Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann
Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) ha...
Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn
BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...
Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas
Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.
Wilkins, Pamela A; Seahorn, Thomas
all species that we work with? What do we define as acute onset? Most human ARDS cases occur while patients are in hospital being treated for other problems, whereas many of our patients present already in respiratory distress. If we are unable to ventilate patients for economic or practical reasons, what do we use as the equivalent of the Pao2/Flo, ratio'? Reliance on the pathologist is not reasonable, because many disease processes can look similar to ARDS under the microscope. If anything, ALI and ARDS are clinical diagnoses. It is time for veterinarians to reach a consensus on the definition for ALI and ARDS in our patients. Only when we have a consensus of definition can rational prospective clinical trials of therapies be designed.
El Tahlawi, Mohammad; Jop, Bertrand; Bonello, Béatrice; Dragulescu, Andreea; Rouault, Francis; Habib, Gilbert; Fraisse, Alain
Rarely, hypoxaemia is associated with shunt reversal at the atrial level. Closure by interventional catheterization is the treatment of choice but indications and results have been studied insufficiently. To describe our experience with interventional closure of atrial right-to-left shunts described as hypoxaemic and the impact on patient oxygenation and clinical status. Retrospective study in two referral centres, including all patients undergoing closure of interatrial right-to-left shunt associated with hypoxaemia. Since 2001, 21 consecutive patients underwent interventional shunt closure using the "Amplatzer((R)) device"; two patients had atrial septal defect and 19 had patent foramen ovale. Three patients had minor adverse events; two patients have a tiny residual shunt. Transcutaneous oxygen saturation and partial oxygen pressure increased significantly from 86+/-5 to 95+/-3% (p<0.001) and from 49.8+/-6.8 to 82.9+/-30.4mmHg (p=0.001), respectively. Seventeen (80%) patients reported clinical improvement. However, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency remained more symptomatic, with three deaths after a median follow-up of 35 (6-97) months and 89% remaining in New York Heart Association class III/IV (vs 29% of patients without chronic respiratory insufficiency; p=0.035). Hypoxaemic shunts are treated effectively by transcatheter closure, resulting in functional improvement in patients without respiratory insufficiency. When associated with chronic respiratory insufficiency, hypoxaemia often persists after shunt closure. In such cases, the right-to-left atrial shunt does not seem to be the main cause of hypoxaemia and the indication for closure is questionable.
T. V. Zagorodnyaya
Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to improve the outcomes of intensive care in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation.Materials and methods. Respiratory therapy was analyzed in 43 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. According to the procedure of artificial ventilation (AV, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 those who had undergone routine tracheal intubation (n=23 AND 2 THOSE who had received noninvasive intubation through a nasal mask (n=20. The respiratory parameters, blood gas composition, central hemodynamic parameters, respiratory support time, and the pattern of complications were analyzed.Results. Noninvasive artificial ventilation permits one to make the patients active in earlier periods and take a spontaneous breath, recovers the respiratory index earlier, reduces the level of positive end-expiratory pressure, the frequency of infectious complications of the tracheobronchial tree, and length of stay in an intensive care unit as compared with endotracheal AV.Conclusion. The findings suggest that noninvasive AV is highly effective and yields better results of treatment in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P
We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.
Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Mannheimia Haemolytica ... to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Mannheimia spp was isolated from the nasal swab and lymph node and lung ...
Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K
The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much
Mal, H; Rouby, J J; Benhamou, D; Viars, P
Seven hypoxaemic patients with acute respiratory failure were ventilated with HFJV (Ventilator VS 600). Arterial oxygenation was improved in each patient by the increases induced in mean airway pressure (PAW) (to 20 cm H2O) using three different ventilatory settings applied in a random order: technique A: I:E ratio 0.43, driving pressure 2.9 bar, no PEEP; technique B: I:E ratio 1.0, driving pressure 1.9 bar, no PEEP; technique C: I:E ratio 0.43, driving pressure 1.8 bar, PEEP 11 cm H2O. Respiratory frequency was maintained at 250 b.p.m. throughout the study. There were no significant differences in PaO2 (FlO2 = 1) or Qs/Qt between the three techniques. In contrast, carbon dioxide elimination was markedly affected by the method used to increase PAW:PaCO2 was significantly higher during technique C (8.5 +/- 3.6 kPa) and technique B (6.6 +/- 2.1 kPa) than during technique A (4.8 +/- 0.9 kPa). Significant increases in cardiac index, heartrate, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and a decrease in the arterio-venous oxygen content difference were observed when PaCO2 increased. We conclude that, to obtain the PAW necessary to improve pulmonary oxygen exchange, more effective carbon dioxide elimination is achieved by increasing the driving pressure, rather than by increasing the I:E ratio, or using a PEEP valve.
Jyoti Narayan Sahoo
Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49% had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.
Full Text Available Arantxa Mas, Josep MasipCritical Care Department, Consorci Sanitari Integral (CSI, Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi and Hospital General de l’Hospitalet, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. Keywords
Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun
Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.
Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J
Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.
Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S
Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.
Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.
Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari
Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article.
Full Text Available y syndrome PharmGKB Accession Id: PA136400566 External Vocabularies MeSH: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ...Publications related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: 1 view legend The following icons indicate that d...et al. Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ... ...(D045169) SnoMedCT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (398447004) UMLS: C1175175 (C1175175) MedDRA: SARS (10061986) NDFRT: Severe Acu...te Respiratory Syndrome [Disease/Finding] (N0000010956)
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a clinical syndrome of severe dyspnea of rapid onset, hypoxemia, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates leading to respiratory failure. ARDS occurs in pregnancy and may have unique causes. Overall mortality for both the mother and the fetus is high and significant morbidity can persist even after initial recovery. ARDS is associated with obstetric causes such as amniotic fluid embolism, preeclampsia, septic abortion, and retained products of conception or non - obstetr ic causes that include sepsis, aspiration pneumonitis, influenza pneumonia, blood transfusions, and trauma. Here is a 24 years old female admitted with 7months of amenorrhea, who presented with respiratory failure, she was intubated and ventilated for 47da ys. She recovered, and a live baby was delivered. She was discharged after 73days.
Francisco Garcia Soriano
Full Text Available CONTEXT: A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome is presented and discussed with emphasis on the role of muscle relaxation, creatine kinase, and respiratory function tests. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old man presented right otalgia and peripheral facial paralysis. A computed tomography scan of the skull showed a hyperdense area, 2 cm in diameter, in the pathway of the anterior intercommunicating cerebral artery. Preoperative examination revealed: pH 7.4, PaCO2 40 torr, PaO2 80 torr (room air, Hb 13.8 g/dl, blood urea nitrogen 3.2 mmol/l, and creatinine 90 mmol/l. The chest x-ray was normal. The patient had not eaten during the 12-hour period prior to anesthesia induction. Intravenous halothane, fentanyl 0.5 mg and droperidol 25 mg were used for anesthesia. After the first six hours, the PaO2 was 65 torr (normal PaCO2 with FiO2 50% (PaO2/FiO2 130, and remained at this level until the end of the operation 4 hours later, maintaining PaCO2 at 35 torr. A thrombosed aneurysm was detected and resected, and the ends of the artery were closed with clips. No vasospasm was present. This case illustrates that neuroleptic drugs can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a disease that is difficult to diagnose. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is another manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome that has not been recognized in previous reports: it may be produced by neuroleptic drugs independent of the manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Some considerations regarding the cause and effect relationship between acute respiratory distress syndrome and neuroleptic drugs are discussed. Intensive care unit physicians should consider the possibility that patients receiving neuroleptic drugs could develop respiratory failure in the absence of other factors that might explain the syndrome.
Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance
Vignon, Philippe; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Maury, Eric
Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a leading indication for performing critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) which, in these patients, combines critical care echocardiography (CCE) and chest ultrasonography. CCE is ideally suited to guide the diagnostic work-up in patients presenting with ARF since it allows the assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and the identification of a potential underlying cardiopathy. In addition, CCE precisely depicts the consequences of pulmonary vascular lesions on right ventricular function and helps in adjusting the ventilator settings in patients sustaining moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, CCE helps in identifying patients at high risk of ventilator weaning failure, depicts the mechanisms of weaning pulmonary edema in those patients who fail a spontaneous breathing trial, and guides tailored therapeutic strategy. In all these clinical settings, CCE provides unparalleled information on both the efficacy and tolerance of therapeutic changes. Chest ultrasonography provides further insights into pleural and lung abnormalities associated with ARF, irrespective of its origin. It also allows the assessment of the effects of treatment on lung aeration or pleural effusions. The major limitation of lung ultrasonography is that it is currently based on a qualitative approach in the absence of standardized quantification parameters. CCE combined with chest ultrasonography rapidly provides highly relevant information in patients sustaining ARF. A pragmatic strategy based on the serial use of CCUS for the management of patients presenting with ARF of various origins is detailed in the present manuscript.
Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious and potentially life-threatening physiological complication that may be encountered in patients who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. The syndrome is typically associated with regimes of exogenous gonadotropins, but it can be seen, albeit rarely, when clomiphene is administered during the induction phase. Although this syndrome is widely described in scientific literature and is well known by obstetricians, the knowledge of this pathological and potentially life-threatening condition is generally less than satisfactory among physicians. The dramatic increase in therapeutic strategies to treat infertility has pushed this condition into the realm of acute care therapy. The potential complications of this syndrome, including pulmonary involvement, should be considered and identified so as to allow a more appropriate diagnosis and management. We describe a case of a woman with an extremely severe (Stage 6 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who presented ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and severe respiratory failure treated with non-invasive ventilation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe respiratory failure, ascites, and bilateral pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Treatment included non-invasive ventilation and three thoracentesis procedures, plus the administration of albumin, colloid solutions and high-dose furosemid. Severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is observed in 0.5-5% of the women treated, and intensive care may be required for management of thromboembolic complications, renal failure and severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary intensive care may involve thoracentesis, oxygen supplementation and, in more severe cases, assisted ventilation. To our knowledge, there have been only two studies in English language medical literature that describe severe respiratory failure treated with non
Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi
To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....
Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob;
To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....
Rocco, Patricia R M; Pelosi, Paolo
The pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome has been explained by the presence of a direct (pulmonary) or indirect (extrapulmonary) insult to the lung parenchyma. Evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ according to the type of the insult. This article presents a brief overview of the differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, and discusses the interactions between lung functional, morphological aspects, and response to different therapies, both in experimental models and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Many researchers recognize that experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome are not identical when considering morpho-functional aspects, the response to positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment manoeuvre, prone position and other adjunctive therapies. Contradictory results have been reported in different clinical studies, however, which may be attributed to the difficulty of classifying acute respiratory distress syndrome in one or the other category, and being confident of the onset, the phase and the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in all patients. Heterogeneous acute respiratory distress syndrome patients are still considered to suffer from one syndrome, and are treated in the same way. Understanding the range of different pathways that lead to pulmonary dysfunction makes it possible to better target clinical treatment.
Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies.
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;
The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...
Gibson, Kristy; Dufault, Marlene; Bergeron, Kathy
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and treatment is often long and costly. Prone positioning is a rarely used intervention for patients with this syndrome, although research suggests it may be effective. A literature search was undertaken to examine the effects of prone positioning on oxygenation, morbidity and mortality in patients with ARDS. It revealed that prone positioning, when used with low tidal volume ventilation over an extended period, may reduce mortality rates in selected patients with severe ARDS. The selection of patients with severe ARDS for prone positioning should be done on a case-by-case basis to maximise benefits and minimise complications. Further research is required on the use of prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS to support or disclaim the therapy's use in practice, and to compare confounding variables such as ideal prone duration and mechanical versus manual pronation.
Bulut, Yunus; Güven, Mehmet; Otlu, Bariş; Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Aladağ, Ibrahim; Eyibilen, Ahmet; Doğru, Salim
The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical outcome, and etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children based on virologic and bacteriologic tests. The study group consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 144 months with AOM. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested for viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and for bacteria by gram-staining and culture. Clinical response was assessed on day 2 to 4, 11 to 13, 26 to 28. Respiratory viruses were isolated in 39 patients (32.5%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (46.5%) was the most common virus identified in MEF samples, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (25.6%), human coronavirus (HCV) (11.6%), influenza (IV) type A (9.3%), adenovirus type sub type A (AV) (4%), and parainfluenza (PIV) type -3 (2%) by RT-PCR. In total 69 bacterial species were isolated from 65 (54.8%) of 120 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Viral RNA was detected in 31 (56.3%) of 55 bacteria-negative specimens and in 8 (12.3%) of 65 bacteria-positive MEF samples. No significant differences were found between children representing viral infection alone, combined viral and bacterial infection, bacterial infection alone, and neither viral nor bacterial infection, regarding clinical cure, relapse and reinfection rates. A significantly higher rate of secretory otitis media (SOM) was observed in alone or combined RSV infection with S. pneumonia or Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) than in other viruses infection. Conclusion. This study provides information about etiologic agents and diagnosis of AOM in Turkish children. The findings highlight the importance of common respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens, particularly RSV, HRV, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, in predisposing to and causing AOM in children.
A. M. Golubev
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a common complication of many diseases. Its polyetiological pattern determines the specific features of lung morphological changes and the clinical course of ARDS. Objective: to analyze the pathogenesis of ARDS in the context of the general pathological processes underlying its development. Material and methods. More than 200 lungs from the people who had died from severe concomitant injury or ARDS-complicated pneumonia were investigated. More than 150 rat experiments simulated various types of lung injury: ventilator-induced lung injury with different ventilation parameters; reperfusion injuries (systemic circulation blockade due to 12-minute vascular fascicle ligation, followed by the recovery of cardiac performance and breathing; microcirculatory disorder (injection of a thromboplastin solution into the jugular vein; blood loss; betaine-pepsin aspiration; and closed chest injury. Different parts of the right and left lungs were histologically examined 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 3 days after initiation of the experiment. Lung pieces were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and using the van Gieson and Weigert procedures; the Schiff test was used. Results. The influence of aggression factors (trauma, blood loss, aspiration, infection, etc. results in damage to the lung and particularly air-blood barrier structures (endothelium, alveolar epithelium, their basement membrane. In turn the alteration of cellular and extracellular structures is followed by the increased permeability of hemomicrocirculatory bed vessels, leading to the development of non-cardiogenic (interstitial, alveolar pulmonary edema that is a central component in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Conclusion. The diagnosis of the early manifestations of ARDS must account for the nature of an aggression factor, the signs confirming the alteration of the lung
S. V. Galushka
Full Text Available Objective: to define the specific features of the course of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in puer-peras with a complicated postpartum period. Subjects and methods. Sixty-seven puerperas with ARDS were examined. Group 1 included 27 puerperas with postpartum ARDS; Group 2 comprised 10 puerperas who had been treated in an intensive care and died; Group 3 consisted of nonobstetric patients with ARDS of various genesis (a control group. Results. In obstetric patients, the baseline oxygenation index was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, Group 1 patients showed a rapid increase in PaO2/FiO2 on days 3—4 of treatment. In the control group, the changes occurred later — on days 5—6. The baseline alveolar-arterial oxygen difference was significantly higher in the obstetric patients than that in the controls. In Group 1, AaDpO2 drastically decreased on days 3—4, which took place in parallel with an increase in the oxygenation index. At the beginning of the study, pulmonary shunting was high in the group of survivors, deceased, and controls. In Group 1, the shunting decreased on days 3—4 whereas in the control group this index normalized later — only by days 6—7. In Group 1, compliance remained lower throughout the observation, but on day 7 there was a significant difference in this index between the deceased, survivors, and controls. Conclusion. Thus, more severe baseline pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities are observed in obstetric patients than in general surgical and traumatological patients; the oxygenation index, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and pulmonary shunting index more rapidly change in patients with severe obstetric disease in its favorable course than in general surgical and traumatological patients; throughout the observation, thoracopulmonary compliance was less in obstetric patients than in the controls. Key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, puerperium.
ZHANG Ding-mei; LU Jia-hai; ZHONG Nan-shan
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first emerged in Guangdong province,China in November2002.During the following 3 months,it spread rapidly across the world,resulting in approximately 800 deaths.In 2004,subsequent sporadic cases emerged in Singapore and China.A novel coronavims,SARS-CoV,was identified as the etiological agent of SARS.1,2 This virus belongs to a family of large,positive,single-stranded RNA viruses.Nevertheless,genomic characterization shows that the SARS-CoV is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses.3 In contrast with previously described coronaviruses,SARS-CoV infection typically causes severe symptoms related to the lower respiratory tract.The SARS-CoV genome includes 14 putative open reading frames encoding 28 potential proteins,and the functions of many of these proteins are not known.4 A number of complete and partial autopsies of SARS patients have been reported since the first outbreak in 2003.The predominant pathological finding in these cases was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD).This severe pulmonary injury of SARS patients is caused both by direct viral effects and immunopathogenetic factors.5 Many important aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS have not yet been fully clarified.In this article,we summarize the most important mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of SARS,including clinical characters,host and receptors,immune system response and genetic factors.
Parikh, Jignesh Mukeshkumar; Dhareshwar, Shashank; Sharma, Anand; Karanth, Raghuveer; Ramkumar, V. S.; Ramaiah, Indira
A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP) of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air. PMID:25006313
Jignesh Mukeshkumar Parikh
Full Text Available A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air.
Full Text Available Introduction: The application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is one of the most important therapeutic interventions used in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF secondary to acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. Thanks to its positive effects on both hemodynamics and ventilation, CPAP improves clinical and blood-gas parameters. Compared with standard oxygen therapy, use of CPAP is associated with decreased mortality and reduced need for intubation in these patients. Aim of the study: This review examines the principles of CPAP, techniques and equipment used to deliver it, and clinical applications. Special emphasis is placed on CPAP delivered with the Boussignac device. Discussion and conclusions: In emergency departments, this simple, lightweight, disposable device has proved to be well tolerated and similar to Venturi-like flow generators in terms of effectiveness. These findings suggest that Boussignac CPAP might be useful for managing ARF in non-critical care areas where other more complicated CPAP equipment (Venturi-like flow generators and ventilators are not available (for example, in general medical wards.
Full Text Available Prone positioning has been used for many years in patients with acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, with no clear benefit for patient outcome. Meta-analyses have suggested better survival in patients with an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2 ratio <100 mmHg. A recent randomised controlled trial was performed in ARDS patients after a 12–24 h stabilisation period and severity criteria (PaO2/FIO2 <150 mmHg at a positive end-expiratory pressure ≥5 cmH2O. This trial has demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality from 32.8% in the supine group to 16% in the prone group (p<0.001. The reasons for this dramatic effect are not clear but probably involves a reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury due to prone positioning, for which there is ample evidence in experimental and clinical studies. The aims of this article are to discuss: the rationale of prone positioning in patients with ALI/ARDS; the evidence of its use based on trial analysis; and the limitations of its use as well as the current place of prone positioning in the management of patients with ALI/ARDS. From the currently available data, prone positioning should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with severe ALI/ARDS.
WANG Chen; CAO Zhi-xin
@@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with the SARS virus. The most obvious clinical characteristic of SARS is rapidly progressive pneumonia, and about 20% patients need intensive care due to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).1-3 In the absence of effective drugs for SARS, supportive care, especially respiratory support techniques (RSTs), is of primary importance. On the other hand, offering RSTs to SARS patients may carry a high-risk of infection to healthcare workers because of the high infectivity of SARS. Therefore, the strategy of RSTs for SARS should be the integration of efficacy and safety. In this issue of the Chinese Medical Journal, an article from Hong Kong has retrospectively compared both the safety and efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with that of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the treatment of respiratory failure in SARS.
Full Text Available Allan J Walkey,1 Ross Summer,1 Vu Ho,1 Philip Alkana21The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 2Asthma Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Acute lung injury and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a spectrum of lung disease characterized by the sudden onset of inflammatory pulmonary edema secondary to myriad local or systemic insults. The present article provides a review of current evidence in the epidemiology and treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a focus on significant knowledge gaps that may be addressed through epidemiologic methods.Keywords: acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, review, epidemiology
Chechenin, M G; Voevodin, S V; Pronichev, E Iu; Shuliveĭstrov, Iu V
The authors evaluated the clinical and physiological effects of kinetic therapy (KT) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Forty-six patients with ARDS underwent successive postural positioning in accordance with two regimens: 1) lateral, prone, contralateral, supine positions; 2) prone, lateral, contralateral, supine positions. The criterion for changing each position was the change in monitoring indices: SpO2, PaO2, and thoracopulmonary compliance (C). KT was performed until a respirator was withdrawn from the patient. In 25 patients, each maneuver of positioning was made during 30-minute propofol sedation. The control group included 24 patients with ARDS who received neither KT nor propofol sedation. KT caused a decrease in Vd/Vt, Qs/Qt and an increase in PaO2/FiO2 and C was more intensive, as compared with the control group. The duration of the patient's prone position was 3.2-0.7 hours and that of the supine position was 3.4-0.8 hours. The right and left lateral positions lasted 1.1-0.2 and 1.3-0.2 hours, respectively. KT regimen 1 was found to be more effective than KT regimen 2. Propofol sedation enhanced the efficiency of KT. The latter reduced death rates in patients with ARDS.
