vs. 5.70%/year, P = 1.00; and CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2: 10.80 vs. 9.94%/year, P = 0.78). Amongst PD patients, warfarin therapy was associated with lower risk of ischaemic stroke compared with aspirin [Hazard ratio (HR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.66, P = 0.01] and no therapy (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.65, P = 0.01), but not associated with a higher risk of ICH. In CKD patients on PD with AF, who had similar ischaemic stroke risk as non-CKD counterparts, warfarin therapy is associated with reduction in risk of ischaemic stroke without a higher risk of ICH. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The role of atrial fibrillation on mortality and morbidity in patients with ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogen, E.E.; Tmbul, T.; Yildirim, G.; Sayin, R.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of atrial fibrillation on mortality and morbidity in ischaemic stroke patients. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Neurology Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey, and comprised records of ischaemic stroke patients hospitalised between January 2006 and September 2009. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 404 patients in the study, 69 (17.1%) had atrial fibrilation. The mean age of such patients was 66.78+-12.23 years compared to 61.01+-15.11 years for the rest. Besides 47 (68.1%) of these patients were females. According to the modified Rankin Scale scores, the degree of disability was significantly higher at the time of arrival and discharge, and mortality rates were significantly higher also (p<0.01). Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation affected the prognosis of ischaemic stroke adversely in terms of mortality and morbidity. (author)

  14. The role of atrial fibrillation on mortality and morbidity in patients with ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogen, E.E.; Tombul, T.; Yildirim, G.; Odabas, F.O.; Sayin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of atrial fibrillation on mortality and morbidity in ischaemic stroke patients. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Neurology Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey, and comprised records of ischaemic stroke patients hospitalised between January 2006 and September 2009. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 404 patients in the study, 69 (17.1%) had atrial fibrilation. The mean age of such patients was 66.78+9-12.23 years compared to 61.01+-15.11 years for the rest. Besides 47 (68.1%) of these patients were females. According to the modified Rankin Scale scores, the degree of disability was significantly higher at the time of arrival and discharge, and mortality rates were significantly higher also (p<0.01). Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation affected the prognosis of ischaemic stroke adversely in terms of mortality and morbidity. (author)

  15. Incidence, outcome, risk factors, and long-term prognosis of cryptogenic transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxin; Yiin, Gabriel S; Geraghty, Olivia C; Schulz, Ursula G; Kuker, Wilhelm; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    A third of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) and ischaemic strokes are of undetermined cause (ie, cryptogenic), potentially undermining secondary prevention. If these events are due to occult atheroma, the risk-factor profile and coronary prognosis should resemble that of overt large artery events. If they have a cardioembolic cause, the risk of future cardioembolic events should be increased. We aimed to assess the burden, outcome, risk factors, and long-term prognosis of cryptogenic TIA and stroke. In a population-based study in Oxfordshire, UK, among patients with a first TIA or ischaemic stroke from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2014, we compared cryptogenic events versus other causative subtypes according to the TOAST classification. We compared markers of atherosclerosis (ie, risk factors, coronary and peripheral arterial disease, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, and 10-year risk of acute coronary events) and of cardioembolism (ie, risk of cardioembolic stroke, systemic emboli, and new atrial fibrillation [AF] during follow-up, and minor-risk echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical paroxysmal AF at baseline in patients with index events between 2010 and 2014). Among 2555 patients, 812 (32%) had cryptogenic events (incidence of cryptogenic stroke 0·36 per 1000 population per year, 95% CI 0·23-0·49). Death or dependency at 6 months was similar after cryptogenic stroke compared with non-cardioembolic stroke (23% vs 27% for large artery and small vessel subtypes combined; p=0·26) as was the 10-year risk of recurrence (32% vs 27%; p=0·91). However, the cryptogenic group had fewer atherosclerotic risk factors than the large artery disease (pdisease (p=0·001), and cardioembolic (p=0·008) groups. Compared with patients with large artery events, those with cryptogenic events had less hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·41, 95% CI 0·30-0·56; pdisease (0·27, 0·17-0·45; pdisease (adjusted OR 0·64, 95% CI 0·37-1·11; p=0·11) or acute coronary

  16. Psoriasis and risk of atrial fibrillation and ischaemic stroke: a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar H; Jørgensen, Casper H

    2011-01-01

    AimsPsoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischaemic stroke. We therefore investigated the risk of these endpoints in patients with psoriasis.Methods and resultsCohort study of the entire Danish population...... followed from 1997 to 2006 by individual-level-linkage of nationwide prospectively recorded registers. Multivariable Poisson's regression and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the psoriasis-related risk of AF and ischaemic stroke. A total of 36 765 patients with mild psoriasis and 2793 with severe...

  17. Ischaemic Stroke as the First Presentation of Occult Squamous Cell Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, H. Z.; Zuberi, B. J.; Zein, T. M.; Mirghani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    A 39 years old female presented with sudden onset of left sided weakness and CT scan brain confirmed an ischaemic stroke. Extensive investigations looking for the underlying cause were un-rewarding. She presented few days later with confusion and fever and was found to have multiple new cerebral infarcts, disseminated intravascular coagulation, rectal mass and liver metastases. Biopsy of metastatic liver lesion identified the primary tumour to be of squamous cell origin. Such a rare presentation as ischaemic stroke of a very rare squamous cell carcinoma of rectum has not been reported before. (author)

  18. MMP-2 and MMP-9 as prognostic factors in ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zielińska-Turek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: No widely available, adequately sensitive diagnostic test to establish prognosis in stroke patients has been developed thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in plasma levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 as potential prognostic factors in patients with ischaemic stroke. Methods: The study included 56 patients presenting with the signs of ischaemic stroke for less than 24 hours, and 60 healthy controls without a history of neurological and/or inflammatory disorders. Plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined immunoenzymatically at admission (i.e. within 24 hours of the cerebrovascular episode and on the 7th day of hospital stay. Results: Median concentrations of MMP-9 in stroke patients were significantly lower than in the controls, both at admission and on the 7th day of hospital stay. No significant changes in the concentration of MMP-2 in ischaemic stroke patients were observed during the course of hospital stay. No significant association was found between both MMP concentrations and neurological status of patients with cerebrovascular episodes. Conclusions: The lack of significant associations between plasma concentrations of MMP-2/MMP-9 and clinical status suggests that these metalloproteinases should not be used as prognostic factors in patients with ischaemic cerebral episodes.

  19. Comparing ischaemic stroke in six European countries. The EuroHOPE register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, A; Meretoja, A; Peltola, M; Numerato, D; Heijink, R; Engelfriet, P; Wild, S H; Belicza, É; Bereczki, D; Medin, E; Goude, F; Boncoraglio, G; Tatlisumak, T; Seppälä, T; Häkkinen, U

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hospitalizations, treatment and case fatality of ischaemic stroke were assessed utilizing a comprehensive multinational database to attempt to compare the healthcare systems in six European countries, aiming also to identify the limitations and make suggestions for future improvements in the between-country comparisons. National registers of hospital discharges for ischaemic stroke identified by International Classification of Diseases codes 433-434 (ICD-9) and code I63 (ICD-10), medication purchases and mortality were linked at the patient level in each of the participating countries and regions: Finland, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Scotland and Sweden. Patients with an index admission in 2007 were followed for 1 year. In all, 64,170 patients with a disease code for ischaemic stroke were identified. The number of patients registered per 100,000 European standard population ranged from 77 in Scotland to 407 in Hungary. Large differences were observed in medication use. The age- and sex-adjusted all-cause case fatality amongst hospitalized patients at 1 year from stroke was highest in Hungary at 31.0% (95% confidence interval 30.5-31.5). Regional differences in age- and sex-adjusted 1-year case fatality within countries were largest in Hungary (range 23.6%-37.6%) and smallest in the Netherlands (20.5%-27.3%). It is feasible to link population-wide register data amongst European countries to describe incidence of hospitalizations, treatment patterns and case fatality of ischaemic stroke on a national level. However, the coverage and validity of administrative register data for ischaemic stroke should be developed further, and population-based and clinical stroke registers should be created to allow better control of case mix. © 2014 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  20. ISCHAEMIC STROKE IN A 38-YEAR-YOUNG AS A PRESENTING FEATURE OF POLYCYTHAEMIA VERA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaraf Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is rare as a presenting feature of polycythaemia. Here, we report a case of polycythaemia whose presenting feature was ischaemic stroke. Recurrence of stroke may occur if polycythaemia is not treated in these patients. Therefore, identifying this cause of stroke timely may prevent recurrence.

  1. Evaluation of ischaemia in acute stroke using 18F labelled fluoromisonidazole (F-MISO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachinidis, J.I.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Read, S.J.; Chan, J.G.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Bladin, C.F.; Donna, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F labelled fluoromisonidazole is a non-invasive technique for the detection hypoxic but viable tissue in malignant tumours, myocardial infarct and cerebral ischaemia. We have used F-MISO PET to detect hypoxia, likely to represent ischaemic penumbra, in patients after acute ischaemic stroke. Eight patients were studied at varying times after acute ischaemic stroke (from 95% chemical and radiochemical purity. Images were acquired at 2-5 h after injection in 3-D mode with a 10 min transmission scan followed by a 30-40 min emission scan. Four of the eight patients (studied at 12 hours, 24 hours, 7 dab and 11 days) showed increased F-MISO uptake in the region of the acute infarction. The ratio of activity between the infarct region and the contralateral normal cerebral tissue was >1.3 in all these case, comparable to ratios seen in human tumours and animal models of myocardial ischaemia. These preliminary results indicate that F-MISO PET detects regions of hypoxia consistent with the ischaemic penumbra in some patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Surprisingly, penumbra tissue may be detected as late as 11 days after onset. Conversely the ischaemic process may be complete within 24 hours, thus producing no F-MISO trapping. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic window after stroke

  2. The Course and Outcome of Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in 79 Children with Ischaemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal…

  3. Increasing rate of atrial fibrillation from 2003 to 2011 in patients with ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, S F; Christensen, L. M.; Christensen, A

    2015-01-01

    identified. Frequency analysis and linear regression were used to assess trends in atrial fibrillation diagnosis and oral anticoagulation therapy prescription. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (n = 9482) of ischaemic stroke patients had atrial fibrillation. The relative frequency of atrial fibrillation increased...

  4. Are clinical characteristics associated with upper-extremity hypertonia in severe ischaemic supratentorial stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A. van; Hendricks, H.T.; Pasman, J.W.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to identify clinical risk factors, in addition to muscle weakness, for upper-extremity hypertonia in patients with severe ischaemic supratentorial stroke. The secondary goal was to investigate the time course of upper-extremity hypertonia in these

  5. Genetic risk factors for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (the METASTROKE collaboration)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traylor, Matthew; Farrall, Martin; Holliday, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    Various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been done in ischaemic stroke, identifying a few loci associated with the disease, but sample sizes have been 3500 cases or less. We established the METASTROKE collaboration with the aim of validating associations from previous GWAS and identify...

  6. Epilepsy in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Due to Perinatal Arterial Ischaemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Reid, Susan M.; Mackay, Mark T.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Harvey, A. Simon; Freeman, Jeremy L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, risk factors, manifestations, and outcome of epilepsy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). Method: The study group comprised 63 participants (41 males, 22 females) from a population-based CP register whose brain imaging showed…

  7. Neurone-specific enolase and N-acetyl-aspartate as potential peripheral markers of ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, H; Jakobs, C; de Jager, AEJ; Cunningham, RT; Korf, J

    Background After stroke, brain-specific proteins (including neurone-specific enolase) leak into the blood. The question addressed in the present study was whether N-acetyl-aspartate (amino acid derivative localized in cerebral neurones) could also serve as a peripheral marker of ischaemic damage.

  8. Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma presenting as a synchronous solitary lytic skull lesion with ischaemic stroke--case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a rare case of metastatic bronchogenic adenocarcinoma in a 55-year-old man presenting with concomittant solitary lytic skull lesion and ischaemic stroke. Metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma is known to present as lytic skull lesions. Primary brain tumours are also known to cause ischaemic brain injury. An underlying stroke risk may be exagerated by cranial tumour surgery. Patients with brain tumours are well known to be predisposed to an increased risk of developing thromboembolic disease. It is unusual to see metastatic bronchogenic adenocarcinoma presenting as ischaemic stroke with a background of concomittant cerebral metastasis. The aetio-pathogenesis of this rare occurrence is discussed with a review of literature.

  9. Multiple risk factors and ischaemic stroke in the elderly Asian population with and without atrial fibrillation. An analysis of 425,600 Chinese individuals without prior stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke risk rises with the increasing cardiovascular risk factors. How atrial fibrillation (AF) incrementally contributes to the risk for ischaemic stroke with increasing age and multiple cardiovascular risk factors is unclear. In an individual patient with AF the mechanism of ischaemic stroke may be related directly to AF itself or to risk factors associated with AF. It was this study's objective to investigate incident ischaemic stroke in relation to age and increasing cardiovascular risk factor(s), and the incremental impact of AF on stroke rates. We studied a 5% random sampling from Chinese medical insurance data covering more than 10 million individuals, for the years 2001 to 2012. The rate of ischaemic stroke was calculated amongst the individuals with no prior history of ischaemic stroke, in relation to age groups (aged ischaemic strokes after 64,834 person-years follow-up. Overall, ischaemic stroke incidence (per 100 person-years) was 0.35 (95%CI 0.34-0.35) in the non-AF population and 1.11 (0.84-1.45) with AF. The AF population age stroke rates were 2.07 (0.86-4.76) and 4.29 (4.08-4.51) in non-AF and AF populations, respectively. The non-AF population age ≥ 65 years with ≥ 2 additional comorbidities (hypertension, vascular disease, diabetic, or heart failure) had ischaemic stroke rates similar to an AF population with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 4. In both non-AF and AF populations, those with CHA2DS2-VASc =1 had a 1.9 fold increase in stroke risk, and those with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2 had more than four-fold increased risk for stroke, compared with those with CHA2DS2-VASc=0. In conclusion, an increasing cluster of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (besides AF) contributes to a greater risk for ischaemic stroke, especially in the elderly population. If elderly and with multiple risk factors, non-AF patients may have a risk of incident ischaemic stroke that is comparable or even higher than patients with AF, suggesting that the incremental stroke

  10. Oxidative Stress and C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident (Ischaemic Stroke): The role of Ginkgo biloba extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanoon, Imad A-J; Abdul-Jabbar, Hilmy As; Taha, Dhia A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischaemic stroke patients by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and highly-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the early post-ischaemic period, and to determine the role of Ginkgo biloba therapy in correcting the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was conducted at Ibn Seena Hospital, Mosul City, Iraq and included 31 cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients and 30 healthy controls. Ischaemic stroke patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 15) received conventional therapy; group II (n = 16) received conventional therapy with G. biloba (1500 mg/day) for 30 days. Blood samples were obtained from patients and controls before treatment and assays done of serum levels of MDA, TAS, and hsCRP. For CVA patients, a post-treatment blood sample was taken and the same parameters reassessed. Compared with the controls, patients' serum levels of MDA, and hsCRP were significantly higher (P ≤0.001) and TAS significantly lower. Group I and II patients reported a significant reduction in serum levels of MDA and hsCRP and a significant increase in serum levels of TAS, in comparison with pre-treatment levels. There was no significant difference (P = 0.19) in serum MDA levels between groups I and II, whereas, serum TAS levels were significantly higher (P ≤0.01) and hsCRP significantly lower (P ≤0.01) in group II. Acute stroke is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the early period. G. biloba plays a potential role in reducing oxidative damage and inflammatory response.

  11. Early management and outcome of acute stroke in Auckland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.E.; Bonita, R.; Broad, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of acute stroke management in stroke units and tertiary referral hospitals may not accurately reflect practice within the population. Reliable information on the management of stroke within a population is sparse. The aims of this study was to compare clinical practice in acute stroke management in Auckland with guidelines for the management and treatment of stroke in other countries; to provide a baseline measure against which future changes in management can be evaluated. All new stroke events in Auckland residents in 12 months were traced through multiple case finding sources. For each patient, a record of investigations and treatment during the first week of hospital admission was kept. One thousand eight hundred and three stroke events (including subarachnoid haemorrhages) occurred in 1761 patients in one year. Twenty-seven per cent of all events were managed outside hospital and 73% of the stroke events were treated in an acute hospital. Of the 1242 stroke events admitted to an acute hospital in the first week, only 6% were managed on the neurology and neurosurgery ward, 83% were managed by a general physician or geriatrician and 42% had computed tomography (CT). Of 376 validated ischaemic strokes, 44% were treated with aspirin and 12% with intravenous heparin. Of the 690 unspecified strokes (no CT or autopsy), 38% received aspirin and 0.5% heparin. The 28 day in-hospital case fatality for all stroke events admitted to an acute hospital during the first week was 25%. It was concluded that in Auckland, management of acute stroke differed from clinical guidelines in the high proportion of patients managed in the community, the low rate of neurological consultation, and the low frequency of CT scanning. Despite these deficiencies in management, the 28 day hospital case fatality in Auckland was similar to other comparable studies which had a high proportion of cases evaluated by a neurologist and CT. (authors)

  12. Age-specific trends of atrial fibrillation-related ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack, anticoagulant use and risk factor profile in Chinese population: a 15-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yannie; Chan, Nathan; Leung, Kam Tat; Chen, Xiang-Yan; Mok, Vincent; Wong, Lawrence; Leung, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing globally, and the fivefold increase in stroke risk constitutes significant healthcare burden. We aim to evaluate the trends of AF-related stroke and transient ischaemic attack (AF-stroke/TIA), prior anticoagulant use and their risk factors in different age groups in Chinese population. Data were retrieved from the stroke registry at Prince of Wales Hospital. We compared the data at 5-year intervals over a 15-year period (years 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014). A total of 3894 patients were included, 712 patients had AF-stroke/TIA. Over the 15 years, the total number of ischaemic stroke/TIA fluctuated slightly during the period from year 1999 to 2009, and increased by 21.5% in the year 2014. While AF-stroke/TIA increased continuously with time by 282.1%. Increasing trend of AF-stroke/TIA was observed in all age groups. Absolute growth was highest in patients aged ≥80 years; relative growth was most pronounced in those between 65 and 72 years (>3.5 fold increase). Throughout the 15 years, >70% of AF-stroke/TIA occurred in non-anticoagulated patients, and this proportion increased with age. Increasing trends in both hypertension and ischaemic heart disease were also observed in patients with AF aged ≥73 years. AF-stroke/TIA has increased continuously by >2.5 fold in Chinese population over a 15-year period, with the majority of AF-stroke/TIA occurring in non-anticoagulated patients. Strategic planning is needed to optimise anticoagulant use, particularly non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in elderly patients, low-income group and those with ischaemic heart disease requiring concomitant antiplatelet therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Commentary on a GWAS: HDAC9 and the risk for ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacke Werner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modifiable risk factors like obesity, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity or atrial fibrillation account for a significant proportion of the risk for ischaemic stroke, but genetic variation is also believed to contribute to the risk, although few genetic risk variants were identified to date. Common clinical subtypes of stroke are caused by cardiac embolism, large artery atherosclerosis and small cerebral vessel disease. Each of these underlying pathologies may have a specific genetic architecture. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS showed association of variants near PITX2 and ZFHX3 with atrial fibrillation and stroke. ANRIL (antisense Non-coding RNA in the INK4 Locus (harboring the CDKN2A/B genes variants were related to a variety of vascular diseases (myocardial infarction, aortic and intracranial aneurysm, including ischaemic stroke. Now a recent GWAS published in Nature Genetics confirmed these previous associations, analyzed the specificity of the previous associations with particular stroke subtypes and identified a new association between HDAC9 and large vessel stroke. The findings suggest that well-recognized clinical stroke subtypes correspond to distinct aetiological entities. However, the molecular pathways that are affected by the identified genetic variants are not yet pinpointed, and the observed associations apply only for some, but not all victims of a specific stroke aetiology.

  14. Commentary on a GWAS: HDAC9 and the risk for ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Werner; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar

    2012-07-09

    Modifiable risk factors like obesity, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity or atrial fibrillation account for a significant proportion of the risk for ischaemic stroke, but genetic variation is also believed to contribute to the risk, although few genetic risk variants were identified to date. Common clinical subtypes of stroke are caused by cardiac embolism, large artery atherosclerosis and small cerebral vessel disease. Each of these underlying pathologies may have a specific genetic architecture.Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) showed association of variants near PITX2 and ZFHX3 with atrial fibrillation and stroke. ANRIL (antisense Non-coding RNA in the INK4 Locus (harboring the CDKN2A/B genes)) variants were related to a variety of vascular diseases (myocardial infarction, aortic and intracranial aneurysm), including ischaemic stroke. Now a recent GWAS published in Nature Genetics confirmed these previous associations, analyzed the specificity of the previous associations with particular stroke subtypes and identified a new association between HDAC9 and large vessel stroke. The findings suggest that well-recognized clinical stroke subtypes correspond to distinct aetiological entities. However, the molecular pathways that are affected by the identified genetic variants are not yet pinpointed, and the observed associations apply only for some, but not all victims of a specific stroke aetiology.

  15. Association between β-cell function estimated by HOMA-β and prognosis of non-diabetic patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Pan, Y; Jing, J; Wang, Y; Zhao, X; Liu, L; Li, H; Wang, Y

    2018-03-01

    Studies showed that β-cell dysfunction is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between β-cell function and prognosis of non-diabetic patients with ischaemic stroke. Ischaemic stroke patients without diabetes in the Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients with Acute Stroke across China registry were included in this analysis. Homeostasis assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) was performed and classified into four groups according to quartiles. The outcomes included stroke recurrence, poor functional outcome and all-cause mortality. In a total of 1244 patients, the average age was 62.3 years; 63.1% patients were male. At 1 year, the first quartile of HOMA-β (HOMA-β (≥166.3) after adjustment for insulin resistance and other potential covariates. The second and third quartiles of HOMA-β were significantly associated with an increased risk of poor functional outcome. Multivariable regression analysis with restricted cubic splines showed an L-shaped association between HOMA-β and outcomes at 1 year. Our study shows that lower HOMA-β level is associated with poor outcomes at 1 year in non-diabetic patients with ischaemic stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  16. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  17. [Ingestion of anabolic steroids and ischaemic stroke. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esperón, Carlos; Hervás-García, José Vicente; Jiménez-González, Marta; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Gomis-Cortina, Meritxell; Dorado-Bouix, Laura; López-Cancio Martinez, Elena; Castaño-Duque, Carlos H; Millán-Torné, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are employed for their trophic effect on muscle tissue, among other uses. Their consumption can give trigger a series of adverse side effects on the body, including the suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as liver, psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. The most common effects are altered fat profiles and blood pressure values, cardiac remodelling, arrhythmias or myocardial infarcts. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a young male, with a background of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, who visited because of an acute neurological focus in the right hemisphere related with an ischaemic stroke. The aetiological study, including cardiac monitoring, echocardiograph and imaging studies (magnetic resonance and arteriography) and lab findings (thrombophilia, serology, autoimmunity, tumour markers) showed no alterations. CONCLUSIONS. The association between consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular pathologies is known, but its relation with cerebrovascular disease has not received so much attention from researchers.

  18. Functional recovery differs between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, V.P.; Ketelaar, M.; Visser-Meily, A.J.; de Groot, V.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Lindeman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a difference between patients with a cerebral infarction and those with an intracerebral haemorrhage with respect to the development of independence in activities of daily living over the first year post-stroke. Methods: Patients after first-ever stroke who

  19. Functional recovery differs between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Vera P. M.; Ketelaar, Marjoliin; Visser-Meily, Anne J. M.; de Groot, Vincent; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Lindeman, Eline

    Objective: To determine whether there is a difference between patients with a cerebral infarction and those with an intracerebral haemorrhage with respect to the development of independence in activities of daily living over the first year post-stroke. Methods: Patients after first-ever stroke who

  20. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L M; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S

    2014-01-01

    lasting predominantly between 1 and 4 h. Four recurrent strokes were observed, three in patients with PAF; all three patients were on oral anticoagulation (OAC). CONCLUSIONS: One in five patients with CS had PAF, which occurred at low burden and long after stroke. Future studies should determine the role......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes...

  1. Transient ischaemic attack and stroke risk: pilot of a primary care electronic decision support tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranta A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs indicate high risk for stroke and rapid management reduces stroke burden. Rapid specialist access to initiate timely management is often challenging to achieve. AIM: To assess the feasibility of implementing a TIA/Stroke electronic decision support (EDS tool intended to aid general practitioners (GPs in the timely management of TIAs. METHODS: An eight-week pilot provided access to the TIA/Stroke EDS to selected GPs in the MidCentral district, with subsequent patient record review and a post-pilot user satisfaction survey. RESULTS: Eleven patients from eight practices were entered into the tool and when EDS-rendered advice was followed, diagnosis was accurate and management was in accordance with New Zealand TIA guidelines. No adverse outcomes resulted and user feedback was positive. DISCUSSION: Results indicate that wider implementation of the TIA/Stroke EDS tool is feasible.

  2. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors and Warning Signs in Patients with Recurrent Stroke or Recurrent Transient Ischaemic Attack in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittima Saengsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a global burden. It is not known whether patients who are most at risk of stroke (recurrent stroke or recurrent transient ischaemic attack have enough knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in this high-risk population. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of patients with recurrent stroke or recurrent TIA admitted to Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Hospital, Thailand. A total of 140 patients were included in the study (age 65.6±11.3 years [mean ± SD], 62 females. Using an open-ended questionnaire, nearly one-third of patients (31.4% could not name any risk factors for stroke. The most commonly recognized risk factors were hypertension (35%, dyslipidemia (28.6%, and diabetes (22.9%. Regarding stroke warning signs, the most commonly recognized warning signs were sudden unilateral weakness (61.4%, sudden trouble with speaking (25.7%, and sudden trouble with walking, loss of balance, or dizziness (21.4%. Nineteen patients (13.6% could not identify any warning signs. The results showed that knowledge of stroke obtained from open-ended questionnaires is still unsatisfactory. The healthcare provider should provide structured interventions to increase knowledge and awareness of stroke in these patients.

  3. AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC STUDY OF CAROTID ARTERY PATHOLOGY IN ISCHAEMIC STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Maliyakkal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Majority of ischaemic strokes are due to extracranial carotid artery disease. Ultrasonography of the carotid arteries is easily available, cost-effective noninvasive method of evaluation in preventing ischaemic strokes. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the carotid artery pathology, and grade the stenotic lesions by ultrasonography in ischaemic stroke patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 25 patients of clinically diagnosed cerebrovascular insufficiency, carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides were examined. The site, size, echogenicity, luminal narrowing and velocity changes at the site of atherosclerotic plaque was recorded. The observations in percentages were compared and analysed. RESULTS Hemiparesis was the commonest presenting complaint. Among these 25 patients, 58% of them had atheromatous plaque. Smoking had a strong association with the development of plaque. 64% of these patients with atheromatous plaque were males with a sex ratio of 1.8:1, 57% of plaques were found at carotid bifurcation predominantly on left side, 57% of these plaques had significant stenosis and one had complete occlusion. Predominant type of these plaque were strongly echogenic with calcification (52%, 35% of these patients had a PSV ratio of 2-4 and 14% >4. CONCLUSION The study showed atheromatous plaque changes with significant stenosis among cerebrovascular insufficiency patients. The findings were consistent with the other studies.

  4. Detectability of cerebral hemisphere ischaemic infarcts by CT within 6 h of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, R. von; Nolte, P.N.; Schnittger, H.; Thron, A.; Ringelstein, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    To determine how early and how reliably ischaemic brain infarcts can be detected on CT within 6 h of the onset of cerebral hemisphere strokes, 44 such studies were interpreted by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to clinical signs, but aware that the cohort was a stroke population. He was asked to detect and localise an area of parenchymal low density and/or focal brain swelling. A follow-up study showing the definite infarct served as a reference in each case. In 38 patients areas of slightly low density were seen, and in 36 follow-up CT confirmed infarcts in the locations indicated. In 2 patients the reading was false positive. In 6 patients no low density focus could be detected. In these 8 patients examined by CT within 180 min of the stroke, no low density could be identified, even in retrospect with the knowledge of the findings on follow-up. Thus, 42 readings (95%) were true positive or true negative; 2 were false positive; and none was a false negative. CT within 6 h of the onset of symptoms has a mean sensitivity of 82% (36/44) for ischaemic cerebral hemisphere infarcts. By contrast, its sensitivity to ischaemic parenchymal low density is low during the initial 2 h. The early development of hemispheric infarcts can be detected reliably if the radiologist is familiar with the signs. (orig.)

  5. Frequency of hyper-homocysteinaemia in ischaemic stroke patients of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of hyper-homocysteinaemia in ischaemic stroke patients and its relation with other risk factors. Methods: The cross-sectional study based on convenience sampling was conducted at the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2012. It comprised ischaemic stroke patients selected from the Out Patient Department and Emergency Department. An overnight 8-hour fasting venous blood sample (4 ml in ethylenediamminetetraacetate) was drawn for analysis. Rest of the data was collected through a structured proforma and was analysed using SPSS 17.0. Results: The mean age of the 96 patients in the study was 64.9+-10.9 years (range: 40-85).Overall, 56(58.3%) cases had hyper-homocysteinemia. The frequency was significantly high in the age 60-79 age group (p<0.007). Conclusion: Hyper-homocysteinaemia, a modifiable risk factor, is associated with a high number of ischaemic stroke patients. Hence, steps should be taken to minimise this risk factor by screening and early intervention. (author)

  6. Acupuncture for acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mangmang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Shihong

    2018-03-30

    Sensory stimulation via acupuncture has been reported to alter activities of numerous neural systems by activating multiple efferent pathways. Acupuncture, one of the main physical therapies in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with stroke for over hundreds of years. This is the first update of the Cochrane Review originally published in 2005. To assess whether acupuncture could reduce the proportion of people with death or dependency, while improving quality of life, after acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register (last searched on February 2, 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Ovid (CENTRAL Ovid; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to February 2017), Embase Ovid (1974 to February 2017), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCO (1982 to February 2017), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED; 1985 to February 2017), China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (1998 to February 2017), and the VIP database (VIP Chinese Science Journal Evaluation Reports; 1989 to February 2017). We also identified relevant trials in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (last searched on Feburuary 20, 2017), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (last searched on April 30, 2017), and Clinicaltrials.gov (last searched on April 30, 2017). In addition, we handsearched the reference lists of systematic reviews and relevant clinical trials. We sought randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture started within 30 days from stroke onset compared with placebo or sham acupuncture or open control (no placebo) in people with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or both. Needling into the skin was required for acupuncture. Comparisons were made versus (1) all controls (open control or sham acupuncture), and (2) sham acupuncture controls. Two review authors applied

  7. Genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction in the PSMA6 gene and Chr9p21 are also associated with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, M G; Soto-Ortolaza, A I; Diehl, N N; Rayaprolu, S; Brott, T G; Wszolek, Z K; Meschia, J F; Ross, O A

    2013-02-01

    Ischaemic stroke shares common traditional risk factors with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). This study evaluated whether genetic risk factors for CAD and MI also affect susceptibility to ischaemic stroke in Caucasians and African Americans. Included in the study were a Caucasian series (713 ischaemic stroke patients, 708 controls) and a small African American series (166 ischaemic stroke patients, 117 controls). Twenty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to be associated with CAD or MI were genotyped and assessed for association with ischaemic stroke and ischaemic stroke subtypes using odds ratios (ORs) from multivariable logistic regression models. In Caucasians, four SNPs on chromosome 9p21 were significantly associated with risk of cardioembolic stroke, the strongest of which was rs1333040 (OR 1.55, P = 0.0007); similar but weaker trends were observed for small vessel stroke, with no associations observed regarding large vessel stroke. Chromosome 9p21 SNPs were also associated with risk of ischaemic stroke in African Americans (rs1333040, OR 0.65, P = 0.023; rs1333042, OR 0.55, P = 0.070; rs2383207, OR 0.55, P = 0.070). The PSMA6 SNP rs1048990 on chromosome 14q13 was associated with overall ischaemic stroke in both Caucasians (OR 0.80, P = 0.036) and African Americans (OR 0.31, P = 0.020). Our results provide evidence that chromosome 9p21 variants are associated with cardioembolic ischaemic stroke in Caucasians and with overall ischaemic stroke in African Americans. The PSMA6 variant rs1048990 also appears to affect susceptibility to ischaemic stroke in both populations. These findings require validation, particularly the preliminary findings regarding African Americans given the small size of that series. © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  8. Platelet function testing in transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soon Tjin; Coughlan, Catherine A; Murphy, Stephen J X; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Montaner, Joan; Thijs, Vincent; Marquardt, Lars; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) are not protected from further vascular events with antiplatelet therapy. Measurement of inhibition of platelet function ex vivo on antiplatelet therapy, using laboratory tests that correlate with the clinical effectiveness of these agents, would potentially enable physicians to tailor antiplatelet therapy to suit individuals. A systematic review of the literature was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet function/reactivity in CVD patients, especially those treated with aspirin, dipyridamole or clopidogrel. Particular emphasis was paid to information from commonly available whole blood platelet function analysers (PFA-100®, VerifyNow® and Multiplate®). Data on pharmacogenetic mechanisms potentially influencing high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on antiplatelet therapy in CVD were reviewed. Two-hundred forty-nine potentially relevant articles were identified; 93 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of ex vivo HTPR in CVD varies between 3-62% with aspirin monotherapy, 8-61% with clopidogrel monotherapy and 56-59% when dipyridamole is added to aspirin in the early, subacute or late phases after TIA/stroke onset. The prevalence of HTPR on aspirin was higher on the PFA-100 than on the VerifyNow in one study (p stroke (p = 0.003; 1 study). Studies assessing the influence of genetic polymorphisms on HTPR in CVD patients are limited, and need validation in large multicentre studies. Available data illustrate that an important proportion of CVD patients have ex vivo HTPR on their prescribed antiplatelet regimen, and that the prevalence varies depending on the definition and assay used. Large, adequately-sized, prospective multicentre collaborative studies are urgently needed to determine whether comprehensive assessment of HTPR at high and low shear stress with a range of user-friendly whole blood platelet function testing platforms, in conjunction

  9. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  10. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.

    2008-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced n...

  11. Correlation between homocysteine and dyslipidemia in ischaemic stroke patients with and without hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria Arina, Cut; Amir, Darwin; Siregar, Yahwardiah; Sembiring, Rosita J.

    2018-03-01

    Almost 80% of strokes are ischaemic and stroke is the third most common cause of death in developed countries, . The treatment of stroke still limited, the best approach to reduce mortality and morbidity is primary prevention through modification of acquired risk factors. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are one of the major risk factor for stroke while homocysteine is a less well-documented risk factor. The purpose of this study was to know the correlation between homocysteine and dyslipidemia in ischaemic stroke patients with and without hypertension. This study is a cross sectional study; the sample were taken consecutively. All sample matched with inclusion and exclusion criteria, demography data and blood sample were taken. Demography data was analyzed using descriptive statistic, to analyze the relation, we used Chi-Square test. p value value = 0,009. A significant correlation between homocysteine and dyslipidemia might be because both of them have an important role in the acceleration of the atherosclerotic formation by activation platelet and thrombus, but we still need further study to get more explanation about the relation.

  12. The predictive value of CT signs in the early and subacute stages of ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkowa, J.; Kowalewski, K.; Filarski, J.; Sasiadek, M.; Sokolowska, D.; Podemski, R.; Guranski, K.

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), despite the development of new imaging methods like diffusion-weighted MR and perfusion MR, is usually the initial examination procedure in stroke patients. However, the predictive value of early CT signs in ischaemic stroke has not been established yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the clinical significance of CT findings in the early and subacute stages of the ischaemic stroke. Thirty-five patients with ischaemic stroke of middle cerebral artery territory had CT studies performed within 18 hours after ictus and on the 5th day. Following CT signs were analyzed: the extent of hypodensity and mass effect (both calculated using our own method), obscuring of the lentiform and caudate nuclei, as well as the insular ribbon, Sylvian fissure and lateral ventricle compression, ventricular displacement, and hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS). The results were compared statistically with clinical scorings at admission and on day 30. Among the early CT signs only lentiform nucleus obscuring was correlated with both early and the late clinical scales. Caudate nucleus obscuring, Sylvian fissure compression and mass effect extent were correlated with early clinical scoring only, while lateral ventricle compression with the late clinical scale. Other findings affected neither early nor late clinical scorings. Most of the follow-up CT symptoms showed a strong correlation with the late clinical scoring, with an exception of Sylvian fissure compression and HMCAS. Early CT has limited predictive value in assessing stroke patients. The only statistically significant signs are lentiform nucleus obscuring and ventricular compression. However, most subacute CT findings have high predictive value. (author)

  13. Vascular risk factors aggravate cognitive impairment in first-ever young ischaemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Ren, S; Zhang, J; Sun, D

    2016-05-01

    Young ischaemic stroke patients often suffer from cognitive impairment after stroke. However, the risk factors of cognitive impairment are still unclear. This study examined the impact of vascular risk factors (VRFs) on cognitive impairment in first-ever young ischaemic stroke patients. Subjects were divided into low (0-1 VRF, n = 27), medium (2-3 VRFs, n = 45) and high-risk (≥4 VRFs, n = 12) groups according to their number of VRFs. The following VRFs were collected: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, atrial fibrillation, obesity, smoking, excess alcohol consumption, coronary heart disease and hyperhomocysteinaemia. A battery of cognitive assessments was executed 2 weeks after stroke. Differences of cognitive performances between groups were compared. The correlation between VRFs and cognitive function was investigated with an emphasis on discovering the main VRFs. Eighty-four patients were enrolled in this study eventually. Compared with the low-risk group, the high-risk group had significantly worse performance in most of the cognitive domains. VRFs had a correlation with general cognition, executive function, attention and verbal fluency. After adjusting the covariates, VRFs showed a linear correlation with global cognitive function (R = 0.640, P = 0.000), verbal fluency (R = 0.372, P = 0.000), delayed memory (R = 0.327, P = 0.002), visual attention (R = 0.290, P = 0.007) and executive function (R = 0.266, P = 0.015). Amongst all the VRFs, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, smoking and hyperhomocysteinaemia were the main influencing VRFs. Vascular risk factors aggravate cognitive impairment after young ischaemic stroke. Effective management of VRFs in young adults is urgent and this may reduce the cognitive impairment. © 2016 EAN.

  14. Vertebrobasilar Flow Evaluation and Risk of Transient Ischaemic Attack and Stroke study (VERiTAS): rationale and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Rose-Finnell, Linda; Richardson, DeJuran; Ruland, Sean; Pandey, Dilip; Thulborn, Keith R.; Liebeskind, David S.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Kramer, Jeffrey; Silver, Frank L.; Kasner, Scott E.; Caplan, Louis R.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Charbel, Fady T.; Jacobs, Tom P.; Xie, Hui; Simkus, Vic; Thulborn, Keith; Flannery, Michael P.; Ganin, Hagai; Grysecwicz, Rebecca; Khaja, Aslam; Pedelty, Laura; Testai, Fernando; Watson, Karriem; Mlinarevich, Nada; Vo, Katie; Foster, Glenn; Ford, Andria; Bradley, Abbie; Alger, Jeffrey; Godinez, Sergio; Saver, Jeffrey; Ali, Latisha; Kim, Doojin; Raychev, Radoslav; Song, Sarah; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Smith, Hannah; Hirsch, Joy; Dashnaw, Stephen; Meyers, Philip; McNeill-Simaan, Edwina; Mikulis, David; Fierstra, Jorn; Hlasny, Eugen; Casaubon, Leanne K.; Vergouwen, Mervyn; Martin del Campo, J. C.; Jaigobin, Cheryl S.; Astorga, Cherissa; Vaughan, Susan; Owens, Laura; Pandey, Dilip K.; Ruland, Sean D.; Kissela, Brett; Turan, Tanya N.; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over one-third of ischaemic strokes occur in the posterior circulation, and a leading cause is atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar disease. Symptomatic vertebrobasilar disease carries a high annual recurrent stroke risk, averaging 10-15% per year. Endovascular angioplasty and stenting are

  15. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  16. [Pathogenetic justification of statin use in ischaemic stroke prevention according to inflammatory theory in development of atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Turowska-Kowalska, Jolanta; Nowacki, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    There is an inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke, which plays an important role in inducing atherothrombotic and embolic stroke. Statins, HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors are widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. It has been proved that beyond their main effect on inhibition of endogenous cholesterol, they also modify the inflammatory process. Additional benefits from the use of statins result from their effect on the immune system. Increased risk of recurrent vascular episodes and risk of death after statin withdrawal in patients with vascular disorders is connected with termination of the anti-inflammatory effect of these drugs. The authors highlight that because of the anti-inflammatory effect of statins it is reasonable to use them in all patients at risk of ischaemic stroke, including those with atrial fibrillation.

  17. Registration of acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Mehnert, Frank; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of the registration of patients in stroke-specific registries has seldom been investigated, nor compared with administrative hospital discharge registries. The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the registration of patients in a stroke-specific registry...... (The Danish Stroke Registry [DSR]) and a hospital discharge registry (The Danish National Patient Registry [DNRP]). METHODS: Assuming that all patients with stroke were registered in either the DSR, DNRP or both, we first identified a sample of 75 patients registered with stroke in 2009; 25 patients...... in the DSR, 25 patients in the DNRP, and 25 patients registered in both data sources. Using the medical record as a gold standard, we then estimated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of a stroke diagnosis in the DSR and the DNRP. Secondly, we reviewed 160 medical records for all potential stroke...

  18. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging factors that predict ischaemic stroke in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kang-Ho [Chonnam National University Hospital, Cerebrovascular Center, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Neurology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Cho, Ki-Hyun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Cerebrovascular Center, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can acquire both anatomical and functional images in a single session. We investigated which factors of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging have potential as biomarkers for an increased risk of ischaemic stroke in cancer patients. From among cancer patients presenting with various neurological symptoms and hemiparesis, 134 were selected as eligible for this retrospective analysis. A new infarct lesion on brain MRI within 1 year of FDG PET/CT defined future ischaemic stroke. The target-to-background ratio (TBR) of each arterial segment was used to define arterial inflammation on PET imaging. Abdominal obesity was defined in terms of the area and proportion of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on a single CT slice at the umbilical level. Ischaemic stroke confirmed by MRI occurred in 30 patients. Patients with stroke had higher TBRs in the carotid arteries and abdominal aorta (P < 0.001) and a higher VAT proportion (P = 0.021) and TAT proportion (P = 0.041) than patients without stroke. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that TBRs of the carotid arteries and abdominal aorta, VAT and TAT proportions, and the presence of a metabolically active tumour were significantly associated with future ischaemic stroke. Combining PET and CT variables improved the power for predicting future ischaemic stroke. Our findings suggest that arterial FDG uptake and hypermetabolic malignancy on PET and the VAT proportion on CT could be independent predictors of future ischaemic stroke in patients with cancer and could identify those patients who would benefit from medical treatment. (orig.)

  19. Acupuncture for dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Wang, Liping; He, Jinghua; Wu, Taixiang

    2008-07-16

    Dysphagia after acute stroke is associated with poor prognosis, particularly if prolonged. Acupuncture has been widely used for this complication in China. However, its therapeutic effect is unclear. To determine the therapeutic effect of acupuncture for dysphagia after acute stroke compared with placebo, sham or no acupuncture intervention. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched September 2007), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register and the Trials Register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field (last searched January 2007) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007). In January 2007 we searched the following databases from the first available date; MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, BIOSIS Previews, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, Science Citation Index, ISI Proceedings, ACUBRIEFS, ACP Journal Club, Books@Ovid and Journals@Ovid, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, Chinese scientific periodical database of VIP INFORMATION, China periodical in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Database, Science China, Chinese Social Science Citation Index, and the Chinese Science and Technology Document Databases. We also searched databases of ongoing trials, conference proceedings, and grey literature, handsearched three Chinese journals and contacted authors and researchers. We included all truly randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effect of acupuncture, irrespective of type, in patients with dysphagia within 30 day after the onset of ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. All types of acupuncture interventions were eligible. The control intervention could be placebo acupuncture, sham acupuncture, or no acupuncture. The primary outcome was recovery of normal feeding. The secondary outcomes were case fatality, deterioration, late disability, length of hospital stay, quality of life, feeding tube removal, aspiration pneumonia and nutritional

  20. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5–10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0–3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage. (paper)

  1. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-06-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5-10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0-3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage.

  2. Lifestyle interventions for secondary disease prevention in stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olive; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Kathryn; Doody, Catherine; Blake, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Secondary prevention in ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is dominated by pharmacological interventions with evidence for non-pharmacological interventions being less robust. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the impact of lifestyle interventions on secondary prevention in stroke or TIA. A systematic literature search was performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of intervention packages incorporating any key component of health education/promotion/counselling on lifestyle and/or aerobic exercise compared to usual care ± a sham intervention in participants with ischaemic stroke or TIA were included. Outcomes of interest were mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) event rates, cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, lipid profiles and physical activity participation. Methodological quality was assessed. Statistical analyses determining treatment effect were conducted using Cochrane Review Manager Software. Seventeen RCTs were included. Data pooled from eight studies with a total of 2478 patients, demonstrated no effect in favour of lifestyle interventions compared to routine or sham interventions on mortality (risk ratio (RR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.52), I(2) = 0%). Data relating to CVD events were pooled from four studies (1013 patients), demonstrated non-significant findings (RR = 1.16 (95% CI, 0.80--1.71), I(2) = 0%). Similar results were reported for total cholesterol. Physical activity participation demonstrated significant improvement [SMD 0.24 (95% CI, 0.08-0.41), l (2) = 47%]. Blood pressure reductions were noted but were non-significant when corrected for multimodal packages including enhanced pharmacotherapy compliance. There is currently insufficient high quality research to support lifestyle interventions post-stroke or TIA on mortality, CVD event rates and cardio-metabolic risk factor profiles. Promising blood pressure reductions were noted in

  3. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Martin J; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng

    2010-01-01

    an alternate definition of hypertension was used (history of hypertension or blood pressure >160/90 mm Hg), the combined PAR was 90.3% (85.3-93.7) for all stroke. These risk factors were all significant for ischaemic stroke, whereas hypertension, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio, diet, and alcohol intake were...... for all stroke were: history of hypertension (OR 2.64, 99% CI 2.26-3.08; PAR 34.6%, 99% CI 30.4-39.1); current smoking (2.09, 1.75-2.51; 18.9%, 15.3-23.1); waist-to-hip ratio (1.65, 1.36-1.99 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26.5%, 18.8-36.0); diet risk score (1.35, 1.11-1.64 for highest vs lowest tertile...

  4. Health care in patients 1 year post-stroke in general practice : research on the utilisation of the Dutch Transmural Protocol transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, L.; Rutgers, A.W.F.; Groenier, K.H.; van der Meer, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the kind of aftercare that ischaemic stroke patients receive and the extent that aftercare fulfils the criteria of the 'Dutch Transmural Protocol transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident'. Fifty-seven patients were interviewed 1 year post-stroke about secondary

  5. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  6. Guidelines for the preventive treatment of ischaemic stroke and TIA (I). Update on risk factors and life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, B; Gállego, J; Gil-Nuñez, A; Morales, A; Purroy, F; Roquer, J; Segura, T; Tejada, J; Lago, A; Díez-Tejedor, E; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Alvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Casado, I; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Dávalos, A; Díaz-Otero, F; Egido, J A; López-Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; García Pastor, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Maestre, J; Masjuan, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Martínez-Vila, E; Molina, C; Nombela, F; Ribó, M; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Rubio, F; Serena, J; Simal, P; Vivancos, J

    2012-01-01

    To update the ad hoc Committee of the Cerebrovascular Diseases Study Group of The Spanish Neurological Society guidelines on prevention of ischaemic stroke (IS) and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We reviewed available evidence on risk factors and means of modifying them to prevent ischaemic stroke and TIA. Levels of evidence and recommendation grades are based on the classification of the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. This first section summarises the recommendations for action on the following factors: blood pressure, diabetes, lipids, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity, cardio-embolic diseases, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, hormone replacement therapy and contraceptives, hyperhomocysteinemia, prothrombotic states and sleep apnea syndrome. Changes in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, according to criteria of primary and secondary prevention, are recommended for preventing ischemic stroke. © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  8. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.

  9. Basics of acute stroke treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, A.

    2005-01-01

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O 2 delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.) [de

  10. Glucose and lipid assessment in patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbera, Anthonia O; Oshinaike, Olajumoke O; Dada, Olusola; Brodie-Mends, Ayodeji; Ekpebegh, Chukwuma

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a major health issue in Nigeria and it is also a common cause of emergency admissions. Stroke often results in increased morbidity, mortality and reduced quality of life in people thus affected. The risk factors for stroke include metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus (DM). The stress of an acute stroke may present with hyperglycaemia and in persons without a prior history of DM, may be a pointer to stress hyperglycaemia or undiagnosed DM. This was a cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Patients with acute stroke admitted to the hospital within three days of the episode of stroke and who met other inclusion criteria for the Study were consecutively recruited. Clinically relevant data was documented and biochemical assessments were carried out within three days of hospitalization. Tests for lipid profile, glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c), and blood glucose at presentation were carried out. The presence of past history of DM, undiagnosed DM, stress hyperglycaemia and abnormal lipid profile were noted. Students t test and Chi square were the statistical tests employed. A total of 137 persons with stroke were recruited of which 107 (76%) met the defining criteria for ischaemic stroke. The mean age and age range of the Study subjects were 62.2 (11.7) and 26-89 years respectively. The Study subjects were classified according to their glycaemic status into the following categories viz; stress hyperglycaemia, euglycaemia, DM and previously undiagnosed DM. Stress hyperglycaemia occurred commonly in the fifth decade of life and its incidence was comparable between those with cerebral and haemorrhagic stroke. The commonly occurring lipid abnormalities were elevated LDL-C and low HDL. The detection of abnormal metabolic milieu is a window of opportunity for aggressive management in persons with stroke as this will improve outcome. Routine screening for hyperglycaemia in

  11. Acute stroke unit improves stroke management-four years on from INASC.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, E

    2015-02-01

    The Irish Heart Foundation carried out the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC) in 2008. Management practices were significantly poorer than those in the UK Sentinel audits. Since then an acute stroke unit has been established in University Hospital Limerick. A stroke database was established. 12 key indicators of stroke management audited by INASC were identified. Results were compared to those in INASC. 89 stroke patients were admitted. 8 of the 12 key indicators scored significantly better than in INASC. 92.5% had a brain scan within 24hrs (INASC-40%, p = < 0.001). 100% of ischaemic strokes received anti-thrombotics (INASC-85%, p = 0.001). 94% had rehab goals agreed by MDT (22% in INASC p = 0.0000). 55% were treated in stroke unit (2% in INASC, p = 0.0000). MDT input improved with regard to physiotherapy (87% vs 43% in INASC, p = < 0.02) and SALT (74% vs 26%, p = < 0.02). Stroke management has significantly improved from 2008, however some deficiencies remain.

  12. Endovascular treatment versus medical care alone for ischaemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Filipe Brogueira; Neves, Joana Briosa; Caldeira, Daniel; Ferro, José M; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Costa, João

    2016-04-18

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment, particularly adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy, in patients with ischaemic stroke. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS, and clinical trial registries from inception to December 2015. Reference lists were crosschecked. Randomised controlled trials in adults aged 18 or more with ischaemic stroke comparing endovascular treatment, including thrombectomy, with medical care alone, including intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Trial endpoints were functional outcome (modified Rankin scale scores of ≤2) and mortality at 90 days after onset of symptoms. No language or time restrictions applied. 10 randomised controlled trials (n=2925) were included. In pooled analysis endovascular treatment, including thrombectomy, was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing good (modified Rankin scale scores ≤2) and excellent (scores ≤1) outcomes 90 days after stroke, without differences in mortality or rates for symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, compared with patients randomised to medical care alone, including intravenous rt-PA. Heterogeneity was high among studies. The more recent studies (seven randomised controlled trials, published or presented in 2015) proved better suited to evaluate the effect of adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy on its index disease owing to more accurate patient selection, intravenous rt-PA being administered at a higher rate and earlier, and the use of more efficient thrombectomy devices. In most of these studies, more than 86% of the patients were treated with stent retrievers, and rates of recanalisation were higher (>58%) than previously reported. Subgroup analysis of these seven studies yielded a risk ratio of 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.38 to 1.75) for good functional outcomes and 0.86 (0.69 to 1.06) for

  13. Loci associated with ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (SiGN) : A genome-wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulit, SL; Algra, A; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2016-01-01

    Background: The discovery of disease-associated loci through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is the leading genetic approach to the identification of novel biological pathways underlying diseases in humans. Until recently, GWAS in ischaemic stroke have been limited by small sample sizes and

  14. Cobalt-57 as a SPET tracer in the visualization of ischaemic brain damage in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, H; Knollema, S; Piers, DA; Van de Wiele, C; Jansen, HML; De Jager, AEJ; De Reuck, J; Dierckx, RA; Korf, J

    In PET studies we have shown the usefulness of cobalt radionuclides for the visualization and quantification of ischaemic damage in stroke. In the present study, we explored Co-57(2+) as a SPET tracer. Uptake of radioactivity was estimated by using a cobalt enhancement ratio defined as the ratio of

  15. Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane review highlighted as priority, the need to establish feasibility and efficacy of exercise based interventions for Cerebrovascular Disease. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial is proposed to examine a primary care cardiac rehabilitation programme for adults post transient ischemic attack (TIA and stroke in effecting a positive change in the primary outcome measures of cardiac risk scores derived from Blood Pressure, lipid profile, smoking and diabetic status and lifestyle factors of habitual smoking, exercise and healthy eating participation. Secondary outcomes of interest include health related quality of life as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale and WONCA COOP Functional Health Status charts and cardiovascular fitness as measured by a sub-maximal fitness test. A total of 144 patients, over 18 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of ischaemic stroke or TIA, will be recruited from Dublin community stroke services and two tertiary T.I.A clinics. Exclusion criteria will include oxygen dependence, unstable cardiac conditions, uncontrolled diabetes, major medical conditions, claudication, febrile illness, pregnancy or cognitive impairment. Participants will be block-statified, randomly allocated to one of two groups using a pre-prepared computer generated randomisation schedule. Both groups will receive a two hour education class on risk reduction post stroke. The

  16. PR-957 mediates neuroprotection by inhibiting Th17 differentiation and modulating cytokine production in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Chen, X; Li, D; Liu, H; Ding, Y; Han, R; Shi, Y; Ma, X

    2018-03-30

    Acute ischaemic stroke can induce secondary brain injury by activating an inflammatory response that contributes to clinical impairment. As a specific inhibitor of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular weight polypeptide 7 (LMP7), PR-957 may participate in regulating pathophysiological and inflammatory responses in multiple diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the neuroprotective properties of PR-957 in a mouse model of stroke, induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After MCAO and injections of PR-957 or vehicle, we evaluated mice behaviourally using modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) and sensorimotor tests, including the adhesive-removal test, a foot-fault test and an inclined plane test. Infarct volume was measured 24 and 72 h after MCAO. Infiltration by different lymphocyte subpopulations was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining of brain tissue from the penumbral area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interkeukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT-3) protein levels in brain was measured by immunoblot. MCAO mice treated with PR-957 showed a significant decrease in infarct volume and had mild neurological deficits compared to vehicle-treated mice. PR-957 administration also significantly decreased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A and TNF-α. PR-957 provides neuroprotection via inhibiting T lymphocyte infiltration and decreasing T helper type 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in MCAO mice, which may result from the reduced expression of pSTAT-3. The neuroprotective effect of PR-957 indicates its

  17. Acute ischemic stroke prognostication, comparison between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ossama Y. Mansour

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... or predict all dimensions of recovery and disability after acute stroke. Several scales have proven reliability and validity in stroke trials. Objectives: The aim of the work was to evaluate the FOUR score predictability for outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke in comparison with the NIHSS and the GCS ...

  18. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  19. Has the aetiology of ischaemic stroke changed in the past decades? Analysis and comparison of data from current and historical stroke databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Larsen, Á; García-García, J; Ayo-Martín, O; Hernández-Fernández, F; Díaz-Maroto, I; Fernández-Díaz, E; Monteagudo, M; Segura, T

    2016-09-16

    We aimed to determine whether the aetiology of ischaemic stroke has changed in recent years and, if so, to ascertain the possible reasons for these changes. We analysed the epidemiological history and vascular risk factors of all patients diagnosed with ischaemic stroke at Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA) from 2009 to 2014. Ischaemic stroke subtypes were established using the TOAST criteria. Our results were compared to data from the classic Stroke Data Bank (SDB); in addition, both series were compared to those of other hospital databases covering the period between the two. We analysed 1664 patients (58% were men) with a mean age of 74 years. Stroke aetiology in both series (CHUA, SDB) was as follows: atherosclerosis (12%, 9%), small-vessel occlusion (13%, 25%), cardioembolism (32%, 19%), stroke of other determined aetiology (3%, 4%), and stroke of undetermined aetiology (40%, 44%). Sixty-three percent of the patients from the CHUA and 42% of the patients from the SDB were older than 70 years. Cardioembolic strokes were more prevalent in patients older than 70 years in both series. Untreated hypertension was more frequent in the SDB (SDB = 31% vs CHUA = 10%). The analysis of other databases shows that the prevalence of cardioembolic stroke is increasing worldwide. Our data show that the prevalence of lacunar strokes is decreasing worldwide whereas cardioembolic strokes are increasingly more frequent in both our hospital and other series compared to the SDB. These differences may be explained by population ageing and the improvements in management of hypertension and detection of cardioembolic arrhythmias in stroke units. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Deficiency of brain structural sub-network underlying post-ischaemic stroke apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Hua, P; Shang, X; Cui, Z; Zhong, S; Gong, G; William Humphreys, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reveal the structural basis of post-ischaemic stroke apathy, especially in relation to disruptions in structural connectivity. Eighty-eight participants were included. The Apathy Evaluation Scale, clinician version, was used to characterize the severity of apathy. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography was used to examine white matter integrity and to reconstruct white matter networks using 90 nodes based on the automated anatomical labeling atlas. The degree for each node was extracted to determine the relationship to the severity of apathy. Apathy was not significantly associated with damage to any single brain region. The degrees of 24 nodes (limbic system, three nodes; frontal lobe, six; basal ganglia, two; temporal lobe, three; parietal lobe, three; insula, two; occipital lobe, five) were significantly correlated to the Apathy Evaluation Scale scores. These 24 nodes constituted an apathy-related sub-network and its global and local efficiencies were negatively correlated with apathy levels (global, r = -0.54, P apathy (odds ratio 0.03, 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.04, P = 0.007). Efficiencies of the non-apathy-related sub-network (the remaining 66 nodes) did not correlate or predict the presence of apathy. Post-stroke apathy is not due to the dysfunction of a single region or circuit. Rather, it results from disconnection of a complex sub-network of brain regions. This provides new insights into the neuroanatomical basis of post-stroke apathy. © 2014 EAN.

  1. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Glucagon-like Peptide-1-based Therapies in Ischaemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlet, Ida R; Ölmestig, Joakim N E; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that they may provide neuroprotection. The aim of this MiniReview was to systemati......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that they may provide neuroprotection. The aim of this Mini......Review was to systematically evaluate the proposed mechanism of action for GLP-1-based therapies in ischaemic brain damage in animals. We performed a literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. GLP-1-based therapies administered before, during or after experimental stroke in diabetic and non...