Cardinal-Fernández, P; Correger, E; Villanueva, J; Rios, F
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently one of the most important critical entities given its high incidence, rate of mortality, long-term sequelae and non-specific pharmacological treatment. The histological hallmark of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Approximately 50% of ARDS patients present DAD, the rest is made up of a heterogeneous group of histological patterns, many of which correspond to a well-recognized disease. For that reason, if these patterns could be diagnosed, patients could benefit from a treatment. Recently, the effect of DAD in clinical and analytical evolution of ARDS has been demonstrated, so the classical approach to ARDS as an entity defined solely by clinical, radiological and gasometrical variables should be reconsidered. This narrative review aims to examine the need to evolve from the concept of ARDS as a syndrome to ARDS as a specific disease. So we have raised 4 critical questions: a) What is a disease?; b) what is DAD?; c) how is DAD considered according to ARDS definition?, and d) what is the relationship between ARDS and DAD? Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
郎振为; 张立洁; 张世杰; 孟忻; 李俊强; 宋晨朝; 孙琳; 周育森
Objective To study the pathological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its relationship to clinical manifestation. Methods Tissue specimens from 3 autopsies of probable SARS cases were studied by microscope, and the clinical data was reviewed.Results The typical pathological changes of lungs were diffuse hemorrhaging on the surface. A combination of serous, fibrinous and hemorrhagic inflammation was seen in most of the pulmonary alveoli with the engorgement of capillaries and detection of micro-thrombosis in some of these capillaries. Pulmonary alveoli thickened with interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates, suffered diffuse alveolar damage, experienced desquamation of pneumocytes and had hyaline-membrane formation, fibrinoid materials, and erythrocytes in alveolar spaces. There were thromboembolisms in some bronchial arteries. Furthermore, hemorrhagic necrosis was also evident in lymph nodes and spleen with the attenuation of lymphocytes. Other atypical pathological changes, such as hydropic degeneration, fatty degeneration, interstitial cell proliferation and lesions having existed before hospitalization were observed in the liver, heart, kidney and pancreas.Conclusion Severe damage to the pulmonary and immunological systems is responsible for the clinical features of SARS and may lead to the death of patients.
Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.
A. Yu. Ischenko
Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…
Zee, van der S.
In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons
Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.
Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924
Full Text Available Background: Three different approaches for assessing the acid-base status of a patient exist, i.e. the Boston, Copenhagen, and Stewart´s approach, and they employ different parameters to assess a given acid-base disturbance. Students, researchers, and clinicians are getting confused by heated debates about which of these performs best and by the fact that during their curricula, they typically get acquainted with one of the approaches only, which prevents them to understand sources employing other approaches and to critically evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. In this paper, the authors introduce and define the basic parameters characterizing each of the approaches and point out differences and similarities between them. Special attention is devoted to how the different approaches assess the degree of change in the concentration of plasma bicarbonate that occurs during primary respiratory changes; proper understanding of these is necessary to correctly interpret chronic respiratory and metabolic acid-base changes.Conclusion: During acute respiratory acidosis the concentration of bicarbonate rises and during acute respiratory alkalosis it falls, depending on the buffering strength of non-bicarbonate buffers. During acute respiratory acid-base disturbances, buffer base (employed by the Copenhagen approach, apparent and effective strong ion difference, as well as strong ion gap (employed by the Stewart approach remain unchanged; the anion gap (employed by the Boston and Copenhagen approach falls during acute respiratory acidosis and rises during acute respiratory alkalosis.
Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco
Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.
Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.......Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far....
Al Bashapshe Ali
Full Text Available A 40 year old woman presented with a short history of acute onset of breathlessness to the ER of our hospital and after initial evaluation for acute pulmonary embolism which was ruled out after carrying out the appropriate investigations, she was diagnosed to be afflicted with syringomyelia based on her neurological symptoms and clinical findings, which was confirmed by doing an MRI scan, which was her basic diagnosis that was complicated by acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. This case is being reported to highlight syringomyelia as an unusual cause of acute respiratory failure, which manifested clinically in this patient as its first presentation and the underlying neurological diagnosis has been found to be present in very few reported cases (less than 0.01% of case reports in the available literature as the basic disease in the absence of its classical presenting features. Problems associated with acute respiratory failure in the setting of syringomyelia are discussed.
Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O
Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.
Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.
McAuley, Daniel F; Laffey, John G; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Perkins, Gavin D; Mullan, Brian; Trinder, T John; Johnston, Paul; Hopkins, Philip A; Johnston, Andrew J; McDowell, Cliona; McNally, Christine
Studies in animals and in vitro and phase 2 studies in humans suggest that statins may be beneficial in the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study tested the hypothesis that treatment with simvastatin would improve clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. In this multicenter, double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) patients with an onset of ARDS within the previous 48 hours to receive enteral simvastatin at a dose of 80 mg or placebo once daily for a maximum of 28 days. The primary outcome was the number of ventilator-free days to day 28. Secondary outcomes included the number of days free of nonpulmonary organ failure to day 28, mortality at 28 days, and safety. The study recruited 540 patients, with 259 patients assigned to simvastatin and 281 to placebo. The groups were well matched with respect to demographic and baseline physiological variables. There was no significant difference between the study groups in the mean (±SD) number of ventilator-free days (12.6±9.9 with simvastatin and 11.5±10.4 with placebo, P=0.21) or days free of nonpulmonary organ failure (19.4±11.1 and 17.8±11.7, respectively; P=0.11) or in mortality at 28 days (22.0% and 26.8%, respectively; P=0.23). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of serious adverse events related to the study drug. Simvastatin therapy, although safe and associated with minimal adverse effects, did not improve clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme and others; HARP-2 Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN88244364.).
Nizet, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.
Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish ventilator
CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.
Use of high flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) is increasingly popular in adult ICUs for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This is the result of the successful long-term use of HFNC in the neonatal field and recent clinical data in adults indicating beneficial effects of HFNC over conventional facemask oxygen therapy. HFNC rapidly alleviates symptoms of respiratory distress and improves oxygenation by several mechanisms, including deadspace washout, reduction in oxygen dilution and in inspiratory nasopharyngeal resistance, a moderate positive airway pressure effect that may generate alveolar recruitment and an overall greater tolerance and comfort with the interface and the heated and humidified inspired gases. Indications of HFNC are broad, encompassing most if not all causes of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. HFNC can also provide oxygen during invasive procedures, and be used to prevent or treat post-extubation respiratory failure. HFNC may also alleviate respiratory distress in patients at a palliative stage. Although observational studies suggest that HFNC might reduce the need for intubation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure; such a reduction has not yet been demonstrated. Beyond this potential additional effect on outcome, the evidence already published argues in favor of the large use of HFNC as first line therapy for acute respiratory failure.
Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Genova, Suzanne G.
A 7-hour-old alpaca was presented for lethargy and depression. The cria responded favorably to initial treatment but developed acute-onset dyspnea 48 hours later. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed by thoracic imaging and blood gas analysis. The cria was successfully treated with corticosteroids and discharged from the hospital. PMID:22210945
Mekhael, Mira Rober; El-Hussuna, Alaa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of acute abdomen, causing increased intra-abdominal pressure, leading to further herniation of an existing paraesophageal hernia, and consequently acute compromised respiratory function. This acute respiratory complication to a paraesophageal hernia has not previou......INTRODUCTION: We present a case of acute abdomen, causing increased intra-abdominal pressure, leading to further herniation of an existing paraesophageal hernia, and consequently acute compromised respiratory function. This acute respiratory complication to a paraesophageal hernia has...... if complicated by acute abdomen. These patients could benefit from elective hernia repair, rather than watchful waiting, as it would eliminate pulmonary symptoms and prevent similar cases. Patients monitored using watchful waiting should be informed that acute abdomen could cause acute compromised respiratory...... function. CONCLUSION: Any case of acute abdomen causing high intra-abdominal pressure could potentially cause further herniation of an existing paraesophageal hernia, resulting in acute compromised respiratory function. In patients known to have a paraesophageal hernia, similar cases should be suspected...
The use of Rheum palmatum L. In the treatment of acute respiratory distress ... partial pressure is increased and intestinal gas absorption difficulty may lead to ... L. in treating acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ...
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;
The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...
T. Jartti; P. Lehtinen; T. Vuorinen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); O. Ruuskanen; R. Österback (Riika); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)
textabstractWe studied the viral etiology of acute expiratory wheezing (bronchiolitis, acute asthma) in 293 hospitalized children in a 2-year prospective study in Finland. A potential causative viral agent was detected in 88% of the cases. Eleven different viruses were represented. Respiratory
Kwofie Theophilus B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.
Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with poor clinical outcomes with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based upon improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction, is commonly encountered in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome varies across studies ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between right ventricular dysfunction and mortality, severe right ventricular dysfunction is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect right ventricular function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction would be of benefit however, echocardiography markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in acute respiratory distress syndrome have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population.
Nieuwenhuizen, Laurens; de Groot, Philip G.; Grutters, Jan C.; Biesma, Douwe H.
Enhanced bronchoalveolar coagulation is a hallmark of many acute inflammatory lung diseases such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia. Intervention with natural anticoagulants in these diseases has therefore become a topic of interest. Recently, new data on the rol
Moroz, V V; Vlasenko, A V; Golubev, A M
The paper summarizes results of experimental studies and clinical observations of the pathogenesis and effectiveness of respiratory, non-respiratory and pharmacological treatment methods for acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by direct and indirect damaging factors. The article deals with differences and peculiarities of morphological changes and lung functional disorders, clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs of various origins in ARDS and justifies necessity of differential diagnosis and differential treatment of ARDS, depending on the reasons for its development. Furthermore the article discusses an algorithm for differential diagnosis and differential treatment for ARDS caused by direct and indirect damaging factors.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently recognized infectious disease associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It presents with non-specific signs and symptoms and because no definitive laboratory test is readily available, it poses a great risk to healthcare workers as well as difficulty in quarantine. The global response has been coordinated and enthusiastic in trying to understand and control this disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome poses a threat to the Caribbean because of easy and convenient travel and the vibrant tourist industry.
Jartti, Tuomas; Lehtinen, Pasi; Vuorinen, Tytti; Osterback, Riika; van den Hoogen, Bernadette; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Ruuskanen, Olli
We studied the viral etiology of acute expiratory wheezing (bronchiolitis, acute asthma) in 293 hospitalized children in a 2-year prospective study in Finland. A potential causative viral agent was detected in 88% of the cases. Eleven different viruses were represented. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (27%), enteroviruses (25%), rhinovirus (24%), and nontypable rhino/enterovirus (16%) were found most frequently. In infants, RSV was found in 54% and respiratory picornaviruses (rhinovirus and enteroviruses) in 42% of the cases. In older children, respiratory picornaviruses dominated (65% of children ages 1-2 years and 82% of children ages > or =3 years). Human metapneumovirus was detected in 4% of all children and in 11% of infants. To prevent and treat acute expiratory wheezing illnesses in children, efforts should be focused on RSV, enterovirus, and rhinovirus infections.
Eliana C.A. Benites
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.
Kong, Say Li; Chui, Paul; Lim, Bing; Salto-Tellez, Manuel
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe form of acute lung injury. It is a response to various diseases of variable etiology, including SARS-CoV infection. To date, a comprehensive study of the genomic physiopathology of ARDS (and SARS) is lacking, primarily due to the difficulty of finding suitable materials to study the disease process at a tissue level (instead of blood, sputa or swaps). Hereby we attempt to provide such study by analyzing autopsy lung samples from patient who died of SARS and showed different degrees of severity of the pulmonary involvement. We performed real-time quantitative PCR analysis of 107 genes with functional roles in inflammation, coagulation, fibrosis and apoptosis; some key genes were confirmed at a protein expression level by immunohistochemistry and correlated to the degree of morphological severity present in the individual samples analyzed. Significant expression levels were identified for ANPEP (a receptor for CoV), as well as inhibition of the STAT1 pathway, IFNs production and CXCL10 (a T-cell recruiter). Other genes unassociated to date with ARDS/SARS include C1Qb, C5R1, CASP3, CASP9, CD14, CD68, FGF7, HLA-DRA, IGF1, IRF3, MALAT-1, MSR1, NFIL3, SLPI, USP33, CLC, GBP1 and TAC1. As a result, we proposed to therapeutically target some of these genes with compounds such as ANPEP inhibitors, SLPI and dexamethasone. Ultimately, this study may serve as a model for future, tissue-based analyses of fibroinflammatory conditions affecting the lung.
Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías
Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making. PMID:27925054
W.C. Cao (Wu Chun); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)
textabstractThis paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large ge
A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)
textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated
Dalcin, Daniel; Rothstein, Aaron; Spinato, Joanna; Escott, Nicholas; Kus, Julianne V
Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis.
A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)
textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated who
Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo
There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.
Stausholm, K; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Edvardsen, L;
We monitored 12 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor N-200) and a transcutaneous oxygen tension monitor (TINA, Radiometer A/S) on the second or third night after operation. Of the shortest hypoxaemic episodes measured with the pulse oximeter (... duration), 78% also occurred in the transcutaneous oxygen tension measurement. Episodes of longer duration (> or = 1 min duration on the pulse oximeter) were, in 95% of cases, reflected in the transcutaneous oxygen tension measurement also. Thus postoperative episodic desaturations lasting > or = 1 min...
Wind, Jan; Versteegt, Jens; Twisk, Jos; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bindels, Alexander J. G. H.; Spijkstra, Jan-Jaap; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan
Background: The characteristics, incidence and risk factors for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may depend on definitions and geography. Methods: A prospective, 3-day point-prevalence study was performed by a survey of all intensive care units (ICU) in the Neth
A.D. Cornet; G.P. van Nieuw Amerongen; A. Beishuizen; M.J. Schultz; A.R.J. Girbes; A.B.J. Groeneveld
Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) frequently necessitate mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. The syndromes have a high mortality rate and there is at present no treatment specifically directed at the underlying pathogenesis. Central in
Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee
Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.
van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B
OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory sym
IMPORTANT REMINDER If you have just come back from one of the regions identified by the WHO as being infected with SARS, it is essential to monitor your state of health for ten days after your return. The syndrome manifests itself in the rapid onset of a high fever combined with respiratory problems (coughing, breathlessness, breathing difficulty). Should these signs appear, you must contact the CERN Medical Service as quickly as possible on number 73802 or 73186 during normal working hours, and the fire brigade at all other times on number 74444, indicating that you have just returned from one of the WHO-identified areas with recent local transmission.China: Beijing, Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region), Guangdong Province, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi Province, Tianjin ProvinceTaiwan:TaipeiMoreover, until further notice the CERN Management requests that all trips to these various regions of the world be reduced to a strict minimum and then only with the consent of the Division Leader concerned. Anyone comin...
Abraham, Albin; Karakurum, Ali
Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect of mesalamine therapy is a rare but potentially serious complication. Patients typically have a mild disease course with no documented cases of respiratory failure in published literature. Given its variable latent period and non-specific signs and symptoms, it may be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and a non-productive cough, 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with mesalamine. His hospital course was complicated by acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Radiographic studies revealed bilateral lower lobe infiltrates and bronchosopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering a diagnosis of mesalamine-induced lung injury in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms while on mesalamine therapy and to review relevant literature.
Tempel, G; Jelen, S; Forster, B; Gullotta, U; Daum, S
After successful rescue from drowning there may develop a situation which is called secondary drowning, resulting in acute respiratory distress characterized by interstitial pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidosis during drowning, direct alteration of the alveolar membrane by aspirated water and particulate matters and a volume overloading by adsorption and--not seldom--inept therapy. This situation requires mechanical ventilation and forced diuresis, combined with high doses of steroids, antibiotics and digitalis. We present the case of an eleven year old patient whose clinical course demonstrate the necessity of exact clinical observation after rescue from drowning. After development of acute respiratory distress only the immediate utilization of the therapeutic modalities of an intensive care may result in a satisfactory outcome. Four months later our patient had normal pulmonary function except for a moderate reduction of compliance.
Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is endemic in tropic and subtropic areas, but is currently seldom encountered in developed area like Taiwan. We present an elder man with acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection. There was no significant clue initially for diagnosing this patient as having S. stercoralis hyperinfection. Neither peripheral eosinophilia nor significant hemoptysis was noted. Bronchoscopy played a critical role to define the unexpected cause of his progressive pulmonary infiltrates. The correct diagnosis was soon made by recognition of the worm in bronchioloalveolar lavage cytology, and specific treatment was initiated promptly. For a septic patient with progressive pulmonary infiltrates, bronchoscopic studies including cytology may be necessary for defining the cause. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis should be considered as a cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome in immunocompromised patient, especially with the presence of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.
Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers.
Full Text Available Non invasive ventilation (NIV in acute respiratory failure (ARF improve clinical parameters, arterial blood gases, decrease mortality and endo tracheal intubation (ETI rate also outside the intensive care units (ICUs. Objective of this study is to verify applicability of NIV in a general non respiratory medical ward. We enrolled 68 consecutive patients (Pts with Hypoxemic or Hyper capnic ARF: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, Pneu - monia, acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. NIV treatment was CPAP or PSV + PEEP. 12 Pts (18,5% met primary endpoint (NIV failure: 11 Pts (17% needed ETI (5ALI/ARDS p < 0,0001, 6COPD 16,6%, 1 Patient (1,5% died (Pneumonia. No Pts with ACPE failed (p = 0,0027. Secondary endpoints: significant improvement in Respiratory Rate (RR, Kelly Score, pH, PaCO2, PaO2 vs baseline. Median duration of treatment: 16:06 hours: COPD 18:54, ACPE 4:15. Mean length of hospitalisation: 8.66 days. No patients discontinued NIV, no side effects. Results are consistent with literature. Hypoxemic ARF related to ALI/ARDS and pneumonia show worst outcome: it is not advisable to manage these conditions with NIV outside the ICU. NIV for ARF due to COPD and ACPE is feasible, safe and effective in a general medical ward if selection of Pts, staff’s training and monitoring are appropriate. This should encourage the diffusion of NIV in this specific setting. According to strong evidences in literature, NIV should be considered a first line and standard treatment in these clinical conditions irrespective of the setting.
Tsang, Kenneth W; Mok, Thomas Y; Wong, Poon C; Ooi, Gaik C
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently recognized and highly contagious pneumonic illness, caused by a novel coronavirus. While developments in diagnostic, clinical and other aspects of SARS research are well underway, there is still great difficulty for frontline clinicians as validated rapid diagnostic tests or effective treatment regimens are lacking. This article attempts to summarize some of the recent developments in this newly recognized condition from the Asia Pacific perspective.
Shiho; Sagara; Yasuo; Horie; Yumiko; Anezaki; Hideaki; Miyazawa; Masahiro; Iizuka
Various extraintestinal manifestations including pulmonary abnormalities have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious and fatal pulmonary manifestation. We have experienced a 67-year-old male patient with ARDS associated with a severe type of ulcerative colitis (UC). Severe dyspnea symptoms occurred during the treatment of UC in a previous hospital and the patient was transferred to our hospital on June 27, 2007. Both blood and sputa culture...
Siddalingana Gouda TG; H Manjunath Hande; Weena Stanley; Ragini Bargur
Tropical pyomyositis is an underdiagnosed condition. We reported a35 year old male farmer, who presented with septicemia and acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pyomyositis involving the paraspinal muscles. Culture of the pus grew methicillin sensitiveStaphylococcus aureus, and the patient recovered after surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment. Diagnostic delays can be avoided if tropical pyomyositis is considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with septicemia.
Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A
Acute respiratory infection (ARI), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, is the leading cause of hospitalization for U.S. infants. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) th...
Objective To study the clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) induced acute respiratory failure. Methods The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 9 patients were reviewed. Results 9 patients (8 females, 1 male) presented with obesity and mental disturbance, with a BMI being 44.97 kg /m2, (45.25 kg/m2 in the fe male). The mean age of the group was 67.89 years (61～74 years). All had respiratory acidosis (mean pH 7.17), hypercapni a (mean PaCO2 94.10mmHg) (63.97～143.18mmHg), and hypoxemia (mean PaO2 39mmHg) (29.03～44.03mmHg). During periods of clinical stability all but 2 had awaken hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 46.73mmHg) (38.25～54.68mmHg). Four of the 9 patients had pulmonary function test showing FEV1>70%. Conclusion OSAS induced acute respiratory fail ure has a sudden onset and various presentations and can be reversed with early and proper treatment. The severity of abnormal pulmonary function was less than what would be expected to cause respiratory failure.
Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to respiratory infections.
@@ Infectious atypical pneumonia (IAP) is also called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by WHO. In its development, around 20% of SARS can develop into the stage of acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), active and effective treatment of it constitutes the important basis for lowering mortality and reducing secondary pulmonary function impairment and pulmonary fibrosis.
Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is one of the most important complications associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI. ARDS is caused by inflammation of the lungs and hypoxic damage with lung physiology abnormalities associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Aim of this study is to determine the epidemiology of ARDS and the prevalence of risk factors. Methods: This prospective study performed on patients with acute traumatic head injury hospitalization in the intensive care unit of the Shohaday-e Haftom-e-Tir Hospital (September 2012 to September 2013 done. About 12 months, the data were evaluated. Information including age, sex, education, employment, drug and alcohol addiction, were collected and analyzed. The inclusion criteria were head traumatic patients and exclusion was the patients with chest trauma. Questionnaire was designed with doctors supervision of neurosurgery. Then the collected data were analysis. Results: In this study, the incidence of ARDS was 23.8% and prevalence of metabolic acidosis was 31.4%. Most injury with metabolic acidosis was Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH 48 (60% and Subdural hemorrhage (SDH was Next Level with 39 (48% Correlation between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS were significantly decreased (P< 0.0001. The level of consciousness in patients with skull fractures significantly lower than those without fractures (P= 0.009 [(2.3±4.6 vs (4.02±7.07]. Prevalence of metabolic acidosis during hospitalization was 80 patients (31.4%. Conclusion: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Management and treatment is essential to reduce the mortality. In this study it was found the age of patients with ARDS was higher than patients without complications. ARDS risk factor for high blood pressure was higher in men. Most victims were pedestrians. The most common injury associated with ARDS was SDH. Our analysis
Kaida, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kohdera, Urara; Togawa, Masao; Amo, Kiyoko; Shiomi, Masashi; Ohyama, Minori; Goto, Kaoru; Hase, Atsushi; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Iritani, Nobuhiro
Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age virus positive (1,414 viruses were detected), and 388 of the virus-positive specimens (43.5%, 388/891) were positive for multiple viruses. The ratio of multiple/total respiratory virus-positive specimens was high in children aged 0-35 months. Statistical analyses revealed that human bocavirus 1 and human adenovirus were synchronously co-detected. On the other hand, co-detections of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) with HPIV-3, HPIV-3 with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), hMPV with respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), hMPV with influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 (FLUA (H1N1) 2009), RSV A with RSV B, and human rhinovirus and FLUA (H1N1) 2009 were exclusive. These results suggest that young children (viruses, and some combinations of viruses are synchronously or exclusively co-detected.
Full Text Available Abstract Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are clinical entities of multi-factorial origin frequently seen in traumatically injured patients requiring intensive care. We performed an unsystematic search using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to January 2012. The purpose of this article is to review recent evidence for the pathophysiology and the management of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in the critically injured patient. Lung protective ventilation remains the most beneficial therapy. Future trials should compare intervention groups to controls receiving lung protective ventilation, and focus on relevant outcome measures such as duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, and mortality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the epidemiologic and clinical features of, and interactions among, multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI. A prospective study of children admitted with ARTI was conducted. Peripheral blood samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence to detect respiratory agents including respiratory syncytial virus; adenovirus; influenza virus (Flu types A and B; parainfluenza virus (PIV types 1, 2, and 3; chlamydia pneumonia; and mycoplasma pneumonia. A medical history of each child was taken. Results Respiratory agents were detected in 164 (51.9% of 316 children with ARTI. A single agent was identified in 50 (15.8% children, and multiple agents in 114 (36.1%. Flu A was the most frequently detected agent, followed by Flu B. Coinfection occurred predominantly in August and was more frequent in children between 3 and 6 years of age. A significantly higher proportion of Flu A, Flu B, and PIV 1 was detected in samples with two or more pathogens per sample than in samples with a single pathogen. Conclusion Our study suggests that there is a high occurrence of multipathogen infections in children admitted with ARTI and that coinfection is associated with certain pathogens.
Mangiarotti, P; Pozzi, E
Important epidemiological modifications have been registered in respiratory infections, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Pathogens with modified antibiotic susceptibility patterns have emerged, which display an increased antibiotic resistance, such as S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae. This trait has a strong impact on the therapeutic choices, particularly when an empiric antibiotic treatment is selected. The prevalence of bacterial species showing non-susceptibility to the most common prescribed antibiotics (betalactams, macrolides etc.) follows a different geographic distribution. Some pathogens have acquired a new epidemiological role in patients affected with immune deficiencies: among them P. carinii and other bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The emergence of new, previously unknown, species, has been registered, both bacteria (C. pneumoniae) and viruses (Metapneumovirus, Hantavirus etc.). Such aspects must be considered in the diagnosis of respiratory infections, which should include diagnostic tests for the identification of such pathogens. Among the new respiratory infections severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has quickly become a health care emergency, so that efforts have been made to identify the aetiological agent as well as the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Avian influenza has raised great interest immediately after the first cases of human infection caused by the avian virus, especially after the outbreaks in Asian countries and in the Netherlands. A crucial step in containing infection is the prevention of the disease; efforts are directed toward this endpoint.
Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0.83; 95% CI = 0.66-1.05, P = .12, very low quality evidence) and adverse
Zoorob, Roger; Sidani, Mohamad A; Fremont, Richard D; Kihlberg, Courtney
Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections. Early antibiotic treatment may be indicated in patients with acute otitis media, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, epiglottitis, or bronchitis caused by pertussis. Persistent cases of rhinosinusitis may necessitate the use of antibiotics if symptoms persist beyond a period of observation. Antibiotics should not be considered in patients with the common cold or laryngitis. Judicious, evidence-based use of antibiotics will help contain costs and prevent adverse effects and drug resistance.
Rozé, H; Repusseau, B; Ouattara, A
The purpose of this review is to examine the indications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This technique of oxygenation has significantly increased worldwide with the H1N1 flu pandemic. The goal of ECMO is to maintain a safe level of oxygenation and controlled respiratory acidosis under protective ventilation. The enthusiasm for ECMO should not obscure the consideration for potential associated complications. Before widespread diffusion of ECMO, new trials should test the efficacy of early initiation or CO2 removal in addition to, or even as an alternative to mechanical ventilation for severe ARDS. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
The novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MeRS-CoV) has been identified as a cause of pneumonia; however, it has not been reported as a cause of acute myocarditis. A 60-year-old man presented with pneumonia and congestive heart failure. On the first day of admission, he was found to have an elevated troponin-l level and severe global left ventricular systolic dysfunction on echo-cardiography. The serum creatinine level was found mildly elevated. Chest radiography revealed in the lower lung fields accentuated bronchovascular lung markings and multiple small patchy opacities. Laboratory tests were negative for viruses known to cause myocarditis. Sputum sample was positive for MeRS-CoV. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed evidence of acute myocarditis. the patient had all criteria specified by the international Consensus Group on CMR in Myocarditis that make a clinical suspicion for acute myocarditis. this was the first case that demonstrated that MeRS-CoV may cause acute myocarditis and acute-onset heart failure.
WANG Haiying; RONG Feng; KE Fujiu; BAI Yilong
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious disease with many puzzling features. We present a simple, dynamic model to assess the epidemic potential of SARS and the effectiveness of control measures. With this model, we analysed the SARS epidemic data in Beijing. The data fitting gives the basic case reproduction number of 2.16 leading to the outbreak, and the variation of the effective reproduction number reflecting the control effect. Noticeably, our study shows that the response time and the strength of control measures have significant effects on the scale of the outbreak and the lasting time of the epidemic.
詹俊; 陈为宪; 李楚强; 伍卫; 李建军; 江山平; 王景峰; 曾志勇; 黄子通; 黄洪章
Objective To explore digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Method The clinical data of 96 cases with SARS admitted into our hospital from February 6, 2003 to March 28, 2003 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among the 96 cases, 26 cases (27%) had diarrhea, 17 (18%) had nausea, 6 (6%) had vomiting, 16 (17%) had bellyache, and 8 (8%) had ALT elevation.Conclusions Patients with SARS may have digestive system manifestations; diarrhea is the most common symptom.
Bruells, C S; Rossaint, R; Dembinski, R
Ventilation of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with protective ventilator settings is the standard in patient care. Besides the reduction of tidal volumes, the adjustment of a case-related positive end-expiratory pressure and preservation of spontaneous breathing activity at least 48 h after onset is part of this strategy. Bedside techniques have been developed to adapt ventilatory settings to the individual patient and the different stages of ARDS. This article reviews the pathophysiology of ARDS and ventilator-induced lung injury and presents current evidence-based strategies for ventilator settings in ARDS.
MILITARY MEDICINE, 180, 3:56, 2015 A Comparison of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Outcomes Between Military and Civilian Burn Patients J Alan...Chung, MC USA*‡ ABSTRACT Background: The objective of this report was to compare the prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and...Development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of burn injury and is associated with poor outcomes. Previous reports using
Kelson Nobre Veras
Full Text Available A male farmer, 20 years old, from the countryside of the State of Piauí, developed acute respiratory infection. Despite adequate antimicrobial therapy, his conditions worsened, requiring mechanical ventilation. His X-rays showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. His PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 58. Direct microscopy and culture of tracheal aspirates showed the presence of Coccidioides immitis. Autochthonous cases of coccidioidomycosis have only recently been described in Brazil, most of them from the State of Piauí. C. immitis has been isolated from humans, dogs and armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, and also from soil samples of armadillo's burrows. Failure to respond to antimicrobial therapy and a patient's origin from recognized endemic areas should alert to the possibility of acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.
de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice.
Möhnle, P; Briegel, J
Despite a number of clinical trials there is still controversy about the role of corticosteroid therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition recent meta-analyses differed markedly in the conclusions. This review is intended to provide a short practical guide for the clinician. Based on the available literature, high-dose and pre-emptive administration of corticosteroids is hazardous and not indicated. A low-dose corticosteroid regime given for 4 weeks may potentially be helpful and can be considered in acute or unresolved ARDS in less than 14 days after onset of ARDS, if a close infection surveillance program is available, if neuromuscular blockade can be avoided and if a stepwise dose reduction of corticosteroids is performed. The total daily dose at the beginning of treatment should not exceed 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) methylprednisolone.
Guillaume, A; Desport, J C; Dolan, P; Fressard, D; Feiss, P
The pseudocyst of the pancreas is a frequent complication of acute pancreatitis. However to intrathoracic localization remains exceptional. A case of acute respiratory insufficiency in a 66-year-old man in whom artificial ventilation was required for such a complication is reported. This case stresses the difficulty often encountered for the differential diagnosis of these liquid tumors. The clinical signs are variable and non specific, especially in case of absence of any history of pancreatitis. The radiographic studies, in particular ultrasonography and CT-scanner defines its liquid nature and its connections. Endoscopy examination confirms its retro-oesophageal extension due to the migration through the oesophageal hiatus. Only the percutaneous needle aspiration of a collection or an associated pleural effusion confirms the diagnosis by the high content of amylases. The treatment of this type of localisation is surgical and essentially consists of an internal derivation.
Michalska, Agata; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Machała, Waldemar; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław
.... The authors of the article would like to emphasize the pathophysiology and diagnostic difficulties in such blunt chest trauma complications as pulmonary contusions and acute respiratory distress...
Vecchi, Vittoria; Langer, Thomas; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Chung, Kevin K; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Gattinoni, Luciano; Batchinsky, Andriy I
The clinical use of serial quantitative computed tomography (CT) to characterize lung disease and guide the optimization of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS...
Geneviève C Digby
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown.
Michelle Prinka Adyana
Full Text Available Near drowning is a condition in which the victim survived the first 24 hours. The WorldHealth Organization (WHO , recorded worldwide in 2000 there were 400,000 incidentdrowned accidentally . That is, this figure ranks second only to traffic accidents.Aspiration pneumonia is a complication of near drwoning which occurred in 80 % ofcases of near drowning, while 50 % of patients sink into acute respiratory distresssyndrome ( ARDS . This case report discusses the acute respiratory distress syndromeand acute pneumonia in near drowning 24 years old , who had drowned at the beach for± 15 minutes , the chest x - ray obtained pulmonary edema dd / lung pnuemonia therepneuomothorax . Examination of multislice spiral computed tomography ( MSCT bilateral pneumothorax Thorax obtained major and minor fisuura right and left majorfissure , pneumomediastinum , pulmonary pneumonia contusio / suspected aspirationpneumonia , emphysema subcutis . In intensive care patients conducted for 9 days andreturn to akitivitas everyday
A. V. Bogdanova
Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Verification of the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections is necessary for definition of treatment and direction of prevention. Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 and adenovirus are considered the main reasons of acute lower respiratory tract infections. The importance of different viruses depends on countries, district, seasons and ages of children. Analysis of the results of studies from different regions of the world showed fluctuations in frequency of etiology definition of respiratory viruses from 25 to 90%. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main reason of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the group of children up to 1 year.
Jennifer R Verani
Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4% cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7% among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6% of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0% had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9% case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000, followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000. These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and
Full Text Available When all conventional treatments for respiratory failure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS have failed, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO can provide a chance of survival in these desperately ill patients. A 49-year-old male patient developed septic shock and progressive ARDS after liver abscess drainage. Venovenous ECMO was given due to refractory respiratory failure on postoperative day 6. Initially, two heparin-binding hollow-fiber microporous membrane oxygenators in parallel were used in the ECMO circuit. Twenty-two oxygenators were changed in the first 22 days of ECMO support because of plasma leak in the oxygenators. Each oxygenator had an average life of 48 hours. Thereafter, a single silicone membrane oxygenator was used in the ECMO circuit, which did not require change during the remaining 596 hours of ECMO. The patient's tidal volume was only 90 mL in the nadir and less than 300 mL for 26 days during the ECMO course. The patient required ECMO support for 48 days and survived despite complications, including septic shock, ARDS, acute renal failure, drug-induced leukopenia, and multiple internal bleeding. This patient received an unusually long duration of ECMO support. However, he survived, recovered well, and was in New York Heart Association functional class I-II, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 81% of the predicted level 18 months later. In conclusion, ECMO can provide a chance of survival for patients with refractory ARDS. The reversibility of lung function is possible in ARDS patients regardless of the severity of lung dysfunction at the time of treatment.
Jiang, Lili; Lee, Vernon Jian Ming; Cui, Lin; Lin, Raymond; Tan, Chyi Lin; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Wei-yen; Leo, Yee-Sin; Low, Louie; Hibberd, Martin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng
To investigate the performance of laboratory methods and clinical case definitions in detecting the viral pathogens for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) from a prospective community cohort and hospital inpatients, nasopharyngeal swabs from cohort members reporting ARIs (community-ARI) and inpatients admitted with ARIs (inpatient-ARI) were tested by Singleplex Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (SRT-PCR), multiplex RT-PCR (MRT-PCR) and pathogen-chip system (PathChip) between April 2012 and December 2013. Community-ARI and inpatient-ARI was also combined with mild and severe cases of influenza from a historical prospective study as mild-ARI and severe-ARI respectively to evaluate the performance of clinical case definitions. We analysed 130 community-ARI and 140 inpatient-ARI episodes (5 inpatient-ARI excluded because multiple pathogens were detected), involving 138 and 207 samples respectively. Detection by PCR declined with days post-onset for influenza virus; decrease was faster for community-ARI than for inpatient-ARI. No such patterns were observed for non-influenza respiratory virus infections. PathChip added substantially to viruses detected for community-ARI only. Clinical case definitions discriminated influenza from other mild-ARI but performed poorly for severe-ARI and for older participants. Rational strategies for diagnosis and surveillance of influenza and other respiratory virus must acknowledge the differences between ARIs presenting in community and hospital settings. PMID:28218288
Full Text Available Clinical and basic experimental approaches to pediatric acute lung injury (ALI, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, have historically focused on acute care and management of the patient. Additional efforts have focused on the etiology of pediatric ALI and ARDS, clinically defined as diffuse, bilateral diseases of the lung that compromise function leading to severe hypoxemia within seven days of defined insult. Insults can include ancillary events related to prematurity, can follow trauma and/or transfusion, or can present as sequelae of pulmonary infections and cardiovascular disease and/or injury. Pediatric ALI/ARDS remains one of the leading causes of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Though incidence is relatively low, ranging from 2.9-9.5 cases/100,000 patients/year, mortality remains high, approaching 35% in some studies. However, this is a significant decrease from the historical mortality rate of over 50%. Several decades of advances in acute management and treatment, as well as better understanding of approaches to ventilation, oxygenation and surfactant regulation, have contributed to improvements in patient recovery. As such, there is a burgeoning interest in the long term impact of pediatric ALI/ARDS. Chronic pulmonary deficiencies in survivors appear to be caused by inappropriate injury repair, with fibrosis and predisposition to emphysema arising as irreversible secondary events that can severely compromise pulmonary development and function, as well as the overall health of the patient. In this chapter, the long term effectiveness of current treatments will be examined, as will the potential efficacy of novel, acute and long term therapies that support repair and delay or even impede the onset of secondary events, including fibrosis.
Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S
Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains the primary indication for admission to paediatric intensive care units and accounts for significant mortality, morbidity and resource utilization. Respiratory infections, in particular pneumonia and severe bronchiolitis, are the most common causes of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in infants and children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of ARDS and the management of paediatric patients with acute lung injury. Data indicate that adoption of a lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and of an open-lung ventilation strategy, characterized by sufficient positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP to avoid atelectasis, provides the greatest likelihood of survival and minimizes lung injury. The relative benefits of strategies such as high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO, recruiting manoeuvres and prone position are also considered. Moreover this article examines exogenous lung surfactant replacement therapy and its efficacy in the treatment of paediatric ARDS. In infants and children with acute lung injury the endogenous surfactant system is not only deficient, as observed in preterm infants, but altered via a variety of other mechanisms like inhibition and dysfunction. All factors contribute to the altered physiology seen in ARDS. The role of exogenous surfactant in lung injury beyond the neonatal period is therefore more complex and its limited efficacy may be related to a number of factors, among them inadequacy of pharmaceutical surfactants, insufficient dosing or drug delivery, poor drug distribution or, simply, an inability of the drug to counteract the underlying pathophysiology of ARDS. Several trials have found no clinical benefit from various surfactant supplementation methods in adult patients with ARDS, however some studies have shown that this therapy can improve oxygenation and decrease mortality in some specific
Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent of all infectious diseases. In popular speech common cold, flu (influenza), and pneumonia all denote acute respiratory infections. Elderly people show an increased risk of these infections and their complications. In The Netherlands about 2.000 elde
In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da
Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent of all infectious diseases. In popular speech common cold, flu (influenza), and pneumonia all denote acute respiratory infections. Elderly people show an increased risk of these infections and their complications. In The Netherlands about 2.000 elde
Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei
During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.
S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Valenti, Vitor E; Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; Abreu,Luiz C.
Abstract Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis....
LAN Mei-juan; HE Xiao-di
Patients who are diagnosed with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) usually have ventilation-perfusion mismatch, severe decrease in lung capacity, and gas exchange abnormalities. Health care work-ers have implemented various strategies in an attempt to compensate for these pathological alterations. By rotating patients with ALI/ARDS between the supine and prone position, it is possible to achieve a significant improvement in PaO2/FiO2, decrease shunting and therefore improve oxy-genation without use of expensive, invasive and experimen-tal procedures.
Hsing I Chen
Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be associated with various disorders.Recent investigation has involved clinical studies in collaboration with clinical investigators and pathologists on the pathogenetic mechanisms of ALl or ARDS caused by various disorders.This literature review includes a brief historical retrospective of ALI/ARDS, the neurogenic pulmonary edema due to head injury, the long-term experimental studies and clinical investigations from our laboratory, the detrimental role of NO, the risk factors, and the possible pathogenetic mechanisms as well as therapeutic regimen for ALI/ARDS.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome in wartime military burns: Application of the Berlin criteria Slava M. Belenkiy, MD, Allison R. Buel, DO, Jeremy...Andriy I. Batchinsky, MD, Leopoldo C. Cancio, MD, and Kevin K. Chung, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS...EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III. KEY WORDS: Mechanical ventilation; adult respiratory distress syndrome ; the Berlin definition; combat
Garingarao, Carlo Jan; Añonuevo-Cruz, Cecille; Gasacao, Ryan
Benign goitres have the potential to reach massive sizes if neglected, but most have a protracted course that may or may not present with compressive symptoms. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a rapidly enlarging nodular goitre resulting in acute respiratory failure. Endotracheal intubation and emergency total thyroidectomy were performed, revealing massive thyroid nodules with minimal intrathoracic extension and tracheal erosion. Despite a course and clinical findings suggestive of malignant disease, histopathology was consistent with a benign multinodular goitre. Several cases of benign goitres necessitating endotracheal intubation have been reported. Airway compromise was attributed to a significant intrathoracic component, or inciting events such as thyroid haemorrhage, pregnancy, radioiodine uptake or major surgery. Obstructive symptoms may not correlate well with objective measures of upper airway obstruction such as radiographs or flow volume loops.
de Haro, Candelaria; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Torrents, Eva; Artigas, Antonio
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). ARDS results in increased use of critical care resources and healthcare costs, yet the overall mortality associated with these conditions remains high. Research focusing on preventing ARDS and identifying patients at risk of developing ARDS is necessary to develop strategies to alter the clinical course and progression of the disease. To date, few strategies have shown clear benefits. One of the most important obstacles to preventive interventions is the difficulty of identifying patients likely to develop ARDS. Identifying patients at risk and implementing prevention strategies in this group are key factors in preventing ARDS. This review will discuss early identification of at-risk patients and the current prevention strategies.
Li, A M; Hon, K L E; Cheng, W T; Ng, P C; Chan, F Y; Li, C K; Leung, T F; Fok, T F
Accurate clinical diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) based on the current World Health Organization definition is difficult and at times impossible at the early stage of the disease. Both false positive and false negative cases are commonly encountered and this could have far-reaching detrimental effects on the patients, their family and the clinicians alike. Contact history is particularly important in diagnosing SARS in children as their presenting features are often non-specific. The difficulty in making a correct diagnosis is further compounded by the lack of a sensitive rapid diagnostic test. Serology is not particularly helpful in the initial triaging of patients as it takes at least 3 weeks to become positive. Co-infection and other treatable conditions should not be missed and conventional antibiotics should remain as part of the first-line treatment regimen. We report five cases to illustrate the difficulties and dilemmas faced by clinicians in diagnosing SARS in children.
Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, are the leading cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a 'risk and resilience' model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity and, thereby, decrease ARI incidence and severity in children.
Prabhas Prasun Giri
Full Text Available Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, and is characterized by skin rash, fever, lymph node enlargement, and internal organ involvement. So far, numerous drugs such as sulfonamides, phenobarbital, sulfasalazine, carbamazepine, and phenytoin have been reported to cause DRESS syndrome. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who developed clinical manifestations of fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hypereosinophilia, and visceral involvement (hepatitis and pneumonitis after taking phenobarbital for seizures, with subsequent development of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and spontaneous air leak syndrome (pnemothorax and pneumomediastinum. She was put on steroids and various antibiotics and was ventilated, but ultimately succumbed to sepsis and pulmonary complications.