  2. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-06

    Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Control of main risk factors after ischaemic stroke across Europe: data from the stroke-specific module of the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschmann, Peter U; Kircher, Julia; Nowe, Tim; Dittrich, Ralf; Reiner, Zeljko; Cifkova, Renata; Malojcic, Branko; Mayer, Otto; Bruthans, Jan; Wloch-Kopec, Dorota; Prugger, Christof; Heidrich, Jan; Keil, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Previous cross-sectional surveys in different European countries within the EUROASPIRE programme demonstrated a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors, unhealthy lifestyles and inadequate drug treatment in coronary heart disease patients. Comparable data for ischaemic stroke patients is lacking. A stroke-specific study module was added to the EUROASPIRE III core survey. This cross-sectional multicentre survey included consecutive patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke from four European countries. Data were obtained from medical records, patient interviews and patient examinations within 6-36 months after the stroke event. Control of modifiable risk factors after stroke was evaluated against contemporary European guidelines. A total of 881 patients was recruited. Median age was 66 years, 37.5% were female; average time from the stroke event to interview was 550 days. At the time of the interview, 17.6% of stroke patients smoked cigarettes, 35.5% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2), 62.4% showed elevated blood pressure and 75.7% exhibited elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Antiplatelet drugs or oral anticoagulants were used by 87.2%, antihypertensive medication by 84.4% and statins by 56.8% of stroke patients. Among patients using antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering medication at the time of the interview, 34.3% and 34.4%, respectively, achieved target blood pressure and total cholesterol values according to current European guidelines. The EUROASPIRE III stroke-specific module shows that secondary prevention and risk factor control in patients after ischaemic stroke need to be improved in four European centres at the time of the study since about half of patients are not achieving risk factor targets defined in European guidelines. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  4. Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, Bruce C. V.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Goyal, Mayank; Menon, Bijoy K.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Bracard, Serge; White, Philip; Dávalos, Antoni; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; Ford, Gary A.; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Kelly, Michael; Bourcier, Romain; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Bang, Oh Young; Nogueira, Raul G.; Devlin, Thomas G.; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Clarençon, Frédéric; Burns, Paul; Carpenter, Jeffrey; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Yavagal, Dileep R.; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Ducrocq, Xavier; Dixit, Anand; Quesada, Helena; Epstein, Jonathan; Davis, Stephen M.; Jansen, Olav; Rubiera, Marta; Urra, Xabier; Micard, Emilien; Lingsma, Hester F.; Naggara, Olivier; Brown, Scott; Guillemin, Francis; Muir, Keith W.; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Jovin, Tudor G.; Hill, Michael D.; Mitchell, Peter J.; Fransen, Puck Ss; Beumer, Debbie; Yoo, Albert J.; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Wermer, Marieke Jh; van Walderveen, Marianne Aa; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A.; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Emmer, Bart J.; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F.; van Dijk, Lukas C.; Kappelle, Jaap; Lo, Rob H.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L. M.; van Rooij, Willem Jan J.; van den Berg, Jan S. P.; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A. A. M.; Aerden, Leo A. M.; Dallinga, René J.; Visser, Marieke C.; Bot, Joseph C. J.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H. C. M. L.; Heijboer, Roel J. J.; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V.; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Gerrits, Dick G.; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M.; Karas, Giorgos B.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Flach, Zwenneke; Marquering, Henk A.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Brown, Martin M.; Liebig, Thomas; Stijnen, Theo; Andersson, Tommy; Mattle, Heinrich; Wahlgren, Nils; van der Heijden, Esther; Ghannouti, Naziha; Fleitour, Nadine; Hooijenga, Imke; Puppels, Corina; Pellikaan, Wilma; Geerling, Annet; Lindl-Velema, Annemieke; van Vemde, Gina; de Ridder, Ans; Greebe, Paut; de Bont-Stikkelbroeck, José; de Meris, Joke; Janssen, Kirsten; Struijk, Willy; Licher, Silvan; Boodt, Nikki; Ros, Adriaan; Venema, Esmee; Slokkers, Ilse; Ganpat, Raymie-Jayce; Mulder, Maxim; Saiedie, Nawid; Heshmatollah, Alis; Schipperen, Stefanie; Vinken, Stefan; van Boxtel, Tiemen; Koets, Jeroen; Boers, Merel; Santos, Emilie; Borst, Jordi; Jansen, Ivo; Kappelhof, Manon; Lucas, Marit; Geuskens, Ralph; Barros, Renan Sales; Dobbe, Roeland; Csizmadia, Marloes; Hill, M. D.; Goyal, M.; Demchuk, A. M.; Menon, B. K.; Eesa, M.; Ryckborst, K. J.; Wright, M. R.; Kamal, N. R.; Andersen, L.; Randhawa, P. A.; Stewart, T.; Patil, S.; Minhas, P.; Almekhlafi, M.; Mishra, S.; Clement, F.; Sajobi, T.; Shuaib, A.; Montanera, W. J.; Roy, D.; Silver, F. L.; Jovin, T. G.; Frei, D. F.; Sapkota, B.; Rempel, J. L.; Thornton, J.; Williams, D.; Tampieri, D.; Poppe, A. Y.; Dowlatshahi, D.; Wong, J. H.; Mitha, A. P.; Subramaniam, S.; Hull, G.; Lowerison, M. W.; Salluzzi, M.; Maxwell, M.; Lacusta, S.; Drupals, E.; Armitage, K.; Barber, P. A.; Smith, E. E.; Morrish, W. F.; Coutts, S. B.; Derdeyn, C.; Demaerschalk, B.; Yavagal, D.; Martin, R.; Brant, R.; Yu, Y.; Willinsky, R. A.; Weill, A.; Kenney, C.; Aram, H.; Stys, P. K.; Watson, T. W.; Klein, G.; Pearson, D.; Couillard, P.; Trivedi, A.; Singh, D.; Klourfeld, E.; Imoukhuede, O.; Nikneshan, D.; Blayney, S.; Reddy, R.; Choi, P.; Horton, M.; Musuka, T.; Dubuc, V.; Field, T. S.; Desai, J.; Adatia, S.; Alseraya, A.; Nambiar, V.; van Dijk, R.; Newcommon, N. J.; Schwindt, B.; Butcher, K. S.; Jeerakathil, T.; Buck, B.; Khan, K.; Naik, S. S.; Emery, D. 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N.; Snyder, K.; Sawyer, R.; Hall, S.; Costalat, V.; Riquelme, C.; Machi, P.; Omer, E.; Arquizan, C.; Mourand, I.; Charif, M.; Ayrignac, X.; Menjot de Champfleur, N.; Leboucq, N.; Gascou, G.; Moynier, M.; du Mesnil de Rochemont, R.; Singer, O.; Berkefeld, J.; Foerch, C.; Lorenz, M.; Pfeilschifer, W.; Hattingen, E.; Wagner, M.; You, S. J.; Lescher, S.; Braun, H.; Dehkharghani, S.; Belagaje, S. R.; Anderson, A.; Lima, A.; Obideen, M.; Haussen, D.; Dharia, R.; Frankel, M.; Patel, V.; Owada, K.; Saad, A.; Amerson, L.; Horn, C.; Doppelheuer, S.; Schindler, K.; Lopes, D. K.; Chen, M.; Moftakhar, R.; Anton, C.; Smreczak, M.; Carpenter, J. S.; Boo, S.; Rai, A.; Roberts, T.; Tarabishy, A.; Gutmann, L.; Brooks, C.; Brick, J.; Domico, J.; Reimann, G.; Hinrichs, K.; Becker, M.; Heiss, E.; Selle, C.; Witteler, A.; Al'Boutros, S.; Danch, M.-J.; Ranft, A.; Rohde, S.; Burg, K.; Weimar, C.; Zegarac, V.; Hartmann, C.; Schlamann, M.; Göricke, S.; Ringlestein, A.; Wanke, I.; Mönninghoff, C.; Dietzold, M.; Budzik, R.; Davis, T.; Eubank, G.; Hicks, W. J.; Pema, P.; Vora, N.; Mejilla, J.; Taylor, M.; Clark, W.; Rontal, A.; Fields, J.; Peterson, B.; Nesbit, G.; Lutsep, H.; Bozorgchami, H.; Priest, R.; Ologuntoye, O.; Barnwell, S.; Dogan, A.; Herrick, K.; Takahasi, C.; Beadell, N.; Brown, B.; Jamieson, S.; Hussain, M. 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T.; Putnam, J.; Bhatt, A.; Kansara, A.; Caceves, D.; Lowenkopf, T.; Yanase, L.; Zurasky, J.; Dancer, S.; Freeman, B.; Scheibe Mirek, T.; Robison, J.; Roll, J.; Clark, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Fitzsimmons, B.-Fm; Zaidat, O.; Lynch, J. R.; Lazzaro, M.; Larson, T.; Padmore, L.; Das, E.; Farrow Schmidt, A.; Hassan, A.; Tekle, W.; Cate, C.; Jansen, O.; Cnyrim, C.; Wodarg, F.; Wiese, C.; Binder, A.; Riedel, C.; Rohr, A.; Lang, N.; Laufs, H.; Krieter, S.; Remonda, L.; Diepers, M.; Añon, J.; Nedeltchev, K.; Kahles, T.; Biethahn, S.; Lindner, M.; Chang, V.; Gächter, C.; Esperon, C.; Guglielmetti, M.; Arenillas Lara, J. F.; Martínez Galdámez, M.; Calleja Sanz, A. I.; Cortijo Garcia, E.; Garcia Bermejo, P.; Perez, S.; Mulero Carrillo, P.; Crespo Vallejo, E.; Ruiz Piñero, M.; Lopez Mesonero, L.; Reyes Muñoz, F. 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D.; Ramzan, M.; Stout, C.; Patel, A.; Tunguturi, A.; Onteddu, S.; Carandang, R.; Howk, M.; Ribó, M.; Sanjuan, E.; Rubiera, M.; Pagola, J.; Flores, A.; Muchada, M.; Meler, P.; Huerga, E.; Gelabert, S.; Coscojuela, P.; Tomasello, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Santamarina, E.; Maisterra, O.; Boned, S.; Seró, L.; Rovira, A.; Molina, C. A.; Millán, M.; Muñoz, L.; Pérez de la Ossa, N.; Gomis, M.; Dorado, L.; López-Cancio, E.; Palomeras, E.; Munuera, J.; García Bermejo, P.; Remollo, S.; Castaño, C.; García-Sort, R.; Cuadras, P.; Puyalto, P.; Hernández-Pérez, M.; Jiménez, M.; Martínez-Piñeiro, A.; Lucente, G.; Dávalos, A.; Chamorro, A.; Urra, X.; Obach, V.; Cervera, A.; Amaro, S.; Llull, L.; Codas, J.; Balasa, M.; Navarro, J.; Ariño, H.; Aceituno, A.; Rudilosso, S.; Renu, A.; Macho, J. M.; San Roman, L.; Blasco, J.; López, A.; Macías, N.; Cardona, P.; Quesada, H.; Rubio, F.; Cano, L.; Lara, B.; de Miquel, M. A.; Aja, L.; Serena, J.; Cobo, E.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Arenillas, J.; Roberts, R.; Al-Ajlan, F.; Zimmel, L.; Patel, S.; Martí-Fàbregas, J.; Salvat-Plana, M.; Bracard, S.; Anxionnat, René; Baillot, Pierre-Alexandre; Barbier, Charlotte; Derelle, Anne-Laure; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Richard, Sébastien; Samson, Yves; Sourour, Nader; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Clarencon, Frédéric; Crozier, Sophie; Deltour, Sandrine; Di Maria, Federico; Le Bouc, Raphael; Leger, Anne; Mutlu, Gurkan; Rosso, Charlotte; Szatmary, Zoltan; Yger, Marion; Zavanone, Chiara; Bakchine, Serge; Pierot, Laurent; Caucheteux, Nathalie; Estrade, Laurent; Kadziolka, Krzysztof; Leautaud, Alexandre; Renkes, Céline; Serre, Isabelle; Desal, Hubert; Guillon, Benoît; Boutoleau-Bretonniere, Claire; Daumas-Duport, Benjamin; de Gaalon, Solène; Derkinderen, Pascal; Evain, Sarah; Herisson, Fanny; Laplaud, David-Axel; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Lintia-Gaultier, Alina; Pouclet-Courtemanche, Hélène; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Rouaud Jaffrenou, Violaine; Schunck, Aurélia; Sevin-Allouet, Mathieu; Toulgoat, Frederique; Wiertlewski, Sandrine; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Ronziere, Thomas; Cahagne, Vincent; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Pinel, Jean-François; Raoult, Hélène; Mas, Jean-Louis; Meder, Jean-François; Al Najjar-Carpentier, Amen-Adam; Birchenall, Julia; Bodiguel, Eric; Calvet, David; Domigo, Valérie; Godon-Hardy, Sylvie; Guiraud, Vincent; Lamy, Catherine; Majhadi, Loubna; Morin, Ludovic; Trystram, Denis; Turc, Guillaume; Berge, Jérôme; Sibon, Igor; Menegon, Patrice; Barreau, Xavier; Rouanet, François; Debruxelles, Sabrina; Kazadi, Annabelle; Renou, Pauline; Fleury, Olivier; Pasco-Papon, Anne; Dubas, Frédéric; Caroff, Jildaz; Godard Ducceschi, Sophie; Hamon, Marie-Aurélie; Lecluse, Alderic; Marc, Guillaume; Giroud, Maurice; Ricolfi, Frédéric; Bejot, Yannick; Chavent, Adrien; Gentil, Arnaud; Kazemi, Apolline; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Voguet, Charlotte; Mahagne, Marie-Hélène; Sedat, Jacques; Chau, Yves; Suissa, Laurent; Lachaud, Sylvain; Houdart, Emmanuel; Stapf, Christian; Buffon Porcher, Frédérique; Chabriat, Hugues; Guedin, Pierre; Herve, Dominique; Jouvent, Eric; Mawet, Jérôme; Saint-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Schneble, Hans-Martin; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Berhoune, Nadia-Nawel; Bouhour, Françoise; Cho, Tae-Hee; Derex, Laurent; Felix, Sandra; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Gory, Benjamin; Manera, Luis; Mechtouff, Laura; Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Riva, Roberto; Salaris Silvio, Fabrizio; Tilikete, Caroline; Blanc, Raphael; Obadia, Michaël; Bartolini, Mario Bruno; Gueguen, Antoine; Piotin, Michel; Pistocchi, Silvia; Redjem, Hocine; Drouineau, Jacques; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Godeneche, Gaelle; Lamy, Matthias; Marsac, Emilia; Velasco, Stephane; Clavelou, Pierre; Chabert, Emmanuel; Bourgois, Nathalie; Cornut-Chauvinc, Catherine; Ferrier, Anna; Gabrillargues, Jean; Jean, Betty; Marques, Anna-Raquel; Vitello, Nicolas; Detante, Olivier; Barbieux, Marianne; Boubagra, Kamel; Favre Wiki, Isabelle; Garambois, Katia; Tahon, Florence; Ashok, Vasdev; Coskun, Oguzhan; Rodesch, Georges; Lapergue, Bertrand; Bourdain, Frédéric; Evrard, Serge; Graveleau, Philippe; Decroix, Jean Pierre; Wang, Adrien; Sellal, François; Ahle, Guido; Carelli, Gabriela; Dugay, Marie-Hélène; Gaultier, Claude; Lebedinsky, Ariel Pablo; Lita, Lavinia; Musacchio, Raul Mariano; Renglewicz-Destuynder, Catherine; Tournade, Alain; Vuillemet, Françis; Montoro, Francisco Macian; Mounayer, Charbel; Faugeras, Frederic; Gimenez, Laetitia; Labach, Catherine; Lautrette, Géraldine; Denier, Christian; Saliou, Guillaume; Chassin, Olivier; Dussaule, Claire; Melki, Elsa; Ozanne, Augustin; Puccinelli, Francesco; Sachet, Marina; Sarov, Mariana; Bonneville, Jean-François; Moulin, Thierry; Biondi, Alessandra; de Bustos Medeiros, Elisabeth; Vuillier, Fabrice; Courtheoux, Patrick; Viader, Fausto; Apoil-Brissard, Marion; Bataille, Mathieu; Bonnet, Anne-Laure; Cogez, Julien; Touze, Emmanuel; Leclerc, Xavier; Leys, Didier; Aggour, Mohamed; Aguettaz, Pierre; Bodenant, Marie; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Deplanque, Dominique; Girot, Marie; Henon, Hilde; Kalsoum, Erwah; Lucas, Christian; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Zuniga, Paolo; Arquizan, Caroline; Costalat, Vincent; Machi, Paolo; Mourand, Isabelle; Riquelme, Carlos; Bounolleau, Pierre; Arteaga, Charles; Faivre, Anthony; Bintner, Marc; Tournebize, Patrice; Charlin, Cyril; Darcel, Françoise; Gauthier-Lasalarie, Pascale; Jeremenko, Marcia; Mouton, Servane; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Lamy, Chantal; Hervé, Deramond; Hassan, Hosseini; Gaston, André; Barral, Francis-Guy; Garnier, Pierre; Beaujeux, Rémy; Wolff, Valérie; Herbreteau, Denis; Debiais, Séverine; Murray, Alicia; Ford, Gary; Clifton, Andy; Freeman, Janet; Ford, Ian; Markus, Hugh; Wardlaw, Joanna; Molyneux, Andy; Robinson, Thompson; Lewis, Steff; Norrie, John; Robertson, Fergus; Perry, Richard; Cloud, Geoffrey; Clifton, Andrew; Madigan, Jeremy; Roffe, Christine; Nayak, Sanjeev; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Smith, Craig; Herwadkar, Amit; Kandasamy, Naga; Goddard, Tony; Bamford, John; Subramanian, Ganesh; Lenthall, Rob; Littleton, Edward; Lamin, Sal; Storey, Kelley; Ghatala, Rita; Banaras, Azra; Aeron-Thomas, John; Hazel, Bath; Maguire, Holly; Veraque, Emelda; Harrison, Louise; Keshvara, Rekha; Cunningham, James

    2018-01-01

    Background General anaesthesia (GA) during endovascular thrombectomy has been associated with worse patient outcomes in observational studies compared with patients treated without GA. We assessed functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion

  5. Are neuroradiological or neurophysiological characteristics associated with upper-extremity hypertonia in severe ischaemia in supratentorial stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A. van; Hendricks, H.T.; Pasman, J.W.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary goal was to identify the neuroradiological and neurophysiological risk factors for upper-extremity hypertonia in patients with severe ischaemic supratentorial stroke. DESIGN: Inception cohort. PATIENTS: Forty-three consecutive patients with an acute ischaemic supratentorial

  6. Three-dimensional white matter tractography by diffusion tensor imaging in ischaemic stroke involving the corticospinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimatsu, A.; Aoki, S.; Masutani, Y.; Abe, O.; Mori, H.; Ohtomo, K.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) provides information on diffusion anisotropy, which can be expressed with three-dimensional (3D) white matter tractography. We used 3D white matter tractography to show the corticospinal tract in eight patients with acute or early subacute ischaemic stroke involving the posterior limb of the internal capsule or corona radiata and to assess involvement of the tract. Infarcts and the tract were shown simultaneously, providing information on their spatial relationships. In five of the eight patients, 3D fibre tract maps showed the corticospinal tract in close proximity to the infarct but not to pass through it. All these patients recovered well, with maximum improvement from the lowest score on manual muscle testing (MMT) up to the full score through rehabilitation. In the other three patients the corticospinal tract was shown running through the infarct; reduction in MMT did not necessarily improve favourably or last longer, other than in one patient. As 3D white matter tractography can show spatial relationships between the corticospinal tract and an infarct, it might be helpful in prognosis of gross motor function. (orig.)

  7. Portuguese Observational Study of Ischaemic Stroke in Patients Medicated with Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato-Coelho, José; Marto, João Pedro; Alves, José Nuno; Marques-Matos, Cláudia; Calado, Sofia; Araújo, José; Cunha, Luís; Pinho, João; Azevedo, Elsa; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Sargento-Freitas, João

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trials and subsequent meta-analyses showed advantages of non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOACs) over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The impact of preadmission anticoagulation in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has not been established. To compare functional outcome of patients with AIS with preadmission NOACs vs. VKAs. A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive AIS patients under oral anticoagulation (VKAs or NOACs) admitted in 4 Portuguese hospitals within a period of 30 months. Two primary outcomes were defined and compared between VKA and NOAC groups: symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage transformation (sICH) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Four hundred sixty-nine patients were included, of whom 332 (70.8%) were treated with VKA and 137 (29.2%) with NOAC. Patients' median age was 78.0 and 234 (49.9%) were male. NOAC-treated patients had a higher median CHA2DS2-VASc score than those under VKA (5.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.023). The two primary outcomes showed no statistical differences between the VKAs' group and the NOACs' group (sICH: 5.4 vs. 5.4% [p = 0.911]; mRS at 3 months: 3.0 vs. 3.0 [p = 0.646], respectively). Preadmission anticoagulation with NOACs in AIS has a functional impact similar to that of VKAs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong

    2009-01-01

    training programme before discharge and at five follow-up visits during 24 months. Control patients had follow-up visits with the same frequency but without instructions in physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) at each......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational, randomised clinical trial with masked outcome assessment. SETTING: Stroke units in Denmark, China...... infarction, or falls and fractures. CONCLUSION: Repeated encouragement and verbal instruction in being physically active did not lead to a significant increase in physical activity measured by the PASE score. More intensive strategies seem to be needed to promote physical activity after ischaemic stroke...

  9. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong

    2009-01-01

    training programme before discharge and at five follow-up visits during 24 months. Control patients had follow-up visits with the same frequency but without instructions in physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) at each......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational, randomised clinical trial with masked outcome assessment. SETTING: Stroke units in Denmark, China......, Poland, and Estonia. PARTICIPANTS: 314 patients with ischaemic stroke aged >or=40 years who were able to walk-157 (mean age 69.7 years) randomised to the intervention, 157 (mean age 69.4 years) in the control group. INTERVENTIONS: Patients randomised to the intervention were instructed in a detailed...

  10. UPDATE ON THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF ISCHAEMIC AND HAEMORRHAGIC STROKE IN 1990–2013: THE GBD 2013 STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Parmar, Priya; Norrving, Bo; Mensah, George A.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Moran, Andrew; Sacco, Ralph L.; Truelsen, Thomas; Davis, Stephen; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Nguyen, Grant; Johnson, Catherine O.; Vos, Theo; Meretoja, Atte; Murray, Christopher; Roth, Gregory A.; Thrift, Amanda; Banerjee, Amitava; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Misganaw, Awoke; Kissela, Brett M.; Wolfe, Charles; Yu, Chuanhua; Anderson, Craig; Kim, Daniel; Rojas-Rueda, David; Tanne, David; Tirschwell, David Lawrence; Nand, Devina; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Abd-Allah, Foad; Gankpé, Fortuné; deVeber, Gabrielle; Donnan, Geoffrey; Hankey, Graeme J.; Christensen, Hanne K.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Shiue, Ivy; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Jonas, Jost B.; Sheth, Kevin; Kim, Yunjin; Dokova, Klara; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sposato, Luciano A.; Bahit, Maria Cecilia; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Mackay, Mark T.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Endres, Matthias; Giroud, Maurice; Brainin, Michael; Kravchenko, Michael; Piradov, Michael; Soljak, Michael; Liu, Ming; Connor, Myles; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Bornstein, Natan; Shamalov, Nikolay; Roy, Nobhojit; Cabral, Norberto; Beauchamp, Norman J.; Lavados, Pablo M.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Gillium, Richard; Westerman, Ronny; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Basu, Sanjay; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Kosen, Soewarta; Sampson, Uchechukwu K. A.; Caso, Valeria; Vlassov, Vasiliy; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Kokubo, Yoshiohiro; Shinohara, Yukito; Varakin, Yuri; Wang, Wenzhi

    2015-01-01

    Background Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardised rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past two decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, live with the consequences of stroke, and die from their stroke are increasing. Regular updates on the current level of stroke burden are important for advancing our knowledge on stroke epidemiology and facilitate organization and planning of evidence-based stroke care. Objectives To estimate incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs), and their trends for ischaemic stroke (IS) and haemorrhagic stroke (HS) for 188 countries from 1990–2013. Methodology Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated using all available data on mortality and stroke incidence, prevalence and excess mortality. Statistical models and country-level covariate data were employed and all rates were age-standardised to a global population. All estimated were produced with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). Results In 2013, there were globally almost 25.7 million stroke survivors (71% with IS), 6.5 million deaths from stroke (51% died from IS), 113 million DALYs due to stroke (58% due to IS), and 10.3 million new strokes (67% IS). Over the 1990–2013 period, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of DALYs due to IS, and of deaths from IS and HS, survivors and incident events for both IS and HS. The preponderance of the burden of stroke continued to reside in developing countries, comprising 75.2% of deaths from stroke and 81.0% of stroke-related DALYs. Globally, the proportional contribution of stroke-related DALYs and deaths due to stroke compared to all diseases increased from 1990 (3.54% [95% UI 3.11–4.00%] and 9.66% [95% UI 8.47–10.70%]) to 2013 (4.62% [95% UI 4.01–5.30%] and 11.75% [95% UI 10.45–13.31%], respectively), but there was a diverging trend in

  11. Quality-of-life and psychosocial outcome following childhood arterial ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates psychosocial outcome and quality-of-life in children who have experienced arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS), using a multidimensional and multi-perspective approach. It also examines the predictors of quality-of-life following childhood AIS. Forty-nine children between 6-18 years of age were recruited from a specialist childhood stroke clinic. Children, their parents and their teachers rated the child's quality-of-life. Questionnaires rating the child's self-esteem, behaviour and emotions were administered. Each child also underwent a neuropsychological assessment. The findings show that child-, parent- and teacher-rated health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) is significantly lower than comparative norms following childhood AIS, across all domains (physical, emotional, social, school and cognitive functioning). Predictors of HRQoL include neurological severity, executive function, self-esteem and family functioning. Improved screening, services and interventions are necessary to monitor longer-term outcome and provide support for children who have experienced AIS and their families.

  12. Perfusion CT in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Bernd; Roether, Joachim; Fiehler, Jens; Thomalla, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  13. A qualitative study exploring patients' experiences of standard care or cardiac rehabilitation post minor stroke and transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsdon, Kaye M; Kersten, Paula; Kirk, Hayden J S

    2013-09-01

    To explore individuals' experiences of receiving either standard care or comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation post minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, alongside a randomized controlled trial, exploring the effectiveness of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation compared with standard care. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. Individuals' homes. People who have experienced a minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack and who were partaking in a secondary prevention randomized controlled trial (6-7 months post the event, 17 males, five females; mean age 67 years). Not relevant. Not relevant. Four themes were identified: information delivery, comparing oneself with others, psychological impact, attitudes and actions regarding risk factor reduction. Participants indicated a need for improved information delivery, specific to their own risk factors and lifestyle changes. Many experienced psychological impact as a result of their minor stroke. Participants were found to make two types of social comparison; the comparison of self to another affected by stroke, and the comparison of self to cardiac patients. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation was reported to have positive effects on people's motivation to exercise. Following a minor stroke, many individuals do not recall information given or risk factors specific to them. Downward comparison with individuals who have had a cardiovascular event led to some underplaying the significance of their minor stroke.

  14. Machine learning for outcome prediction of acute ischemic stroke post intra-arterial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Hamed; Dowling, Richard; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Accurately predicting stroke outcome from a set of predictive variables may identify high-risk patients and guide treatment approaches, leading to decreased morbidity. Logistic regression models allow for the identification and validation of predictive variables. However, advanced machine learning algorithms offer an alternative, in particular, for large-scale multi-institutional data, with the advantage of easily incorporating newly available data to improve prediction performance. Our aim was to design and compare different machine learning methods, capable of predicting the outcome of endovascular intervention in acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of acute ischaemic stroke treated by endovascular intervention. Using SPSS®, MATLAB®, and Rapidminer®, classical statistics as well as artificial neural network and support vector algorithms were applied to design a supervised machine capable of classifying these predictors into potential good and poor outcomes. These algorithms were trained, validated and tested using randomly divided data. We included 107 consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients treated by endovascular technique. Sixty-six were male and the mean age of 65.3. All the available demographic, procedural and clinical factors were included into the models. The final confusion matrix of the neural network, demonstrated an overall congruency of ∼ 80% between the target and output classes, with favourable receiving operative characteristics. However, after optimisation, the support vector machine had a relatively better performance, with a root mean squared error of 2.064 (SD: ± 0.408). We showed promising accuracy of outcome prediction, using supervised machine learning algorithms, with potential for incorporation of larger multicenter datasets, likely further improving prediction. Finally, we

  15. Machine learning for outcome prediction of acute ischemic stroke post intra-arterial therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asadi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Accurately predicting stroke outcome from a set of predictive variables may identify high-risk patients and guide treatment approaches, leading to decreased morbidity. Logistic regression models allow for the identification and validation of predictive variables. However, advanced machine learning algorithms offer an alternative, in particular, for large-scale multi-institutional data, with the advantage of easily incorporating newly available data to improve prediction performance. Our aim was to design and compare different machine learning methods, capable of predicting the outcome of endovascular intervention in acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of acute ischaemic stroke treated by endovascular intervention. Using SPSS®, MATLAB®, and Rapidminer®, classical statistics as well as artificial neural network and support vector algorithms were applied to design a supervised machine capable of classifying these predictors into potential good and poor outcomes. These algorithms were trained, validated and tested using randomly divided data. RESULTS: We included 107 consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients treated by endovascular technique. Sixty-six were male and the mean age of 65.3. All the available demographic, procedural and clinical factors were included into the models. The final confusion matrix of the neural network, demonstrated an overall congruency of ∼ 80% between the target and output classes, with favourable receiving operative characteristics. However, after optimisation, the support vector machine had a relatively better performance, with a root mean squared error of 2.064 (SD: ± 0.408. DISCUSSION: We showed promising accuracy of outcome prediction, using supervised machine learning algorithms, with potential for incorporation of larger multicenter

  16. Endovascular therapy for acute stroke: Quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh S Madhugiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular therapy (EVT has gained vogue in the management of patients with acute stroke. Newer stent-retriever devices have led to better recanalization rates. In many centers, EVT is slowly being used as an add on to or in some instances, even as an alternative to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA. The publication of the results of the SYNTHESIS expansion, Interventional Management of Stroke III and Mechanical Retrieval Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy trials in 2013 has questioned the enthusiastic use of EVT in acute stroke. They demonstrate that EVT (using a variety of devices is no superior to IV tPA in the management of acute stroke. In the light of these controversial findings, we review the current status of EVT in the management of acute stroke.

  17. Hyperhomocysteinaemia And Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Ischaemic Strokes In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadia R S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognised risk factor for stroke and ischemic heart disease (HID. Vit B12 Folate and pyridoxine deficiency are important causes of raised serum homocysteine. As a vegetarian diet is very poor in Vit B12 we sought to study the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in our stroke populating and to measure Vit B12 and folate in these cases. Consecutive cases of ischaemic stroke, either arterial or venous, admitted over a period of 2 1/2 years were studied. Embolic strokes and those on vitamin supplements were excluded. cases were divided into vegetarian (including those taking milk and / Or eggs, those who took non-vegetarian 4 or less times a month, and frequent non-vegetarians taking 5 or more times a month. Serum total homocysteine, serum B12 and folate levels were studied along with all other routine parameters. For comparison we examined 101 controls without HID, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, rental failure or recent vitamin intake. With the international norm for homocysteine given as 5-15 umol/litre (1we called serum homocysteine 16 umol/litre or more as raised. There were 147 cases of ischcmic stroke :119 arterial and 28 venous infarcts. In the arterial strokes 99 of 119 cases (83.19% had raised serum Homocysteine including 25 of 27 (92.5% of those with arterial stroke before age 45. Of 28 cases with venous infarct 21 (75% had raised homocysteine (HCY. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest risk factor for stroke in our populations. Out of the total 147 cases the exact dietary intake was not known for ten cases., 58 were vegetarians, 54 were occasional non vegetarians (NV and 25 were frequent NV. In the 58 vegetarians, 55 had serum HCY> 16 umol/1 (94.8% and of those vegetarians with HCY> 16, serum B12 <200pg/ml was seen in 44 (75.8% and between 200-300 pg/ml in five (8.6%. Of the 54 occasional NV, 46 had HCY>16umo/1 (85.2% Of those with HCY >16, serum B12 level of <200 pg/ ml was seen in 28 (51.85% occ. NV and

  18. Intracerebral haemorrhage risk in microbleed-positive ischaemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation: Preliminary meta-analysis of cohorts and anticoagulation decision schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charidimou, Andreas; Boulouis, Gregoire; Shams, Sara; Calvet, David; Shoamanesh, Ashkan

    2017-07-15

    Whether ischaemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on MRI can be safely anticoagulated is a hotly debated topic. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published aggregate data, to investigate the risk of subsequent intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) based on CMBs presence in this stroke population, generally considered for oral anticoagulation. We also suggest a decision-making schema for anticoagulation use in this setting. We searched PubMed for relevant observational studies. Random effects models with DerSimonian-Laird weights were used to investigated the association between CMBs presence at baseline MRI and ICH or ischaemic stroke during follow-up. Four studies, with slightly heterogeneous design, including 990 ischaemic stroke patients were pooled in a meta-analysis (crude CMBs prevalence: 25%; 95%CI: 17%-33%). The median follow-up ranged between 17 and 37months. The future symptomatic ICH rate was 1.6% (16/990), while recurrent ischaemic stroke rate was 5.9% (58/990). Baseline CMB presence was associated with increased risk of symptomatic ICH during follow-up compared to patients without CMBs (OR: 4.16; 95%CI: 1.54-11.25; p=0.005). There was no association between CMBs presence and recurrent ischaemic stroke risk. We have shown that the presence of CMBs in cohorts of ischaemic stroke patients, most with AF on warfarin, is associated with a 4-fold increase in subsequent ICH (but not ischaemic stroke) risk (Class III evidence). These pooled estimates are useful for future trials design. We propose a simple data-driven anticoagulation schema which awaits validation and refinement as new prospective data are accumulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  20. Acute coronary syndromes amongst type 2 diabetics with ischaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority had three coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors: obesity 86%, elevated LDL 73% and hypertension 60%. Therapy in use was OHA 43%, insulin 42%, insulin and OHA 1%; prophylactic aspirin 14.7% and statins 8.4%. Thirty four (35.8%) were classified as acute coronary syndrome (ACS); 29 ( 30.5%) acute ...