Daste, Thomas; Lucas, Marie-Noelle; Aumann, Marcel
To describe a case of cerebral babesiosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a dog. A 5-year-old male neutered Scottish Terrier was referred to the emergency department of the Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse for evaluation of progressive dyspnea and clinical signs suggestive of central neurological disease. Thoracic radiographs showed a diffuse and heavy interstitial/alveolar lung pattern. Babesiosis was diagnosed based on blood smear evaluation. The dog died of cardiopulmonary arrest 6 hours after presentation. Cerebral babesiosis and ARDS were confirmed at necropsy. Major pathological findings included erythrocyte aggregation in the lungs, liver, and brain. This case report describes an unusual clinical presentation of Babesia canis canis infection, the most common species associated with babesiosis in Europe. In addition, this is to our knowledge the first case of Babesia-associated ARDS confirmed by histopathology in a dog. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.
Hai-Ying Lu; Xiao-Yuan Xu; Yu Lei; Yang-Feng Wu; Bo-Wen Chen; Feng Xiao; Gao-Qiang Xie; De-Min Han
AIM: To summarize clinical features of probable severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Beijing.METHODS: Retrospective cases involving 801 patients admitted to hospitals in Beijing between March and June 2003, with a diagnosis of probable SARS, moderate type.The series of clinical manifestation, laboratory and radiograph data obtained from 801 cases were analyzed. RESULTS: One to three days after the onset of SARS, the major clinical symptoms were fever (in 88.14% of patients), fatigue, headache, myalgia, arthralgia (25-36%), etc. The counts of WBC (in 22.56% of patients) lymphocyte (70.25%)and CD3, CD4, CD8 positive T cells (70%) decreased. From 4-7 d, the unspecific symptoms became weak; however, the rates of low respiratory tract symptoms, such as cough (24.18%), sputum production (14.26%), chest distress (21.04%) and shortness of breath (9.23%) increased, so did the abnormal rates on chest radiograph or CT. The low counts of WBC, lymphocyte and CD3, CD4, CD8 positiveT cells touched bottom. From 8 to 16 d, the patients presented progressive cough (29.96%), sputum production (13.09%), chest distress (29.96%) and shortness of breath (35.34%). All patients had infiltrates on chest radiograph or CT, some even with multi-infiltrates. Two weeks later, patients' respiratory symptoms started to alleviate, the infiltrates on the lung began to absorb gradually, the counts of WBC, lymphocyte and CD3, CD4, CD8 positive T cells were restored to normality.CONCLUSION: The data reported here provide evidence that the course of SARS could be divided into four stages, namely the initial stage, progressive stage, fastigium and convalescent stage.
TIAN Xin-ping; ZENG Xiao-feng; XU Wen-bin
@@ Since November 2002, an infectious disease with unknown cause occurred in China and many countries had been involved. Cases were reported in 28 countries and more than 5050 individuals had been infected.1 Lung is the most frequently involved organ and can be fatal in severe cases. At the end of February 2003, it was defined as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) by World Health Organization. China had a SARS epidemic in the spring of 2003. More than 1000 patients were infected and some patients died of respiratory failure.Finally, a new variant of coronavirus was suspected to be the pathogen although the pathogenesis was still unclear. Since it is a new disease and we have very limited knowledge about its clinical sequela, we followed the survived patients closely in order to understand it in depth. During the follow up, we discovered an interesting patient who was finally diagnosed as fibromyalgia. We report this case herein to share our experience with clinicians who may see patients with SARS or fibromyalgia.
Beltrán, Karent Julieth; Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Línea de investigación Microbiología Molecular y Aplicada de las enfermedades Infecciosas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia.; Segura, Juan Camilo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia; Bettin, Laura; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia; Coriat, Jeanette; Programa de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia; Mercado, Marcela; Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá-Colombia.; Hidalgo, Marylin; Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Departamento de Microbiología. Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C. Colombia.; Díez, Hugo; Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia.
Objective: To determine viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in older-than-60 adults, living at 4 geriatric care units in Bogota.Methods: The study was performed in two phases: Phase 1: Descriptive prospective study to evaluate incidence of viral respiratory infection during 1 year in old adults. 71 patients, suffering respiratory diseases, were selected, and evaluated, including physical exploration, thorax X-ray, and collection of respiratory samples for analysis. In order to dete...
John H. Lange
@@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.
Hatakka, Katja; Piirainen, Laura; Pohjavuori, Sara; Poussa, Tuija; Savilahti, Erkki; Korpela, Riitta
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between child characteristics, parental and environmental factors and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute otitis media (AOM) among Finnish children attending day care centres (DCCs). The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire of 594 children aged 1-6 y from 18 DCCs in Helsinki, Finland. Recurrent (> or =4 diseases/y) ARI was present in 44% of the 1-3-y-olds and 23% of the 4-6-y-olds, and recurrent AOM in 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Parent atopic disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.53, p = 0.033), mother's academic education (OR 1.77, p = 0.008) and a medium length of DCC attendance compared to a short period (OR 1.67, p = 0.049) increased, while furry pets (OR 0.44, p = 0.003) and older child age (OR 0.38, p or =6 months (OR 0.20, p = 0.002) and older child age (OR 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced the risk of recurrent AOM. Parental and environmental factors had a significant impact on recurrent ARI and AOM episodes in children attending DCCs. These risk factors should be considered in future studies intending to reduce DCC infections.
Kitsiouli, Eirini; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyse the cleavage of fatty acids esterified at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids. In acute lung injury-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI-ARDS) several distinct isoenzymes appear in lung cells and fluid. Some are capable to trigger molecular events leading to enhanced inflammation and lung damage and others have a role in lung surfactant recycling preserving lung function: Secreted forms (groups sPLA2-IIA, -V, -X) can directly hydrolyze surfactant phospholipids. Cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2-IVA) requiring Ca2+ has a preference for arachidonate, the precursor of eicosanoids which participate in the inflammatory response in the lung. Ca(2+)-independent intracellular PLA2s (iPLA2) take part in surfactant phospholipids turnover within alveolar cells. Acidic Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 (aiPLA2), of lysosomal origin, has additionally antioxidant properties, (peroxiredoxin VI activity), and participates in the formation of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine in lung surfactant. PAF-AH degrades PAF, a potent mediator of inflammation, and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids but also leads to toxic metabolites. Therefore, the regulation of PLA2 isoforms could be a valuable approach for ARDS treatment.
life support (ECLS) in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased markedly during the past few years after suc- cessful...Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Christy...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to
Ronaldo Bragança Martins Júnior
Full Text Available Viruses are the major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs for all age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies for a large range of respiratory viruses using a sensitive molecular detection technique in specimens from outpatients of all ages with ARIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 162 individuals between August 2007-August 2009. Twenty-three pathogenic respiratory agents, 18 respiratory viruses and five bacteria were investigated using multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF. Through IIF, 33 (20.4% specimens with respiratory virus were recognised, with influenza virus representing over half of the positive samples. Through a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, 88 (54.3% positive samples were detected; the most prevalent respiratory viral pathogens were influenza, human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Six cases of viral co-detection were observed, mainly involving RSV. The use of multiplex real-time RT-PCR increased the viral detection by 33.9% and revealed a larger number of respiratory viruses implicated in ARI cases, including the most recently described respiratory viruses [human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 virus, human coronavirus (HCoV NL63 and HCoV HKU1].
Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Tan, Lian-Huat; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Fong, Mun-Yik; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Mahmud, Rohela
Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient's condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission.
Full Text Available Non invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV is increasingly used for patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure secondary to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. NPPV has been shown to improve arterial blood gas tensions and dyspnoea and to prevent the need for intubation in patients admitted to hospital with an exacerbation of COPD associated with respiratory acidosis. Although advantages of NPPV over conventional treatment have been convincingly documented in the short period, there are fewer data as to the outcomes following hospital discharge. We have undertaken a prospective descriptive study to obtain comprehensive data on the in hospital and 3 month outcomes of a cohort of 57 COPD patients treated with NPPV for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure as a first intervention in addition to usual medical care. Patients with a COPD exacerbation had better outcomes than patients with COPD complicated by other acute conditions. Pneumonia was specifically associated with a higher inhospital risk of death. In our series about one in four patients with an indicator of previous severe respiratory disease (past admission for acute respiratory failure, previous use of NPPV, long term oxygen therapy or home NPPV was dead at three months after discharge and almost one in two was dead or had been readmitted. On the contrary, patients without indicators of previous severe respiratory disease benefited from NPPV during an acute episode of respiratory failure and had a chance of approximately 80% of being alive and free from recurrence at three months.
A. N. Kuzovlev
Full Text Available Objective: to define the informative value of the parameters of gas exchange, lung volumetry, and central hemodynamics in the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in nosocomial pneumonia (NP. Subjects and methods. The study included 38 patients with cancer and severe injury who were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of ARDS and NP: 1 patients with ARDS + NP; 2 those with NP; 3 those with non-ARDS, non-PN. ARDS was diagnosed in 2 steps. At Step 1, the investigators took into account risk factors for ARDS and used the lung injury scale developed by J. Murray et al. and the ARDS diagnostic criteria defined by the American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. At Step 2, after obtaining the data of lung volume-try (1—2 hours after Step 1, they assessed the compliance of the above criteria for ARDS with those developed by the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and redistributed the patients between the groups. The stage of ARDS was determined in accordance with the classification of the above Institute. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination the key element of which was to estimate gas exchange parameters and to monitor lung volumetry and central hemodynamics by the transpulmonary thermodilution methods, by using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The findings were statistically analyzed using a Statistica 7.0 package (arithmetic mean, error of the mean, _ Student’s test, Newman-Keuls test, correlation analysis. The difference was considered to be significant if p-value was Results. The patients with ARDS + NP were observed to have a significantly lower oxygenation index (10 ml/kg and Murray scale scores (>2 than those in patients with NP without ARDS. The reference values of the pulmonary vascular permeability index due to its inadequate informative value call for further investigation. The
Jabaudon, Matthieu; Blondonnet, Raiko; Audard, Jules; Fournet, Marianne; Godet, Thomas; Sapin, Vincent; Constantin, Jean-Michel
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is heterogeneous by definition and patient response varies depending on underlying biology and their severity of illness. Although ARDS subtypes have been identified with different prognoses in past studies, the concept of phenotypes or endotypes does not extend to the clinical definition of ARDS. This has possibly hampered the development of therapeutic interventions that target select biological mechanisms of ARDS. Recently, a major advance may have been achieved as it may now be possible to identify ARDS subtypes that may confer different responses to therapy. The aim of personalised medicine is to identify, select, and test therapies that are most likely to be associated with a favourable outcome in a specific patient. Several promising approaches to ARDS subtypes capable of predicting therapeutic response, and not just prognosis, are highlighted in this perspective paper. An overview is also provided of current and future directions regarding the provision of personalised ARDS medicine. The importance of delivering the right care, at the right time, to the right patient, is emphasised. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is the hallmark of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The amount of fluid and which fluid should be used in these patients is controversial. Methods 43 patients with ARDS treated in the intensive care unit (ICU of the Second Hospital, Jilin University between November 1, 2011-November 1, 2012 were prospectively analyzed and was observational. Volume and the type of fluid administered were compared to 90 day mortality and the 24 and 72 hour sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score, lactate level, oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2, duration of ICU stay, total ventilator days, and need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Results Mortality was increased when hydroxylethyl starch (HES was used in the first day or plasma substitutes were used during the first 3 days (P3000 ml during the first 24 hours or >8000 ml during the first 72 hours were associated with higher SOFA scores at 24 and 72 hours (P<0.05, both comparisons. Colloid, especially higher volume colloid use was also associated with increased SOFA scores at either 24 or 72 hours. Conclusions Limiting the use of colloids and the total amount of fluid administered to patients with ARDS is associated with improved mortality and SOFA scores.
Garcia, Cristiane S N Baez; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M
The pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been described by the presence of direct (pulmonary) and/or indirect (extrapulmonary) insult to the lung parenchyma. Evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of ARDS may differ according to the type of primary insult. This article presents a brief overview of differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS, and discusses the interactions between morpho-functional aspects and response to differents therapies, both in experimental and clinical studies. This systematic review included clinical and experimental ARDS studies found in MedLine and SciElo databases in the last 20 years. Many researchers acknowledge that experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS are not identical with regard to morpho-functional aspects, the response to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), recruitment manoeuvre, prone position and other adjunctive therapies. However, contradictory results have been reported in different clinical studies, which could be attributed to the difficulty of classifying ARDS in one or the other category, and to the assurance regarding the onset, phase and severity of ARDS in all patients. Heterogeneous ARDS patients are still considered as belonging to one syndrome, and are therefore treated in a similar manner. Thus, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS in an attempt to better treat these patients.
Full Text Available There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We generate strong (1 and weak (2 grade of recommendations based on high (A, moderate (B and low (C grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B and inhaled nitric oxide (1A as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C, and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B. The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B, however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B. In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B. Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A. In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients.
ZHANG Ding-mei; WANG Guo-ling; LU Jia-hai
@@ In November 2002, a new disease-severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS-first emerged in Guangdong Province, China. Subsequently, it spread to more than 30 countries worldwide.1 The causative agent was identified to be a previously unknown member of the coronaviridae family, and was named SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS coronavirus is a large, enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus. The genome is about 30 kb, which is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). Two large 5'-terminal ORFs (1a and 1b) encode the polymerases that are required for viral RNA synthesis. The remaining twelve ORFs encode four structural proteins [spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane protein (M) and nucleocapsid protein (N)] and eight accessory proteins.2 Though the SARS-CoV genome is clear, a great deal more work will be required to develop an efficient vaccine and effective drugs. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable in the convalescent sera of SARS patients, and sera from recovered patients could be used to treat newly infected individuals.3 The data suggest that protective humoral immunity is achievable and that vaccines can be developed for prevention of SARS. In this article, we review and discuss progress towards development of a SARS vaccine.
Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.
Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%, living in kutcha houses (90.72% with inadequate ventilation (84.54%, overcrowded living condition (81.44%, with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98% and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%. ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community.
Full Text Available Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46% who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%. The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%. The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit.
Full Text Available Despite distinct epidemiology and outcomes, pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS is often managed based on evidence extrapolated from treatment of adults. The impact of non-pulmonary processes on mortality, as well as the lower mortality rate compared to adults with ARDS, renders the utilization of short-term mortality as a primary outcome measure for interventional studies problematic. However, data regarding alternatives to mortality are profoundly understudied, and proposed alternatives such as ventilator-free days may be themselves subject to hidden biases. Given the neuropsychiatric and functional impairment in adult survivors of ARDS, characterization of these morbidities in children with PARDS is of paramount importance. The purpose of this review is to frame these challenges in the context of the existing pediatric literature, and using adult ARDS as a guide, suggest potential clinically relevant outcomes deserving of further investigation. The goal is to identify important areas of study in order to better define clinical practice and facilitate future interventional trials in PARDS.
Cho, Young-Jae; Moon, Jae Young; Shin, Ein-Soon; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jung, Hoon; Park, So Young; Kim, Ho Cheol; Sim, Yun Su; Rhee, Chin Kook; Lim, Jaemin; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Won-Yeon; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwak, Sang Hyun; Kang, Eun Kyeong; Chung, Kyung Soo
There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C), and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B). The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B), however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B). In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B) and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B) and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B). Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A). In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients.
Hong, N. E-mail: email@example.com; Du, X.K
AIM: To report the incidence of avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven SARS patients who had large joint pain between March 2003 and May 2003 underwent both plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination on the same day. All patients received steroids and ribavirin treatment. All plain radiographs and MR images were analysed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Any abnormalities, location, extent, morphology, the number, size and signal intensity of lesions were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were identified with AVN, The mean time to diagnosis of AVN was 119 days after the onset of SARS, or 116 days after steroid use. Three patients had early bilateral AVN of the femoral head, four patients of one femoral head, five patients of the bilateral hips and knees, four patients of the ipsilateral hip and knees, 10 patients of the knee(s), one patient of the right proximal fibula, and one patient of the knees and talus. Results of hip, knee and ankle plain radiographs were negative. CONCLUSION: AVN can occur in the patients with SARS. AVN had a strong association with steroid use. More studies are required to confirm whether the virus itself can also lead to AVN.
Souza Alba Barros de
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, and evolves progressively with three phases: exsudative, fibroproliferative, and fibrotic. In the exudative phase, there are interstitial and alveolar edemas with hyaline membrane. The fibroproliferative phase is characterized by exudate organization and fibroelastogenesis. There is proliferation of type II pneumocytes to cover the damaged epithelial surface, followed by differentiation into type I pneumocytes. The fibroproliferative phase starts early, and its severity is related to the patient?s prognosis. The alterations observed in the phenotype of the pulmonary parenchyma cells steer the tissue remodeling towards either progressive fibrosis or the restoration of normal alveolar architecture. The fibrotic phase is characterized by abnormal and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The dynamic control of collagen deposition and degradation is regulated by metalloproteinases and their tissular regulators. The deposition of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ARDS patients needs better study. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling, in normal conditions or in several pulmonary diseases, such as ARDS, results from a complex mechanism that integrate the transcription of elements that destroy the matrix protein and produce activation/inhibition of several cellular types of lung tissue. This review article will analyze the ECM organization in ARDS, the different pulmonary parenchyma remodeling mechanisms, and the role of cytokines in the regulation of the different matrix components during the remodeling process.
Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Song, Jeong Sup; Lee, Kyo Young [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this report is to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the lung in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among eleven patients who survived ARDS for one year, chest radiography and HRCT revealed pulmonary fibrosis in four. Causes of ARDS included pneumonia during pregnancy, near drowning, pneumonia during liver cirrhosis, and postoperative sepsis. Thoracoscopic biopsy and histopathologic correlation were available in one patient. HRCT showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening, ground glass opacity, parenchymal distortion, and traction bronchiectasis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules were seen in two patients and one patient had multiple, large bullae in the left hemithorax. In all patients, lesions affected the upper and anterior zones of the lung more prominently. The distribution of pulmonary fibrosis was characteristic and reflected the pathogenesis of lung injury; fibrosis was largely due to hyperoxia caused by ventilator care. In one patient, histopathologic correlation showed that imaging findings were accounted for by thickening of the alveolar septum along with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells and fibrosis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules corresponded with bronchiolitis.
López-Fernández, Yolanda; Azagra, Amelia Martínez-de; de la Oliva, Pedro; Modesto, Vicent; Sánchez, Juan I; Parrilla, Julio; Arroyo, María José; Reyes, Susana Beatriz; Pons-Ódena, Martí; López-Herce, Jesús; Fernández, Rosa Lidia; Kacmarek, Robert M; Villar, Jesús
The incidence and outcome of the acute respiratory distress syndrome in children are not well-known, especially under current ventilatory practices. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence, etiology, and outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the pediatric population in the setting of lung protective ventilation. A 1-yr, prospective, multicenter, observational study in 12 geographical areas of Spain (serving a population of 3.77 million ≤ 15 yrs of age) covered by 21 pediatric intensive care units. All consecutive pediatric patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and meeting American-European Consensus Criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. Data on ventilatory management, gas exchange, hemodynamics, and organ dysfunction were collected. A total of 146 mechanically ventilated patients fulfilled the acute respiratory distress syndrome definition, representing a incidence of 3.9/100,000 population ≤ 15 yrs of age/yr. Pneumonia and sepsis were the most common causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome. At the time of meeting acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria, mean PaO2/FIO2 was 99 mm Hg ± 41 mm Hg, mean tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg ± 1.8 mL/kg predicted body weight, mean plateau pressure was 27 cm H2O ± 6 cm H2O, and mean positive end-expiratory pressure was 8.9 cm ± 2.9 cm H2O. Overall pediatric intensive care unit and hospital mortality were 26% (95% confidence interval 19.6-33.7) and 27.4% (95% confidence interval 20.8-35.1), respectively. At 24 hrs, after the assessment of oxygenation under standard ventilatory settings, 118 (80.8%) patients continued to meet acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria (PaO2/FIO2 104 mm Hg ± 36 mm Hg; pediatric intensive care units mortality 30.5%), whereas 28 patients (19.2%) had a PaO2/FIO2 >200 mm Hg (pediatric intensive care units mortality 7.1%) (p = .014). This is the largest study to estimate prospectively the pediatric population-based acute
ZHU Yan-feng; YU Wen-liang; XIE Min-hui; YAN Chao-ying; LU Zhu-jin; SUN Bo; XU Feng; LU Xiu-lan; WANG Ying; CHEN Jian-li; CHAO Jian-xin; ZHOU Xiao-wen; ZHANG Jian-hui; HUANG Yan-zhi
Background Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) often develops acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),and its incidence and mortalities in critically ill pediatric patients in China were 2％ and 40％ respectively.This study aimed at prospectively investigating incidence,causes,mortality and its risk factors,and any relationship to initial tidal volume (VT) levels of mechanical ventilation,in children ≤5 years of age with AHRF and ARDS.Methods In 12 consecutive months in 23 pediatric intensive care units (PICU),AHRF and ARDS were identified in those requiring ＞12 hour intratracheal mechanical ventilation and followed up for 90 days or until death or discharge.ARDS was diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus definitions.The mortality and ventilation free days (VFD) were measured as the primary outcome,and major complications,initial disease severity,and burden were measured as the secondary outcome.Results In 13 491 PICU admissions,there were 439 AHRE,of which 345 (78.6％) developed ARDS,resulting in incidences of 3.3％ and 2.6％,and corresponding mortalities of 30.3％ and 32.8％ respectively along with 8.2 and 6.7 times of relative risk of death in those with pneumonia (62.9％) and sepsis (33.7％) as major underlying diseases respectively.No association was found in VT levels during the first 7 days with mortality,nor for VT at levels ＜6,6-8,8-10,and ＞10 ml/kg in the first 3 days with mortality or length of VFD.By binary Logistic regression analyses,higher pediatric risk of mortality score Ⅲ,higher initial oxygenation index,and age ＜1 year were associated with higher mortality or shorter VFD in AHRF.Conclusions The incidence and mortalities of AHRF and ARDS in children ≤5 years were similar to or lower than the previously reported rates (in age up to 15 years),associated with initial disease severity and other confounders,but causal relationship for the initial VT levels as the independent factor to the major outcome
Kaw Bing Chua; Gary Crameri; Alex Hyatt; Meng Yu; Mohd Rosli Tompang; Juliana Rosli; Jennifer McEachern; Sandra Crameri; Verasingam Kumarasamy; Bryan T. Eaton; Lin-Fa Wang
.... Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named "Melaka virus") isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation...
study of 436 under‑five children diagnosed with ARI was carried out in three hospitals in Enugu. .... risk factors were defined as follows: Malnutrition was assessed with the use of ..... Kristensen IA, Olsen J. Determinants of acute respiratory.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnosis between acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS may often be difficult. We evaluated the ability of chest sonography in the identification of characteristic pleuropulmonary signs useful in the diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and APE. Methods Chest sonography was performed on admission to the intensive care unit in 58 consecutive patients affected by ALI/ARDS or by acute pulmonary edema (APE. Results Ultrasound examination was focalised on finding in the two groups the presence of: 1 alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS 2 pleural lines abnormalities 3 absence or reduction of "gliding" sign 4 "spared areas" 5 consolidations 6 pleural effusion 7 "lung pulse". AIS was found in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 100% of patients with APE (p = ns. Pleural line abnormalities were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 25% of patients with APE (p All signs, except the presence of AIS, presented a statistically significant difference in presentation between the two syndromes resulting specific for the ultrasonographic characterization of ALI/ARDS. Conclusion Pleuroparenchimal patterns in ALI/ARDS do find a characterization through ultrasonographic lung scan. In the critically ill the ultrasound demonstration of a dyshomogeneous AIS with spared areas, pleural line modifications and lung consolidations is strongly predictive, in an early phase, of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G
Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
Sherif S. Wahba
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a rarely seen complication with nitrfurantoin. We report improvement of a parturient who was admitted to our hospital’s obstetrical unit with life threatening nitrofurantoin-induced acute respiratory failure. She had been taking nitrofurantoin for one week for urinary tract infection (UTI. Her chest radiography showed bilateral parenchymal infiltrates of the lung. The patient responded well to nitrofurantoin discontinuation and methylprednisolone infusion 1 mg/kg/day.