  1. CHA2DS2-VASc score for ischaemic stroke risk stratification in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with and without atrial fibrillation: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Li

    2018-04-01

    We conducted this nationwide cohort study to identify the performance of CHA2DS2-VASc score for ischaemic stroke risk stratification in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients whether they had comorbid atrial fibrillation (AF) or not. Using the longitudinal health insurance database 2000, patients aged ≥20 years with newly diagnosed COPD from 2000 to 2011 with at least three claims for outpatient and/or hospitalization visits were identified. A total of 1492 COPD patients with AF and 50 343 COPD patients without AF were included in this study. We calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc score-specific incidence density rates of ischaemic stroke with person-years in each cohort. Cox models were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ischaemic stroke risk in COPD patients with and without concomitant AF. The predictive performance of CHA2DS2-VASc score with regard to ischaemic stroke events was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C-statistic). COPD patients with a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score were more likely to develop ischaemic stroke whether or not AF was present. Moreover, the C-statistics of CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting ischaemic stroke in COPD patients with and without AF were 0.58 (95% CI = 0.55-0.62) and 0.71(95% CI = 0.70-0.72), respectively. Our study is the first to show that the performance of CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting ischaemic stroke is better for COPD patients without AF than for COPD patients with AF.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of T-1131C APOA5 and ALOX5AP SG13S114 with the susceptibility of ischaemic stroke in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, Brehima; Hamzi, Khalil; Hmimech, Wiam; Nadifi, Sellama

    2016-06-01

    Ischaemic stroke is a multifactorial disease. Genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid, inflammatory and thrombotic metabolisms play an important role in the development of ischaemic stroke. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between T1131C APOA5 and SG13S114 ALOX5AP polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke in 175 cases and 201 controls. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. In the case of T-1131C APOA5, a modest risk of ischaemic stroke was noticed with CC (OR: 2.86; 95% CI = 1.24-6.58; Pc = 0.039) and C allele (OR: 1.54; 95% CI = 1.01-2.33; Pc = 0.014). For SG13S114 ALOX5AP, a significant association was observed among subjects with TT (OR: 2.57; 95% CI =1.49-4.83; Pc = 0.009) and T allele (OR: 1.59; 95% CI = 1.16-2.19; Pc = 0.008). According to the risk factors of ischaemic stroke, a positive correlation was observed only between SG13S114 variant of ALOX5AP gene and hypertension (Pc = 0.026). Despite lower sample size, T-1131C APOA5 and SG13S114 variants could be considered an independent genetic risk factor of ischaemic stroke in Moroccan population.

  3. Genetic predisposition to ischaemic stroke byRAGEandHMGB1gene variants in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Linfa; Hu, Weidong; Wang, Mengxu; Li, Shengnan; Gu, Xuefeng; Tao, Hua; Zhao, Bin; Ma, Guoda; Li, Keshen

    2017-11-21

    Emerging evidence suggests that the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) contribute to the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke (IS). The present study aimed to investigate the association of RAGE and HMGB1 variants with the risk of IS. A total of 1,034 patients and 1,015 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were genotyped to detect five genetic variants of the RAGE gene and four genetic variants of the HMGB1 gene using the Multiplex SNaPshot assay. We found that the rs2070600 variant of RAGE was associated with an increased risk of IS (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38, P = 0.043), whereas the rs2249825 variant of HMGB1 was associated with a decreased risk of IS (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.98, P = 0.041). Further stratification by IS subtypes revealed that the presence of the TT genotype of the RAGE rs2070600 variant confers a higher risk of the large artery atherosclerosis subtype of IS (P = 0.036). Moreover, patients with the variant T allele of the RAGE rs2070600 variant presented with reduced serum soluble RAGE production. Patients carrying the variant G allele of the HMGB1 rs2249825 variant exhibited significantly lower infarct volumes than those with the major CC genotype. These clues may help in the development of optimal personalized therapeutic approaches for IS patients.

  4. Haemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in patients after reversible ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke assessed with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Hatazawa, J.; Abe, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Kubota, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Sato, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Fukuda, H.; Ido, T.; Pozzilli, C.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolic rate (CMRO2) were evaluated and compared among normals, patients with recent reversible ischaemic attacks (RIAs) and patients with chronic minor infarction using positron emission tomography. Average CBF together with CMRO2 significantly decreased in the infarction group in the middle cerebral artery territory of the affected hemisphere while the mean values for RIAs were intermediate between the other two groups. CBV also reduced, however it was more preserved compared to flow as seen in decreased CBF/CBV values. Significant interhemispheric difference was found in CBF/CBV ratio, but it did not clearly correlate with OEF changes. Higher OEF was noted only in the restricted brain regions of RIAs where CBF showed large hemispheric asymmetry. However, in other regions, the coupled decline of blood flow and metabolism was found which suggests tissue damage or neuronal cell loss in the brain with previous RIA symptoms. (orig.)

  5. Acute MRI changes in progressive ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalowska, E.; Rostrup, E.; Rosenbaum, S.

    2008-01-01

    aimed to assess if acute MRI findings could be used for the prediction of stroke in progression (SIP). METHODS: Prospectively 41 patients, 13 with lacunar infarcts and 28 with territorial infarcts, were admitted to an acute stroke unit within 24 h of stroke onset (median 11 h, range 3- 22). Diffusion...... the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and SSS score. Patients with and without SIP were compared using both clinical and MRI data obtained on admission, on day 7 and after 3 months. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (37%) developed SIP. Increased DWI lesion volume on day 7 in all strokes was associated with SIP...

  6. MRI-visible perivascular spaces: relationship to cognition and small vessel disease MRI markers in ischaemic stroke and TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, Robert; Charidimou, Andreas; Fox, Zoe; Cipolotti, Lisa; Jager, Rolf; Werring, David J

    2014-05-01

    MRI-visible perivascular spaces (PVS) are potential neuroimaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease, but their functional significance and mechanisms remain uncertain. We investigated the association between PVS and cognitive impairment, and other MRI markers of small vessel disease, in a patient cohort of ischaemic stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) referrals. Data were collected from a prospective observational database. Standardised detailed neuropsychological testing was performed. A validated visual rating scale on T2-weighted MRI was used to categorise PVS severity; validated scales were used to assess white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and lacunes. We included 246 patients (45.1% female, mean age 62 years). No significant association between PVS severity grade in any brain region and impairment in any cognitive domain was identified. In multivariable analysis, WMH and hypertension (but not age) were independently associated with basal ganglia PVS severity (OR: 1.27; pstroke subtype (pstroke subtype) were independently associated with centrum semiovale PVS severity (OR: 1.19; p=0.013 and OR: 3.71; p=0.007, respectively). PVS do not have an independent association with cognitive impairment in patients with ischaemic stroke or TIA. The associations with clinical-radiological factors are consistent with the hypothesis that PVS reflect cerebral small vessel disease; the different associations for basal ganglia and centrum semiovale PVS might indicate different underlying small vessel arteriopathies according to PVS anatomical distribution, but this requires further study.

  7. Increased risk of ischaemic stroke amongst patients with chronic osteomyelitis: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C-H; Chen, J-H; Muo, C-H; Chang, Y-J; Sung, F-C; Hsu, C Y

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory processes, which kindle endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, may facilitate the development of cardiovascular disease, including ischaemic stroke. Evident stroke risk factors may not be identified in up to 40% of stroke patients, especially in the younger population. Inflammation remains to be established as a stroke risk factor. In this study, it was assessed whether chronic osteomyelitis (COM), an infectious disease with chronic inflammation, increases stroke risk. A national insurance claim data set of 22 million enrollees in Taiwan was used to identify 18 509 patients with COM and 74 034 randomly selected age- and gender-matched controls for a follow-up period of 11 years starting 1 January 2000 and ending 31 December 2010. Stroke risk was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Comorbidities known to increase stroke risk, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease, were more frequently noted in the COM group who had significantly greater stroke risk than the control cohort. Comparing only those without comorbidities, COM carried greater stroke risk than the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.62, P  65, HR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). This is the first report linking COM to an increased risk of developing stroke. Results suggest that COM is a significant stroke risk factor and call for closer attention to this group of patients for more rigorous stroke prevention, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  8. Temporal evolution of water diffusion parameters is different in grey and white matter in human ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Maniega, S; Bastin, M E; Armitage, P A; Farrall, A J; Carpenter, T K; Hand, P J; Cvoro, V; Rivers, C S; Wardlaw, J M

    2004-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether differences exist in the values and temporal evolution of mean diffusivity () and fractional anisotropy (FA) of grey and white matter after human ischaemic stroke. Thirty two patients with lesions affecting both grey and white matter underwent serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) within 24 hours, and at 4-7 days, 10-14 days, 1 month, and 3 months after stroke. Multiple small circular regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the grey and white matter within the lesion and in the contralateral hemisphere. Values of [grey], [white], FA[grey] and FA[white] were measured in these ROI at each time point and the ratios of ischaemic to normal contralateral values (R and FAR) calculated. and FA showed different patterns of evolution after stroke. After an initial decline, the rate of increase of [grey] was faster than [white] from 4-7 to 10-14 days. FA[white] decreased more rapidly than FA[grey] during the first week, thereafter for both tissue types the FA decreased gradually. However, FA[white] was still higher than FA[grey] at three months indicating that some organised axonal structure remained. This effect was more marked in some patients than in others. R[grey] was significantly higher than R[white] within 24 hours and at 10-14 days (pgrey] at all time points (p and FA are different for grey and white matter after human ischaemic stroke. The observation that there is patient-to-patient variability in the degree of white matter structure remaining within the infarct at three months may have implications for predicting patient outcome.

  9. Life satisfaction in spouses of stroke survivors and control subjects: A 7-year follow-up of participants in the Sahlgrenska Academy study on ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhandadze, Tamar; Forsberg-Wärleby, Gunilla; Holmegaard, Lukas; Redfors, Petra; Jern, Christina; Blomstrand, Christian; Jood, Katarina

    2017-07-07

    To investigate life satisfaction in spouses of middle-aged stroke survivors from the long-term perspective and to identify factors that explain their life satisfaction. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Cohabitant spouses of survivors of ischaemic stroke aged life satisfaction was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer's Life Satisfaction Check-List (LiSAT 11). Stroke-related factors were examined with the National Institutes of Health stroke scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale. Spouses of stroke survivors had significantly lower satisfaction with general life, leisure, sexual life, partner relationship, family life, and poorer somatic and psychological health than spouses of controls. Caregiving spouses had significantly lower scores on all life domains except vocation and own activities of daily living than non-caregiving spouses. Spouses' satisfaction on different life domains was explained mainly by their age, sex, support given to the partner, and the survivor's level of global disability, to which both physical and cognitive impairments contributed. Seven years after stroke, spouses of stroke survivors reported lower life satisfaction compared with spouses of controls. Life satisfaction in stroke survivors' spouses was associated with spouses' age, sex, giving support, and the stroke survivors' level of global disability.

  10. REDUCTION DEGREE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF STATINS; ITS EFFECT ON THE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE ACUTE EPISODES DEPENDING ON TREATMENT DURATION; AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC AND THROMBOEMBOLIC STROKE. COMMENT ON THE PAPER OF LAW M.R., WALD N.J., RUDNICKA A.R. QUANTIFYING EFFECT OF STATINS ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND STROKE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. BMJ 2003; 326:1423-1427

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Perova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dose-dependent ability of different statins to lower serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol was determined in three large meta-analysis. Besides, it was found that standardized decrease in LDL cholesterol levels on 1.0 or 1.8 mmol/l leads to rate reduction in ischemic heart disease acute episodes as well as stroke depending on treatment duration. Effect of LDL cholesterol reduction on stroke occurrence was more significant in studies, which included a major share of patients with vascular disease, because these patients have a higher risk of thromboembolic stroke (rather than haemorrhagic stroke in comparison with the general population.

  11. Pathological Sub-Types, Risk Factors And Outcome Of Stroke At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five patients (93.8%) were discharged and four (5%) died in hospital. All patients who died had anterior circulation ischaemic stroke as per Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Conclusion: Ischaemic stroke is the most common pathological sub-type observed in this study.

  12. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M.J.; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Xiufeng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    an alternate definition of hypertension was used (history of hypertension or blood pressure >160/90 mm Hg), the combined PAR was 90.3% (85.3-93.7) for all stroke. These risk factors were all significant for ischaemic stroke, whereas hypertension, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio, diet, and alcohol intake were...... for all stroke were: history of hypertension (OR 2.64, 99% CI 2.26-3.08; PAR 34.6%, 99% CI 30.4-39.1); current smoking (2.09, 1.75-2.51; 18.9%, 15.3-23.1); waist-to-hip ratio (1.65, 1.36-1.99 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26.5%, 18.8-36.0); diet risk score (1.35, 1.11-1.64 for highest vs lowest tertile...

  13. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial : a double-blind, active and placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dienert, Hans-Christoph; Saccot, Ralph L.; Yusuft, Salim; Cotton, Daniel; Ounpuu, Stephanie; Lawton, William A.; Palesch, Yuko; Martin, Renee H.; Albers, Gregory W.; Bath, Philip; Bornstein, Natan; Chan, Bernard P. L.; Chen, Sien-Tsong; Cunha, Luis; Dahlof, Bjorn; De Keyser, Jacques; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Estol, Conrado; Gorelick, Philip; Gu, Vivian; Hermansson, Karin; Hilbrich, Lutz; Kaste, Markku; Lu, Chuanzhen; Machnig, Thomas; Pais, Prem; Roberts, Robin; Skvortsova, Veronika; Teal, Philip; Toni, Danilo; VanderMaelen, Cam; Voigt, Thor; Weber, Michael; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2008-01-01

    Background The treatment of ischaemic stroke with neuroprotective drugs has been unsuccessful, and whether these compounds can be used to reduce disability after recurrent stroke is unknown. The putative neuroprotective effects of antiplatelet compounds and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist

  14. Risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in adults with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a general population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sharan K; Choi, Hyon K; Sayre, Eric C; Aviña-Zubieta, J Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Limited data are available on the risk of cardiovascular disease in DM and PM. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke in adults with incident PM/DM at the general population level. We assembled a retrospective cohort of all adults with incident PM/DM in British Columbia, and we matched up to 10 adults randomly selected from the general population. We estimated the incidence rates (IRs) per 1000 person-years for MI and stroke. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for potential confounders. Among 774 new cases of inflammatory myopathies, 424 had PM (59% female, mean age 60 years) and 350 had DM (65% female, mean age 56 years). IRs for MI and stroke in PM were 22.52 and 10.15 events per 1000 person-years, respectively, vs 5.50 and 5.58 events in the comparison cohort, respectively. Fully adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 3.89 (95% CI: 2.28, 6.65) for MI and 1.76 (95% CI: 0.91, 3.40) for stroke. The age-, sex- and entry time-matched HRs for MI and stroke were highest in the first year after PM diagnosis (6.51, [95% CI: 3.15, 13.47] and 3.48 [95% CI: 1.26, 9.62], respectively). Similar trends were seen for DM. Our study demonstrates that PM and DM are both associated with an increased risk of MI but not ischaemic stroke. Our findings support increased vigilance in cardiovascular prevention, surveillance and risk modification in adults with PM and DM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Reduction of infarct volume by thrombolysis with rt-PA in an embolic rat stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, K.; Sereghy, T.; Boysen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Rat, thrombolytic therapy, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, acute ischaemic stroke, cerebral infarction and embolism, experimental thromboembolism, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral ......Rat, thrombolytic therapy, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, acute ischaemic stroke, cerebral infarction and embolism, experimental thromboembolism, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral ...

  16. ACUTE STROKE: FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME PREDICTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha; Ramalingam; Vinodkumar; Vasumathi; Valarmathi; Anu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ischemic strokes account for >80% of total stroke events. Biochemical modalities like serum uric acid, ESR, CRP, Serum Fibrinogen will be a low cost and useful way to predict functional outcome after ischemic stroke. The Barthel ADL index it is an ordinal scale helping us to measure performances in ADL-activities in daily living. The present study aims to study the Biochemical parameters Uric Acid, CRP, ESR and Fibrinogen in Ischemic Stroke patients and to assess fu...

  17. Uric acid predicts mortality and ischaemic stroke in subjects with diastolic dysfunction: the Tromsø Study 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvik, Jon V; Schirmer, Henrik; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Storhaug, Hilde M; Jenssen, Trond G; Eriksen, Bjørn O; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Solbu, Marit D

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether serum uric acid predicts adverse outcomes in persons with indices of diastolic dysfunction in a general population. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1460 women and 1480 men from 1994 to 2013. Endpoints were all-cause mortality, incident myocardial infarction, and incident ischaemic stroke. We stratified the analyses by echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction, and uric acid was the independent variable of interest. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated per 59 μmol/L increase in baseline uric acid. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that uric acid predicted all-cause mortality in subjects with E/A ratio 1.5 (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.09, P for interaction between E/A ratio category and uric acid = 0.02). Elevated uric acid increased mortality risk in persons with E-wave deceleration time 220 ms (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.12 and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26, respectively; P for interaction = 0.04). Furthermore, in participants with isovolumetric relaxation time ≤60 ms, mortality risk was higher with increasing uric acid (HR 4.98, 95% CI 2.02-12.26, P for interaction = 0.004). Finally, elevated uric acid predicted ischaemic stroke in subjects with severely enlarged left atria (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.03-2.53, P for interaction = 0.047). Increased uric acid was associated with higher all-cause mortality risk in subjects with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction, and with higher ischaemic stroke risk in persons with severely enlarged left atria.

  18. Stroke Laterality Bias in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gavin; Wade, Carrie; McKee, Jacqueline; McCarron, Peter; McVerry, Ferghal; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the impact of stroke laterality on the management process and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital over 1 year with supratentorial AIS were eligible for inclusion in the study. Baseline characteristics and risk factors, delays in hospital admission, imaging, intrahospital transfer to an acute stoke unit, stroke severity and classification, length of hospital admission, as well as 10-year mortality were measured and compared among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. There were 141 patients (77 men, 64 women; median age 73 [interquartile range 63-79] years), There were 71 patients with left hemisphere AIS and 70 with right hemisphere AIS. Delays to hospital admission from stroke onset to neuroimaging were similar among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. Delay in transfer to an acute stroke unit (ASU) following hospital admission was on average 14 hours more for right hemisphere compared to left hemisphere AIS patients (P = .01). Laterality was not associated with any difference in 10-year survival. Patients with mild and nondominant AIS merit particular attention to minimize their intrahospital transfer time to an ASU. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reperfusion demonstrated by apparent diffusion coefficient mapping after local intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, M.; Loevblad, K.O.; El-Koussy, M.; Guzman, R.; Oswald, H.; Remonda, L.; Schroth, G.; Bassetti, C.; Arnold, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is becoming important for diagnosis and investigation of acute cerebral ischaemia. It has been reported that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps could be an indicator of reperfusion. Our aim was to use echo-planar technology to investigate this phenomenon. We report 19 patients treated by local intra-arterial thrombolysis for middle cerebral artery stroke within 6 h of the onset of symptoms, in whom we performed follow-up DWI. ADC were found to be higher in the patients with angiographically proven reperfusion. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of serum oxidant/antioxidant balance in patients with acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.; Ssefer, V.; Ertugrul, U.; Osman, E.; Esref, A.; Ugur, C.M.; Adalet, A.; Yavuz, Y.; Faysal, E.; Nebahat, T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to locate any correlation between oxidant/antioxidant parameters and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Neurology Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty, Diyarbakir, Turkey, from June 2010 to June 2011. Blood samples were obtained from 53 patients with ischaemic stroke and 40 healthy controls without any history of ischaemic stroke or systemic disease. Venous blood was obtained within 24 hour after stroke onset. Serum malondialdehyde , total anti-oxidant capacity, paraoxanase and superoxide dismutase were measured. SPSS 11.5 used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no difference between the cases and the controls regarding age (64.5+-15.8 and 66.3+-13.9 respectively), gender (27 (51%) / 26 (49%), and 19 (48%) / 21 (52%) respectively), obesity (15 (28.3%) and 13 (37.5%), respectively), and hypertension (30 (56.6%) and 23 (57.5%), respectively). The cases had higher concentrations of malondialdehyde (147.3+-59.3 vs. 112.4+-28.5 nmol/gr protein, p<0.001), and superoxide dismutase (4.40+-0.79 vs. 3.35+-0.51, p<0.001) compared to the controls. However, the cases had lower concentrations of paraoxanase (23.2+-23.7 vs 64.7+-52.6, p<0.001), total anti-oxidant capacity (0.77+-0.38 vs. 0.95+-0.30, p<0.015), and nitric oxide (10.8+-7.1 vs. 17.5+-2.4 micro mol/gr protein, p<0.001), compared to the controls. In the stroke group, a significant negative correlation was found between the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and total anti-oxidant capacity activity (p<0.021, r-0.32). Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that sufficient anti-oxidant capacity has a beneficial effect on the clinical severity of acute ischaemic stroke. (author)

  1. [Nutrition for elderly acute stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Lisa; Iversen, Per Ole; Hauge, Truls

    2008-09-11

    Elderly people have an increased risk of malnutrition due to biological and physiological changes and underlying disease. Almost 90% of the stroke patients are older than 65 years, and the consequences of acute stroke may lead to additional nutritional problems. This paper reviews nutritional therapy for stroke patients. PubMed was searched (non-systematically) for prospective cohort studies of occurrence, diagnostics and consequences of undernutrition in stroke patients. Randomized trials were examined to identify clinical effects of oral protein and energy supplements or tube feeding on nutritional status and intake, functional status, infections, length of stay, quality of life and mortality. 8-35% of stroke patients are undernourished. Body weight is one of the most important parameters for assessment of nutritional status. Dysphagia occurs in up to 80% of patients with acute stroke and increases the risk of undernutrition, which again leads to prolonged length of stay, reduced functional status and poorer survival. Early nasogastric tube feeding does not increase the risk of pneumonia and may improve survival after six months. Oral supplements lead to a significantly improved nutritional intake in undernourished stroke patients, as well as improved nutritional status and survival in undernourished elderly. Nutritional treatment can improve the clinical outcome after an acute stroke, provided that there are good procedures for follow-up and monitoring of the treatment.

  2. Impact of metabolic disorders on the relation between overweight/obesity and incident myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Whether overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic disorders remains under debate and is largely unexamined in young women. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women conditional on time-dependent presence of ...... be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular disease in overweight/obese young women.......AIMS: Whether overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic disorders remains under debate and is largely unexamined in young women. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women conditional on time-dependent presence...

  3. Role of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and other risk factors in intracranial and extracranial artery occlusion in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Deng, Li; Liu, Xiao-dong; Li, Ji-mei; Zhang, Yong-bo

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective case-control study to identify stroke-associated risk factors and quantify serum C-reactive protein in patients with ischaemic stroke, with or without intracranial and/or extracranial artery occlusion (IEAO). Patients with ischaemic stroke and internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO), middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), ICAO + MCAO, or no IEAO (control patients) were retrospectively recruited. Data regarding stroke-associated risk factors were retrieved from medical records. High sensitivity (hs)-CRP was quantified within 3 days of hospital admission. Patients with ICAO (n = 89), MCAO (n = 74) and ICAO + MCAO (n = 29) had significantly higher serum hs-CRP concentrations, and were significantly more likely to have coronary heart disease, a history of stroke, and more than three stroke-associated risk factors than control patients (n = 84). Coronary heart disease and a history of stroke are risk factors for ischaemic stroke with IEAO. Hs-CRP may be used as a marker for IEAO. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The King's College Hospital Acute Stroke Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, P; Butterworth, R J; Soo, J; Kerr, J E

    1996-01-01

    The King's College Hospital (KCH) Acute Stroke Unit (ASU) was set up in January 1994 in order to provide acute management for patients admitted with stroke and to undertake biomedical research. Of 206 patients admitted to KCH with a stroke or suffering an in-hospital stroke, 141 (68%) patients were admitted to the ASU over its first 6 months of operation: 120 (85%) were from the Accident and Emergency Department and 21 (15%) from other wards. Management included resuscitation and medical stabilisation, investigation, prevention of stroke complications (including aspiration, venous thrombosis, and pressure sores), rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy), nutrition (dietetics) and initiation of secondary prevention measures (aspirin or anticoagulation, blood pressure and lipid lowering, and carotid endarterectomy). All aspects of management are driven by agreed guidelines. Patients remain under the care of the admitting physician but specific stroke management and guidance is provided by two research doctors and the unit's nurses, therapists and dietician. The unit also facilitates research into stroke pathophysiology and acute therapeutic interventions. Our experience suggests that an ASU is relatively easy to set up and may contribute to improved care. Whether ASUs improve patient survival and functional outcome, and are cost-effective, requires further study.

  5. Safety and efficacy of intensive vs. guideline antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients with recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: rationale and design of the Triple Antiplatelets for Reducing Dependency after Ischaemic Stroke (TARDIS) trial (ISRCTN47823388).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Beridze, Maia; Christensen, Hanne; Dineen, Rob; Duley, Lelia; Heptinstall, Stan; James, Marilyn; Markus, Hugh S; Pocock, Stuart; Ranta, Annemarei; Robinson, Thompson; Nikola, Nikola; Venables, Graham; Bath, Philip

    2015-10-01

    The risk of recurrence following a stroke or transient ischemic attack is high, especially immediately after the event. Because two antiplatelet agents are superior to one in patients with non-cardioembolic events, more intensive treatment might be even more effective. The sample size of 4100 patients will allow a shift to less recurrence, and less severe recurrence, to be detected (odds ratio 0·68) with 90% power at 5% significance. Triple Antiplatelets for Reducing Dependency after Ischaemic Stroke (ISRCTN47823388) is comparing the safety and efficacy of intensive (combined aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole) vs. guideline antiplatelet therapy, both given for one-month. This international collaborative parallel-group prospective randomized open-label blinded-end-point phase III trial plans to recruit 4100 patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Randomization and data collection are performed over a secure Internet site with real-time data validation and concealment of allocation. Outcomes, serious adverse events, and neuroimaging are adjudicated centrally with blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome is stroke recurrence and its severity ('ordinal recurrence' based on modified Rankin Scale) at 90 days, with masked assessment centrally by telephone. Secondary outcomes include vascular events, functional measures (disability, mood, cognition, quality of life), and safety (bleeding, death, serious adverse events). The trial has recruited more than 50% of its target sample size (latest number: 2399) and is running in 104 sites in 4 countries. One-third of patients presented with a transient ischemic attack. © 2015 The Author. International Journal of Stroke published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Stroke Organization.

  6. The cardiac model of rehabilitation for reducing cardiovascular risk factors post transient ischaemic attack and stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hayden; Kersten, Paula; Crawford, Pamela; Keens, Angela; Ashburn, Ann; Conway, Joy

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a standard National Health Service cardiac rehabilitation programme on risk factor reduction for patients after a minor stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Cardiac rehabilitation classes. Twenty-four patients. All participants received standard care. In addition, the intervention group undertook an eight-week cardiac rehabilitation programme consisting of weekly exercise and education classes. Cardiovascular disease risk score; lipid profiles; resting blood pressure; C-reactive protein (measured with a high sensitive assay) and fibrinogen levels; blood glucose; obesity; physical activity levels; subjective health status (SF-36); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Group comparison with independent t-tests showed a significantly greater improvement in the cardiovascular disease risk score for participants in the intervention group compared to standard care (intervention 25.7 ± 22.8 to 23.15 ± 18.3, control 25.03 ± 15.4 to 27.12 ± 16.1, t = -1.81, P rehabilitation programmes are a feasible and effective means of reducing the risk of future cardiovascular events for patients after minor stroke and transient ischaemic attack.

  7. Global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Feigin, Valery L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mensah, George A; Connor, Myles; Bennett, Derrick A; Moran, Andrew E; Sacco, Ralph L; Anderson, Laurie M; Truelsen, Thomas; O'Donnell, Martin; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Lawes, Carlene M M; Wang, Wenzhi; Shinohara, Yukito; Witt, Emma; Ezzati, Majid; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The burden of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke varies between regions and over time. With differences in prognosis, prevalence of risk factors, and treatment strategies, knowledge of stroke pathological type is important for targeted region-specific health-care planning for stroke and could inform priorities for type-specific prevention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990-2010. We searched Medline, Embase, LILACS, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Global Health Database, the WHO library, and regional databases from 1990 to 2012 to identify relevant studies published between 1990 and 2010. We applied the GBD 2010 analytical technique (DisMod-MR) to calculate regional and country-specific estimates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence, mortality, mortality-to-incidence ratio, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost, by age group (aged ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke increased significantly between 1990 and 2010 in terms of the absolute number of people with incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke (37% and 47% increase, respectively), number of deaths (21% and 20% increase), and DALYs lost (18% and 14% increase). In the past two decades in high-income countries, incidence of ischaemic stroke reduced significantly by 13% (95% CI 6-18), mortality by 37% (19-39), DALYs lost by 34% (16-36), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 21% (10-27). For haemorrhagic stroke, incidence reduced significantly by 19% (1-15), mortality by 38% (32-43), DALYs lost by 39% (32-44), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 27% (19-35). By contrast, in low-income and middle-income countries, we noted a significant increase of 22% (5-30) in incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and a 6% (-7 to 18) non-significant increase in the incidence of ischaemic stroke. Mortality rates for ischaemic stroke fell by 14

  8. Global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990–2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Feigin, Valery L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Mensah, George A; Connor, Myles; Bennett, Derrick A; Moran, Andrew E; Sacco, Ralph L; Anderson, Laurie M; Truelsen, Thomas; O’Donnell, Martin; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Lawes, Carlene M M; Wang, Wenzhi; Shinohara, Yukito; Witt, Emma; Ezzati, Majid; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The burden of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke varies between regions and over time. With differences in prognosis, prevalence of risk factors, and treatment strategies, knowledge of stroke pathological type is important for targeted region-specific health-care planning for stroke and could inform priorities for type-specific prevention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990–2010. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, LILACS, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Global Health Database, the WHO library, and regional databases from 1990 to 2012 to identify relevant studies published between 1990 and 2010. We applied the GBD 2010 analytical technique (DisMod-MR) to calculate regional and country-specific estimates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence, mortality, mortality-to-incidence ratio, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost, by age group (aged ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke increased significantly between 1990 and 2010 in terms of the absolute number of people with incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke (37% and 47% increase, respectively), number of deaths (21% and 20% increase), and DALYs lost (18% and 14% increase). In the past two decades in high-income countries, incidence of ischaemic stroke reduced significantly by 13% (95% CI 6–18), mortality by 37% (19–39), DALYs lost by 34% (16–36), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 21% (10–27). For haemorrhagic stroke, incidence reduced significantly by 19% (1–15), mortality by 38% (32–43), DALYs lost by 39% (32–44), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 27% (19–35). By contrast, in low-income and middle-income countries, we noted a significant increase of 22% (5–30) in incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and a 6% (–7 to 18) non-significant increase in the incidence of ischaemic stroke

  9. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature i...