Full Text Available Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO is a demyelinating autoimmune disease involving the central nervous system. Acute respiratory failure from cervical myelitis due to NMO is known to occur but is uncommon in monophasic disease and is treated with high dose steroids. We report a case of a patient with NMO who developed acute respiratory failure related to cervical spinal cord involvement, refractory to pulse dose steroid therapy, which resolved with plasmapheresis.
D.G. Markhorst (Dick); M.A. van Van Gestel (Miriam); H.R. van Genderingen (Huibert); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard); A.J. van Vught (Adrianus)
textabstractBackground and objective: This study was performed to assess the accuracy of respiratory inductive plethysmographic (RIP) estimated lung volume changes at varying positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) during different degrees of acute respiratory failure. Methods: Measurements of insp
Groeneveld, A B Johan
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following sepsis, major trauma and surgery are leading causes of respiratory insufficiency, warranting artificial ventilation in the intensive care unit. It is caused by an inflammatory reaction in the lung upon exogenous or endogenous etiologies eliciting proinflammatory factors, and results in increased alveolocapillary permeability and protein-rich alveolar edema. The interstitial and alveolar inflammation and edema alter ventilation perfusion matching, gas exchange and mechanical properties of the lung. The current therapy of the condition is supportive, paying careful attention to fluid balance, relieving the increased work of breathing and improving gas exchange by mechanical ventilation, but in vitro, animal and some clinical research is done to evaluate the value of anti-inflammatory therapies on morbidity and outcome, including inflammatory cell-stabilizing corticosteroids, xanthine derivates, prostanoids and inhibitors, O(2) radical scavenging factors such as N-acetylcysteine, surfactant replacement, vasodilators including inhaled nitric oxide, vasoconstrictors such as almitrine, and others. None of these compounds has been proven to benefit survival in patients, however, even though carrying a physiologic benefit, except perhaps for steroids that may improve outcome in the later stage of ARDS. This partly relates to the difficulty to assess the lung injury at the bedside, to the multifactorial pathogenesis and the severity of comorbidity, adversely affecting survival.
Amato, Marcelo B P; Meade, Maureen O; Slutsky, Arthur S; Brochard, Laurent; Costa, Eduardo L V; Schoenfeld, David A; Stewart, Thomas E; Briel, Matthias; Talmor, Daniel; Mercat, Alain; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Carvalho, Carlos R R; Brower, Roy G
Mechanical-ventilation strategies that use lower end-inspiratory (plateau) airway pressures, lower tidal volumes (VT), and higher positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEPs) can improve survival in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the relative importance of each of these components is uncertain. Because respiratory-system compliance (CRS) is strongly related to the volume of aerated remaining functional lung during disease (termed functional lung size), we hypothesized that driving pressure (ΔP=VT/CRS), in which VT is intrinsically normalized to functional lung size (instead of predicted lung size in healthy persons), would be an index more strongly associated with survival than VT or PEEP in patients who are not actively breathing. Using a statistical tool known as multilevel mediation analysis to analyze individual data from 3562 patients with ARDS enrolled in nine previously reported randomized trials, we examined ΔP as an independent variable associated with survival. In the mediation analysis, we estimated the isolated effects of changes in ΔP resulting from randomized ventilator settings while minimizing confounding due to the baseline severity of lung disease. Among ventilation variables, ΔP was most strongly associated with survival. A 1-SD increment in ΔP (approximately 7 cm of water) was associated with increased mortality (relative risk, 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 1.51; Ppressures and VT (relative risk, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.58; P<0.001). Individual changes in VT or PEEP after randomization were not independently associated with survival; they were associated only if they were among the changes that led to reductions in ΔP (mediation effects of ΔP, P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). We found that ΔP was the ventilation variable that best stratified risk. Decreases in ΔP owing to changes in ventilator settings were strongly associated with increased survival. (Funded by Fundação de Amparo e
Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse
: Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...
Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico
Acute alkalosis may directly affect PTH secretion. The effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis was studied in 20 dogs. PTH values were lower in the metabolic (5.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml) and respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml). Acute alkalosis is an independent factor that decreases PTH values during normocalcemia and delays the PTH response to hypocalcemia. We recently showed that acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis stimulated PTH secretion. This study was designed to evaluate whether acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Three groups of 10 dogs were studied: control, acute metabolic alkalosis, and acute respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was induced with an infusion of sodium bicarbonate and respiratory alkalosis by hyperventilation. Calcium chloride was infused to prevent alkalosis-induced hypocalcemia during the first 60 minutes. During the next 30 minutes, disodium EDTA was infused to induce hypocalcemia and to evaluate the PTH response to hypocalcemia. Because the infusion of sodium bicarbonate resulted in hypernatremia, the effect of hypernatremia was studied in an additional group that received hypertonic saline. After 60 minutes of a normocalcemic clamp, PTH values were less (p respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml); the respective blood pH values were 7.61 +/- 0.01, 7.59 +/- 0.02, and 7.39 +/- 0.02. The maximal PTH response to hypocalcemia was similar among the three groups. However, the maximal PTH response was observed after a decrease in ionized calcium of 0.20 mM in the control group but not until a decrease of 0.40 mM in the metabolic and respiratory alkalosis groups. In contrast to the metabolic alkalosis group, hypernatremia (157 +/- 2 mEq/liter) in the hypertonic saline group was associated with an increased PTH value (46 +/- 4 pg/ml). Finally, the half-life of intact PTH
LI Jin-bao; ZHANG Liang; ZHU Ke-ming; DENG Xiao-ming
Objective:To assess the incidence, etiology, physiological and clinical features, mortality, and predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care unit (ICU).Methods: A retrospective analysis of 5 314 patients admitted to the ICU of our hospital from April 1994 to December 2003 was performed in this study. The ARDS patients were identified with the criteria of the American-European Consensus Conference ( AECC ). Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅲ ( APACHE in), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score (MODS score), and lung injury score (LIS) were determined on the onset day of ARDS for all the patients. Other recorded variables included age, sex, biochemical indicators, blood gas analysis, length of stay in ICU, length of ventilation, presence or absence of tracheostomy, ventilation variables, elective operation or emergency operation.Results:Totally, 131 patients (2.5%) developed ARDS, among whom, 12 patients were excluded from this study because they died within 24 hours and other 4 patients were also excluded for their incomplete information. Therefore, there were only 115 cases (62 males and 53 females, aged 22-75 years, 58 years on average) left,accounting for 2. 2% of the total admitted patients. Their average ICU stay was (11. 27±7. 24) days and APACHE in score was 17.23±7.21. Pneumonia and sepsis were the main cause of ARDS. The non-survivors were obviously older and showed significant difference in the ICU length of stay and length of ventilation as compared with the survivors. On admission, the non-survivors had significantly higher MODS and lower BE ( base excess). The hospital mortality was 55. 7%. The main cause of death was multiple organ failure. Predictors of death at the onset of ARDS were advanced age, MODS≥8, and LIS≥2.76.Conclusions: ARDS is a frequent syndrome in this cohort. Sepsis and pneumonia are the most common risk factors. The main cause of death is multiple organ failure. The mortality is
Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory infection in children under 5 years old with and without infection due to respiratory syncytial virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in a sample of 65 cases and 65 controls in children under 5 years old with acute respiratory infection (SARI treated at the Pediatric Emergency Hospital during 2014. The diagnosis of RSV test was performed using direct inmuﬂuorescencia (IFD in nasal and throat samples (D3 Ultra DFA Respiratory Virus 8 ™ Screening & ID Kit. The results were expressed in absolute and relative terms; the analysis was performed by measures of central tendency, chi-square, “t” Student and Mann Whitney tests. RESULTS: Signiﬁcant differences were found between cases and controls in the average age in the month of infection, the average respiratory rate, use of mechanical ventilation in antibiotic treatment and diagnosis of bronchiolitis at medical discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there are clinical and epidemiological differences between the cases and controls
File, Thomas M; Tsang, Kenneth W T
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged infection that is caused by a previously unrecognized virus - a novel coronavirus designated as SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). From November 2002 to July 2003 the cumulative number of worldwide cases was >8000, with a mortality rate of close to 10%. The mortality has been higher in older patients and those with co-morbidities. SARS has been defined using clinical and epidemiological criteria and cases are considered laboratory-confirmed if SARS coronavirus is isolated, if antibody to SARS coronavirus is detected, or a polymerase chain reaction test by appropriate criteria is positive. At the time of writing (24 May 2004), no specific therapy has been recommended. A variety of treatments have been attempted, but there are no controlled data. Most patients have been treated throughout the illness with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, supplemental oxygen, intravenous fluids, and other supportive measures. Transmission of SARS is facilitated by close contact with patients with symptomatic infection. The majority of cases have been reported among healthcare providers and family members of SARS patients. Since SARS-CoV is contagious, measures for prevention center on avoidance of exposure, and infection control strategies for suspected cases and contacts. This includes standard precautions (hand hygiene), contact precautions (gowns, goggles, gloves) and airborne precautions (negative pressure rooms and high efficiency masks). In light of reports of new cases identified during the winter of 2003-4 in China, it seems possible that SARS will be an important cause of pneumonia in the future, and the screening of outpatients at risk for SARS may become part of the pneumonia evaluation.
Full Text Available This paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large geographical extent but clustered in two areas: first in Guangdong Province, and about 3 months later in Beijing with its surrounding areas. Reanalysis of all available epidemiological data resulted in a total of 5327 probable cases of SARS, of whom 343 died. The resulting case fatality ratio (CFR of 6.4% was less than half of that in other SARS-affected countries or areas, and this difference could only partly be explained by younger age of patients and higher number of community acquired infections. Analysis of the impact of interventions demonstrated that strong political commitment and a centrally coordinated response was the most important factor to control SARS in mainland China, whereas the most stringent control measures were all initiated when the epidemic was already dying down. The long-term economic consequence of the epidemic was limited, much consumption was merely postponed, but for Beijing irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector were considerable. An important finding from a cohort study was that many former SARS patients currently suffer from avascular osteonecrosis, as a consequence of the treatment with corticosteroids during their infection. The SARS epidemic provided valuable information and lessons relevant in controlling outbreaks of newly emerging infectious diseases, and has led to fundamental reforms of the Chinese health system. In particular, a comprehensive nation-wide internet-based disease reporting system was established.
Yilmaz, Sema; Daglioglu, Kenan; Yildizdas, Dincer; Bayram, Ibrahim; Gumurdulu, Derya; Polat, Sait
The management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was investigated with the use of heliox in an experimental model. To investigate whether heliox can be considered a new therapeutic approach in ARDS. ARDS was designed in Wistar albino male rats, 250-300 g in weight, by intratracheal instillation of physiological saline solution. Anesthezied and tracheotomized rats with ARDS were pressure-controlled ventilated. At the end of 210 min, helium gas was tried. All rats were assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 10) was the control group, and was given no treatment; group 2 (n = 7) was given heliox (He: O(2) = 50:50). The heliox group received heliox for 1 h continously. Rats were continued to be kept on a ventilator through the experiment. Two hours after the last inhalation, both lungs of the rats were excised for both histopathological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation. Histopathological grading were expressed as median interquartile range. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess the relationships between the variables. The infiltation of neutrophils were decreased in rats treated with heliox. Edema in the interstitial and intraalveolar areas was less than that of the control rats. Also, the diminishing of perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage was apperant. Hyaline membrane (HM) formation decreased in the heliox group compared with the control group. Decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was shown via immunohistochemical examination in the heliox group. The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.
Gustavo Palacios; Omar Jabado; Neil Renwick; Thomas Briese; W. Ian Lipkin
Background Several coronaviruses establish persistent infections in vitro and in vivo, however it is unknown whether persistence is a feature of the severe acute respiratory syndorme coronavirus (SARS-CoV) life cycle. This study was conducted to investigate viral persistence.Methods We inoculated confluent monolayers of Vero cells with SARS-CoV at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 TCID50 and passaged the remaining cells every 4 to 8 days for a total of 11 passages. Virus was titrated at each passage by limited dilution assay and nucleocapsid antigen was detected by Western blot and immunofluoresence assays. The presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells was assessed by electron microscopy. Changes in viral genomic sequences during persistent infection were examined by DNA sequencing. Results Cytopathic effect was extensive after initial inoculation but diminished with serial passages. Infectious virus was detected after each passage and viral growth curves were identical for parental virus stock and virus obtained from passage 11 cells. Nucleocapsid antigen was detected in the majority of cells after initial inoculation but in only 10%-40% of cells at passages 2-11. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells. Sequence analysis at passage 11 revealed fixed mutations in the spike (S) gene and ORFs 7a-8b but not in the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Conclusions SARS-CoV can establish a persistent infection in vitro. The mechanism for viral persistence is consistent with the formation of a carrier culture whereby a limited number of cells are infected with each round of virus replication and release. Persistence is associated with selected mutations in the SARS-CoV genome. This model may provide insight into SARS-related lung pathology and mechanisms by which humans and animals can serve as reservoirs for infection.
Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition is an essential component of intensive care management of children with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS and is linked to patient outcomes. One out of every two children in the PICU will develop malnutrition or have worsening of baseline malnutrition, and present with specific micronutrient deficiencies. Early and adequate enteral nutrition (EN is associated with improved 60-day survival after pediatric critical illness and yet, despite early EN guidelines, critically ill children receive on average only 55% of goal calories by PICU day 10. Inadequate delivery of EN is due to perceived feeding intolerance, reluctance to enterally feed children with hemodynamic instability, and fluid restriction. Underlying each of these factors is large practice variation between providers and across institutions for initiation, advancement and maintenance of EN. Strategies to improve early initiation, advancement, and to maintain delivery of EN are needed to improve morbidity and mortality from pediatric ARDS. Both over and underfeeding prolongs duration of mechanical ventilation in children and worsens other organ function such that precise calorie goals are needed. The gut is thought to act as a ‘motor’ of organ dysfunction and emerging data regarding the role of intestinal barrier functions and the intestinal microbiome on organ dysfunction and outcomes of critical illness present exciting opportunities to improve patient outcomes. Nutrition should be considered a primary rather than supportive therapy for pediatric ARDS. Precise nutritional therapies, which are titrated and targeted to preservation of intestinal barrier function, prevention of intestinal dysbiosis, preservation of lean body mass, and blunting of the systemic inflammatory response, offer great potential for improving outcomes of pediatric ARDS. In this review we examine the current evidence regarding dose, route, and timing of nutrition, current
Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro; de Araujo, Orlei Ribeiro; da Silva, Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon; Senerchia, Andreza Almeida; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio
Objective To evaluate the clinical course and respiratory parameters of mechanically ventilated children with cancer suffering from sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods This 2-year prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study enrolled 29 children and adolescents. Clinical data, measurements of blood gases and ventilation parameters were collected at four different time points. Fluctuations between measurements as well as differences in estimated means were analyzed by linear mixed models in which death within 28 days from the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome was the primary endpoint. Results There were 17 deaths within 28 days of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset and another 7 between 29 - 60 days. Only 5 patients survived for more than 60 days. Nine (31%) patients died as a direct consequence of refractory hypoxemia, and the others died of multiple organ failure and catecholamine-refractory shock. In 66% of the measurements, the tidal volume required to obtain oxygen saturation equal to or above 90% was greater than 7mL/kg. The estimated means of dynamic compliance were low and were similar for survivors and non-survivors but with a negative slope between the first and final measurements, accompanied by a negative slope of the tidal volume for non-survivors. Non-survivors were significantly more hypoxemic, with PaO2/FiO2 ratios showing lower estimated means and a negative slope along the four measurements. Peak, expiratory and mean airway pressures showed positive slopes in the non-survivors, who also had more metabolic acidosis. Conclusions In most of our children with cancer, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome progressed with deteriorating ventilation indexes and escalating organic dysfunction, making this triad nearly fatal in children. PMID:28099641
Conclusion: While the respiratory complaint was perceived as being the most detrimental of all presenting complaints, there was an overall non-threatening outcome in all patients. The presenting respiratory complaints were mostly subjective with benign outcome. Although various risk factors associated with severity increase of respiratory status, were present in a few of the index cases patients, their affect was negligible with a resultant benign outcome.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe lung disease associated with high mortality despite recent advances in management. Significant advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO devices and management allow short-term support for patients with acute reversible respiratory failure and can serve as a bridge to transplantation in patients with irreversible respiratory failure. When ARDS does not respond to conventional treatment, ECMO and the interventional lung assist membrane (iLA are the most widely used complementary treatment options. Here, we report a clinical case of an adult patient who required prolonged duration venovenous (VV-ECMO for severe ARDS resulting in improvement while waiting for lung transplantation.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to have significant mortality and morbidity. The only intervention proven to reduce mortality is the use of lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies, although such a strategy may lead to problematic hypercapnia. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) devices allow uncoupling of ventilation from oxygenation, thereby removing carbon dioxide and facilitating lower tidal volume ventilation. We performed a systematic review to assess efficacy, complication rates, and utility of ECCO2R devices. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case–control studies and case series with 10 or more patients. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde), and ISI Web of Science, in addition to grey literature and clinical trials registries. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers against predefined criteria and agreement was reached by consensus. Outcomes of interest included mortality, intensive care and hospital lengths of stay, respiratory parameters and complications. The review included 14 studies with 495 patients (two RCTs and 12 observational studies). Arteriovenous ECCO2R was used in seven studies, and venovenous ECCO2R in seven studies. Available evidence suggests no mortality benefit to ECCO2R, although post hoc analysis of data from the most recent RCT showed an improvement in ventilator-free days in more severe ARDS. Organ failure-free days or ICU stay have not been shown to decrease with ECCO2R. Carbon dioxide removal was widely demonstrated as feasible, facilitating the use of lower tidal volume ventilation. Complication rates varied greatly across the included studies, representing technological advances. There was a general paucity of high-quality data and significant variation in both practice and technology used among studies, which confounded analysis. ECCO2R is a rapidly evolving technology and is an efficacious treatment to enable
Fitzgerald, Marianne; Millar, Jonathan; Blackwood, Bronagh; Davies, Andrew; Brett, Stephen J; McAuley, Daniel F; McNamee, James J
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to have significant mortality and morbidity. The only intervention proven to reduce mortality is the use of lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies, although such a strategy may lead to problematic hypercapnia. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO₂R) devices allow uncoupling of ventilation from oxygenation, thereby removing carbon dioxide and facilitating lower tidal volume ventilation. We performed a systematic review to assess efficacy, complication rates, and utility of ECCO₂R devices. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case-control studies and case series with 10 or more patients. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde), and ISI Web of Science, in addition to grey literature and clinical trials registries. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers against predefined criteria and agreement was reached by consensus. Outcomes of interest included mortality, intensive care and hospital lengths of stay, respiratory parameters and complications. The review included 14 studies with 495 patients (two RCTs and 12 observational studies). Arteriovenous ECCO₂R was used in seven studies, and venovenous ECCO₂R in seven studies. Available evidence suggests no mortality benefit to ECCO₂R, although post hoc analysis of data from the most recent RCT showed an improvement in ventilator-free days in more severe ARDS. Organ failure-free days or ICU stay have not been shown to decrease with ECCOvR. Carbon dioxide removal was widely demonstrated as feasible, facilitating the use of lower tidal volume ventilation. Complication rates varied greatly across the included studies, representing technological advances. There was a general paucity of high-quality data and significant variation in both practice and technology used among studies, which confounded analysis. ECCO₂R is a rapidly evolving technology and is an efficacious treatment
Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P virus loads (≥3.16 × 10(7) copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.