  10. Limitations in thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, S.; Kokcam, M.; Girisgin, A.S.; Dogan, E.; Bodur, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The eligibility for thrombolytic therapy for patients who present to the emergency department with Acute Ischaemic Stroke (AIS) has been researched in this study. Methodology: Patients who had presented to the emergency department of our hospital between March 2008-2009 and diagnosed as AIS clinically and radiologically were included in the study prospectively. Results: One hundred and twelve patients were included in the study. Forty nine (43.8 %) were female and the mean age was 68.7+- 12.2 (median 71.5). The mean time from the onset of symptom to hospital admission was 12.2 +- 12.9 hours (median 6 hours). Two (1.8%) patients did not have any contraindication for thrombolytic therapy. Arrival time at the hospital of three hours and higher was the single contraindication in 40 (35.7%) patients. The most common four contraindications were delayed admission, multilobar infarct or hypo density of more than 1/3 of the hemisphere, hypertension and mild neurological symptoms respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the primary barrier to the delivery of thrombolytic therapy for AIS is delayed arrival of the patient to a hospital, and up to 1/3 of our patients, the percentage arriving within 4 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms, might be eligible for attempted re-perfusion. (author)

  11. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  12. Associations of estimated Δ-5-desaturase and Δ-6-desaturase activities with stroke risk factors and risk of stroke: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Roya; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2017-02-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The role of PUFA in reducing the risk of stroke is uncertain. The concentrations of PUFA in the human body are determined both by dietary intake and by activities of desaturase enzymes. Desaturase enzymes have been associated with chronic diseases, but little is known about their association with stroke risk. We investigated the associations of Δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and Δ-5-desaturase (D5D) activities with stroke risk factors and risk of stroke among 1842 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989. ANCOVA and Cox regression models were used for the analyses. Whole serum desaturase activities were estimated as product:precursor ratios - γ-linolenic acid:linoleic acid for D6D and arachidonic acid:dihomo-γ-linolenic acid for D5D. Higher D6D activity was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, serum insulin and TAG concentrations and worse homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) indices. In contrast, higher D5D activity was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, serum insulin, LDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, higher HDL-cholesterol concentration, and better HOMA indices. During the mean follow-up of 21·2 years, 202 stroke cases occurred. Neither D6D activity (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile hazard ratios (HR) 1·18; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·74) nor D5D activity (HR 1·06; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·60) were associated with stroke risk. In conclusion, higher D5D activity was favourably associated and higher D6D activity unfavourably associated with several stroke risk factors, but not with the risk of incident stroke.

  13. A STUDY ON CLINICAL AND PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Ganesh R. T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is one of the major health problems in many countries. There is supporting evidence suggesting that Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT enzyme has an active involvement in atherosclerosis through its oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms. With this background, we conducted a study among acute stroke patients with an aim and objective to evaluate the relationship between stroke and serum GGT levels and to assess the severity of various types of stroke in relation to the levels of serum GGT enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 acute stroke patients and 50 normal individuals as controls participated in the study. Stroke patients were advised for routine haematological investigations, serum GGT estimation and plain CT of brain. RESULTS Out of the 50 acute stroke patients who participated in our study, 32 patients had elevated levels of serum GGT and 3 patients had drastically elevated levels of GGT (>100 IU/L. A statistically significant relationship was found between ischaemic stroke and GGT with a p-value of 0.0418. CONCLUSION Gamma-glutamyl transferase estimation in acute stroke patients may serve as a reliable and feasible clinical test for the physician to initially stratify patient risk and provide prompt therapy.

  14. Clot lysis time and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in young women; results from the RATIO case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegerink, Bob; Meltzer, Mirjam E.; de Groot, Philip G.; Algra, Ale; Lisman, Ton; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    Reduced overall fibrinolytic capacity increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), as demonstrated in studies with predominantly male participants. We determined the influence of altered fibrinolysis on the risk of MI and ischaemic stroke (IS) in young women. The RATIO (Risk of Arterial

  15. Diagnostic use of isotropic diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with ischaemic stroke: detection of the lesion responsible for the clinical deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumon, Y.; Ohue, S.; Ohta, S.; Sakaki, S.; Zenke, K.; Kusunoki, K.; Oka, Y.; Sadamoto, K.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the diagnostic use of isotropic diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in 140 consecutive patients suspected of or diagnosed as having an ischaemic stroke. Isotropic DW imaging could demonstrate the lesion responsible for the clinical deficit in patients with multiple cerebral infarts at an early stage, even small lesions without a perifocal oedema or mass effect. Accurate diagnosis by DW images may, however, be difficult about 2 weeks after the onset of stroke. (orig.)

  16. Genetic risk factors for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (the METASTROKE collaboration): a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Matthew; Farrall, Martin; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sudlow, Cathie; Hopewell, Jemma C; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Fornage, Myriam; Ikram, M Arfan; Malik, Rainer; Bevan, Steve; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Nalls, Mike A; Longstreth, Wt; Wiggins, Kerri L; Yadav, Sunaina; Parati, Eugenio A; Destefano, Anita L; Worrall, Bradford B; Kittner, Steven J; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Reiner, Alex P; Helgadottir, Anna; Achterberg, Sefanja; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Abboud, Sherine; Schmidt, Reinhold; Walters, Matthew; Chen, Wei-Min; Ringelstein, E Bernd; O'Donnell, Martin; Ho, Weang Kee; Pera, Joanna; Lemmens, Robin; Norrving, Bo; Higgins, Peter; Benn, Marianne; Sale, Michele; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Doney, Alexander S F; Vicente, Astrid M; Delavaran, Hossein; Algra, Ale; Davies, Gail; Oliveira, Sofia A; Palmer, Colin N A; Deary, Ian; Schmidt, Helena; Pandolfo, Massimo; Montaner, Joan; Carty, Cara; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kostulas, Konstantinos; Ferro, Jose M; van Zuydam, Natalie R; Valdimarsson, Einar; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Lindgren, Arne; Thijs, Vincent; Slowik, Agnieszka; Saleheen, Danish; Paré, Guillaume; Berger, Klaus; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hofman, Albert; Mosley, Thomas H; Mitchell, Braxton D; Furie, Karen; Clarke, Robert; Levi, Christopher; Seshadri, Sudha; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B; Sharma, Pankaj; Bis, Joshua C; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Psaty, Bruce M; Rothwell, Peter M; Rosand, Jonathan; Meschia, James F; Stefansson, Kari; Dichgans, Martin; Markus, Hugh S

    2012-11-01

    Various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been done in ischaemic stroke, identifying a few loci associated with the disease, but sample sizes have been 3500 cases or less. We established the METASTROKE collaboration with the aim of validating associations from previous GWAS and identifying novel genetic associations through meta-analysis of GWAS datasets for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes. We meta-analysed data from 15 ischaemic stroke cohorts with a total of 12 389 individuals with ischaemic stroke and 62 004 controls, all of European ancestry. For the associations reaching genome-wide significance in METASTROKE, we did a further analysis, conditioning on the lead single nucleotide polymorphism in every associated region. Replication of novel suggestive signals was done in 13 347 cases and 29 083 controls. We verified previous associations for cardioembolic stroke near PITX2 (p=2·8×10(-16)) and ZFHX3 (p=2·28×10(-8)), and for large-vessel stroke at a 9p21 locus (p=3·32×10(-5)) and HDAC9 (p=2·03×10(-12)). Additionally, we verified that all associations were subtype specific. Conditional analysis in the three regions for which the associations reached genome-wide significance (PITX2, ZFHX3, and HDAC9) indicated that all the signal in each region could be attributed to one risk haplotype. We also identified 12 potentially novel loci at pischaemic stroke when compared with controls, all associations we were able to confirm are specific to a stroke subtype. This finding has two implications. First, to maximise success of genetic studies in ischaemic stroke, detailed stroke subtyping is required. Second, different genetic pathophysiological mechanisms seem to be associated with different stroke subtypes. Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council (MRC), Australian National and Medical Health Research Council, National Institutes of Health (NIH) including National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institute on Aging (NIA

  17. Determinants of premature familial arterial thrombosis in patients with juvenile ischaemic stroke. The Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults (IPSYS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Spalloni, Alessandra; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Pepe, Daniele; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    Factors predicting family history (FH) of premature arterial thrombosis in young patients with ischaemic stroke (IS) have not been extensively investigated, and whether they might influence the risk of post-stroke recurrence is still unknown. In the present study we analysed 1,881 consecutive first-ever IS patients aged 18-45 years recruited from January 2000 to January 2012 as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults (IPSYS). FH of premature arterial thrombosis was any thrombotic event [IS, myocardial infarction or other arterial events event] V gene (OR, 3.64; 95 % CI, 1.31-10.10), and the A20210 mutation in the prothrombin gene (OR, 8.40; 95 % CI 3.35-21.05) were associated with FH of premature stroke (n = 33), while circulating anti-phospholipids to FH of premature myocardial infarction (n = 45; OR, 3.48; 95 % CI, 1.61-7.51). Mean follow-up time was 46.6 ± 38.6 months. Recurrent events occurred more frequently in the subgroup of patients with FH of premature stroke [19.4 %); p = 0.051] compared to patients without such a FH. In conclusion, young IS patients with FH of premature arterial thrombosis exhibit a distinct risk-factor profile, an underlying procoagulant state and have worse vascular prognosis than those with no FH of juvenile thrombotic events.

  18. Validity of Diagnostic Codes for Acute Stroke in Administrative Databases: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie McCormick

    Full Text Available To conduct a systematic review of studies reporting on the validity of International Classification of Diseases (ICD codes for identifying stroke in administrative data.MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched (inception to February 2015 for studies: (a Using administrative data to identify stroke; or (b Evaluating the validity of stroke codes in administrative data; and (c Reporting validation statistics (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, or Kappa scores for stroke, or data sufficient for their calculation. Additional articles were located by hand search (up to February 2015 of original papers. Studies solely evaluating codes for transient ischaemic attack were excluded. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers; article quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool.Seventy-seven studies published from 1976-2015 were included. The sensitivity of ICD-9 430-438/ICD-10 I60-I69 for any cerebrovascular disease was ≥ 82% in most [≥ 50%] studies, and specificity and NPV were both ≥ 95%. The PPV of these codes for any cerebrovascular disease was ≥ 81% in most studies, while the PPV specifically for acute stroke was ≤ 68%. In at least 50% of studies, PPVs were ≥ 93% for subarachnoid haemorrhage (ICD-9 430/ICD-10 I60, 89% for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICD-9 431/ICD-10 I61, and 82% for ischaemic stroke (ICD-9 434/ICD-10 I63 or ICD-9 434&436. For in-hospital deaths, sensitivity was 55%. For cerebrovascular disease or acute stroke as a cause-of-death on death certificates, sensitivity was ≤ 71% in most studies while PPV was ≥ 87%.While most cases of prevalent cerebrovascular disease can be detected using 430-438/I60-I69 collectively, acute stroke must be defined using more specific codes. Most in-hospital deaths and death certificates with stroke as a cause-of-death correspond to true stroke deaths. Linking vital statistics and hospitalization

  19. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M.J.; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Xiufeng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Background The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these risk...... factors to the burden of stroke, and explore the differences between risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction. Methods We undertook a standardised case-control study in 22 countries worldwide between March 1, 2007, and April 23, 2010. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days...... of symptoms onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls had no history of stroke, and were matched with cases for age and sex. All participants completed a structured questionnaire and a physical examination, and most provided blood and urine samples. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and population...

  20. The role of neuroimaging in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamija Rajinder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy in patients with acute stroke. The most important therapies are thrombolysis or aspirin in hyperacute ischemic stroke and, for secondary prevention, antiplatelet agents, statins, ACE inhibitors (for lowering blood pressure, warfarin, and carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Imaging technology has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke. In recent years, significant advances have been made due to the availability of physiological imaging using a variety of techniques, ranging from computerized tomography (CT to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which enable clinicians to define brain anatomy and physiology in greater detail than ever before. Objective: In this article we discuss the imaging techniques currently available for patients with acute stroke, with an emphasis on the utility of these techniques for diagnosis and refining patient selection for early interventions. This is placed in the context of the needs of developing countries . Discussion: Although noncontrast CT (NCCT remains the most commonly used imaging modality to differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, to identify early CT changes, and to rule out stroke mimics, it is not sensitive enough to identify the infarct core or the mechanism of ischemic stroke. MRI, including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA, is the most useful imaging modality for the evaluation of acute stroke; it provides information about the mechanism as well as the vascular territory of the stroke. MRI also provides complete information about the status of tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and about arterial patency by means of MRA. DWI shows acute lesions within minutes of onset of ischemia, while MRA can evaluate extracranial as well as intracranial vessels Evaluation of the proportion of penumbra vs infarcted tissue is another issue to be considered when instituting thrombolysis, and

  1. Genetic risk factors for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (the METASTROKE Collaboration): a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Matthew; Farrall, Martin; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sudlow, Cathie; Hopewell, Jemma C; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Fornage, Myriam; Ikram, M Arfan; Malik, Rainer; Bevan, Steve; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Nalls, Mike A; Longstreth, WT; Wiggins, Kerri L; Yadav, Sunaina; Parati, Eugenio A; DeStefano, Anita L; Worrall, Bradford B; Kittner, Steven J; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Reiner, Alex P; Helgadottir, Anna; Achterberg, Sefanja; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Abboud, Sherine; Schmidt, Reinhold; Walters, Matthew; Chen, Wei-Min; Ringelstein, E Bernd; O'Donnell, Martin; Ho, Weang Kee; Pera, Joanna; Lemmens, Robin; Norrving, Bo; Higgins, Peter; Benn, Marianne; Sale, Michele; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Doney, Alexander S F; Vicente, Astrid M; Delavaran, Hossein; Algra, Ale; Davies, Gail; Oliveira, Sofia A; Palmer, Colin N A; Deary, Ian; Schmidt, Helena; Pandolfo, Massimo; Montaner, Joan; Carty, Cara; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kostulas, Konstantinos; Ferro, Jose M; van Zuydam, Natalie R; Valdimarsson, Einar; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Lindgren, Arne; Thijs, Vincent; Slowik, Agnieszka; Saleheen, Danish; Paré, Guillaume; Berger, Klaus; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hofman, Albert; Mosley, Thomas H; Mitchell, Braxton D; Furie, Karen; Clarke, Robert; Levi, Christopher; Seshadri, Sudha; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B; Sharma, Pankaj; Bis, Joshua C; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Psaty, Bruce M; Rothwell, Peter M; Rosand, Jonathan; Meschia, James F; Stefansson, Kari; Dichgans, Martin; Markus, Hugh S

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been done in ischaemic stroke, identifying a few loci associated with the disease, but sample sizes have been 3500 cases or less. We established the METASTROKE collaboration with the aim of validating associations from previous GWAS and identifying novel genetic associations through meta-analysis of GWAS datasets for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes. Methods We meta-analysed data from 15 ischaemic stroke cohorts with a total of 12 389 individuals with ischaemic stroke and 62 004 controls, all of European ancestry. For the associations reaching genome-wide significance in METASTROKE, we did a further analysis, conditioning on the lead single nucleotide polymorphism in every associated region. Replication of novel suggestive signals was done in 13 347 cases and 29 083 controls. Findings We verified previous associations for cardioembolic stroke near PITX2 (p=2·8×10−16) and ZFHX3 (p=2·28×10−8), and for large-vessel stroke at a 9p21 locus (p=3·32×10−5) and HDAC9 (p=2·03×10−12). Additionally, we verified that all associations were subtype specific. Conditional analysis in the three regions for which the associations reached genome-wide significance (PITX2, ZFHX3, and HDAC9) indicated that all the signal in each region could be attributed to one risk haplotype. We also identified 12 potentially novel loci at pstroke when compared with controls, all associations we were able to confirm are specific to a stroke subtype. This finding has two implications. First, to maximise success of genetic studies in ischaemic stroke, detailed stroke subtyping is required. Second, different genetic pathophysiological mechanisms seem to be associated with different stroke subtypes. Funding Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council (MRC), Australian National and Medical Health Research Council, National Institutes of Health (NIH) including National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the

  2. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-01-01

    telmisartan were investigated in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial. METHODS: Patients who had had an ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned in a two by two factorial design to receive either 25 mg aspirin (ASA) and 200 mg extended-release dipyridamole (ER......-DP) twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once a day, and either 80 mg telmisartan or placebo once per day. The predefined endpoints for this substudy were disability after a recurrent stroke, assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and Barthel index at 3 months, and cognitive function, assessed...... of 2.4 years. Recurrent strokes occurred in 916 (9%) patients randomly assigned to ASA with ER-DP and 898 (9%) patients randomly assigned to clopidogrel; 880 (9%) patients randomly assigned to telmisartan and 934 (9%) patients given placebo had recurrent strokes. mRS scores were not statistically...

  3. Pre-stroke use of statins on stroke outcome : a meta-analysis of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Smedt, Ann; Brouns, Raf; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Raedt, Sylvie; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; De Keyser, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal pre-clinical studies suggest that statins may have neuroprotective effects in acute ischaemic stroke. Statins might also increase the risk of developing haemorrhagic transformation after thrombolytic treatment. Methods: We performed a systematic review and included studies that

  4. Longitudinal assessment of thrombin generation potential in response to alteration of antiplatelet therapy after TIA or ischaemic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, W O

    2013-02-01

    The impact of changing antiplatelet therapy on thrombin generation potential in patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. We assessed patients within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke (baseline), and then 14 days (14d) and >90 days (90d) after altering antiplatelet therapy. Thrombin generation was assessed in platelet poor plasma. Ninety-one patients were recruited. Twenty-four were initially assessed on no antiplatelet therapy, and then after 14d (N = 23) and 90d (N = 8) on aspirin monotherapy; 52 were assessed on aspirin monotherapy, and after 14 and 90 days on aspirin and dipyridamole combination therapy; 21 patients were assessed on aspirin and after 14 days (N = 21) and 90 days (N = 19) on clopidogrel. Peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential were reduced at 14 and 90 days (p ≤ 0.04) in the overall cohort. We assessed the impact of individual antiplatelet regimens on thrombin generation parameters to investigate the cause of this effect. Lag time and time-to-peak thrombin generation were unchanged at 14 days, but reduced 90 days after commencing aspirin (p ≤ 0.009). Lag time, peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential were reduced at both 14 and 90 days after adding dipyridamole to aspirin (p ≤ 0.01). Lag time was reduced 14 days after changing from aspirin to clopidogrel (p = 0.045), but this effect was not maintained at 90 days (p = 0.2). This pilot study did not show any consistent effects of commencing aspirin, or of changing from aspirin to clopidogrel on thrombin generation potential during follow-up. The addition of dipyridamole to aspirin led to a persistent reduction in peak and total thrombin generation ex vivo, and illustrates the diverse, potentially beneficial, newly recognised \\'anti-coagulant\\' effects of dipyridamole in ischaemic CVD.

  5. Clinical applications of remote ischaemic preconditioning in native and transplant acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veighey, Kristin; MacAllister, Raymond

    2015-10-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a composite of the injury sustained during a period of reduced or absent blood flow to a tissue or organ and the additional insult sustained upon reperfusion that limits the amount of tissue that can be salvaged. IR injury plays a central role in both native and transplant acute kidney injury (AKI). Native AKI is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hospital inpatients, and transplant AKI contributes to graft dysfunction, ultimately limiting graft longevity. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic benefits of a cost-effective and low-risk intervention, remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC), and its applicability in the prevention and reduction of AKI.

  6. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2018-01-22

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve outcome. In the previous version of this Cochrane Review, published in 2012, we found that antibiotics did reduce the risk of infection but did not reduce the number of dependent or deceased patients. However, included studies were small and heterogeneous. In 2015, two large clinical trials were published, warranting an update of this Review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of preventive antibiotic therapy in people with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We wished to determine whether preventive antibiotic therapy in people with acute stroke:• reduces the risk of a poor functional outcome (dependency and/or death) at follow-up;• reduces the occurrence of infections in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces the occurrence of elevated body temperature (temperature ≥ 38° C) in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces length of hospital stay; or• leads to an increased rate of serious adverse events, such as anaphylactic shock, skin rash, or colonisation with antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (25 June 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5; 25 June 2017) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 11 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 11 May 2017). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trials and research registers, scanned reference lists, and contacted trial authors, colleagues, and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive antibiotic therapy versus control (placebo or open control) in people with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Two review authors independently selected

  7. Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Liew, Gerald; Lindley, Richard I; Liu, Erica Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Hand, Peter; Baker, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether retinal fractal dimension, a quantitative measure of microvascular branching complexity and density, is associated with lacunar stroke. A total of 392 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke had retinal fractal dimension measured from digital photographs, and lacunar infarct ascertained from brain imaging. After adjusting for age, gender, and vascular risk factors, higher retinal fractal dimension (highest vs lowest quartile and per standard deviation increase) was independently and positively associated with lacunar stroke (odds ratio [OR], 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-12.17 and OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.20-2.84, respectively). Increased retinal microvascular complexity and density is associated with lacunar stroke.

  8. Malnutrition in Patients with Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella D. Bouziana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding.

  9. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paonessa, Amalia [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: apaonessa7@hotmail.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Tozzi, Elisabetta [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase.

  10. Continuous pulse oximetry in acute hemiparetic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; Stewart, R; den Arend, A; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    2000-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypoxemia can adversely affect ischemic brain tissue in laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to assess the Value of early continuous monitoring with pulse oximetry in detecting arterial oxygen desaturations in patients with acute hemiparetic stroke, and the effects

  11. Effect of aphasia on acute stroke outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Marshall, Randolph S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of aphasia on outcomes during acute stroke admission, controlling for total NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and loss of consciousness. Methods: Data from the Tulane Stroke Registry were used from July 2008 to December 2014 for patient demographics, NIHSS scores, length of stay (LOS), complications (sepsis, deep vein thrombosis), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Aphasia was defined as a score >1 on question 9 on the NIHSS on admission and hemiparesis as >1 on questions 5 or 6. Results: Among 1,847 patients, 866 (46%) had aphasia on admission. Adjusting for NIHSS score and inpatient complications, those with aphasia had a 1.22 day longer LOS than those without aphasia, whereas those with hemiparesis (n = 1,225) did not have any increased LOS compared to those without hemiparesis. Those with aphasia had greater odds of having a complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.93, p = 0.0174) than those without aphasia, which was equivalent to those having hemiparesis (OR 1.47, CI 1.09–1.99, p = 0.0137). Controlling for NIHSS scores, aphasia patients had higher odds of discharge mRS 3–6 (OR 1.42 vs 1.15). Conclusion: Aphasia is independently associated with increased LOS and complications during the acute stroke admission, adding $2.16 billion annually to US acute stroke care. The presence of aphasia was more likely to produce a poor functional outcome than hemiparesis. These data suggest that further research is necessary to determine whether establishing adaptive communication skills can mitigate its consequences in the acute stroke setting. PMID:27765864

  12. The performance of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors as screening tests for ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M R; Wald, N J; Morris, J K

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises the main evidence and conclusions relating to using blood pressure measurement as a screening test to identify people who will develop ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke, as recently published in a Health Technology Assessment report. While blood pressure is recognised as an important cause of stroke and IHD, and lowering blood pressure can substantially lower the risk of these diseases, the measurement of blood pressure is a poor screening test. It is not good in distinguishing those who will and will not develop these diseases. The poor screening performance is illustrated by the findings that in the largest cohort study, persons in the top 10% of the distribution of systolic blood pressure experienced only 21% of all IHD events and 28% of all strokes at a given age. Using several cardiovascular risk factors in combination does not add materially to the poor screening performance of blood pressure alone. Among persons in a specified age group, the 5% at highest risk experience 17% of all heart disease deaths with risk computation based on blood pressure alone, 22% when based on blood pressure and apolipoprotein B (or LDL cholesterol) in combination, and only 28% using these two, smoking and three other cardiovascular risk factors all in combination. Identifying patients at the time of hospital discharge following myocardial infarction or stroke is the most effective screening test to identify those who will die of cardiovascular disease. In patients with a history of myocardial infarction or stroke the cardiovascular death rate in the absence of treatment is about 5% per year, a risk that persists for at least 15 years. In the absence of treatment, about half of all deaths from heart disease in a population occur after hospital discharge following the first infarct. Among persons with no history of cardiovascular disease, age is a better screening test than the reversible risk factors, and the best policy is to offer treatment to all

  13. FASTER (Face, Arm, Speech, Time, Emergency Response): experience of Central Coast Stroke Services implementation of a pre-hospital notification system for expedient management of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W; Crimmins, D; Donaldson, W; Risti, R; Clarke, T A; Whyte, S; Sturm, J

    2012-02-01

    Despite benefit in acute ischaemic stroke, less than 3% of patients receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in Australia. The FASTER (Face, Arm, Speech, Time, Emergency Response) protocol was constructed to reduce pre-hospital and Emergency Department (ED) delays and improve access to thrombolysis. This study aimed to determine if introduction of the FASTER protocol increases use of tPA using a prospective pre- and post-intervention cohort design in a metropolitan hospital. A pre-hospital assessment tool was used by ambulance services to screen potential tPA candidates. The acute stroke team was contacted, hospital bypass allowed, triage and CT radiology alerted, and the patient rapidly assessed on arrival to ED. Data were collected prospectively during the first 6 months of the new pathway and compared to a 6-month period 12 months prior to protocol initiation. In the 6 months following protocol introduction, 115 patients presented within 24 hours of onset of an ischaemic stroke: 22 (19%) received thrombolysis, significantly greater than five (7%) of 67 patients over the control period, p=0.03. Overall, 42 patients were referred via the FASTER pathway, with 21 of these receiving tPA (50%). One inpatient stroke was also treated. Only two referrals (patients involving the ambulance services and streamlined hospital assessment is effective and efficient in improving patient access to thrombolysis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Sofia; Carneiro, Ângelo; Rodrigues, Tiago; Samões, Raquel; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Pereira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glioblastoma is a malignant infiltrative glial tumor occurring most often over 50 years of age, with diverse clinical presentations. We describe a case of temporal lobe glioblastoma with a rare presentation as an acute ischemic stroke, discussing the imaging and histopathological findings, and reviewing the literature. A 77-year-old woman had sudden onset of left hemiparesis and hemihypoesthesia. The neuroradiological studies revealed an acute ischemic lesion in the right lenticulostriate arteries territory and a right anterior temporal lobe tumor, enhancing heterogeneously after contrast with enhancement of the right middle cerebral artery wall. Histopathological analysis of the resected temporal lesion revealed a glioblastoma multiforme with tumoral infiltration of the vascular wall. Glioblastoma should be considered in the etiology of acute ischemic stroke, where neuroimaging plays an important diagnostic role, enabling a more immediate therapeutic approach, with a consequent impact on survival. PMID:24571837

  15. The impact of acute kidney injury on short-term survival in an Eastern European population with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Adrian; Schiller, Adalbert; Mardare, Nicoleta-Genoveva; Petrica, Ligia; Petrica, Maxim; Mihaescu, Adelina; Posta, Norica

    2008-07-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and of serious disability with significant impact on patients' long-term survival. The short-term evolution following stroke can associate acute kidney injury (AKI) as a possible complication, frequently overlooked and underestimated in clinical trials. We aimed to describe in an East European cohort (i) the incidence of AKI and its risk factors; (ii) the 30-day mortality and its risk factors and (iii) the relationship between mortality, pre-existent renal function and subsequent AKI. A total of 1090 consecutive cases hospitalized-during a 12-month period-with a CT-confirmed diagnosis of stroke, from a distinct administrative region were included. Demographic details, comorbidities, laboratory and outcome data were retrieved from the electronic hospital database. All patients included in the study were followed for 30 days or until death. The mean age of this population was 66.1 +/- 11.5 years, 49.3% were males, mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 68.9 +/- 22.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2). The 30-day mortality rate was 17.2%. One hundred and fifty-eight patients presented with haemorrhagic stroke and 932 patients had ischaemic stroke. Stroke mortality was-14% for ischaemic stroke and almost twice as high for haemorrhagic stroke-36.3%. One hundred fifty-eight (14.5%) patients were classified as developing AKI. The AKI patients were older, had a higher baseline serum creatinine, lower GFR, higher serum glucose, higher prevalence of chronic heart failure and ischaemic heart disease, were more likely to have suffered a haemorrhagic stroke, and had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate (43.1 vs 12.8%) (P chronic heart failure) and type of stroke (Cox and Snell R(2) 0.244; Nagelkerke R(2) 0.431; P stroke patients. This is the first study to report the incidence of AKI in a distinct geographic population base, in patients with stroke. Baseline renal function emerged as both a significant independent marker for short-term survival

  16. Impact of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on risk of ischaemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, A; Cai, J; Gao, X; Zhou, Y; Luo, Y; Wu, S; Zhao, X

    2015-02-01

    Persons with chronic kidney disease, defined by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke. However, data from developing countries are limited. Our aim was to assess the relationship between chronic kidney disease and risk of stroke and its subtypes in a community-based population in China. The study was based on 92,013 participants (18-98 years old; 73,248 men and 18,765 women) of the Kailuan study who at baseline were free from stroke and myocardial infarction and had undergone tests for serum creatinine or proteinuria. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula and proteinuria by the urine dipstick result in laboratory databases. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of stroke. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for relevant confounders and results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a follow-up of 4 years, 1575 stroke events (1128 ischaemic, 406 intracerebral hemorrhagic and 41 subarachnoid hemorrhagic strokes) occurred. After adjustment for variable confounders, patients with proteinuria were found to have increased HRs for the total and subtypes of stroke events (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.35-1.92 for total stroke; HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.24-1.89 for ischaemic stroke; and HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.35-2.67 for hemorrhagic stroke). However, estimated glomerular filtration rate was not associated with incident stroke after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. Proteinuria increased the risk of stroke in a general Chinese population. © 2014 EAN.

  17. mStroke: "Mobile Stroke"-Improving Acute Stroke Care with Smartphone Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Benjamin Y; Stack, Colleen M; Yang, Julian P; Dodds, Jodi A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of method and time of system activation on clinical metrics in cases utilizing the Stop Stroke (Pulsara, Inc.) mobile acute stroke care coordination application. A retrospective cohort analysis of stroke codes at 12 medical centers using Stop Stroke from March 2013 to May 2016 was performed. Comparison of metrics (door-to-needle time [DTN] and door-to-CT time [DTC], and rate of DTN ≤ 60 minutes [goal DTN]) was performed between subgroups based on method (emergency medical service [EMS] versus emergency department [ED]) and time of activation. Effects were adjusted for confounders (age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score) using multiple linear and logistic regression. The final dataset included 2589 cases. Cases activated by EMS were more severe (median NIHSS score 8 versus 4, P smartphone technology provides unique insight into acute stroke codes. Activation of mobile electronic stroke coordination in the field appears to promote a more expedited and successful care process. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between self-perceived psychological stress and transitory ischaemic attack and minor stroke: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Muñoz Vega, P; Espada, S; Bartolomé Alberca, S; Aguirre, J; Peral, D

    2017-12-22

    Stroke has a complex aetiopathogenesis influenced by numerous risk factors. There is growing interest in the study of the pathophysiological changes associated with stress and their potential relationship with cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the strength of association between exposure to stress and stroke. We conducted a case-control study (1:1) to compare exposure to stress in a group of patients with a history of a first transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke and in a control group. Participants were asked a subjective question about their perception of stress in the previous months and completed the standardised Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. The study included data on 50 cases and 50 controls. There were no significant differences in demographic variables and economic, social, and employment status between cases and controls. Fifty percent of the cases reported moderate to severe stress, compared to 30% of controls (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.02-5.30; P=.041). ERI questionnaire results found that greater effort at work (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19-1.83) and greater commitment is associated with stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17-1.54), while higher reward constitutes a protective factor against the disease (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61-0.82). There is a strong association between self-perceived psychological stress and TIA. The imbalance between effort and reward at work is also clearly related to TIA. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Leucocyte count in young adults with first-ever ischaemic stroke: associated factors and association on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Terttu; Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2015-02-01

    Limited data exist on the associated factors and correlation of leucocyte count to outcome in young adults with first-ever ischaemic stroke. Our objectives were to investigate factors associated with elevated leucocyte count and whether there is correlation between leucocyte count and short- and long-term outcomes. Of our database of 1008 consecutive patients aged 15 to 49, we included those with leucocyte count measured within the first two days from stroke onset. Outcomes were three-month and long-term disability, death, and vascular events. Linear regression was used to explore baseline variables associated with leucocyte count. Logistic regression and Cox proportional models studied the association between leucocyte count and clinical outcomes. In our study cohort of 781 patients (61.7% males; mean age 41.4 years), mean leucocyte count was high: 8.8 ± 3.1 × 10(9) cells/L (Reference range: 3.4-8.2 × 10(9) cells/L). Higher leucocyte levels were associated with dyslipidaemia, smoking, peripheral arterial disease, stroke severity, and lesion size. After adjustment for age, gender, relevant risk factors, both continuous leucocyte count and the highest quartile of leucocyte count were independently associated with unfavourable three-month outcome. Regarding events in the long-term (follow-up 8.1 ± 4.2 years in survivors), no association between leucocyte count and the event risks appeared. Among young stroke patients, high leucocyte count was a common finding. It was associated with vascular disease and its risk factors as well as severity of stroke, but it was also independently associated with unfavourable three-month outcome in these patients. There was no association with the long-term outcome. [Correction added on 31 October 2013 after first online publication: In the Results section of the Abstract, the cohort of 797 patients in this study was corrected to 781 patients.]. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  20. Thrombolysis of an acute stroke presentation with an incidental unruptured aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ganesalingam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with acute ischaemic stroke have contraindications to thrombolytic therapy. We describe a 45 yr old Afro-Caribbean female with HbSC disease whom was electively admitted for a cerebral angiogram to evaluate an intracavernous aneurysm measuring 20 mm in diameter. During the procedure, she suffered a right MCA territory ischaemic event with a NIHSS of 10. A CT angiogram demonstrated no dissection and no evidence of a major vessel occlusion. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA was administered intravenously within 60 minutes of symptom onset. She had clinical and haematological evidence of a painful sickle cell crisis and required manual exchange transfusion within a few hours of thrombolysis. This is the first reported case of the use of thrombolysis for acute stroke in a sickle cell crisis; and in the presence of such a large unruptured aneurysm. A registry of unusual thrombolysis cases might help clinicians in cases when there is little evidence to support decision-making.

  1. Metabolic and circulatory evaluation of acute cerebral ischaemic accidents in man by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J.C.; Franck, G.; Van Cauwenberge, H.

    1987-01-01

    Positron emission tomography and oxygen-15 were used to evaluate the effects of an almitrine-raubasine combination on cerebral blood flow and oxydative metabolism in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia. In 5 patients, aged between 58 and 74 years, with cerebral ischaemic accident in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, blood flow rate, oxygen consumption and brain oxygen extraction were measured before and after a 90-min intravenous infusion of almitrine bismesilate 15 mg and raubasine 5 mg. Only one patient presented with initial relative luxury perfusion, the intensity of which was reduced by the combined treatment. The other 4 patients had focal reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption prior to treatment. Satistical analysis conducted on three cerebral areas (epicentre of the lesion, anterior and posterior juxtalesional areas and homologous heterolateral areas) showed a significant 3.6% increase of oxygen consumption in the epicentre, both hemispheres included, and a significant increase of cerebral blood flow in all three areas (3% on the healthy side, 13% on the diseased side). No significant change in oxygen extraction was demonstrated. The authors conclude that acute almitrine-raubasine treatment has beneficial effects on the brain immediately after a cerebral vascular accident, reflecting respect of the circulation-metabolism couple [fr

  2. Facilities available in French hospitals treating acute stroke patients: comparison with 24 other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Debette, S; Hacke, W; Ringelstein, E B; Giroud, M; Mas, J L; Kaste, M

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of French hospitals meeting criteria for primary (PSC) or comprehensive (CSC) stroke centres, with that of 24 other European countries. We surveyed 121 randomly selected hospitals admitting stroke patients routinely in France and 765 in other European countries. We determined the proportion of hospitals meeting criteria for CSC and PSC according to the EUSI experts definition. The 121 selected hospitals had treated 37,778 patients in 2005 (mean 312), i.e. approximately 25% of all strokes supposed to have occurred in France. Eleven hospitals had an acute stroke care unit, versus 448 of 765 other Hospitals (OR 0.07; 95% CI, OR 0.04-0.13). rt-PA was given to 622 patients (2.2% of ischaemic strokes, versus 3.3% for the other countries). No hospital met criteria for CSC, and only 2 (1.7%) met criteria for PSC. Many facilities considered as necessary by experts were less available, especially personnel, brain CT-scan, ECG monitoring and rt-PA protocols. However, CT angiography 24 h/24, and air ambulance were more often available. Only a few French hospitals offer an optimal level of care for stroke patients. This result contrasts with the high cost of stroke care in France, suggesting an inappropriate use of resources. Conclusions useful for health administrators are: (i) to offer more facilities in reasonably equipped hospitals; (ii) to prevent admission of stroke patients in small under-equipped hospitals; (iii) to promote specific stroke nurse instruction; and (iv) to promote a better organisation of stroke care over the territory.

  3. The role of cognitive impairment in the quality of life after ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, V. I.; Limburg, M.; de Haan, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Many patient- and disease-related factors influence the quality of life (QL) after stroke. Few studies address the direct relation between cognition and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of cognitive impairment in the QL of patients after stroke. We evaluated

  4. Diffusion and perfusion correlates of the {sup 18}F-MISO PET lesion in acute stroke: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alawneh, Josef A.; Marrapu, S.T.; Jensen-Kondering, Ulf; Morris, Rhiannon S.; Jones, P.S. [University of Cambridge, Stroke Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Moustafa, Ramez R. [University of Cambridge, Stroke Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ain Shams University, Department of Neurology, Cairo (Egypt); Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Carpenter, T.A. [University of Cambridge, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elizabeth A. [University of Cambridge, Stroke Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Stroke Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Stroke Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Universite Paris Descartes, INSERM U894, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris (France)

    2014-04-15

    Mapping the ischaemic penumbra in acute stroke is of considerable clinical interest. For this purpose, mapping tissue hypoxia with {sup 18}F-misonidazole (FMISO) PET is attractive, and is straightforward compared to {sup 15}O PET. Given the current emphasis on penumbra imaging using diffusion/perfusion MR or CT perfusion, investigating the relationships between FMISO uptake and abnormalities with these modalities is important. According to a prospective design, three patients (age 54-81 years; admission NIH stroke scale scores 16-22) with an anterior circulation stroke and extensive penumbra on CT- or MR-based perfusion imaging successfully completed FMISO PET, diffusion-weighted imaging and MR angiography 6-26 h after stroke onset, and follow-up FLAIR to map the final infarction. All had persistent proximal occlusion and a poor outcome despite thrombolysis. Significant FMISO trapping was defined voxel-wise relative to ten age-matched controls and mapped onto coregistered maps of the penumbra and irreversibly damaged ischaemic core. FMISO trapping was present in all patients (volume range 18-119 ml) and overlapped mainly with the penumbra but also with the core in each patient. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.001) correlation in the expected direction between FMISO uptake and perfusion, with a sharp FMISO uptake bend around the expected penumbra threshold. FMISO uptake had the expected overlap with the penumbra and relationship with local perfusion. However, consistent with recent animal data, our study suggests FMISO trapping may not be specific to the penumbra. If confirmed in larger samples, this preliminary finding would have potential implications for the clinical application of FMISO PET in acute ischaemic stroke. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion and perfusion correlates of the 18F-MISO PET lesion in acute stroke: pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alawneh, Josef A.; Marrapu, S.T.; Jensen-Kondering, Ulf; Morris, Rhiannon S.; Jones, P.S.; Moustafa, Ramez R.; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Carpenter, T.A.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the ischaemic penumbra in acute stroke is of considerable clinical interest. For this purpose, mapping tissue hypoxia with 18 F-misonidazole (FMISO) PET is attractive, and is straightforward compared to 15 O PET. Given the current emphasis on penumbra imaging using diffusion/perfusion MR or CT perfusion, investigating the relationships between FMISO uptake and abnormalities with these modalities is important. According to a prospective design, three patients (age 54-81 years; admission NIH stroke scale scores 16-22) with an anterior circulation stroke and extensive penumbra on CT- or MR-based perfusion imaging successfully completed FMISO PET, diffusion-weighted imaging and MR angiography 6-26 h after stroke onset, and follow-up FLAIR to map the final infarction. All had persistent proximal occlusion and a poor outcome despite thrombolysis. Significant FMISO trapping was defined voxel-wise relative to ten age-matched controls and mapped onto coregistered maps of the penumbra and irreversibly damaged ischaemic core. FMISO trapping was present in all patients (volume range 18-119 ml) and overlapped mainly with the penumbra but also with the core in each patient. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.001) correlation in the expected direction between FMISO uptake and perfusion, with a sharp FMISO uptake bend around the expected penumbra threshold. FMISO uptake had the expected overlap with the penumbra and relationship with local perfusion. However, consistent with recent animal data, our study suggests FMISO trapping may not be specific to the penumbra. If confirmed in larger samples, this preliminary finding would have potential implications for the clinical application of FMISO PET in acute ischaemic stroke. (orig.)

  6. The assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after acute stroke.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, S P; Wilson, B; Wroot, A; Halligan, P W; Lange, L S; Marshall, J C; Greenwood, R J

    1991-01-01

    Forty four consecutive patients with acute hemispheric stroke and forty seven elderly controls with no neurological disease were assessed for visuo-spatial neglect, using a modified neglect test battery. Neglect was found to be equally common in patients with right hemisphere and left hemisphere stroke three days after stroke (72% versus 62%). It was more severe in those with a right hemisphere stroke and resolved more frequently in those with a left hemisphere stroke. The battery was validat...

  7. Application of the Trail Making Test in the assessment of cognitive flexibility in patients with speech disorders after ischaemic cerebral stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rajtar-Zembaty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of cognitive flexibility in patients with speech disorders after ischaemic cerebral stroke. The study was conducted in a group of 43 patients (18 women and 25 men who had experienced cerebral ischaemic stroke. The patients under study were divided into groups based on the type of speech disorders, i.e.: aphasia, lack of speech disorders and dysarthria. A Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a Clock Drawing Test (CDT were applied for the general evaluation of the efficiency of cognitive functions. Cognitive flexibility – a component of executive functions, was evaluated with the use of a Trail Making Test (TMT. The results obtained prove that patients with aphasia show the lowest level of cognitive flexibility. Disorders of executive functions can be related to the dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex which has been damaged as a result of ischaemic cerebral stroke. Presumably, there are common functional neuroanatomical circuits for both language skills and components of executive functions. In the case of damage to the structures that are of key importance for both skills, language and executive dysfunctions can therefore occur in parallel. The presence of executive dysfunctions in patients with aphasia can additionally impede the functioning of the patient, and also negatively influence the process of rehabilitation the aim of which is to improve the efficiency of communication.

  8. Use of ABCD2 risk scoring system to determine the short-term stroke risk in patients presenting to emergency department with transient ischaemic attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozpolat, C.; Denizbasi, A.; Onur, O.; Eroglu, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 3-day stroke risk of patients presenting to emergency department with transient ischaemic attack, and to evaluate the predictive value of ABCD2 (Age, Blood pressure, Clinical features, Duration of symptoms and Diabetes) score for these patients. Methods: The prospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosis of transient ischaemic attack who were divided into low (0-3 points), medium (4-5 points) and high (6-7 points) risk groups according to their ABCD2 scores. The sensitivity of the scoring system on estimation of the risk of stroke in 3 days was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic curve. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 64 patients in the study, none of the low-risk group had stroke. Stroke was present in 4 of 33 (12.12%) medium-risk patients, while there were 4 in 18 (22.22%) in the high-risk group. Sensitivity and specificity of each ABCD2 score for 3rd day stroke risk was calculated. In the receiver operating curve generated by these calculations, the c statistics was determined as 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.86; p<0.01) and the most appropriate cut-off score to dichotomise the study group was determined as 4. Conclusions: In transient ischaemic attack patients with an ABCD2 score of four or higher had a markedly increased short-term stroke risk, while those with a lower score were quite safe. It is appropriate to hospitalise patients with a score of four or more and investigate for underlying cause and initiate treatment. (author)

  9. Plasticity in the developing brain: intellectual, language and academic functions in children with ischaemic perinatal stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne, Angela O.; Spilkin, Amy M.; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A.

    2008-01-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain matures. This study aimed to examine the stability of intellectual, academic and language functioning during development in children with perinatal stroke...

  10. [Aetiological classification of ischaemic strokes: comparison of the new A-S-C-O classification and the classification by the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino García, P; García Pastor, A; García Arratibel, A; Vicente Peracho, G; Rodriguez Cruz, P M; Pérez Sánchez, J R; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Villanueva Osorio, J A; Gil Núñez, A

    2013-09-01

    The A-S-C-O classification may be better than other methods for classifying ischaemic stroke by aetiology. Our aims are to describe A-S-C-O phenotype distribution (A: atherosclerosis, S: small vessel disease, C: cardiac source, O: other causes; 1: potential cause, 2: causality uncertain, 3: unlikely to be a direct cause although disease is present) and compare them to the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group (GEECV/SEN) classification. We will also find the degree of concordance between these classification methods and determine whether using the A-S-C-O classification delivers a smaller percentage of strokes of undetermined cause. We analysed those patients with ischaemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit in 2010 with strokes that were classified according to GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O criteria. The study included 496 patients. The percentages of strokes caused by atherosclerosis and small vessel disease according to GEECV/SEN criteria were higher than the percentages for potential atherosclerotic stroke (A1) (14.1 vs. 11.9%; P=.16) and potential small vessel stroke (S1) (14.3 vs. 3%; P0.8 (unusual causes and O1). Our results show that GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O classifications are neither fully comparable nor consistent. Using the A-S-C-O classification provided additional information on co-morbidities and delivered a smaller percentage of strokes classified as having an undetermined cause. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Ischaemic stroke, haemorrhage, and mortality in older patients with chronic kidney disease newly started on anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation: a population based study from UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shankar; de Lusignan, Simon; McGovern, Andrew; Correa, Ana; Hriskova, Mariya; Gatenby, Piers; Jones, Simon; Goldsmith, David; Camm, A John

    2018-02-14

    To assess the association between anticoagulation, ischaemic stroke, gastrointestinal and cerebral haemorrhage, and all cause mortality in older people with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease. Propensity matched, population based, retrospective cohort analysis from January 2006 through December 2016. The Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre database population of almost 2.73 million patients from 110 general practices across England and Wales. Patients aged 65 years and over with a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of disease epidemiology collaboration creatinine equation. Patients with a previous diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or receiving anticoagulation in the preceding 120 days were excluded, as were patients requiring dialysis and recipients of renal transplants. Receipt of an anticoagulant prescription within 60 days of atrial fibrillation diagnosis. Ischaemic stroke, cerebral or gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and all cause mortality. 6977 patients with chronic kidney disease and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified, of whom 2434 were on anticoagulants within 60 days of diagnosis and 4543 were not. 2434 pairs were matched using propensity scores by exposure to anticoagulant or none and followed for a median of 506 days. The crude rates for ischaemic stroke and haemorrhage were 4.6 and 1.2 after taking anticoagulants and 1.5 and 0.4 in patients who were not taking anticoagulant per 100 person years, respectively. The hazard ratios for ischaemic stroke, haemorrhage, and all cause mortality for those on anticoagulants were 2.60 (95% confidence interval 2.00 to 3.38), 2.42 (1.44 to 4.05), and 0.82 (0.74 to 0.91) compared with those who received no anticoagulation. Giving anticoagulants to older people with concomitant atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease was associated with an increased rate of ischaemic stroke and haemorrhage but a

  12. First study of C2491T FV mutation with ischaemic stroke risk in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instead of the wild-type glutamine (van Wijk et al. 2001). Discovery of this new mutation has made us to explore ... †GMRAVC, Moroccan group for stroke research. Brehima Diakite and Sellama Nadifi contributed equally to ... Extraction of genomic DNA was performed from blood samples using the standard method with salt.

  13. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Intellectual, Language and Academic Functions in Children with Ischaemic Perinatal Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Angela O.; Spilkin, Amy M.; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A.

    2008-01-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain…

  14. Lesion locations influencing baseline severity and early recovery in ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentley, P.; Kumar, G.; Rinne, P.; Buddha, S.; Kallingal, J.; Hookway, C.; Sharma, P.; Mehta, A.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Strokes caused by lesions to certain brain areas are associated with poor outcome, which is important both prognostically and to understand the neural basis for recovery. However, lesion anatomy associations with outcome may occur because of effects on baseline severity

  15. Rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Patel, Manesh R; Stevens, Susanna R

    2012-01-01

    In ROCKET AF, rivaroxaban was non-inferior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to investigate whether the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin is consistent among the subgroups of patients ...

  16. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  17. Dilemma in the emergency setting: hypomagnesemia mimicking acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, María; Martinez-Rodriguez, Laura; Larrosa-Campo, Davinia; Calleja, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Stroke mimics may account for up to 30% of all acute stroke consultations. However, in the emergency setting, accurate diagnosis is not always possible. Case report and review of the literature. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with acute aphasia and right hemiparesis. The National Institute of Health Stroke Score was 21, compatible with severe stroke, so she received thrombolysis. Laboratory testing demonstrated severe hypomagnesemia. She had been taking proton pump inhibitors for years and neuroimaging did not demonstrate signs of acute ischemic disease. After correcting the metabolic alterations with intravenous and oral supplemental magnesium, the patient was discharged asymptomatic. No further episodes have been registered to date. Hypomagnesemia might cause acute neurological symptoms that could be confused with stroke. A careful history is essential for diagnosis but suspicion of stroke mimic should not prevent tPA administration.

  18. First study of C2491T FV mutation with ischaemic stroke risk in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But this risk was 8.95 fold when the subject carried TT genotype (P<0.0001) and 4.08 fold with CT genotype. Thus, we can suggest that C2491T. FV mutation could be a genetic risk factor for IS in Moroccan population. Stroke is a major public health problem causing a neu- rological deficit of sudden onset (Flemming et al.

  19. Variations and determinants of hospital costs for acute stroke in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade W Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The burden of stroke is high and increasing in China. We modelled variations in, and predictors of, the costs of hospital care for patients with acute stroke in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Baseline characteristics and hospital costs for 5,255 patients were collected using the prospective register-based ChinaQUEST study, conducted in 48 Level 3 and 14 Level 2 hospitals in China during 2006-2007. Ordinary least squares estimation was used to determine factors associated with hospital costs. Overall mean cost of hospitalisation was 11,216 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (CNY (≈US$1,602 per patient, which equates to more than half the average annual wage in China. Variations in cost were largely attributable to stroke severity and length of hospital stay (LOS. Model forecasts showed that reducing LOS from the mean of 20 days for Level 3 and 18 days for Level 2 hospitals to a duration of 1 week, which is common among Western countries, afforded cost reductions of 49% and 19%, respectively. Other lesser determinants varied by hospital level: in Level 3 hospitals, health insurance and the occurrence of in-hospital complications were each associated with 10% and 18% increases in cost, respectively, whilst treatment in a teaching hospital was associated with approximately 39% decrease in cost on average. For Level 2 hospitals, stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage was associated with a 19% greater cost than for ischaemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Changes to hospital policies to standardise resource use and reduce the variation in LOS could attenuate costs and improve efficiencies for acute stroke management in China. The success of these strategies will be enhanced by broader policy initiatives currently underway to reform hospital reimbursement systems.

  20. Variations and determinants of hospital costs for acute stroke in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jade W; Heeley, Emma L; Jan, Stephen; Huang, Yining; Huang, Qifang; Wang, Ji-Guang; Cheng, Yan; Xu, En; Yang, Qidong; Anderson, Craig S

    2010-09-28

    The burden of stroke is high and increasing in China. We modelled variations in, and predictors of, the costs of hospital care for patients with acute stroke in China. Baseline characteristics and hospital costs for 5,255 patients were collected using the prospective register-based ChinaQUEST study, conducted in 48 Level 3 and 14 Level 2 hospitals in China during 2006-2007. Ordinary least squares estimation was used to determine factors associated with hospital costs. Overall mean cost of hospitalisation was 11,216 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (CNY) (≈US$1,602) per patient, which equates to more than half the average annual wage in China. Variations in cost were largely attributable to stroke severity and length of hospital stay (LOS). Model forecasts showed that reducing LOS from the mean of 20 days for Level 3 and 18 days for Level 2 hospitals to a duration of 1 week, which is common among Western countries, afforded cost reductions of 49% and 19%, respectively. Other lesser determinants varied by hospital level: in Level 3 hospitals, health insurance and the occurrence of in-hospital complications were each associated with 10% and 18% increases in cost, respectively, whilst treatment in a teaching hospital was associated with approximately 39% decrease in cost on average. For Level 2 hospitals, stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage was associated with a 19% greater cost than for ischaemic stroke. Changes to hospital policies to standardise resource use and reduce the variation in LOS could attenuate costs and improve efficiencies for acute stroke management in China. The success of these strategies will be enhanced by broader policy initiatives currently underway to reform hospital reimbursement systems.

  1. Prehospital Management of Acute Stroke in Rural versus Urban Responders

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Gregory; Bal, Simerpreet; Schellenberg, Kerri Lynn; Alcock, Susan; Ghrooda, Esseddeeg

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS pro...

  2. Angiotensin receptor blockade in acute stroke. The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Murray, Gordon; Boysen, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    -European countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland. STUDY OUTCOMES: There are two co-primary effect variables: • Functional status at 6-months, measured by the modified Rankin Scale, and • vascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke during the first 6-months....... Secondary outcome variables: Secondary effect variables include • the Barthel index (functional status) • EuroQol (quality of life) and • Mini-mental state examination (cognition) at 6-months • Health economic costs during the first 6-months FUNDING: The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial receives...

  3. Paediatric stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-02

    Apr 2, 2011 ... Ischemic Stroke Registry yielded an incidence of 3.3 cases per 100 000 children per year, of ... Neonatal stroke. The newborn period confers the highest risk period for childhood ischaemic stroke. Focal patterns of ischaemic brain injury to the perinatal brain are .... family history of young stroke/ thrombosis.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae in elderly patients with stroke (C-PEPS): a case-control study on the seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeh, Joseph; Gupta, Sandeep; Goodbourn, Colin; Panayiotou, Barnabas; McElligott, Geraldine

    2003-01-01

    Multiple studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerotic vascular disease. We investigated whether serological markers of C. pneumoniae infection were associated with acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), exclusively in elderly patients. One-hundred white patients aged over 65 years admitted with acute stroke or TIA, and 87 control patients admitted with acute non-cardiopulmonary, non-infective disorders were recruited prospectively. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the presence of C. pneumoniae immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM in patients' sera was determined. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgA, IgG, IgM were 63, 71, and 14% in the stroke/TIA group (median age = 80), and 62, 65, and 17% in the control group (median age = 80), respectively. Using a logistic regression statistical model, adjusting for age and sex, history of hypertension, smoking, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic electrocardiogram (ECG), the odds ratios (ORs) of having a stroke/TIA in relation to C. pneumoniae-specific IgA, IgG, IgM were 1.04, 1.24, 0.79 (p = NS). Further analysis identified 43 acute stroke/TIA cases and 44 controls without history of IHD or ischaemic ECG or both. After adjusting for history of hypertension, smoking, diabetes, age and sex, the ORs in this subgroup were 1.40 for IgA [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-3.65; p = 0.49], 2.41 for IgG (95% CI 0.90-6.46; p = 0.08) and 1.55 for IgM (95% CI 0.45-5.40; p = 0.49). Although a high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae in elderly patients was confirmed, no significant association between serological markers of C. pneumoniae infection and acute cerebrovascular events was found. There was, however, a weak trend towards increased ORs for acute cerebrovascular disease in a subgroup of C. pneumoniae seropositive elderly patients without any history of IHD or ischaemic ECG. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Snoring and risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a 70 year old population. A 6-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Davidsen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A number of studies have demonstrated an association between habitual snoring and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Control for the influence of potential confounders has been inadequate. To clarify the issue we examined the association between snoring and future risk of ischaemic...... heart disease (IHD) and stroke while controlling for the potential influence of major cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors. METHODS. In all, 804 70 year old males and females were classified according to snoring habits. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, blood pressure, body mass index, social group......, plasma lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein), fasting blood glucose, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine were determined at baseline. RESULTS. Over a 6-year period (1984-1990) 88 suffered an IHD episode, 60 had a stroke and 180 died. A slightly higher stroke incidence was found...

  6. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES OBSERVED IN HAEMORRHAGIC AND ISCHAEMIC CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channappa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Cardiac abnormalities are relatively common after acute neurologic injury. Disturbances can vary in severity from transient ECG abnormalities to profound myocardial injury and dysfunction. CNS is involved in the generation of cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction even in an otherwise normal myocardium. AIM To find out proportion of ECG changes observed in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Electrocardiographs of 100 patients with acute stroke were studied to find out the types of ECG abnormalities among different types of stroke. RESULTS In our study, the most common ECG abnormalities associated with stroke were prolonged QTc interval, ST-T segment abnormalities, prominent U wave and arrhythmias. Trop-I was positive in 12.8% patients with ECG changes. Statistical significance was found in association with Trop-I positivity and ST depression. CONCLUSION Usually patients with heart disease present with arrhythmias and Ischaemic like ECG changes. But these changes are also seen most often in the patients with presenting with stroke who didn’t have any past history of heart disease. This shows that arrhythmias and ischaemic ECG abnormalities are primarily evolved due to central nervous system disorders.

  7. Enhanced ex vivo inhibition of platelet function following addition of dipyridamole to aspirin after transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke: first results from the TRinity AntiPlatelet responsiveness (TrAP) study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, William Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Ex vivo dipyridamole \\'non-responsiveness\\' has not been extensively studied in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Platelet surface marker expression, leucocyte-platelet complex formation and inhibition of platelet function at high shear stress as detected by the PFA-100(R) Collagen-Adenosine-diphosphate (C-ADP) and Collagen-Epinephrine cartridges was assessed in 52 patients within 4 weeks of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke on aspirin, and then 14 d (14 d) and >90 d (90 d) after adding dipyridamole. A novel definition of \\'Dipyridamole non-responsiveness\\' was used. The median C-ADP closure time increased following addition of dipyridamole, remained elevated at 90 d (P <\\/= 0.03), and was unaffected by aspirin dose. 59% at 14 d and 56% at 90 d were \\'dipyridamole non-responders\\' on the PFA-100. The proportion of non-responders at 14 and 90 d was similar (P= 0.9). Compared with baseline (4.6%), median monocyte-platelet complexes increased at 14 d (5.0%, P= 0.03) and 90 d (4.9%, P= 0.04). Low C-ADP closure times were associated with increased monocyte-platelet complexes at 14 d (r= -0.32, P= 0.02) and 90 d (r= -0.33, P = 0.02). Monocyte-platelet complexes increased in the subgroup of dipyridamole non-responders on the PFA-100 (P<\\/= 0.045), but not in responders (P >\\/= 0.5), at 14 and 90 d versus baseline. Additional inhibition of platelet function has been detected with the PFA-100 when dipyridamole is added to aspirin. Elevated monocyte-platelet complexes may contribute to ex vivo dipyridamole non-responsiveness.

  8. Retrospective audit of the acute management of stroke in two districy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strokes. Anti-platelets and statins were commenced for most patients with ischaemic stroke while diabetes was well controlled in most of them. However, ACE-inhibitors and diuretics such as indapamide were under-utilized for secondary prevention in such patients. Warfarin anti-coagulation was underutilized in patients ...

  9. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8

  10. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-11-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8.

  11. Impact of metabolic disorders on the relation between overweight/obesity and incident myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M; Jensen, T B; Torp-Pedersen, C T; Gislason, G H; Køber, L; Schmiegelow, M D

    2015-06-01

    Whether overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic disorders remains under debate and is largely unexamined in young women. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women conditional on time-dependent presence of metabolic disorders. From nationwide registers we identified all normal weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 18.5 to fertile women. Targeting prevention of metabolic disorders might be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular disease in overweight/obese young women. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, L-H; Sandset, E C; Sandset, P M

    2011-01-01

    Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation are at in......Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation.......96), and the combined endpoint of stroke progression, recurrent stroke, and death (D-dimer: 991 ng/ml vs 970 ng/ml, P = 0.91). Multivariable analyses did not alter the results. Conclusion -  D-dimer and other markers of hemostatic activation were not associated with stroke progression, recurrent stroke, or death...