Q Sue Huang
Full Text Available Background: Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design: All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion: Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9 virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.
Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M
This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome.
Pintilie, Cătălina; Burlacu, Gabriela; Costinescu, V
Acute respiratory insufficiency defines that status in which the respiratory system is not able to supply the metabolic requirements of the organism. The laryngo-tracheal segment plays an important role in the respiratory function, an obstruction at this level inducing an important limitation of oxygen intake. Due to the requirement of fast repermeabilisation of this segment, it is necessary to define all criteria (clinical and laboratory examination) required to diagnose and to evaluate the respiratory failure. The present paper depicts the clinical aspects, the acid-base equilibrium impairment induced by high level airway obstruction and the functional investigations available by ventilation tests.
Klein, B S; Dollete, F R; Yolken, R H
We utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. Viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. In addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. Seven of these children had RSV identified as the sole middle ear pathogen, whereas six children had otitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as either the sole middle ear pathogen or in combination with RSV. Similarly, all three children with respiratory infections caused by influenza virus had ear infections caused by bacterial pathogens, either alone or in combination with influenza virus. These findings suggest that, in patients with viral respiratory infection, coexisting acute otitis media may be associated with the recovery of either viruses or bacteria from the middle ear exudates.
Metkus, Thomas S; Guallar, Eliseo; Sokoll, Lori; Morrow, David; Tomaselli, Gordon; Brower, Roy; Schulman, Steven; Korley, Frederick K
Circulating cardiac troponin has been associated with adverse prognosis in the acute respiratory distress syndrome in small and single-center studies; however, comprehensive studies of myocardial injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome using modern high-sensitivity troponin assays, which can detect troponin at much lower circulating concentrations, have not been performed. We performed a prospective cohort study. We included patients enrolled in previously completed trials of acute respiratory distress syndrome. One thousand fifty-seven acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were included. To determine the association of circulating high-sensitivity troponin I (Abbott ARCHITECT), with acute respiratory distress syndrome outcomes, we measured high-sensitivity troponin I within 24 hours of intubation. The primary outcome was 60-day mortality. Detectable high-sensitivity troponin I was present in 94% of patients; 38% of patients had detectable levels below the 99th percentile of a healthy reference population (26 ng/L), whereas 56% of patients had levels above the 99th percentile cut point. After multivariable adjustment, age, cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome, temperature, heart rate, vasopressor use, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, creatinine, and PCO2 were associated with higher high-sensitivity troponin I concentration. After adjustment for age, sex, and randomized trial assignment, the hazard ratio for 60-day mortality comparing the fifth to the first quintiles of high-sensitivity troponin I was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.11-2.32; p trend = 0.003). Adjusting for Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score suggested that this association was not independent of disease severity (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.64-1.39; p = 0.93). Circulating troponin is detectable in over 90% of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and is associated with degree of critical illness. The magnitude of myocardial injury correlated with mortality.
L. L. Nisevich
Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infections and influenza in children remain one of the major tasks of practical healthcare. Their importance increases with the beginning of the autumn-winter season. Currently, the problem of choosing effective and safe drugs to treat acute respiratory infections in children is very important. The article discusses the use of various etiotropic and symptomatic drugs to treat acute respiratory infections and influenza in children.
Annan, A; Ebach, F; Corman, V M; Krumkamp, R; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Kruppa, T; Simon, A; May, J; Evans, J; Panning, M; Drosten, C; Drexler, J F
Epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions regarding viruses causing acute respiratory infection are poorly understood. This is in part because methodological differences limit the comparability of data from these two regions. Using identical molecular detection methods, we tested 1174 Ghanaian and 539 German children with acute respiratory infections sampled over 12 months for the 15 most common respiratory viruses by PCR. A total 43.2% of the Ghanaian and 56.6% of the German children tested positive for at least one respiratory virus. The pneumoviruses respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus were most frequently detected, in 13.1% and 25.1% within the Ghanaian and German children, respectively. At both study sites, pneumoviruses were more often observed at younger ages (p Ghana, virus spectra, age associations and seasonal fluctuation showed similarities between sites. Neither respiratory viruses overall, nor environmentally stable (non-enveloped) viruses in particular were more frequent in tropical Ghana. The standardization of our sampling and laboratory testing revealed similarities in acute respiratory infection virus patterns in tropical and temperate climates.
Loens, K.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M
Abstract Because of the absence of well-standardized both in-house and FDA-approved commercially available diagnostic tests, the reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae remains difficult. In addition, no formal external quality assessment schemes which would allow to conclude about the performance of M. pneumoniae diagnostic tests exist. In this review, the current state of knowledge of M. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context ...
Oscar E Larios
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.
Jolley, Caroline J; Bell, James; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Moxham, John; Strang, John
Opioids are respiratory depressants and heroin/opioid overdose is a major contributor to the excess mortality of heroin addicts. The individual and situational variability of respiratory depression caused by intravenous heroin is poorly understood. This study used advanced respiratory monitoring to follow the time course and severity of acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. 10 patients (9/10 with chronic airflow obstruction) undergoing supervised injectable opioid treatment for heroin addiction received their usual prescribed dose of injectable opioid (diamorphine or methadone) (IOT), and their usual prescribed dose of oral opioid (methadone or sustained release oral morphine) after 30 minutes. The main outcome measures were pulse oximetry (SpO2%), end-tidal CO2% (ETCO2%) and neural respiratory drive (NRD) (quantified using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography). Significant respiratory depression was defined as absence of inspiratory airflow >10s, SpO2% 10s and ETCO2% per breath >6.5%. Increases in ETCO2% indicated significant respiratory depression following IOT in 8/10 patients at 30 minutes. In contrast, SpO2% indicated significant respiratory depression in only 4/10 patients, with small absolute changes in SpO2% at 30 minutes. A decline in NRD from baseline to 30 minutes post IOT was also observed, but was not statistically significant. Baseline NRD and opioid-induced drop in SpO2% were inversely related. We conclude that significant acute respiratory depression is commonly induced by opioid drugs prescribed to treat opioid addiction. Hypoventilation is reliably detected by capnography, but not by SpO2% alone. Chronic suppression of NRD in the presence of underlying lung disease may be a risk factor for acute opioid-induced respiratory depression.
Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome resulting from leukemic pulmonary infiltrates is seldom diagnosed antemortem. Two 60- and 80-year-old women presented with general malaise, progressive shortness of breath, and hyperleukocytosis, which progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after admission. Acute leukemia with pulmonary infection was initially diagnosed, but subsequent examinations including open lung biopsy revealed leukemic pulmonary infiltrates without infection. In one case, the clinical condition and chest radiography improved initially after combination therapy with chemotherapy for leukemia and aggressive pulmonary support. However, new pulmonary infiltration on chest radiography and hypoxemia recurred, which was consistent with acute lysis pneumopathy. Despite aggressive treatment, both patients died due to rapidly deteriorating condition. Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count.
Liu, Y Y; Lu, C C; Perng, R P
Lysol (mixed cresols) is a brand of popular detergent commonly used to disinfect toilets and floors in Taiwan. We report a patient with acute respiratory failure immediately following chemical burns caused by skin contact with Lysol solution. On admission, chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and an arterial blood gas analysis disclosed hypoxemia refractory to a high concentration of oxygen by inhalation. Under the impression of acute respiratory distress syndrome, our patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory care. Poor clinical improvement was noted, despite aggressive respiratory therapy. High-dose steroid therapy (hydrocortisone 30 mg/kg/day) was administered from the seventh day after mechanical ventilation began and the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired gas improved thereafter. The amount of steroid was gradually tapered to the maintenance dose and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator after a 93-day course of mechanical ventilation.
Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu
Full Text Available Patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is an acute diffuse, inflammatory lung injury, leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability with hypoxemia and bilateral radiographic opacities, associated with decreased lung compliance. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used to support primary or secondary diseases causing respiratory or cardiac failures in newborns, children and adults. Patients with severe ARDS are candidates for ECMO therapy. ECMO is a support modality, not a treatment; it is only beneficial in patients whose primary disease is reversible. ECMO complications-which can lead to mortality, morbidity, long-term disability and reduced quality of life-include surgical and organ bleeding, renal and multi-organ failure and central nervous system problems. The aim of this article was to provide a general overview of ECMO use and outcomes patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrom.
Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration...... on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...
@@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a severe contagious disease. Based on the current etiological study, SARS-CoV is thought to be the cause of SARS,[1,2] and the disease is transmitted mainly by respiratory droplets within a near distance and close contactwith a patient's secretions. The diagnosis of SARS depends on epidemiologicalhistory, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, all of which will be discussed in this report for better understanding and control of SARS.
Afshari, Arash; Bastholm Bille, Anders; Allingstrup, Mikkel
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical condition that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.This review was originally published in 2010 and updated in 2017. To assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in adults and children with ARDS. In this update, we searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4); MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI BIOSIS Previews, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and three trials registers. We handsearched the reference lists of the latest reviews, randomized and non-randomized trials, and editorials, and cross-checked them with our search of MEDLINE. We contacted the main authors of included studies to request any missed, unreported or ongoing studies. The search was run from inception to 5 May 2017. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), irrespective of publication status, date of publication, blinding status, outcomes published or language. We contacted trial investigators and study authors to retrieve relevant and missing data. Three authors independently abstracted data and resolved any disagreements by discussion. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We planned to perform subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the effect of aerosolized prostacyclin in adults and children, and on various clinical and physiological outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias through assessment of methodological trial components and the risk of random error through trial sequential analysis. We included two RCTs with 81 participants.One RCT involved 14 critically ill children with ARDS (very low quality of evidence), and one RCT involved 67 critically ill adults (very low quality evidence).Only one RCT (paediatric trial) provided data on mortality and found no difference between intervention and control. However, this trial was eligible for meta-analysis due to a cross
Tamburro, Robert F.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.
Objective: To provide an overview of the current literature on pulmonary-specific therapeutic approaches to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome to determine recommendations for clinical practice and/or future research. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library
Tai Sun Park
Full Text Available Background: Administering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO to critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome has substantially increased over the last decade, however administering ECMO to patients with hematologic malignancies may carry a particularly high risk. Here, we report the clinical outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure who were treated with ECMO. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure who were treated with ECMO at the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital between March 2010 and April 2015. Results: A total of 15 patients (9 men; median age 45 years with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure received ECMO therapy during the study period. The median values of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Murray Lung Injury Score, and Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction Score were 29, 3.3, and -2, respectively. Seven patients received venovenous ECMO, whereas 8 patients received venoarterial ECMO. The median ECMO duration was 2 days. Successful weaning of ECMO was achieved in 3 patients. Hemorrhage complications developed in 4 patients (1 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 intracranial hemorrhage, and 2 cases of gastrointestinal bleeding. The longest period of patient survival was 59 days after ECMO initiation. No significant differences in survival were noted between venovenous and venoarterial ECMO groups (10.0 vs. 10.5 days; p = 0.56. Conclusions: Patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure demonstrate poor outcomes after ECMO treatment. Careful and appropriate selection of candidates for ECMO in these patients is necessary.
Lee, Minhyeok; Kim, Seulgi; Kwon, Oh Jung; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeong, Inbeom; Son, Ji Woong; Na, Moon Jun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Park, Hyun Woong; Kwon, Sun Jung
Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, severe lower respiratory adenovirus infections including pneumonia are reported in specific populations, such as military recruits and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral treatment is challenging due to limited clinical experience and lack of well-controlled randomized trials. Several previously reported cases of adenoviral pneumonia showed promising efficacy of cidofovir. However, few reports discussed the efficacy of cidofovir in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We experienced 3 cases of adenoviral pneumonia associated with ARDS and treated with cidofovir and respiratory support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). All 3 patients showed a positive clinical response to cidofovir and survival at 28 days. Cidofovir with early ECMO therapy may be a therapeutic option in adenoviral ARDS. A literature review identified 15 cases of adenovirus pneumonia associated with ARDS.
Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Youn Seup
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies can be life-threatening. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the only temporary treatment for patients with ARDS who are refractory to conventional treatment. However, the immunosuppression and coagulopathies in hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and acute leukemia are relative contraindications for ECMO, due to high risks of infection and bleeding. Here, we report a 22-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who developed pneumonia and ARDS during induction chemotherapy; he was treated with ECMO. PMID:28275497
Sylvia Siebig; Igors Iesalnieks; Tanja Bruennler; Christine Dierkes; Julia Langgartner; Juergen Schoelmedch; Christian E Wrede
We present three cases of patients (at the age of 56 years,49 years and 74 years respectively) with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP),complicated by intra-abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and respiratory insufficiency with limitations of mechanical ventilation.The respiratory situation of the patients was significantly improved after decompression laparotomy (DL) and lung protective ventilation was re-achieved.ACS was discussed followed by a short review of the literature.Our cases show that DL may help patients with SAP to recover from severe respiratory failure.
Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Wig, Jyotsna; Baronia, A K
We encountered a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in late pregnancy due to influenza (H1N1) with refractory hypoxemia to conventional mechanical ventilation. Ventilation in prone position rescued this patient by maintaining oxygenation and sustaining improvement thereafter. Here, we discuss the mechanism of prone ventilation with special references to safety management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the third trimester of pregnancy. It requires frequent monitoring of possible complications due to prone position and highly dedicated supporting staffs. More data are required on safety of proning in the late pregnancy.
Full Text Available A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas.
Flores-Franco, René Agustín; Olivas-Medina, Dahyr Alberto; Pacheco-Tena, Cesar Francisco; Duque-Rodríguez, Jorge
Acute respiratory failure caused by pulmonary tuberculosis is a rare event but with a high mortality even while receiving mechanical ventilatory support. We report the case of a young man with severe pulmonary tuberculosis refractory to conventional therapy who successfully overcame the critical period of his condition using noninvasive ventilation and immunoadjuvant therapy that included three doses of etanercept 25 mg subcutaneously. We conclude that the use of etanercept along with antituberculosis treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory failure. PMID:26273486
Conclusion: The mortality rate of intubation patients was 115 times higher than that of those who did not require intubation. Therefore, special care must be taken with SARS disease with severe infiltration chest X-ray images and respiratory distress. Positive medical treatment should be performed to lower the mortality rate.
Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.
Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Sheybani, Fereshte; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Moghaddam, Ahmad Bagheri; Amiri, Bezat
The presented case features a rare manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis in a previously healthy young woman who had acute presentation of tuberculous pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. In developing countries, mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). TB can present as an acute process and should be included in the differential diagnosis of CAP. This case is special in its manifestation from several clinical perspectives, including the lack of an underlying medical condition or immune defect and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in non-miliary and non-disseminated tuberculosis. In conclusion, the diagnosis of TB should be considered in all patients who present with CAP in endemic regions.
Xiao-Bo Zhang; Li-Juan Liu; Li-Ling Qian; Gao-Li Jiang; Chuan-Kai Wang; Pin Jia; Peng Shi; Jin Xu; Li-Bo Wang
Background: To investigate the clinical characteristics and analyze risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of infants with RSV-associated ALRIs between March 1st, 2011 and February 29th, 2012 was conducted. Subjects were followed up over the phone or by outpatient visit six and twelve months after discharge. Results: Among 913 RSV-associated ALRIs infants, 288 (31.5%) had severe infections, which accounted for 4.2% of hospitalized children. The hospital RSV mortality rate was 1.0%. The proportions of cases with tachypnea, apnea, cyanosis, and fine rales were significantly higher in the severe ALRIs group (all P Conclusions: Younger age, low birth weight and underlying disease are associated with severe RSVassociated ALRIs. Furthermore, severe RSV infections may be associated with a higher frequency of subsequent bronchitis, pneumonia and re-hospitalization in the following year.
Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C
Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Uitti, Johanna M; Tähtinen, Paula A; Laine, Miia K; Huovinen, Pentti; Ruuskanen, Olli; Ruohola, Aino
The spectrum of acute symptoms in young outpatient children with respiratory tract infection (RTI) is variable, and it cannot be explained by the diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) versus uncomplicated RTI. We studied that the variation of symptoms is explained by the nasopharyngeal bacteria and/or respiratory viruses. Children aged 6-35 months with acute symptoms with AOM (n = 201) or without AOM (n = 225) were eligible in this cross-sectional study. We analyzed their nasopharyngeal samples for pathogenic bacteria by culture and for respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. We surveyed 17 symptoms (fever, respiratory, ear related, nonspecific, gastrointestinal) with a structured questionnaire. Fever had a positive association with influenza viruses [odds ratio (OR): 6.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-26.27], human metapneumovirus (OR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.25-11.77), coronaviruses (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.53-7.75) and parainfluenza viruses (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47). Rhinitis (OR: 5.07; 95% CI: 1.93-13.36), nasal congestion (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25-3.31) and cough (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.15-3.17) had positive associations with Moraxella catarrhalis. Furthermore, cough had a positive association with respiratory syncytial virus (OR: 7.20; 95% CI: 1.59-32.71) and parainfluenza viruses (OR: 2.79; 95% CI: 1.02-7.69). The variation of acute symptoms in young children may be influenced by both nasopharyngeal bacteria and respiratory viruses. Our results showed a strong association between fever and respiratory viruses; rhinitis, nasal congestion and cough were associated with M. catarrhalis in the presence of viruses. Further studies are required to determine the possible synergistic role of M. catarrhalis in symptoms of RTI.
Ucgun, Irfan; Metintas, Muzaffer; Moral, Hale; Alatas, Fusun; Yildirim, Huseyin; Erginel, Sinan
Mortality rate, the possible factors affecting mortality and intubation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and hypercapnic respiratory failure (RF) are yet unclear. To identify the possible factors affecting mortality and intubation in COPD patients. A prospective study using data obtained over the first 24h of respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) admission. Consecutive admissions of 656 patients were monitored and 151 of them who had acute exacerbation of COPD and hypercapnic RF were enrolled. University hospital, Department of Chest Diseases, RICU. Mean age was 65.1 years. The mean APACHE II score was 23.7. Eighty-seven patients (57.6%) received mechanical ventilation (MV) via an endotracheal tube for more than 24 h. Twenty-two patients received non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Fifty patients died (33.1%) in hospital during the study period. The mortality rate was 52.9% in patients in need of MV. In the multivariate analysis, the need for intubation, inadequate metabolic compensation for respiratory acidosis, and low (=bad) Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were determined as independent factors associated with mortality. The low GCS (OR: 0.61; CI: 0.48-0.78) and high APACHE II score (OR: 1.24; CI: 1.11-1.38) were determined as factors associated with intubation. The most important predictors related to hospital mortality were the need for invasive ventilation and complications to MV. Adequate metabolic compensation for respiratory acidosis at admittance is associated with better survival. A high APACHE II score and loss of consciousness (low GCS) were independent predictors of a need to intubate patients.
Objective To investigate the prognostic significanceof early lactate clearance rate for severe acute respiratory failure patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO).Methods Forty-three patients with severe acute respiratory failure supported by venous-venous(v-v)ECMO were enrolled from January 2007 to January 2013.Arterial blood lactate at pre-ECMO support(0 h)and at
Schouten, LR; Veltkamp, F; Bos, AP; van Woensel, Job B M; Serpa Neto, A; Schultz, MJ; Wösten-van Asperen, RM
Objectives: Our understanding of the acute respiratory distress syndrome in children is limited, and literature is dominated by investigations in adult patients. Recent preclinical studies suggest that the susceptibility to and severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children could differ
The potential for regulating immune function in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through enteral-administered anti-inflammatory lipids has generated much interest over the past 20 years. Yet recommendations remain inconclusive regarding the utilization of ω-3 fatty acids in patients with ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI). Studies are limited in number, with differing methods, small sample sizes, and conflicting results, making recommendations difficult to interpret.
Ruggeri, Paolo; Calcaterra, Salvatore; Bottari, Antonio; Girbino, Giuseppe; Fodale, Vincenzo
Sea drowning is a common cause of accidental death worldwide. Respiratory complications such as acute pulmonary oedema, which is often complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome, is often seen. Noninvasive ventilation is already widely used as a first approach to treat acute respiratory failure resulting from multiple diseases. We report a case of a 45 year old man with a history of epilepsy, motor and mental handicap who developed acute respiratory failure secondary to sea water drowning after an epileptic crisis. We illustrate successful and rapid management of this case with noninvasive ventilation. We emphasize the advantages and limitations of using noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure due to sea water drowning syndrome.
Full Text Available Sea drowning is a common cause of accidental death worldwide. Respiratory complications such as acute pulmonary oedema, which is often complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome, is often seen. Noninvasive ventilation is already widely used as a first approach to treat acute respiratory failure resulting from multiple diseases. We report a case of a 45 year old man with a history of epilepsy, motor and mental handicap who developed acute respiratory failure secondary to sea water drowning after an epileptic crisis. We illustrate successful and rapid management of this case with noninvasive ventilation. We emphasize the advantages and limitations of using noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure due to sea water drowning syndrome.
Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem; Ahmetagic, Sead
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of acute life threatening respiratory failure. In daily practice there is difficulty in diagnostic and therapeutic management of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We observed delay in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with clinical signs for the presence of severe respiratory disorders. Finding timely evidence of the presence the clinical signs of threatening ARDS and underlying diseases like influenza A/H1N1 during prehospital period in early stage of disease it is possible introduce early adequate treatment: high flow oxygen, fluid replacement and pharmacological and antiviral therapy. This measure can reduce high mortality in patients who develop ARDS. It is important to improve diagnostic criteria for a precise definition of ARDS and transfer it in practice of emergency and family medicine, microbiology, intensive care units, hospital departments of infectious and respiratory diseases. In this article we underlined the key elements of the new definition of ARDS, diagnostic criteria and the importance of early diagnosis in prehospital period following clinical feature and course (a presence of severe dyspnea) by adding chest x-ray and laboratory investigations.
Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.
Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe
Ong, David S Y; Spitoni, Cristian; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Verduyn Lunel, Frans M; Frencken, Jos F; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Bonten, Marc J M; Cremer, Olaf L
PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation occurs frequently in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and has been associated with increased mortality. However, it remains unknown whether this association represents an independent risk for poor outcome. We aimed to estimate t
Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P
We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.
H.L. Phuong; T.T.T. Nga; G.J. van Doornum; J. Groen; T.Q. Binh; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; N.V. Nams; P.A. Kager; P.J. de Vries
To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control
Conclusions: RV was the most commonly detected virus in children under 3 years admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Coinfection was present in the majority of our patients; however it was not related significantly to parameters of disease severity.
Titlestad, Ingrid L; Lassen, Annmarie T; Vestbo, Jørgen
Implementation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on treatment has been routinely used in a non-intensive care setting since 2004 for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure at a university hospital in Denmark. Although randomiz...
Adcock, I.M.; Hashemian, S.M.R.; Mortaz, E.; Masjedi, M.R.; Folkerts, G.
Tuberculosis (TB) has previously been linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here this study investigates the link between inflammation and TB in ARDS by measuring inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 90 patients with TB or ARDS alone and in
We find that Down syndrome is an important risk factor for developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children, but the reason why remains to be elucidated. In addition, we find several differences between adult and pediatric ARDS. The association between C-reactive protein (CRP) level
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/11/2013.
Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.
Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe pneu
Knudsen, T B; Kledal, T N; Andersen, O
The recent identification of a novel clinical entity, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the rapid subsequent spread and case fatality rates of 14-15% have prompted a massive international collaborative investigation facilitated by a network of laboratories established by the World Hea...
Knudsen, T B; Kledal, T N; Andersen, O;
The recent identification of a novel clinical entity, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the rapid subsequent spread and case fatality rates of 14-15% have prompted a massive international collaborative investigation facilitated by a network of laboratories established by the World Hea...
We made clinical observations on the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on acute upper respiratory tract infection and compared with the effect of paracetamol and Antondine, The result showed that acupuncture therapy could allay fever more rapidly than drugs, so long as the differentiation of syndromes is correct and the acupoint is selected properly.
Bialy, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Hauptabt. Zyklotron
Different diseases can be the risk factors for the ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). A new bed-side diagnosis-system was developed in the Research Center Karlsruhe in cooperation with the University of Freiburg especially under the aspect of an early diagnosis and a long-time monitoring of the therapy with nitrogen-monoxide. (orig.)
Lee, Yeung Chung
The roles of science in society and the nature of science are the focus of many science curricula. Current views about these two aspects of science have largely been informed by the history of scientific development. This article uses the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome--a recent health scare--as a case study to explore the roles of…
McCormic, Zachary D.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Jordan, Nikki N.
The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD. PMID:27748651
Hilda María Delgado Acosta
Full Text Available Background: acute respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective: to characterize acute respiratory infections in the context of the influenza pandemic in Cienfuegos province. Methods: A case series study including 844 inpatients diagnosed with influenza-like illness, 806 suspected cases and 38 confirmed cases of pandemic influenza, was conducted. An analysis of the acute respiratory infections was performed, describing the pandemic in space and time. Suspected and confirmed cases were compared according to general variables, risk factors and interesting clinical features. Virus isolation and classification of confirmed cases considering source of infection and progress over time were showed. Data was collected from the Statistics Department of the Provincial Hygiene and Epidemiology Center and the inpatient database. Percentages, rates, the mean, standard deviation and Chi-square test with a 5 % margin of error were used.Results: acute respiratory infections morbidity increased since 2008, largely because of the impact of the pandemic and the increased clinical and epidemiological surveillance. Its association with risk factors such as pregnancy, chronic diseases and traveling abroad was demonstrated. Circulation of the pandemic influenza virus with displacement of seasonal viruses and prevalence of indigenous cases were observed. Conclusions: the characteristics of pandemic influenza in the province do not differ greatly from those described nationally and globally.
Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian
Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.
Masclans, J R; Pérez-Terán, P; Roca, O
Acute respiratory failure represents one of the most common causes of intensive care unit admission and oxygen therapy remains the first-line therapy in the management of these patients. In recent years, high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula has been described as a useful alternative to conventional oxygen therapy in patients with acute respiratory failure. High-flow oxygen via nasal cannula rapidly alleviates symptoms of acute respiratory failure and improves oxygenation by several mechanisms, including dead space washout, reduction in oxygen dilution and inspiratory nasopharyngeal resistance, a moderate positive airway pressure effect that may generate alveolar recruitment and an overall greater tolerance and comfort with the interface and the heated and humidified inspired gases. However, the experience in adults is still limited and there are no clinical guidelines to establish recommendations for their use. This article aims to review the existing evidence on the use of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula in adults with acute respiratory failure and its possible applications, advantages and limitations.
P.A. Rota (Paul); M.S. Oberste (Steven); S.S. Monroe (Stephan); W.A. Nix (Allan); R. Campagnoli (Ray); J.P. Icenogle (Joseph); S. Penaranda; B. Bankamp (Bettina); K. Maher (Kaija); M.H. Chen (Min-hsin); S. Tong (Suxiong); A. Tamin (Azaibi); L. Lowe (Luis); M. Frace (Michael); J.L. DeRisi (Joseph); Q. Chen (Qi); D. Wang (David); D.D. Erdman (Dean); T.C. Peret (Teresa); C. Burns (Cara); T.G. Ksiazek (Thomas); P.E. Rollin (Pierre); A. Sanchez (Berenguer); S. Liffick (Stephanie); B. Holloway (Brian); J. Limor (Josef); K. McCaustland (Karen); M. Olsen-Rasmussen (Mellissa); S. Gunther; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C. Drosten (Christian); M.A. Pallansch (Mark); L.J. Anderson (Larry); W.J. Belline; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)
textabstractIn March 2003, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered in association with cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV was determined, and the initial characterization of the viral genome is presented in this report. The geno
Chen, Y-J A; Tseng, J-J; Yang, M-J; Tsao, Y-P; Lin, H-Y
When the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controlled appropriately, a pregnant woman who has lupus is able to carry safely to term and deliver a healthy infant. While the physiology of a healthy pregnancy itself influences ventilatory function, acute pulmonary distress may decrease oxygenation and influence both mother and fetus. Though respiratory failure in pregnancy is relatively rare, it remains one of the leading conditions requiring intensive care unit admission in pregnancy and carries a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, not to mention the complexity caused by lupus flare. We report a case of SLE complicated with lupus pneumonitis and followed by acute respiratory distress during pregnancy. Though there is a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, maternal respiratory function improved after cesarean section and treatment of the underlying causes. The newborn had an extremely low birth weight but was well at discharge.
Sun Mi Choi
Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is associated with severe outcomes. We report a case of acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation and was clinically and pathologically diagnosed as DAH related to exposure to organic dust. A 39-year-old man, who had visited a warehouse to grade beans for purchase, was referred to our hospital for impending respiratory failure. His initial radiographic examinations revealed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities in his lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in progressively bloodier returns, which is characteristic of DAH. He underwent bedside open lung biopsy of his right lower lobe in the intensive care unit. Biopsy results revealed DAH and organization with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and a few fibroblastic foci. The patient was treated with empirical antibiotics and high-dose corticosteroids and successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. DAH might be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute respiratory failure after exposure to organic particles.
Wu, Zegang; Li, Yan; Gu, Jian; Zheng, Hongyun; Tong, Yongqing; Wu, Qing
Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of disease and death in children, particularly in developing countries. However, the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria that exist in many of these countries remains incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 16. A total of 10 435 serum sera specimens were collected from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect immunoglobulin M antibodies against nine common pathogens: mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia. Of the 10 435 specimens examined, 7046 tested positive for at least one pathogen. Among all of the tested pathogens, mycoplasma pneumonia had the highest detection rate (56.9%). Influenza virus A and influenza virus B epidemics occurred during both winter and summer. The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus was higher in spring. Cases of mixed infection were more complex: 4136 specimens (39.6%) tested positive for ≥2 pathogens. There were statistically significant difference in detection rates of mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila and chamydophila pneumonia among different age groups (P virus B and respiratory syncytial virus. The detection rates for each pathogen displayed specific seasonal and age group variations. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
L. V. Osidak
Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.
van Duijn, Huug J; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Tiebosch, Hanneke M; Schellevis, François G; Verheij, Theo JM
Background Next to other GP characteristics, diagnostic labelling (the proportion of acute respiratory tract (RT) episodes to be labelled as infections) probably contributes to a higher volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes. However, it is unknown whether there is an independent association between diagnostic labelling and the volume of prescribed antibiotics, or whether diagnostic labelling is associated with the number of presented acute RT episodes and consequently with the number of antibiotics prescribed per patient per year. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with 163 GPs from 85 Dutch practices, serving a population of 359,625 patients. Data over a 12 month period were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Main outcome measure was the volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes per 1,000 patients. Results The incidence was 236.9 acute RT episodes/1,000 patients. GPs labelled about 70% of acute RT episodes as infections, and antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of all acute RT episodes. A higher incidence of acute RT episodes (beta 0.67), a stronger inclination to label episodes as infections (beta 0.24), a stronger endorsement of the need of antibiotics in case of white spots in the throat (beta 0.11) and being male (beta 0.11) were independent determinants of the prescribed volume of antibiotics for acute RT episodes, whereas diagnostic labelling was not correlated with the incidence of acute RT episodes. Conclusion Diagnostic labelling is a relevant factor in GPs' antibiotic prescribing independent from the incidence of acute RT episodes. Therefore, quality assurance programs and postgraduate courses should emphasise to use evidence based prognostic criteria (e.g. chronic respiratory co-morbidity and old age) as an indication to prescribe antibiotics in stead of single inflammation signs or diagnostic labels. PMID:17883832
Schellevis François G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Next to other GP characteristics, diagnostic labelling (the proportion of acute respiratory tract (RT episodes to be labelled as infections probably contributes to a higher volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes. However, it is unknown whether there is an independent association between diagnostic labelling and the volume of prescribed antibiotics, or whether diagnostic labelling is associated with the number of presented acute RT episodes and consequently with the number of antibiotics prescribed per patient per year. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2 with 163 GPs from 85 Dutch practices, serving a population of 359,625 patients. Data over a 12 month period were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Main outcome measure was the volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes per 1,000 patients. Results The incidence was 236.9 acute RT episodes/1,000 patients. GPs labelled about 70% of acute RT episodes as infections, and antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of all acute RT episodes. A higher incidence of acute RT episodes (beta 0.67, a stronger inclination to label episodes as infections (beta 0.24, a stronger endorsement of the need of antibiotics in case of white spots in the throat (beta 0.11 and being male (beta 0.11 were independent determinants of the prescribed volume of antibiotics for acute RT episodes, whereas diagnostic labelling was not correlated with the incidence of acute RT episodes. Conclusion Diagnostic labelling is a relevant factor in GPs' antibiotic prescribing independent from the incidence of acute RT episodes. Therefore, quality assurance programs and postgraduate courses should emphasise to use evidence based prognostic criteria (e.g. chronic respiratory co-morbidity and old age as an indication to prescribe antibiotics in stead of single inflammation signs or diagnostic labels.
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has expanded its role in the treatment of both chronic and acute respiratory failure. Its initial use in conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disease and tracheobronchomalacia, have been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality. Over the past 20 years studies have looked at using noninvasive ventilation in the management of acute respiratory failure from pulmonary edema, asthma and COPD exacerbations. During this month's journal club we reviewed 3 articles evaluating the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Gupta D, Nath A, Agarwal R, Behera D. A prospective randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma. Respir Care. 2010;55(5:536-43. [PubMed] This was a small unblinded randomized controlled trial (RCT looking at the efficacy using noninvasive ventilation (NIV in acute asthma. A total of 53 patients were included and divided into 2 groups of 28 patients ...
Chun Pan; Lu Chen; Yun-Hang Zhang; Wei Liu; Rosario Urbino; V Marco Ranieri; Hai-Bo Qiu
Background:Stress index at post-recruitment maneuvers could be a method of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients.However,airway pressure (Paw) stress index may not reflect lung mechanics in the patients with high chest wall elastance.This study was to evaluate the Paw stress index on lung mechanics and the correlation between Paw stress index and transpulmonary pressure (PL) stress index in acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients.Methods:Twenty-four ARF patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively recruited from July 2011 to April 2013 in Zhongda Hospital,Nanjing,China and Ospedale S.Giovanni Battista-Molinette Hospital,Turin,Italy.All patients underwent MV with volume control (tidal volume 6 ml/kg) for 20 min.PEEP was set according to the ARDSnet study protocol.The patients were divided into two groups according to the chest wall elastance/respiratory system elastance ratio.The high elastance group (H group,n =14) had a ratio ≥30％,and the low elastance group (L group,n =10) had a ratio ＜30％.Respiratory elastance,gas-exchange,Paw stress index,and PL stress index were measured.Student's t-test,regression analysis,and Bland-Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis.Results:Pneumonia was the major cause of respiratory failure (71.0％).Compared with the L group,PEEP was lower in the H group (5.7 ± 1.7 cmH2O vs.9.0 ± 2.3 cm2O,P ＜ 0.01).Compared with the H group,lung elastance was higher (20.0 ± 7.8 cmH2O/L vs.11.6 ± 3.6 cmH2O/L,P ＜ 0.01),and stress was higher in the L group (7.0 ± 1.9 vs.4.9 ± 1.9,P =0.02).A linear relationship was observed between the Paw stress index and the PL stress index in H group (R2 =0.56,P ＜ 0.01) and L group (R2 =0.85,P ＜ 0.01).Conclusion:In the ARF patients with MV,Paw stress index can substitute for PL to guide ventilator settings.
López-Cuenca, Sonia; Morales-García, Silvia; Martín-Hita, Ana; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fernández-Segoviano, Pilar; Esteban, Andrés
A 27-year-old woman was admitted to our ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and criteria for ARDS. Despite an F(IO(2)) of 1.0 and a lung protective strategy, the patient died on day 15 without any improvement. The relatives gave consent for post-mortem analysis. The histopathologic study of the lung showed findings typical of an acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. Apropos of this case we performed a PubMed search. We found 13 articles, including a total of 29 patients. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia is an unusual cause of acute lung injury. The diagnostic criterion is histopathologic. There is little information regarding the pathophysiology of this illness. Important questions remain regarding this disease, including predisposing factors and management. Patients who require mechanical ventilation have poor outcomes.
Patel, Utpal; Sriram, Krishnan
We report a case of acute respiratory failure due to refeeding syndrome caused by hypocaloric enteral tube feeds. A 60-y-old obese man, with a diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma with local metastases, underwent feeding jejunostomy tube insertion. Enteral tube feeding was initiated at small volumes providing 4.4 kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1) and gradually increased over 48 h to 29 kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1) (based on adjusted body weight). The patient then developed acute respiratory distress requiring intubation and ventilatory support. Serum phosphorus (P) level was extremely low at 4 d to adequately correct the electrolyte derangements. Successful liberation from mechanical ventilation was then possible. In chronically malnourished patients undergoing nutritional support, even hypocaloric feeding should be considered a risk factor for developing refeeding syndrome leading to severe and acute electrolyte fluid-balance and metabolic abnormalities.
Skalická, Hana; Bělohlávek, Jan
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome manifested by rapidly progressive respiratory distress leading, without therapy, to severe respiratory insufficiency and subsequent multiorgan failure. The pathophysiological causes are: the change in the pressure gradients in the pulmonary capillaries, the impaired membrane permeability of the alveolocapillary in the lungs, and impaired lymphatic drainage. Unlike in cardiogenic pulmonary edema, cardiac disease is not a cause, and there is no increase in wedge pressure (< 18 mm Hg). The aetiological base is diverse and includes more clinical pathological factors. The diagnosis and evaluation are usually very difficult due to the rapidly deteriorating clinical condition of the patients. A decisive, quick and comprehensive approach, using all available invasive and non-invasive methods is necessary. The basic steps of treatment are: the use of different types of ventilatory support in order to achieve adequate oxygenation, dealing with possible hemodynamic instability, and, when needed, other specific procedures. It is always important to keep in mind that this is a very serious condition with a high mortality rate. And there is a need for fast and efficient access to the best specialized clinic.
Margery, J; Perez, J-P; Vaylet, F; Bordier, E; Dot, J-M; Saint-Blancard, P; Bonnichon, A; Guigay, J; Pats, B; L'Her, P
We report the case of a 77-Year-old immunocompetent woman who required intensive care for acute dyspnea revealing complete atelectasia of the left lung related to an aspergillus mycelium plug blocking the principal bronchus. The clinical course was favorable after deobstruction by thermocoagulation and oral itraconazole given for six Months. The patient was free of parenchymatous or endobronchial sequelae. Adjuvant oral corticoid therapy was given temporarily during the second Month of treatment when signs of transition towards allergic aspergillosis developed. Four Months after discontinuing the antifungal treatment, the patient developed a new episode of acute dyspnea caused by atelectasia limited to the right lower lobe. Treatment by itraconazole was resumed and continued as long-term therapy. No recurrence has been observed for eighteen Months. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems raised by Aspergillus fumigatus are well known in the immunocompromised subject, but can also be encountered in the immunocompetent subject.
Deng, Jie; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Wang, Fang; Wu, Hong; Shan, Min-Na; Deji, Mei-Duo
To understand the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Tibet Autonomous Region and the contribution of two major groups of RSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from hospitalized children with ARI in Department of Pediatrics, Tibet People's Hospital in Lasa, Tibet from April to July in 2011 and tested for seven common respiratory viruses and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). Total RNAs were extracted from RSV positive samples by DFA and reverse transcripted to cDNA. Nested-PCR was employed to determine the genogroups of RSV, which were confirmed by real time-PCR and sequence analysis for G protein encoding gene. The Characteristics and variations of G genes from RSV in this project were identified by sequence comparison with those G genes in GenBank. Out of 167 samples, 65 were positive for respiratory viruses with a total positive rate of 38.9%, including 45 (69.2%, 45/65)positive samples for RSV. Among 42 samples that were positive for RSV and genotyped, 40 were identified as group A and 2 as group B. Sequence analysis of full-length G genes for 7 RSV of group A indicated that all of these belonged to subgroup GA2. The nucleotide identities between RSVs from Tibet and prototype A2 strain were 90.7%-91.8%, with 86.5%-87.2% identities of amino acid. The mutations of amino acids were mainly located in both ends of a highly conserved region in the ectodomain of the G proteins. The data indicated that RSV was the most important viral etiologic agent of ARI in spring of 2011 in Tibet and group A of RSV was predominant during the study period. High divergence existed in the ectodomain of G proteins of RSVs from Tibet.
Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O
We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.
N. F. Plavunov
Full Text Available Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections have a great social significance during epidemic rise of morbidity and demand differential diagnosis of pneumonia with bacterial etiology and consultation with an infectious disease doctor in case of seeing patients in non-core hospitals. This article highlights the problem of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections’ early diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of influenza and other respiratory extremely similar. The differential diagnosis must take into account the presence of mixed infection in the same patient. According to the results of consultative infectious ambulance teams in 2014-2016, quality of diagnostics of this infectious pathology was examined. Observed deaths in persons later seeking medical treatment, not receiving timely antiviral therapy and related to high-risk groups: patients with obesity, chronic alcohol intoxication, diabetes, pregnant women. Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections, more complicated by pneumonia, people in the older age group, indicating the need for timely medical evacuation of patients older than 60 years. In some cases, in the diagnosis of influenza was helped by the results of laboratory studies (especially the trend to leukopenia and a positive rapid test. It should be noted that a negative rapid test for influenza was not a reason for exclusion of the diagnosis “influenza”.
Aripuanã Sakurada Aranha Watanabe
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common illness in all individuals. Rhinoviruses have been reported as the etiology of more than 50% of respiratory tract infections worldwide. The study prospectively evaluated 47 elderly individuals from a group of 384 randomly assigned for acute respiratory viral infections (cold or flu and assessed the occurrence of human rhinovirus (HRV, influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus (hMPV in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-nine nasal swabs collected from 47 elderly individuals following inclusion visits from 2002 to 2003 were tested by GenScan RT-PCR. HRV-positive samples were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: No sample was positive for influenza A/B or RSV. HRV was detected in 28.6% (14/47 and hMPV in 2% (1/47. Of 14 positive samples, 9 isolates were successfully sequenced, showing the follow group distribution: 6 group A, 1 group B and 2 group C HRVs. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of HRV during the months of the influenza season requires further study regarding HRV infection impact on respiratory complications among this population. Infection caused by HRV is very frequent and may contribute to increasing the already high demand for healthcare during the influenza season.