  13. Computed tomography in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Baird, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    Stroke remains the third most important cause of mortality in industrialized countries; this has prompted research for improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with signs of acute cerebral ischemia. Over the last decade, there has been a parallel in progress in techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic options. While previously only used for excluding hemorrhage, imaging now has the possibility to detect ischemia, vascular occlusion, as well as detect tissue at risk in one setting. It should also allow to monitor treatment and predict/exclude therapeutic complications. Parallel to advances in magnetic resonance imaging of stroke, computed tomography has improved immensely over the last decade due to the development of CT scanners that are faster and that allow to acquire studies such as CT perfusion or CT angiography in a reliable way. CT can detect many signs that might help us detect impending signs of massive infarction, but we still lack the experience to use these alone to prevent a patient from benefitting from possible therapy. (orig.)

  14. Critical care management of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplin, William M

    2012-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can have profound and devastating effects on the CNS and several other organs. Approximately 15% to 20% of patients with AIS are admitted to an intensive care unit and cared for by a multidisciplinary team. This article discusses the critical care management of patients with AIS. Patients with AIS require attention to airway, pulmonary status, blood pressure, glucose, temperature, cardiac function, and, sometimes, life-threatening cerebral edema. The lack of disease-specific data has led to numerous management approaches and limited guidance on choosing among them. Existing guidelines emphasize risk factors, prevention, natural history, and prevention of bleeding but provide little discussion of the complex critical care issues involved in caring for patients with AIS.

  15. Mechanical recanalization in acute stroke treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkefeld, J.; Rochemont, R. du Mesnil de; Zanella, F.E.; Sitzer, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of endovascular techniques for the treatment of acute stroke began with the introduction of local intra-arterial fibrinolysis. In parallel to designing new systemic therapy approaches, catheter systems for loosening, disintegrating, or removing cerebral thrombi have undergone assessment in recent years to serve as alternatives or supplements to fibrinolytic treatment. Mechanical alteration of intracranial thrombi with balloon catheters, manipulations with the guide wire, or ultrasound waves transmitted into the vascular system as well as techniques for thrombus aspiration, snare extraction, or more complex hydrodynamic or laser-guided thrombectomy systems have been tested in feasibility studies, which evidenced basic functionality and relative safety. Broad clinical applications outside of the clinical trial setting cannot yet be recommended since the new catheter systems are still in early phase clinical testing. (orig.) [de

  16. Clinical predictive value of the ABCD2 score for early risk of stroke in patients who have had transient ischaemic attack and who present to an Australian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lauren M; Srikanth, Velandai K; Psihogios, Helen; Wong, Kitty K; Ramsay, David; Phan, Thanh G

    2011-02-07

    To determine the predictive value of the ABCD(2) score for early risk of stroke in Australian patients who have had transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Cohort study of 512 consecutive patients with suspected TIA referred by the emergency department to the acute stroke unit (in accordance with the TIA pathway) of an urban tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Victoria, between 1 June 2004 and 30 November 2007. Overall accuracy, estimated by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic plots (of true positive rate v false positive rate), and sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios at prespecified cut-off ABCD(2) scores for stroke within 2, 7 and 90 days. 24 patients were excluded because their symptoms lasted more than 24 hours. All included patients were reviewed by a stroke physician; TIA was confirmed in 301/488 (61.7%). Most (289/301; 96.0%) had complete follow-up. Stroke occurred in 4/292 patients (1.37%; 95% CI, 0.37%-3.47%) within 2 days and 7/289 (2.42%; 95% CI, 0.98%-4.93%) within 90 days; no patient had a stroke between 2 and 7 days. The AUCs for stroke in patients with confirmed TIA were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.91) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40-0.83) for stroke within 2 days and 90 days, respectively. At a cut-off of ≥ 5, the ABCD(2) score had modest specificity for stroke within 2 days (0.58) and 90 days (0.58), but positive predictive values (2 days, 0.03; 90 days, 0.04) and positive likelihood ratios (2 days, 2.40; 90 days, 1.71) were both poor. The score performed similarly poorly at other prespecified cut-off scores. Given its poor predictive value, the use of the ABCD(2) score alone may not be dependable for guiding clinical treatment decisions or service organisation in an Australian tertiary setting. Validation in other Australian settings is recommended before it can be applied with confidence.

  17. Physical Activity Patterns of Acute Stroke Patients Managed in a Rehabilitation Focused Stroke Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya West

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Comprehensive stroke unit care, incorporating acute care and rehabilitation, may promote early physical activity after stroke. However, previous information regarding physical activity specific to the acute phase of stroke and the comprehensive stroke unit setting is limited to one stroke unit. This study describes the physical activity undertaken by patients within 14 days after stroke admitted to a comprehensive stroke unit. Methods. This study was a prospective observational study. Behavioural mapping was used to determine the proportion of the day spent in different activities. Therapist reports were used to determine the amount of formal therapy received on the day of observation. The timing of commencement of activity out of bed was obtained from the medical records. Results. On average, patients spent 45% (SD 25 of the day in some form of physical activity and received 58 (SD 34 minutes per day of physiotherapy and occupational therapy combined. Mean time to first mobilisation out of bed was 46 (SD 32 hours post-stroke. Conclusions. This study suggests that commencement of physical activity occurs earlier and physical activity is at a higher level early after stroke in this comprehensive stroke unit, when compared to studies of other acute stroke models of care.

  18. Obstructive carotid and/or intracranial artery disease rarely affects the incidence of haemodynamic ischaemic stroke during cardiac surgery: a study on brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography with acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-ichi; Yasaka, Masahiro; Tayama, Eiki; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2015-11-01

    Ischaemic stroke is a major complication of cardiac surgery. The optimal strategies for operating on patients with obstructive carotid and/or intracranial artery disease (CIAD) are controversial. We aimed to clarify whether single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with acetazolamide, to quantify the cerebral perfusion reserve, could predict the risk of haemodynamic ischaemic stroke during cardiac surgery. The incidence of stroke related to obstructive CIAD and the corresponding autoregulatory reserve were prospectively assessed in 514 consecutive patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 484) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 30) between 2009 and 2013. Preoperative cerebral blood flow and its reactivity to acetazolamide were quantitatively determined in patients (n = 88) with obstructive CIAD, diagnosed by carotid ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance angiography. An impaired cerebral perfusion reserve was identified in 1 (1.1%) of the 88 patients. This patient underwent prophylactic superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis 1 month before coronary artery bypass surgery. Subsequently, the patient underwent conventional coronary artery bypass surgery, without experiencing perioperative stroke. Seven (1.4%) patients died in-hospital mortality and 5 (1.0%) experienced perioperative stroke. However, no patients experienced perioperative haemodynamic ischaemic stroke. It is unusual for CIAD to affect the incidence of haemodynamic ischaemic stroke during cardiac surgery. Brain perfusion SPECT with acetazolamide is effective for narrowing down patients at high risk of ischaemic stroke during cardiac surgery. Meanwhile, the application of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography should be confined only to patients with obstructive CIAD because it is an expensive examination tool. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association

  19. A Systematic Review of the Causes and Management of Ischaemic Stroke Caused by Nontissue Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Judge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The inadvertent or purposeful introduction of foreign bodies or substances can lead to cerebral infarction if they embolize to the brain. Individual reports of these events are uncommon but may increase with the increased occurrences of their risk factors, for example, intra-arterial procedures. Method. We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for articles on embolic stroke of nontissue origin. 1889 articles were identified and screened and 216 articles were ultimately reviewed in full text and included in qualitative analysis. Articles deemed relevant were assessed by a second reviewer to confirm compatibility with the inclusion criteria. References of included articles were reviewed for relevant publications. We categorized the pathology of the emboli into the following groups: air embolism (141 reports, other arterial gas embolisms (49 reports, missiles and foreign bodies (16 reports, and others, including drug embolism, cotton wool, and vascular sclerosant agents. Conclusion. Air and gaseous embolism are becoming more common with increased use of interventional medical procedures and increased popularity of sports such as diving. There is increasing evidence for the use of hyperbaric oxygen for such events. Causes of solid emboli are diverse. More commonly reported causes include bullets, missiles, and substances used in medical procedures.

  20. Biomarkers of Acute Stroke Etiology (BASE) Study Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Barreto, Andrew D; Broderick, Joseph P; Char, Doug M; Cucchiara, Brett L; Devlin, Thomas G; Haddock, Alison J; Hicks, William J; Hiestand, Brian C; Jickling, Glen C; June, Jeff; Liebeskind, David S; Lowenkopf, Ted J; Miller, Joseph B; O'Neill, John; Schoonover, Tim L; Sharp, Frank R; Peacock, W Frank

    2017-05-05

    Acute ischemic stroke affects over 800,000 US adults annually, with hundreds of thousands more experiencing a transient ischemic attack. Emergent evaluation, prompt acute treatment, and identification of stroke or TIA (transient ischemic attack) etiology for specific secondary prevention are critical for decreasing further morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular disease. The Biomarkers of Acute Stroke Etiology (BASE) study is a multicenter observational study to identify serum markers defining the etiology of acute ischemic stroke. Observational trial of patients presenting to the hospital within 24 h of stroke onset. Blood samples are collected at arrival, 24, and 48 h later, and RNA gene expression is utilized to identify stroke etiology marker candidates. The BASE study began January 2014. At the time of writing, there are 22 recruiting sites. Enrollment is ongoing, expected to hit 1000 patients by March 2017. The BASE study could potentially aid in focusing the initial diagnostic evaluation to determine stroke etiology, with more rapidly initiated targeted evaluations and secondary prevention strategies.Clinical Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02014896 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02014896?term=biomarkers+of+acute+stroke+etiology&rank=1.

  1. Acute stroke unit improves stroke management-four years on from INASC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, E; Keenan, R; Cunningham, N; O'Malley, G; O'Connor, M; Lyons, D; Peters, C

    2015-02-01

    The Irish Heart Foundation carried out the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC) in 2008. Management practices were significantly poorer than those in the UK Sentinel audits. Since then an acute stroke unit has been established in University Hospital Limerick. A stroke database was established. 12 key indicators of stroke management audited by INASC were identified. Results were compared to those in INASC. 89 stroke patients were admitted. 8 of the 12 key indicators scored significantly better than in INASC. 92.5% had a brain scan within 24hrs (INASC-40%, p = strokes received anti-thrombotics (INASC-85%, p = 0.001). 94% had rehab goals agreed by MDT (22% in INASC p = 0.0000). 55% were treated in stroke unit (2% in INASC, p = 0.0000). MDT input improved with regard to physiotherapy (87% vs 43% in INASC, p = Stroke management has significantly improved from 2008, however some deficiencies remain.

  2. Increased brain damage after ischaemic stroke in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, S; Bonnefont, J; Julien, S; Marq-Lin, N; Rodriguez, I; Dubois-Dauphin, M; Krause, KH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The chemokine receptor CCR5 is well known for its function in immune cells; however, it is also expressed in the brain, where its specific role remains to be elucidated. Because genetic factors may influence the risk of developing cerebral ischaemia or affect its clinical outcome, we have analysed the role of CCR5 in experimental stroke. Experimental approach: Permanent cerebral ischaemia was performed by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice. Locomotor behaviour, infarct size and histochemical alterations were analysed at different time points after occlusion. Key results: The cerebral vasculature was comparable in wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice. However, the size of the infarct and the motor deficits after occlusion were markedly increased in CCR5-deficient mice as compared with wild type. No differences between wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice were elicited by occlusion with respect to the morphology and abundance of astrocytes and microglia. Seven days after occlusion the majority of CCR5-deficient mice displayed neutrophil invasion in the infarct region, which was not observed in wild type. As compared with wild type, the infarct regions of CCR5-deficient mice were characterized by increased neuronal death. Conclusions and implications: Lack of CCR5 increased the severity of brain injury following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. This is of particular interest with respect to the relatively frequent occurrence of CCR5 deficiency in the human population (1–2% of the Caucasian population) and the advent of CCR5 inhibitors as novel drugs. PMID:20423342

  3. Identification of stroke mimics among clinically diagnosed acute strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyatorn, Lojana; Saksornchai, Pichaya; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch

    2013-09-01

    Stroke is a clinically syndrome of a sudden onset of neurological deficit in a vascular cause. Stroke mimics is the non-vascular disorders with stroke-like clinical symptoms. It is important to distinguish true stroke from mimics since treatment plan may differ To determine the incidence of the stroke mimics and identify their etiologies. All non-contrast head CT of the patients with clinically diagnosed stroke who immediately received imaging upon arrival at the emergency department of the university hospital were retrospectively reviewed in 12-month period between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Medical records, laboratory results, MRI, and 6-month clinical follow-up records were reviewed for final diagnosis. Seven hundred four patients were included in this study, including 363 (51.5%) men and 341 (48.5%) women with range in age from 24 to 108 years. Amongst those, 417 (59.2%) were ischemic stroke, 80 (11.40%) were hemorrhagic stroke, 186 (26.4%) were stroke-mimics, and 21 (3%) were inconclusive. The etiologies among stroke-mimics were metabolic/intoxication (35, 18.8%), sepsis (28, 15.0%), seizure (21, 11.3%), syncope (20, 10.8%), subdural hemorrhage (14, 7.5%), vertigo (11, 6.0%), brain tumor (10, 5.30%), central nervous system infection (5, 2.7%), others (26, 14.0%), and unspecified (16, 8.6%). Incidence rates and etiologies of the stroke mimics were similar to the western reports. However the frequency of each mimic was not.

  4. Predictors and Outcomes of Dysphagia Screening After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Martino, Rosemary; Saposnik, Gustavo; Giannakeas, Vasily; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death. Among 7171 patients, 6677 patients were eligible to receive dysphagia screening within 72 hours, yet 1280 (19.2%) patients did not undergo documented screening. Patients with mild strokes were significantly less likely than those with more severe strokes to have documented screening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.64). Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 3.43-6.47), severe disability (adjusted odds ratio, 5.19; 95% CI, 4.48-6.02), discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.11-3.79), and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.09-2.80). Associations were maintained in patients with mild strokes. One in 5 patients with acute ischemic stroke did not have documented dysphagia screening, and patients with mild strokes were substantially less likely to have documented screening. Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including in patients with mild strokes, highlighting the importance of dysphagia screening for all patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The prognostic significance of ABPM in patients with acute stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Trzmielewska; Marta Jurdziak

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is present in about 77% of patients with a first episode of stroke. Unlike the established benefit of lowering blood pressure for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the management of hypertension in patients with acute stroke remains controversial. ABPM is a diagnostic tool that has been proposed as a method of obtaining a more reliable assessment of patients’ blood pressure in comparison with OBPM. ABPM provides precise information about the BP values during the dai...

  6. Arterial Stiffness and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. Methods One hundred patients were enrolled with a diagnosi...

  7. Snoring and risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a 70 year old population. A 6-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Davidsen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A number of studies have demonstrated an association between habitual snoring and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Control for the influence of potential confounders has been inadequate. To clarify the issue we examined the association between snoring and future risk of ischaemic...... heart disease (IHD) and stroke while controlling for the potential influence of major cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors. METHODS. In all, 804 70 year old males and females were classified according to snoring habits. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, blood pressure, body mass index, social group...... among snorers (relative risk [RR] = 1.8; (95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.6). When adjustments were made for the above confounders, no associations could be found between snoring and IHD, stroke or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS. In a 70 year old population, snoring is not associated with an increased...

  8. The impact of health-related quality of life on the incidence of ischaemic heart disease and stroke; a cohort study in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadjou, Yahya; Kermani-Alghoraishi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Talaei, Mohammad; Yousefy, Alireza; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Rabiei, Katayoun; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of health-related quality of life (QoL) on the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke using a validated questionnaire. We followed the 3,283 subjects, aged ≥ 35 years and without history of cardiovascular events (CVE) over four years from 2007 to 2011 from the Isfahan cohort study. The World Health Organization QoL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), which contains four separate domains, was used to assess QoL. Incidence rates of IHD and stroke were recorded during follow-up. Socioeconomic demographic data including marital state, educational level, occupation, income and place of living and metabolic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidaemia, body mass index and smoking were also recorded. More IHD (42%) and stroke (57%) patients were illiterate; while the educational status was significantly different only in the IHD group (P = 0.000). Differences in income and occupation were notable in patients with stroke and IHD, respectively, compared to subjects without them (P stroke patients in comparison with subjects without CVE (P = 0.000). Two-way multivariate analyses of covariance test after age, educational status and metabolic risk factors adjustment showed that subjects with stroke had a significantly higher score in all QoL domains in comparison with individuals without stroke (P 0.050). This study indicates that there is no association between QoL and IHD incidence although there was a significant relationship between higher QoL and incidence of stroke.

  9. CT angiography and CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeters, T. van

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography and CT perfusion are used in patients with acute ischemic stroke for diagnostic purposes and to select patients for treatment. In this thesis, the reproducibility of CT angiography and CT perfusion is examined, the additional value of CT angiography and CT perfusion for stroke outcome

  10. Imaging Recommendations for Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, Max; Sanelli, Pina C.; Albers, Gregory W.; Bello, Jacqueline A.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Hetts, Steven W.; Johnson, Michele H.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Rowley, Howard A.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Zaharchuk, Greg; Meltzer, Carolyn C.

    2014-01-01

    In the article entitled “Imaging Recommendations for Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients: A Joint Statement by the American Society of Neuroradiology, the American College of Radiology and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery”, we are proposing a simple, pragmatic approach that will allow the reader to develop an optimal imaging algorithm for stroke patients at their institution. PMID:23948676

  11. Prehospital Management of Acute Stroke in Rural versus Urban Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gregory; Bal, Simerpreet; Schellenberg, Kerri Lynn; Alcock, Susan; Ghrooda, Esseddeeg

    2017-08-01

    Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS protocols (both bypass and direct) to our stroke center between January and December 2013. Patients were excluded if they were first evaluated at any other health center. Prehospital care was assessed using ten indicators for EMS evaluation/management, as recommended by acute stroke guidelines. Compliance with acute stroke EMS evaluation/management indicators were statistically similar for both groups, except administrating a prehospital diagnostic tool (rural 31.8 vs. urban 70.3%; P = 0.002). Unlike urban EMS, rural EMS did not routinely document scene time. Rural EMS responders' compliance to prehospital stroke evaluation/management was similar to urban EMS responders. Growth areas for both groups may be with prehospital stroke diagnostic tool utilization, whereas rural EMS responders may also improve with scene time documentation.

  12. Prehospital management of acute stroke in rural versus urban responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Hansen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS protocols (both bypass and direct to our stroke center between January and December 2013. Patients were excluded if they were first evaluated at any other health center. Prehospital care was assessed using ten indicators for EMS evaluation/management, as recommended by acute stroke guidelines. Results: Compliance with acute stroke EMS evaluation/management indicators were statistically similar for both groups, except administrating a prehospital diagnostic tool (rural 31.8 vs. urban 70.3%; P = 0.002. Unlike urban EMS, rural EMS did not routinely document scene time. Conclusion: Rural EMS responders' compliance to prehospital stroke evaluation/management was similar to urban EMS responders. Growth areas for both groups may be with prehospital stroke diagnostic tool utilization, whereas rural EMS responders may also improve with scene time documentation.

  13. Health care in patients 1 year post-stroke in general practice: research on the utilisation of the Dutch Transmural Protocol transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerd, L; Rutgers, A W F; Groenier, K H; van der Meer, K

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the kind of aftercare that ischaemic stroke patients receive and the extent that aftercare fulfils the criteria of the 'Dutch Transmural Protocol transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident'. Fifty-seven patients were interviewed 1 year post-stroke about secondary prevention and aftercare. Forty general practitioners (GPs) completed a questionnaire about guidance and secondary prevention (concerning medication and lifestyle advice). Most patients would like to see their GP more regularly. More aftercare was required than was planned. The use of aspirin remained the same, fewer patients used statins and more used antihypertensives. Of the 40 GPs who participated, 12% did not apply prevention. Blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol were measured in 84%, 28% and 40% of patients. All of these measures were often elevated, but treatment was not given. Lifestyle advice was offered to one-quarter of patients. Considering all of the advice given in the Dutch Protocol, several aspects can be improved in relation to secondary prevention. Too little attention is paid to giving lifestyle advice, stricter medical checkups by GPs are necessary and there is a decrease in use of preventive medication, partly because GPs monitors use of medication inadequately. The use of the Dutch Protocol in aftercare can be improved by a more detailed description of advice.

  14. [The effect of standard kinesiotherapy combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method and standard kinesiotherapy only on the functional state and muscle tone in patients after ischaemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Kubsik, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2013-11-01

    The ischemic stroke is a disease of the central nervous system. Up until today there have been very few scientific findings concerning the most effective methods of patients rehabilitation. The authors of this article present two groups of patients after ischemic stroke who were rehabilitated with use of the following methods: kinesiotherapy combined with PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) method and kinesiotherapy only. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of kinesiotherapy only and PNF method combined with kinesiotherapy on the functional state and muscle tone in patients after ischaemic stroke. The study involved a group of 30 patients after ischaemic stroke. Patients were divided into two groups, each of them comprising 15 people. Group I was rehabilitated with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise and group II with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise combined with PNF method. To evaluate the patient before and after rehabilitation muscle tone Asworth scale was used and to assess functional status Rivermed Motor Assessment (RMA) scale was used. Both in group I and II an improvement in muscle tone and functional status were noted. Better results were observed in group II in which patients were rehabilitated with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise combined with PNF method. All results in group I and II displayed a statistically significant improvement in functional status and muscle tone. The use of the classical kinesiotherapy only had a noticeably smaller impact on improvement of functional status and muscle tone in patients from group I than the use of both: classical kinesiotherapy and PNF method which were employed in group II.

  15. Assessment of brain perfusion with MRI: methodology and application to acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandin, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    We review the methodology of brain perfusion measurements with MRI and their application to acute stroke, with particular emphasis on the work awarded by the 6th Lucien Appel Prize for Neuroradiology. The application of the indicator dilution theory to the dynamic susceptibility-weighted bolus-tracking method is explained, as is the approach to obtaining quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV). Our contribution to methodological developments, such as CBV measurement with the frequency-shifted burst sequence, development of the PRESTO sequence, comparison of different deconvolution methods and of spin- and gradient-echo sequences, and the validation of MRI measurements against positron emission tomography is summarised. The pathophysiology of brain ischaemia and the role of neuroimaging in the setting of acute stroke are reviewed, with an introduction to the concepts of ischaemic penumbra and diffusion/perfusion mismatch. Our work on the determination of absolute CBF and CBV thresholds for predicting the area of infarct growth, identification of the best perfusion parameters (relative or absolute) for predicting the area of infarct growth and the role of MR angiography is also summarised. We conclude that MRI is a very powerful way to assess brain perfusion and that its use might help in selecting patients who will benefit most from treatment such as thrombolysis. (orig.)

  16. Associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA and hair mercury with the risk of incident stroke in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Roya; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2016-05-28

    PUFA have been associated with lower risk of CVD, but less is known about their association with stroke risk. Fish, a major source of n-3 PUFA, may also contain methylmercury, which has been associated with higher risk of CVD and attenuation of the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA. We investigated the associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA and hair Hg with risk of stroke in men. A total of 1828 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989 were studied. Cox regression models were used for the analyses. During the mean follow-up of 21·2 years, 202 stroke cases occurred, of which 153 were ischaemic strokes. After adjustment for age and examination year, the only statistically significant association among the n-3 and n-6 PUFA was observed between the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid and risk of haemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio in the highest v. the lowest quartile 0·33; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·86; P trend=0·03). However, further adjustments attenuated the association to statistically non-significant. Hair Hg was not associated with stroke risk, but among those with hair Hg above the median level, higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations were associated with a higher risk of ischaemic stroke. In our cohort of men, serum n-3 or n-6 PUFA or hair Hg were not associated with stroke risk; however, the interaction between Hg and long-chain n-3 PUFA with regard to ischaemic stroke risk warrants further investigation.

  17. Admitting acute ischemic stroke patients to a stroke care monitoring unit versus a conventional stroke unit : a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Geert; Elting, Jan Willem; Langedijk, Marc; Maurits, Natasha M; De Keyser, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathophysiological considerations and observational studies indicate that elevated body temperature, hypoxia, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias in the acute phase of ischemic stroke may aggravate brain damage and worsen outcome. METHODS: Both units were organized with the

  18. Pharmaceutical Sponsorship Bias Influences Thrombolytic Literature in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Radecki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in Emergency Medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. Methods: A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Results: Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85% disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion: An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:435–441.

  19. Acute Predictors of Social Integration Following Mild Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frances M; Harris, Darren W; Olver, John H; Davis, Stephen M; Disler, Peter B

    2018-04-01

    Despite an acknowledged need to accurately predict stroke outcome, there is little empirical evidence regarding acute predictors of participation restriction post stroke. The current study examines prediction of social integration following mild stroke, using combinations of acute poststroke factors. In a prospective, longitudinal study, a cohort of 60 stroke survivors was followed up at 6 months post stroke. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to evaluate the value of acute poststroke variables in predicting social integration at 6 months post stroke. A combination of age, number of comorbidities, stroke severity, social support factors, and general self-efficacy in the acute poststroke period accounted for 42% of the variance in 6-month social integration. The largest amount of variance (20%) was explained by inclusion of social support factors, including number and types of support. Post hoc analysis was conducted to establish whether marital status was the mediating variable through which early poststroke social support factors exerted influence upon subsequent social integration. The new combination of acute variables accounted for 48% of the variance in 6-month social integration. Results suggested that subjects with partners perceived higher levels of functional social support and lower levels of participation restriction. Stroke survivors with partners may receive greater amounts of companionship and encouragement from their partners, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. Such individuals are possibly more able to participate in and maintain relationships, thus improving social integration. Social support factors, mediated via marital status, are the strongest predictors of subsequent social integration following mild stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technetium-99m HMPAO SPET in acute supratentorial ischaemic infraction, expressing deficits as millilitre of zero perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.A.; Deyn, P.P. de; Antwerp Univ.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative interim analysis was performed of clinical parameters, computed tomographic (CT) scan results and 99m Tc-HMPAO (SPET)-findings obtained within 12 h of acute supratentorial ischaemic infarction. First, the applicability for SPET semiquantification in this study of the ''method of Mountz'', simultaneously accounting for extent and degrees of hypoperfusion, was considered. Next, the relative contributions of perfusion SPET and CT scan in the acute stage of ischaemic infarction were compared in 27 patients (mean age 68.8 years). Finally, the correlation of SPET lesions with clinical parameters at onset was evaluated. The method of Mountz represents a workable, accurate virtual parameter, with the assumption that the contralateral brain region remains uninvolved. Because of inconstant distribution of activities in the brain, the method can only be applied slice by sclice and not on the total global volume. While the mean delay since the onset of symptomatology was approximately 7 h for both SPET and CT scan, SPET showed lesions concordant with the clinical neurological findings in 100% and CT scan in only 48%. One could hypothesize that SPET examinations performed later would show larger functional defects, because of the development of additional functional changes secondary to biochemical alterations. However, in this regard no statistically significant differences were found between two subproups, taking the median of delay before SPET examination as cut-off. Finally, when comparing the volumes of SPET lesions during the acute stage with clinical parameters, a statistically significant correlation (P<0.01) was found with the Orgogozo Scale scores describing the neurological deficit, but not with the Glasgow Coma Scale or Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test scores obtained on admittance. (orig./MG)

  1. Technetium-99m HMPAO SPET in acute supratentorial ischaemic infraction, expressing deficits as millilitre of zero perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, R.A. [Univ. Hospital of Ghent (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behavior, Born-Bunge Foundation UIA; Dobbeleir, A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Pickut, B.A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology; Timmermans, L. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology; Dierckx, I. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Vervaet, A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vandevivere, J. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Deberdt, W. [UCB Pharma NV (Belgium); Deyn, P.P. de [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behavior, Born-Bunge Foundation UIA

    1995-05-01

    A comparative interim analysis was performed of clinical parameters, computed tomographic (CT) scan results and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (SPET)-findings obtained within 12 h of acute supratentorial ischaemic infarction. First, the applicability for SPET semiquantification in this study of the ``method of Mountz``, simultaneously accounting for extent and degrees of hypoperfusion, was considered. Next, the relative contributions of perfusion SPET and CT scan in the acute stage of ischaemic infarction were compared in 27 patients (mean age 68.8 years). Finally, the correlation of SPET lesions with clinical parameters at onset was evaluated. The method of Mountz represents a workable, accurate virtual parameter, with the assumption that the contralateral brain region remains uninvolved. Because of inconstant distribution of activities in the brain, the method can only be applied slice by sclice and not on the total global volume. While the mean delay since the onset of symptomatology was approximately 7 h for both SPET and CT scan, SPET showed lesions concordant with the clinical neurological findings in 100% and CT scan in only 48%. One could hypothesize that SPET examinations performed later would show larger functional defects, because of the development of additional functional changes secondary to biochemical alterations. However, in this regard no statistically significant differences were found between two subproups, taking the median of delay before SPET examination as cut-off. Finally, when comparing the volumes of SPET lesions during the acute stage with clinical parameters, a statistically significant correlation (P<0.01) was found with the Orgogozo Scale scores describing the neurological deficit, but not with the Glasgow Coma Scale or Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test scores obtained on admittance. (orig./MG)

  2. The Direct Referral to Endovascular Center criteria: a proposal for pre-hospital evaluation of acute stroke in the Madrid Stroke Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pardo, J; Fuentes, B; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Ximénez-Carrillo, Á; Zapata-Wainberg, G; Álvarez-Fraga, J; Barriga, F J; Castillo, L; Carneado-Ruiz, J; Díaz-Guzman, J; Egido-Herrero, J; de Felipe, A; Fernández-Ferro, J; Frade-Pardo, L; García-Gallardo, Á; García-Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gómez-Escalonilla, C; Guillán, M; Herrero-Infante, Y; Masjuan-Vallejo, J; Ortega-Casarrubios, M Á; Vivancos-Mora, J; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2017-03-01

    For patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion, it has recently been shown that mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with stent retrievers is better than medical treatment alone. However, few hospitals can provide MT 24 h/day 365 days/year, and it remains unclear whether selected patients with acute stroke should be directly transferred to the nearest MT-providing hospital to prevent treatment delays. Clinical scales such as Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) have been developed to predict large-vessel occlusion at a pre-hospital level, but their predictive value for MT is low. We propose new criteria to identify patients eligible for MT, with higher accuracy. The Direct Referral to Endovascular Center criteria were defined based on a retrospective cohort of 317 patients admitted to a stroke center. The association of age, sex, RACE scale score and blood pressure with the likelihood of receiving MT were analyzed. Cut-off points with the highest association were thereafter evaluated in a prospective cohort of 153 patients from nine stroke units comprising the Madrid Stroke Network. Patients with a RACE scale score ≥ 5, systolic blood pressure <190 mmHg and age <81 years showed a significantly higher probability of undergoing MT (odds ratio, 33.38; 95% confidence interval, 12-92.9). This outcome was confirmed in the prospective cohort, with 68% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 42% positive and 94% negative predictive values for MT, ruling out 83% of hemorrhagic strokes. The Direct Referral to Endovascular Center criteria could be useful for identifying patients suitable for MT. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Emergency Medical Services Support for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Receiving Thrombolysis at a Primary Stroke Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron R. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Emergency Medical Services (EMS is a vital link in the overall chain of stroke survival. A Primary Stroke Center (PSC relies heavily on the 9-1-1 response system along with the ability of EMS personnel to accurately diagnose acute stroke. Other critical elements include identifying time of symptom onset, providing pre-hospital care, selecting a destination PSC, and communicating estimated time of arrival (ETA. Purpose Our purpose was to evaluate the EMS component of thrombolysed acute ischemic stroke patient care at our PSC. Methods In a retrospective manner we retrieved electronic copies of the EMS incident reports for every thrombolysed ischemic stroke patient treated at our PSC from September 2001 to August 2005. The following data elements were extracted: location of victim, EMS agency, times of dispatch, scene, departure, emergency department (ED arrival, recordings of time of stroke onset, blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, cardiac rhythm, blood glucose (BG, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Cincinnati Stroke Scale (CSS elements, emergency medical personnel field assessment, and transport decision making. Results Eighty acute ischemic stroke patients received thrombolysis during the study interval. Eighty-one percent arrived by EMS. Two EMS agencies transported to our PSC. Mean dispatch-to-scene time was 6 min, on-scene time was 16 min, transport time was 10 min. Stroke onset time was recorded in 68%, BP, HR, and cardiac rhythm each in 100%, BG in 81%, GCS in 100%, CSS in 100%, and acute stroke diagnosis was made in 88%. Various diagnostic terms were employed: cerebrovascular accident in 40%, unilateral weakness or numbness in 20%, loss of consciousness in 16%, stroke in 8%, other stroke terms in 4%. In 87% of incident reports there was documentation of decision-making to transport to the nearest PSC in conjunction with pre-notification. Conclusion The EMS component of thrombolysed acute ischemic stroke patients care at our PSC appeared

  4. Visual hallucinations in patients with acute stroke: a prospective exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenas-Rodríguez, E; Camps-Renom, P; Pérez-Cordón, A; Horta-Barba, A; Simón-Talero, M; Cortés-Vicente, E; Guisado-Alonso, D; Vilaplana, E; García-Sánchez, C; Gironell, A; Roig, C; Delgado-Mederos, R; Martí-Fàbregas, J

    2017-05-01

    The incidence, underlying physiopathology, features and association with lesion topography of visual hallucinations in acute stroke have scarcely been investigated. Patients with a diagnosis of acute stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) in any vascular territory, admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms, were consecutively included in the study. Patients with a previous history of psychosis or cognitive impairment were excluded. They and/or their caregivers answered a structured hallucination and sleep questionnaire at admission, within the first 15 days and at the clinical follow-up 3-6 months after discharge. Lesion location (IMAIOS online atlas) and leukoaraiosis (Wahlund scale) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan. Subsets of patients also underwent a neuropsychological evaluation (N = 50) and an electroencephalogram (N = 33) before discharge. In all, 77 patients with a mean age of 71 ± 12 years were included of whom 57.1% were men. The incidence of visual hallucinations was 16.7%. These hallucinations were mostly complex, in black and white and self-limited. The appearance of hallucinations was not influenced by age, sex, neuropsychological performance during admission or modified Rankin scale score at discharge. Visual hallucinations were associated with occipital cortex lesions (P = 0.04), and with sleep disturbances during and before admission (P = 0.041 and P = 0.03 respectively). Visual hallucinations are relatively frequent in patients with acute stroke and they are self-limited. Patients with occipital lesions and sleep disturbances are more likely to suffer them. © 2017 EAN.

  5. Natural history of post-stroke apathy during acute rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Juliana M.; Granato, Dora A.; Goldfine, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the natural history of post-stroke apathy, the authors tested 96 patients undergoing acute rehabilitation for stroke using the Apathy Inventory (AI). 28% of patients had apathy, and their AI scores improved on average 1 point by week 2 and 2 points by week 3 with the majority apathetic at discharge. Apathy severity correlated with aphasia, weakness, and impaired cognition, but not with depression. The findings suggest that acute rehabilitation is an optimal setting for clinical trials for post-stroke apathy because apathy is associated with poor outcomes and shows only a small degree of spontaneous improvement. PMID:26185903

  6. Wernicke's Encephalopathy Mimicking Acute Onset Stroke Diagnosed by CT Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndromes such as Wernicke’s encephalopathy may present with a sudden neurological deficit, thus mimicking acute onset stroke. Due to current emphasis on rapid admission and treatment of acute stroke patients, there is a significant risk that these stroke mimics may end up being treated with thrombolysis. Rigorous clinical and radiological skills are necessary to correctly identify such metabolic stroke mimics, in order to avoid doing any harm to these patients due to the unnecessary use of thrombolysis. Patient. A 51-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to our hospital with suspicion of an acute stroke due to sudden onset dysarthria and unilateral facial nerve paresis. Clinical examination revealed confusion and dysconjugate gaze. Computed tomography (CT including a CT perfusion (CTP scan revealed bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion. The use of both clinical and radiological findings led to correctly diagnosing Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Conclusion. The application of CTP as a standard diagnostic tool in acute stroke patients can improve the detection of stroke mimics caused by metabolic syndromes as shown in our case report.

  7. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from a jugular and cubital vein was collected within 48 h of stroke onset, after 24 and 48 h, and renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were measured. Post-stroke cubital vein samples were collected after 8 (4.7-10) months....... RESULTS: The acute systolic blood pressure was significantly increased, 148 (141-168) vs 140 (130-147) mmHg post-stroke. Angiotensin I, renin and aldosterone levels were significantly lower, angiotensin II was unchanged, and ACE activity was higher in the acute phase compared to post......-stroke. No differences in RAAS were detected between jugular and cubital plasma levels. Jugular venous plasma levels of epinephrine and cortisol were elevated in the acute phase compared to cubital levels (P vein blood may reflect a higher...

  8. Transthyretin Concentrations in Acute Stroke Patients Predict Convalescent Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Naofumi; Imamura, Yuki; Ohmura, Keiko; Ueda, Norihide; Kawabata, Shinji; Furuse, Motomasa; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    For stroke patients, intensive nutritional management is an important and effective component of inpatient rehabilitation. Accordingly, acute care hospitals must detect and prevent malnutrition at an early stage. Blood transthyretin levels are widely used as a nutritional monitoring index in critically ill patients. Here, we had analyzed the relationship between the transthyretin levels during the acute phase and Functional Independence Measure in stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. We investigated 117 patients who were admitted to our hospital with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke from February 2013 to October 2015 and subsequently transferred to convalescent hospitals after receiving acute treatment. Transthyretin concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points as follows: at admission, and 5 and 10 days after admission. After categorizing patients into 3 groups according to the minimum transthyretin level, we analyzed the association between transthyretin and Functional Independence Measure. In our patients, transthyretin levels decreased during the first 5 days after admission and recovered slightly during the subsequent 5 days. Notably, Functional Independence Measure efficiency was significantly associated with the decrease in transthyretin levels during the 5 days after admission. Patients with lower transthyretin levels had poorer Functional Independence Measure outcomes and tended not to be discharged to their own homes. A minimal transthyretin concentration (stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. In particular, an early decrease in transthyretin levels suggests restricted rehabilitation efficiency. Accordingly, transthyretin levels should be monitored in acute stroke patients to indicate mid-term rehabilitation prospects. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute single channel EEG predictors of cognitive function after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aminov

    Full Text Available Early and accurate identification of factors that predict post-stroke cognitive outcome is important to set realistic targets for rehabilitation and to guide patients and their families accordingly. However, behavioral measures of cognition are difficult to obtain in the acute phase of recovery due to clinical factors (e.g. fatigue and functional barriers (e.g. language deficits. The aim of the current study was to test whether single channel wireless EEG data obtained acutely following stroke could predict longer-term cognitive function.Resting state Relative Power (RP of delta, theta, alpha, beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR, and delta/theta ratio (DTR were obtained from a single electrode over FP1 in 24 participants within 72 hours of a first-ever stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was administered at 90-days post-stroke. Correlation and regression analyses were completed to identify relationships between 90-day cognitive function and electrophysiological data, neurological status, and demographic characteristics at admission.Four acute qEEG indices demonstrated moderate to high correlations with 90-day MoCA scores: DTR (r = -0.57, p = 0.01, RP theta (r = 0.50, p = 0.01, RP delta (r = -0.47, p = 0.02, and DAR (r = -0.45, p = 0.03. Acute DTR (b = -0.36, p < 0.05 and stroke severity on admission (b = -0.63, p < 0.01 were the best linear combination of predictors of MoCA scores 90-days post-stroke, accounting for 75% of variance.Data generated by a single pre-frontal electrode support the prognostic value of acute DAR, and identify DTR as a potential marker of post-stroke cognitive outcome. Use of single channel recording in an acute clinical setting may provide an efficient and valid predictor of cognitive function after stroke.

  10. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to stroke severity and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pyrexia after stroke (temperature ≥37.5°C) is associated with poor prognosis, but information on timing of body temperature changes and relationship to stroke severity and subtypes varies. Methods We recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke, measured stroke severity, stroke subtype and recorded four-hourly tympanic (body) temperature readings from admission to 120 hours after stroke. We sought causes of pyrexia and measured functional outcome at 90 days. We systematically summarised all relevant previous studies. Results Amongst 44 patients (21 males, mean age 72 years SD 11) with median National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) 7 (range 0–28), 14 had total anterior circulation strokes (TACS). On admission all patients, both TACS and non-TACS, were normothermic (median 36.3°C vs 36.5°C, p=0.382 respectively) at median 4 hours (interquartile range, IQR, 2–8) after stroke; admission temperature and NIHSS were not associated (r2=0.0, p=0.353). Peak temperature, occurring at 35.5 (IQR 19.0 to 53.8) hours after stroke, was higher in TACS (37.7°C) than non-TACS (37.1°C, ptemperatures. Sixteen (36%) patients became pyrexial, in seven (44%) of whom we found no cause other than the stroke. Conclusions Normothermia is usual within the first 4 hours of stroke. Peak temperature occurs at 1.5 to 2 days after stroke, and is related to stroke severity/subtype and more closely associated with poor outcome than admission temperature. Temperature-outcome associations after stroke are complex, but normothermia on admission should not preclude randomisation of patients into trials of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:23075282

  11. Delay in presentation after acute ischemic stroke: the Careggi Hospital Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleonora, Innocenti; Patrizia, Nencini; Ilaria, Romani; Alessandra, Del Bene; Francesco, Arba; Benedetta, Piccardi; Giovanni, Pracucci

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator is the approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 h from symptoms onset. Evidence suggests the earlier treatment was given, the greater the chance of a favorable outcome. We investigated if the delay in hospital presentation has been modified in the past 8 years. Acute ischemic strokes admitted to the Emergency Department of the Careggi Hospital, Florence from March 2004 to December 2012 were prospectively collected in the Careggi Hospital Stroke Registry. Proportion of patients presenting ≤ 2 h, 2-3.5, 3.5-6, and >6 h from symptom onset or with awakening stroke were compared. From March 2004 to December 2012, 3,856 patients with acute ischemic stroke arrived to the Careggi Emergency Department. During the period, 28.3 % of patients arrived ≤ 2 h from symptoms onset and 9.8 % between 2 and 3.5 h. The proportion of time-eligible patients is steady in the first years with a slight increase in 2011 and 2012. Early presentation is significantly associated with younger age, intracerebral hemorrhage, and stroke severity. In this study, about one-third of acute ischemic strokes arrived at the Emergency Department within the therapeutic time-window for intravenous thrombolysis. There is only a slight increase in early presentation through the period, mainly in the last 2 years. Additional efforts are required to impact deeply on the rates of time-eligible patients.

  12. A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leira, Rogelio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Campos, Francisco; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Castellanos, Mar; Moldes, Octavio; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antoni; Castillo, José

    2012-02-01

    Higher body temperature is a prognostic factor of poor outcome in acute stroke. Our aim was to study the relationship between body temperature, HT (haemorrhagic transformation) and biomarkers of BBB (blood-brain barrier) damage in patients with acute ischaemic stroke untreated with rtPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator). We studied 229 patients with ischaemic stroke <12 h from symptom onset. Body temperature was determined at admission and every 6 h during the first 3 days. HT was evaluated according to ECASS II (second European Co-operative Acute Stroke Study) criteria in a multimodal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) at 72 h. We found that 55 patients (34.1%) showed HT. HT was associated with cardioembolic stroke (64.2% against 23.0%; P<0.0001), higher body temperature during the first 24 h (36.9°C compared with 36.5°C; P<0.0001), more severe stroke [NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score, 14 (9-20) against 10 (7-15); P=0.002], and greater DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) lesion volume at admission (23.2 cc compared with 13.2 cc; P<0.0001). Plasma MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) (187.3 ng/ml compared with 44.2 ng/ml; P<0.0001) and cFn (cellular fibronectin) levels (16.3 μg/ml compared with 7.1 μg/ml; P=0.001) were higher in patients with HT. Body temperature within the first 24 h was independently associated with HT {OR (odds ratio), 7.3 [95% CI (confidence interval), 2.4-22.6]; P<0.0001} after adjustment for cardioembolic stroke subtype, baseline NIHSS score and DWI lesion volume. This effect remained unchanged after controlling for MMP-9 and cFn. In conclusion, high body temperature within the first 24 h after ischaemic stroke is a risk factor for HT in patients untreated with rtPA. This effect is independent of some biological signatures of BBB damage.

  13. Efficacy of a clinical stroke score in monitoring complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of a clinical stroke score in monitoring complications in acute ischaemic stroke patients could be used as an independent prognostic factor. ... Onset and types of complications were documented within the duration of the study period, using a questionnaire and laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-nine [67.8%] ...

  14. Permanent work disability before and after ischaemic heart disease or stroke event: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna; Lallukka, Tea; Friberg, Emilie; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Lundström, Erik; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-09-29

    We examined the risk of disability pension before and after ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke event, the burden of stroke compared with IHD and which factors predicted disability pension after either event. A population-based cohort study with follow-up 5 years before and after the event. Register data were analysed with general linear modelling with binary and Poisson distributions including interaction tests for event type (IHD/stroke). All people living in Sweden, aged 25‒60 years at the first event year, who had been living in Sweden for 5 years before the event and had no indication of IHD or stroke prior to the index event in 2006‒2008 were included, except for cases in which death occurred within 30 days of the event. People with both IHD and stroke were excluded, resulting in 18 480 cases of IHD (65%) and 9750 stroke cases (35%). Disability pension. Of those going to suffer IHD or stroke event, 25% were already on disability pension a year before the event. The adjusted OR for disability pension at first postevent year was 2.64-fold (95% CI 2.25 to 3.11) for people with stroke compared with IHD. Economic inactivity predicted disability pension regardless of event type (OR=3.40; 95% CI 2.85 to 4.04). Comorbid mental disorder was associated with the greatest risk (OR=3.60; 95% CI 2.69 to 4.83) after an IHD event. Regarding stroke, medical procedure, a proxy for event severity, was the largest contributor (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.60). While IHD event was more common, stroke involved more permanent work disability. Demographic, socioeconomic and comorbidity-related factors were associated with disability pension both before and after the event. The results help occupational and other healthcare professionals to identify vulnerable groups at risk for permanent labour market exclusion after such an event. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  15. Maintenance of Normoglycemia May Improve Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sruthi S; Sylaja, P N; Sreedharan, Sapna Erat; Sarma, Sankara

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that high admission glucose is associated with poor outcomes after stroke, but the impact of maintenance of normoglycemia on functional outcome during hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke is less well established. The aim of this study was to examine the independent association of postadmission glycemic status in the 1 st week with 3-month functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted within 48 h of symptom onset with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of ≥4 were selected from a prospectively maintained database by chart review. Demographic data, risk factors, NIHSS, and blood glucose values in the 1 st week were collected. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months (good outcome-mRS ≤2). Over 3 years, 342 patients were enrolled with 220 (64.32%) males. Mean age was 60.5 ± 13.4 years, and median admission score on NIHSS was 10 (interquartile range: 6-16). Blood glucose values persistently <140 mg/dl in the 1 st week were associated with a good 3-month functional outcome in univariate analysis ( P = 0.036). Hypoglycemic episodes occurred only in 11 (3.22%) patients. Blood glucose values persistently below 140 mg/dl in the 1 st week after acute ischemic stroke were associated with a favorable outcome in our study. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Arterial stiffness and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi

    2014-03-01

    Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS WERE ENROLLED WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE AND CATEGORIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ≥ 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype.

  17. Copeptin Levels in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Stroke Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Matthias; Ebinger, Martin; Kunz, Alexander; Rozanski, Michal; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim E; Winter, Benjamin; Koch, Peter M; Nolte, Christian H; Hertel, Sabine; Ziera, Tim; Audebert, Heinrich J

    2015-09-01

    Copeptin levels are increased in patients diagnosed with stroke and other vascular diseases. Copeptin elevation is associated with adverse outcome, predicts re-events in patients with transient ischemic attack and is used in ruling-out acute myocardial infarction. We evaluated whether copeptin can also be used as a diagnostic marker in the prehospital stroke setting. We prospectively examined patients with suspected stroke on the Stroke Emergency Mobile-an ambulance that is equipped with computed tomography and point-of-care laboratory. A blood sample was taken from patients immediately after arrival. We analyzed copeptin levels in patients with final hospital-based diagnosis of stroke or stroke mimics as well as in vascular or nonvascular patients. In addition, we examined the associations of symptom onset with copeptin levels and the prognostic value of copeptin in patients with stroke. Blood samples of 561 patients were analyzed. No significant differences were seen neither between cerebrovascular (n=383) and other neurological (stroke mimic; n=90) patients (P=0.15) nor between vascular (n=391) and nonvascular patients (n=170; P=0.57). We could not detect a relationship between copeptin levels and time from onset to blood draw. Three-month survival status was available in 159 patients with ischemic stroke. Copeptin levels in nonsurviving patients (n=8: median [interquartile range], 27.4 [20.2-54.7] pmol/L) were significantly higher than in surviving patients (n=151: median [interquartile range], 11.7 [5.2-30.9] pmol/L; P=0.024). In the prehospital setting, copeptin is neither appropriate to discriminate between stroke and stroke mimic patients nor between vascular and nonvascular patients. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01382862. The Pre-Hospital Acute Neurological Therapy and Optimization of Medical Care in Stroke Patients study (PHANTOM-S) was registered (NCT01382862). This sub-study was observational and not registered separately

  18. Risks for cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new harmonised definition: findings from nationally representative longitudinal data from an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Hye-Ryun

    2010-12-01

    We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes with the metabolic syndrome according to the new harmonised definition and its components using a national longitudinal data set from an Asian population. Data of 9791 men and women aged 20+ from 1998 and 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were individually linked to national hospitalisation and mortality data using unique personal identification numbers. During a 5.8-year follow-up through 2005, 288 incident cardiovascular events (184 strokes and 122 cases of ischaemic heart disease) and 85 new diabetes cases have been detected. Men and women with the metabolic syndrome had 48%, 39%, 64%, and 127% greater risks of cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes, respectively, than those without the metabolic syndrome. The increased risks of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes remained significant after adjusting for health behaviours, bio-clinical factors, family history, and socio-demographic factors. Analysis results on population attributable risks showed that about a quarter of total diabetes occurrence and more than 10% of cardiovascular disease was attributable to the metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was linearly associated with risks of outcomes. High blood pressure was significantly associated with all four outcomes while hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia were also important for ischaemic heart disease and diabetes, respectively. Reduction of metabolic risk factors is necessary in South Korea to lower the burden of associated diseases, especially ever-increasing ischaemic heart disease and diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a subgroup analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, J Donald; Lopes, Renato D; Bahit, M Cecilia; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Granger, Christopher B; Wallentin, Lars; Alings, Marco; Goto, Shinya; Lewis, Basil S; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Hanna, Michael; Mohan, Puneet; Alexander, John H; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2012-06-01

    In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in prespecified subgroups of patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. Between Dec 19, 2006, and April 2, 2010, patients were enrolled in the ARISTOTLE trial at 1034 clinical sites in 39 countries. 18,201 patients with AF or atrial flutter were randomly assigned to receive apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin (target international normalised ratio 2·0-3·0). The median duration of follow-up was 1·8 years (IQR 1·4-2·3). The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism, analysed by intention to treat. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding in the on-treatment population. All participants, investigators, and sponsors were masked to treatment assignments. In this subgroup analysis, we estimated event rates and used Cox models to compare outcomes in patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. The ARISTOTLE trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NTC00412984. Of the trial population, 3436 (19%) had a previous stroke or TIA. In the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or TIA, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 2·46 per 100 patient-years of follow-up in the apixaban group and 3·24 in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·56 to 1·03); in the subgroup of patients without previous stroke or TIA, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 1·01 per 100 patient-years of follow-up with apixaban and 1·23 with warfarin (HR 0·82, 95% CI 0·65 to 1·03; p for interaction=0·71). The absolute reduction in the rate of stroke and systemic embolism with apixaban versus warfarin was 0·77 per 100 patient-years of follow-up (95% CI -0·08 to 1·63) in patients with

  20. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression...... lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute...... therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11...

  1. Dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the UK Women’s Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Threapleton, DE; Burley, VJ; Greenwood, DC; Cade, JE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke risk is modifiable through many risk factors, one being healthy dietary habits. Fibre intake was associated with a reduced stroke risk in recent meta-analyses; however, data were contributed by relatively few studies, and few examined different stroke types. METHODS: A total of 27 373 disease-free women were followed up for 14.4 years. Diet was assessed with a 217-item food frequency questionnaire and stroke cases were identified using English Hospital Episode Statistics an...

  2. Short-term effects of ambient particulates and gaseous pollutants on the incidence of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke: a case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedada Getahun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While several studies have investigated the effects of short-term air pollution on cardiovascular disease, less is known about its effects on cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of short-term variation in air pollutants on the onset of TIA and minor stroke. Methods We performed secondary analyses of data collected prospectively in the North West of England in a multi-centre study (NORTHSTAR of patients with recent TIA or minor stroke. A case - crossover study was conducted to determine the association between occurrence of TIA and the concentration of ambient PM10 or gaseous pollutants. Results A total of 709 cases were recruited from the Manchester (n = 335 and Liverpool (n = 374 areas. Data for the Manchester cohort showed an association between ambient nitric oxide (NO and risk of occurrence of TIA and minor stroke with a lag of 3 days (odds ratio 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.11, whereas negative association was found for the patients from Liverpool. Effects of similar magnitude, although not statistically significant, were generally observed with other pollutants. In a two pollutant model the effect of NO remained stronger and statistically significant when analysed in combination with CO or SO2, but was marginal in combination with NO2 or ozone and non-significant with PM10. There was evidence of effect modification by age, gender and season. Conclusions Our data suggest an association between NO and occurrence of TIA and minor stroke in Greater Manchester.

  3. CT perfusion in acute stroke calls: a pictorial review and differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Albert H; Phillips, Timothy J.; Phatouros, Constantine C.; Singh, Tejinder P.; McAuliffe, William; Hankey, Graeme; Blacker, David J.

    2016-01-01

    CT perfusion is increasingly utilised in hyperacute stroke to facilitate diagnosis and patient selection for reperfusion therapies. This review article demonstrates eight examples of how CT perfusion can be used to diagnose stroke mimics and small volume infarcts, which can be easily missed on non-contrast CT, and to suggest the presence of an ischaemic penumbra. Radiologists involved in stroke management must understand the importance of rapid imaging acquisition and be confident in the prospective interpretation of this powerful diagnostic tool as we move into a new era of hyperacute stroke care.

  4. Acute Phase Reactants and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sahan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases which called as stroke causes severe mortality and morbidity. Stoke is the third cause of death and first cause of the sequela among in its disorder group. Stroke with a 80-85% has the most frequency and the most cause of death in among the neurological disorders. Besides its lethal effects, sequela of stroke also cause physiological problems on individuals, families and social groups, it also brings some economic problems. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(2.000: 85-140

  5. Effect of Treatment Delay, Stroke Type, and Thrombolysis on the Effect of Glyceryl Trinitrate, a Nitric Oxide Donor, on Outcome after Acute Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient from Randomised Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Bath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nitric oxide (NO donors are a candidate treatment for acute stroke and two trials have suggested that they might improve outcome if administered within 4–6 hours of stroke onset. We assessed the safety and efficacy of NO donors using individual patient data (IPD from completed trials. Methods. Randomised controlled trials of NO donors in patients with acute or subacute stroke were identified and IPD sought from the trialists. The effect of NO donor versus control on functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS and death, by time to randomisation. Secondary outcomes included measures of disability, mood, and quality of life. Results. Five trials (4,197 participants were identified, all involving glyceryl trinitrate (GTN. Compared with control, GTN lowered blood pressure by 7.4/3.3 mmHg. At day 90, GTN did not alter any clinical measures. However, in 312 patients randomised within 6 hours of stroke onset, GTN was associated with beneficial shifts in the mRS (odds ratio (OR 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.34–0.78 and reduced death (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.78. Conclusions. NO donors do not alter outcome in patients with recent stroke. However, when administered within 6 hours, NO donors might improve outcomes in both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke.

  6. Highly sensitive troponin T in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P

    2012-01-01

    in decedents than in survivors. After adjustment for stroke severity, C-reactive protein, age, NT-proBNP and prior heart and/or renal failure, hsTnT levels were not a significant predictor of long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Elevated levels of hsTnT are frequently present......Background: Newly developed troponin assays have superior diagnostic and prognostic performance in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), when compared to conventional troponin assays; however, highly sensitive troponin has not been evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Highly...... sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) was measured daily during the first 4 days in 193 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke without overt ACS or atrial fibrillation. The patients were previously tested normal with a fourth-generation TnT assay. The patients were followed for 47 months, with all...

  7. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappelle Jaap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their functional outcome. Previously, we studied the effect of high dose (6 g daily and low dose (3 g daily paracetamol (acetaminophen in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of 75 patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the high-dose paracetamol group, mean body temperature at 12 and 24 hours after start of treatment was 0.4°C lower than in the placebo group. The effect of ibuprofen, another potent antipyretic drug, on body-core temperature in normothermic patients has not been studied. Aim The aim of the present trial is to study the effects of high-dose paracetamol and ibuprofen on body temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to study the safety of these treatments. Design Seventy-five (3 × 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation will be randomised to treatment with either: 400 mg ibuprofen, 1000 mg acetaminophen, or with placebo 6 times daily during 5 days. Body-temperatures will be measured with a rectal electronic thermometer at the start of treatment and after 24 hours. An infrared tympanic thermometer will be used to monitor body temperature at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. The primary outcome measure will be rectal temperature at 24 hours after the start of treatment. The study results will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis, but an on-treatment analysis will also be performed. No formal interim analysis will be carried out.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in different acute stroke subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasovic, Ines; Tesija-Kuna, Andrea; Topic, Elizabeta; Supanc, Visnja; Demarin, Vida; Petrovcic, Marija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine serum levels of selected matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their natural inhibitors (TIMPs) in the acute phase of different stroke types subdivided according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification and the possibility of discriminating stroke types according to their levels. The study included 126 patients with acute stroke within the first 24 h of symptom onset, and 124 healthy volunteers. The stroke group had lower MMP-2 concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios (pnegative correlation of MMP-2 levels with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was recorded in all stroke subtypes except for TACI. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed similar discriminating power for MMP-9 levels and Barthel index in the differential diagnosis of TACI. High MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (odds ratio 3.263) was associated with TACI. Our results demonstrate that the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio may provide information to help in assessing stroke patients in the future as a baseline biomarker of infarct extent.

  9. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugunavathi Sepramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of gene expression and thus their potential in disease diagnostics, prognosis and therapy is being actively pursued. Deregulation of microRNAs in cerebral pathogenesis has been reported to a limited extent in both animal models and human. Due to the complexity of the pathology, identifying stroke specific microRNAs has been a challenge. This study shows that microRNA profiles reflect not only the temporal progression of stroke but also the specific etiologies. A panel of 32 microRNAs, which could differentiate stroke etiologies during acute phase was identified and verified using a customized TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA. Furthermore we also found 5 microRNAs, miR-125b-2*, -27a*, -422a, -488 and -627 to be consistently altered in acute stroke irrespective of age or severity or confounding metabolic complications. Differential expression of these 5 microRNAs was also observed in rat stroke models. Hence, their specificity to the stroke pathology emphasizes the possibility of developing these microRNAs into accurate and useful tools for diagnosis of stroke.

  10. Relevance of prehospital stroke code activation for acute treatment measures in stroke care: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldereschi, Marzia; Piccardi, Benedetta; Di Carlo, Antonio; Lucente, Giuseppe; Guidetti, Donata; Consoli, Domenico; Provinciali, Leandro; Toni, Danilo; Sacchetti, Maria Luisa; Polizzi, Bianca Maria; Inzitari, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    The use of emergency services with prehospital stroke assessment and early notification to the treatment hospital (stroke code) is a crucial determinant of delay time for acute stroke treatment. We reviewed and summarized the literature on prehospital stroke code system implementation. Two databases were explored (last update June 20, 2011) with 3 key words (stroke code, stroke prehospital management and stroke prehospital services). Inclusion criteria were: randomized and quasirandomized controlled trials, cohort and case-control studies, and hospital- and emergency-based registers, with no year or language restrictions. We examined the reference lists of all included articles. All potentially relevant reports and abstracts were transcribed into a specifically designed data abstraction form. Only 19 of the 680 studies which were initially retrieved, published from 1999 to 2011, fulfilled our inclusion criteria. One clinical trial was identified. Large differences in stroke code procedures and study designs within and across countries prohibited the pooling of the data. Most studies were carried out in urban areas. Assuming the rate of tissue-plasminogen activator treatment as the performance measure, most studies report a significant increase in the rate of treatment (increase between 3.2 and 16%) with only 1 study not reporting any increase. Despite its limitations, this review suggests that the use of prehospital stroke code is an important intervention to improve the accessibility of the benefits of thrombolysis, especially when implemented together with educational campaigns to optimize the awareness and behavior of patients and bystanders. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Diffusion and Perfusion MR Imaging in Acute Stroke: Clinical Utility and Potential Limitations for Treatment Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, Mathew; Slater, Lee-Anne; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) offer unique insight into acute ischemic stroke pathophysiology. These techniques may offer the ability to apply pathophysiology to accurately individualize acute stroke reperfusion treatment, including ...

  12. Augmentation of Acute Stroke Management Via Telemedicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, John

    2002-01-01

    .... Misdiagnosing a non-cerebrovascular condition as a stroke is a subsequent concern. Past studies indicated that many ER physicians do not accurately interpret brain computed tomography studies (CTs...