Holland, Anne E; Wilson, John W; Kotsimbos, Thomas C; Naughton, Matthew T
and study objectives: Patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis (CF) develop respiratory failure and hypercapnia. In contrast to COPD patients, altered electrolyte transport and malnutrition in CF patients may predispose them to metabolic alkalosis and, therefore, may contribute to hypercapnia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic alkalosis in adults with hypercapnic respiratory failure in the setting of acute exacerbations of CF compared with COPD. Levels of arterial blood gases, plasma electrolytes, and serum albumin from 14 consecutive hypercapnic CF patients who had been admitted to the hospital with a respiratory exacerbation were compared with 49 consecutive hypercapnic patients with exacerbations of COPD. Hypercapnia was defined as a PaCO(2) of > or = 45 mm Hg. Despite similar PaCO(2) values, patients in the CF group were significantly more alkalotic than were those in the COPD group (mean [+/- SD] pH, 7.43 +/- 0.03 vs 7.37 +/- 0.05, respectively; p respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis was evident in 71% of CF patients and 22% of COPD patients (p alkalosis contributes to hypercapnic respiratory failure in adults with acute exacerbations of CF. This acid-base disturbance occurs in conjunction with reduced total body salt levels and hypoalbuminemia.
Matos, Adriano Medina; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Lippi, Mauro Martins; Takatani, Rodrigo Ryoji; de Oliveira Filho, Wilson
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by diffuse inflammatory lung injury and is classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Clinically, hypoxemia, bilateral opacities in lung images, and decreased pulmonary compliance are observed. Sepsis is one of the most prevalent causes of this condition (30 - 50%). Among the direct causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chlorine inhalation is an uncommon cause, generating mucosal and airway irritation in most cases. We present a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after accidental inhalation of chlorine in a swimming pool, with noninvasive ventilation used as a treatment with good response in this case. We classified severe acute respiratory distress syndrome based on an oxygen partial pressure/oxygen inspired fraction ratio <100, although the Berlin classification is limited in considering patients with severe hypoxemia managed exclusively with noninvasive ventilation. The failure rate of noninvasive ventilation in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome is approximately 52% and is associated with higher mortality. The possible complications of using noninvasive positive-pressure mechanical ventilation in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome include delays in orotracheal intubation, which is performed in cases of poor clinical condition and with high support pressure levels, and deep inspiratory efforts, generating high tidal volumes and excessive transpulmonary pressures, which contribute to ventilation-related lung injury. Despite these complications, some studies have shown a decrease in the rates of orotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with low severity scores, hemodynamic stability, and the absence of other organ dysfunctions. PMID:28444079
Budge, Philip J; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Williams, John V; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Grijalva, Carlos G
Few community studies have measured the incidence, severity and etiology of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among children living at high-altitude in remote rural settings. We conducted active, household-based ARI surveillance among children aged RESPIRA-PERU study). ARI (defined by fever or cough) were considered lower respiratory tract infections if tachypnea, wheezing, grunting, stridor or retractions were present. Nasal swabs collected during ARI episodes were tested for respiratory viruses by real-time, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. ARI incidence was calculated using Poisson regression. During 755.1 child-years of observation among 892 children in 58 communities, 4475 ARI were observed, yielding an adjusted incidence of 6.2 ARI/child-year (95% confidence interval: 5.9-6.5). Families sought medical care for 24% of ARI, 4% were classified as lower respiratory tract infections and 1% led to hospitalization. Of 5 deaths among cohort children, 2 were attributed to ARI. One or more respiratory viruses were detected in 67% of 3957 samples collected. Virus-specific incidence rates per 100 child-years were: rhinovirus, 236; adenovirus, 73; parainfluenza virus, 46; influenza, 37; respiratory syncytial virus, 30 and human metapneumovirus, 17. Respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus 1-3 comprised a disproportionate share of lower respiratory tract infections compared with other etiologies. In this high-altitude rural setting with low-population density, ARI in young children were common, frequently severe and associated with a number of different respiratory viruses. Effective strategies for prevention and control of these infections are needed.
Essam A Elgamal
Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a relatively safe procedure. However, postoperative acute respiratory failure may be fatal. The authors report an 8-month-old patient with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to posterior fossa cyst, and Chiari malformation. After ETV he developed difficulty in breathing, and had to be reintubated and ventilated. The infant recovered fully after craniocervical decompression and insertion of cystoperitoneal shunt. We speculate that respiratory failure is related to relative expansion of the posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, causing significant compression on the brain stem. Supportive care with mechanical ventilation and brain stem decompression were the mainstay of treatment.
Verger, Judy T; Bradshaw, Darla J; Henry, Elizabeth; Roberts, Kathryn E
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents the ultimate pulmonary response to a wide range of injuries, from septicemia to trauma. Optimal nutrition is vital to enhancing oxygen delivery, supporting adequate cardiac contractility and respiratory musculature, eliminating fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and supporting the proinflammatory response. Research is providing a better understanding of nutrients that specifically address the complex physiologic changes in ARDS. This article highlights the pathophysiology of ARDS as it relates to nutrition, relevant nutritional assessment, and important enteral and parenteral considerations for the pediatric patient who has ARDS.
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the symptoms and signs with which under-fives with acute respiratory infections are admitted to a rural hospital? Objectives: i To analyse the symptoms, signs and diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Infections in under-fives. ii To compare the experience with WHO guidelines. Design: Retrospective analysis of under-five patients admitted with ARI. Setting: Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Hospital, Ballabgarh. Participants; Under-fives admitted with ARI. Outcome: Signs, symptoms, diagnosis of ARI. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis of findings. Results: 73.6% admitted were males, 63.2% were infants. The most commonly complained symptoms at the time of admission were fever (69.6%, Cough (63.2%, breathlessness (61.6% inability to feed (19.2 and diarrhoea (19.2%. 76.0% had crepitations, 26.4% had chest in drawing, 23.2% had ronchi, and 14.4%had respiratory distress. Only 33.3% had respiratory rate more than 60 per minute among children less than 2 months old, 56.9% had respiratory rate more than 50 per minute among children 2-12 month old. 54.3% had respiratory rate more than 40 per minute among 12 months to 5 years of age. 76% had pneumonias. The case fatality rate (CFR was 12.8% and most of the deaths occurred within 24 hours of arrival. The C.F.R was more in females and among young infants. Conclusion: Fever should be included in the lead symptoms of ARI along with cough and breathlessness. There is a need for looking at Respiratory rate for recognition of Pneumonias.
Full Text Available Ingrid L Titlestad,1 Annmarie T Lassen,2 Jørgen Vestbo1,3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 3Respiratory Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Implementation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV as an add-on treatment has been routinely used in a non-intensive care setting since 2004 for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure at a university hospital in Denmark. Although randomized controlled trials show lowered mortality rates in highly selected patients with acute exacerbation and respiratory failure, there are only few reports on long-term survival after receiving NIV. We present long-term all-cause mortality data from patients receiving NIV for the first time. Method: Data from medical records were retrospectively retrieved from all patients receiving NIV for the first time after being admitted acutely to an acute medical ward and further transfer to a respiratory ward with respiratory failure and a diagnosis of COPD in the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007; patients were followed until January 2012. Demographic data collected included age, sex, diagnoses at discharge, and, when present, FEV1; a “not-to-intubate” order was also registered when listed. Results: In total, 253 patients (143 female, 110 male received NIV for the first time. The median age was 72 years (range 46–91 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 29.3%. The 5-year survival rate was 23.7%. Women showed a trend towards better survival than men (25.7% vs 19.2%, P = 0.25, and the trend was even more pronounced for patients with COPD. Conclusion: The mortality rate of patients receiving NIV is high, as expected in a real-life setting, but with a 5-year survival rate
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Kim, Ji Eun; Gweon, Tae-Geun; Yeo, Chang Dong; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Gi Jun; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Hye Won; Lim, Taeseok; Ham, Hyoju; Oh, Hyun Jin; Lee, Yeongbok; Byeon, Jaeho; Park, Sung Soo
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening disorder caused mainly by pneumonia. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common nosocomial diarrheal disease. Disruption of normal intestinal flora by antibiotics is the main risk factor for CDI. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for serious medical conditions can make it difficult to treat CDI complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fecal microbiota transplantation is a highly effective treatment in patients with refractory CDI. Here we report on a patient with refractory CDI and acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by pneumonia who was treated with fecal microbiota transplantation.
Wallace, David J; Arquilla, Bonnie; Heffernan, Richard; Kramer, Martin; Anderson, Todd; Bernstein, David; Augenbraun, Michael
We describe a field simulation that was conducted using volunteers to assess the ability of 3 hospitals in a network to manage a large influx of patients with a potentially communicable disease. This drill provided the opportunity to evaluate the ability of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (NYC-DOHMH) emergency department chief complaint syndromic surveillance system to detect a cluster of patients with febrile respiratory illness. The evaluation was a prospective simulation. The clinical picture was modeled on severe acute respiratory syndrome symptoms. Forty-four volunteers participated in the drill as mock patients. Records from 42 patients (95%) were successfully transmitted to the NYC-DOHMH. The electronic chief complaint for 24 (57%) of these patients indicated febrile or respiratory illness. The drill did not generate a statistical signal in the NYC-DOHMH SaTScan analysis. The 42 drill patients were classified in 8 hierarchical categories based on chief complaints: sepsis (2), cold (3), diarrhea (2), respiratory (20), fever/flu (4), vomit (3), and other (8). The number of respiratory visits, while elevated on the day of the drill, did not appear particularly unusual when compared with the 14-day baseline period used for spatial analyses. This drill with a cluster of patients with febrile respiratory illness failed to trigger a signal from the NYC-DOHMH emergency department chief complaint syndromic surveillance system. This highlighted several limitations and challenges to syndromic surveillance monitoring.
Full Text Available Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results : Viruses were identified in 270 children (83.1%. Co-infections with ?#242; viruses were observed in 71 patients (26.3 %. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most common virus detected (33.2%, followed by human rhinovirus (hRV (19.1%, influenza virus (Flu A (16.9%, human metapneumovirus (hMPV (15.4%, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs (8.3%, human bocavirus (hBoV (8.0%, adenovirus (ADV (5.8%, and human coronavirus (hCoV (2.2%. Clinical diagnoses of viral ALRIs were bronchiolitis (37.5%, pneumonia (34.5%, asthma exacerbation (20.9%, and croup (7.1%. Clinical diagnoses of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia were frequently demonstrated in patients who tested positive for RSV, hRV, hMPV, or Flu A. Flu A and hRV were most commonly identified in children older than 3 years and were the 2 leading causes of asthma exacerbation. hRV C was detected in 14 (4.3% children, who were significantly older than those infected with hRV A (mean±SD, 4.1±3.5 years vs. 1.7±2.3 years; P=0.009. hBoV was usually detected in young children (2.3±3.4 years with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Conclusion : This study described the features of ALRI associated with 13 respiratory viruses in Korean children. Additional investigations are required to define the roles of newly identified viruses in children with ALRIs.
Full Text Available Background: In the last years Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV has been playing an important role in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF. A lot of trials have shown improvements in clinical features (respiratory rate, neurological score, pH and arterial blood gases. Methods: In particular clinical conditions, such as Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (ACPE and acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, systematic reviews and meta-analysis show a reduction in the need for intubation and in-hospital mortality compared to standard medical treatment. In other clinical conditions, such as acute asthma, Acute Lung Injury (ALI/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS and severe pneumonia, NIV does not show significant improvements in term of avoided intubations or mortality rate. Although the first important data on NIV comes from studies performed in Intensive Care Units (ICUs, subsequently these methodologies of ventilation have been used with increasing frequency in Emergency Departments (ED and medical wards. Results: Studies developed in ICU sometimes report slightly worse outcomes compared to studies performed in general wards due to the need to treat more severe patients in ICU. Aetiology remains one of the most important factor determining prognosis: different pathological mechanisms substain different clinical conditions and not in all cases the application of positive pressures to the airways is useful. NIV for ARF due to COPD and ACPE is feasible, safe and effective also in a general medical ward if selection of patients, staff training and monitoring are appropriate: its early application improves clinical parameters, arterial blood gases, prevents endotracheal intubation, decreases mortality and hospitalisation. This should encourage the diffusion of NIV in this specific setting.
González Zambrano, L; San Román, E; Gallesio, A O; Prados, A F; Principe, G J
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and respiratory variations in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) under two conditions: volume controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV). Seventeen patients with ARDS and the following criteria were included: lung injury score > 2.5 and peak inspiratory pressure > or = 40 cm H2O under VCV, constant flow and I/E ratio of 1/2. Measurements were obtained in VCV and after one hour in PCIRV with I/E ratio 2/1 using a similar PEEP value than VCV. PCIRV was accompanied by a significant lower tidal volume (736.10 +/- 119.20 vs 540.35 +/- 84.66 p SDRA, which is shown with the improvement in the static compliance and the airway pressures in PCIRV. PCIRV mode at the same PEEPt level as VCV, with normal I/E ratio does not improve the oxygenation, despite the higher level of the mean airway pressure.
Kant, K Merijn; Djamin, Remco S; Belderbos, Huub N A; van den Berg, Bart
The decision to move to a form of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure due to an acute exacerbation of COPD is influenced by expectations about survival and quality of life after discharge from the ICU. Physicians tend to be too pessimistic about the survival outcome of an ICU stay with invasive mechanical ventilation. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is not an adequate prognostic parameter. In order to prevent undertreatment of patients with respiratory failure due to an exacerbation of COPD, knowledge of prognostic parameters and quality of life in these patients is very important. End of life care should be integrated into the standard care of COPD patients.
Song, Huai-Dong; Tu, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zheng, Kui; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Gao, Yu-Wei; Zhou, Hui-Qiong; Xiang, Hua; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Chern, Shur-Wern Wang; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Chun-Ming; Xuan, Hua; Chen, Sai-Juan; Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhou, Duan-Hua; Liu, Yu-Fei; He, Jian-Feng; Qin, Peng-Zhe; Li, Ling-Hui; Ren, Yu-Qi; Liang, Wen-Jia; Yu, Ye-Dong; Anderson, Larry; Wang, Ming; Xu, Rui-Heng; Wu, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Huan-Ying; Chen, Jin-Ding; Liang, Guodong; Gao, Yang; Liao, Ming; Fang, Ling; Jiang, Li-Yun; Li, Hui; Chen, Fang; Di, Biao; He, Li-Juan; Lin, Jin-Yan; Tong, Suxiang; Kong, Xiangang; Du, Lin; Hao, Pei; Tang, Hua; Bernini, Andrea; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Spiga, Ottavia; Guo, Zong-Ming; Pan, Hai-Yan; He, Wei-Zhong; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Fontanet, Arnaud; Danchin, Antoine; Niccolai, Neri; Li, Yi-Xue; Wu, Chung-I; Zhao, Guo-Ping
The genomic sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from human and palm civet of the 2003/2004 outbreak in the city of Guangzhou, China, were nearly identical. Phylogenetic analysis suggested an independent viral invasion from animal to human in this new episode. Combining all existing data but excluding singletons, we identified 202 single-nucleotide variations. Among them, 17 are polymorphic in palm civets only. The ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide substitution in palm civets collected 1 yr apart from different geographic locations is very high, suggesting a rapid evolving process of viral proteins in civet as well, much like their adaptation in the human host in the early 2002–2003 epidemic. Major genetic variations in some critical genes, particularly the Spike gene, seemed essential for the transition from animal-to-human transmission to human-to-human transmission, which eventually caused the first severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2002/2003. PMID:15695582
Full Text Available Background: In the last years Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV has been playing an important role in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF. Prospective randomised controlled trials have shown improvements in clinical features (respiratory rate, neurological score, pH and arterial blood gases and in particular clinical conditions (Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema, ACPE, and acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, COPD systematic reviews and metha-analysis confirm a reduction in the need for intubation and in-hospital mortality compared to standard medical treatment. Methods: The most important techniques of ventilation in spontaneous breathing are: Continuous Positive Airway Pression (CPAP, usually performed with Venturi-like flow generators, and bi-level positive pressure ventilation (an high inspiratory pressure and a low expiratory pressure, performed with ventilators. Facial mask rather than nasal mask is used in ARF: the helmet is useful for prolonged treatments. Results: NIV’s success seems to be determined by early application, correct selection of patients and staff training. Controindications to NIV are: cardiac or respiratory arrest, a respiratory rate < 12 per minute, upper airway obstruction, hemodynamic instability or unstable cardiac arrhythmia, encephalopathy (Kelly score > 3, facial surgery trauma or deformity, inability to cooperate or protect the airway, high risk of aspiration and an inability to clear respiratory secretions. Conclusions: Bi-level ventilation for ARF due to COPD and CPAP or bi-level bentilation for ARF due to ACPE are feasible, safe and effective also in a General Medical ward if the selection of patients, the staff’s training and the monitoring are appropriate: they improve clinical parameters, arterial blood gases, prevent ETI, decrease mortality and hospitalisation. This should encourage the diffusion of NIV in this specific setting.
Peker, Emel; Sahin, Erkan M; Topaloğlu, Naci; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Ağaoğlu, Hasre; Güngör, Selen
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the level of knowledge and general attitude to acute respiratory diseases and behavior of antibiotic usage and related factors. The study included 122 mothers of children between 2 and 16 years of age who applied the complaint of respiratory infections and experienced the respiratory infections previous year, to policlinics between January and May 2012. A survey form was used to evaluate the sociodemographic properties of the mothers, and the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of mothers to childhood acute respiratory infections, fever and antibiotic use. Of the children, 58.1% applied with cough, and 40.9% applied with fever to the doctor. Before attendance 28.6% of mothers had used antibiotics and 27.8% antipyretics. The rate use of not prescribed antibiotics was 12.3%. Before medical evaluation of children, the use of a variety of traditional and alternative medical methods was at the high rate of 57.4%. The average attitude scores of mothers about the antibiotics use for acute respiratory infections fell into the category of being against antibiotic use and income level toward antibiotic use and a correlation between duration of mother's education against antibiotic use. We found that the level of knowledge of parents about medications used by their children was insufficient and there is a high percentage of non-prescription use of antibiotics. In low income and low education level of parents the use of antibiotics increased. Health workers must correctly inform parents about symptoms, course and medication. The effects of health education in the management of common diseases must be evaluated with studies.
Conclusion: APACHE II scores recorded prior to NIV treatment, PImax30, R30, RR60, as well as improvements to RR during the first 30 minutes of NIV treatment and to PEmax during the first 60 minutes of NIV treatment were predictors of successful NIV treatment for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Such parameters may be helpful in selecting patients to receive NIV treatment and also for deciding when early termination of the treatment is appropriate.
姚婉贞; 陈亚红; 张立强; 王筱宏; 孙永昌; 孙威; 韩江莉; 张福春; 郑亚安; 孙伯章; 贺蓓; 赵鸣武
@@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a disease identified in Asia, North America and Europe. The drugs for treatment and prevention of and vaccine for the disease are in research.1,2 There is still no agreement on glucocorticosteroid treatment of SARS. In treatment of SARS patients with glucocorticosteroids, we found 5 cases whose chest X ray changes were different from what the literature reported.
Vladyko, N V
A study was performed of acute pneumonia (AP) morbidity among the workers exposed to respiratory irritation inducing chemical substances, which revealed a marked AP prevalence in these professional groups. A qualitative analysis of the AP cases severity helped to establish some peculiarities of the disease course in workers exposed to minor concentrations of the chemical substances, which should be taken into account in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and out-patient observation.
Contou, Damien; Fragnoli, Chiara; Córdoba-Izquierdo, Ana; Boissier, Florence; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Thille, Arnaud W
Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is common in patients with COPD admitted to the ICU for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). We aimed to assess the rate of NIV failure and to identify early predictors of intubation under NIV in patients admitted for AHRF of all origins in an experienced unit. This was an observational cohort study using data prospectively collected over a 3-year period after the implementation of a nurse-driven NIV protocol in a 24-bed medical ICU of a French university hospital. Among 242 subjects receiving NIV for AHRF (P(aCO2) > 45 mm Hg), 67 had cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE), 146 had acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (AOCRF) (including 99 subjects with COPD and 47 with other chronic respiratory diseases), and 29 had non-AOCRF (mostly pneumonia). Overall, the rates of intubation and ICU mortality were respectively 15% and 5%. The intubation rates were 4% in CPE, 15% in AOCRF, and 38% in non-AOCRF (P intubation rate was reduced to 15% in patients receiving NIV for AHRF, with a mortality rate of only 5%. Whereas the risk of NIV failure is associated with hypoxemia and acidosis after initiation of NIV, it is also markedly influenced by the presence or absence of an underlying chronic respiratory disease.
Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T; Wang, Lin-Fa
Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named "Melaka virus") isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms approximately 1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house approximately 1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans.
Antônio Paula Nascimento
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between fine particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere and hospital care by acute respiratory diseases in children. METHODS Ecological study, carried out in the region of Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, in the winter (June 21 to September 21, 2013 and summer (December 21, 2013 to March 19, 2014. We assessed data of daily count for outpatient care and hospitalization by respiratory diseases (ICD-10 in children from zero to 12 years in three hospitals in the Region of Grande Vitória. For collecting fine particulate matter, we used portable samplers of particles installed in six locations in the studied region. The Generalized Additive Model with Poisson distribution, fitted for the effects of predictor covariates, was used to evaluate the relationship between respiratory outcomes and concentration of fine particulate matter. RESULTS The increase of 4.2 µg/m3 (interquartile range in the concentration of fine particulate matter increased in 3.8% and 5.6% the risk of medical care or hospitalization, respectively, on the same day and with six-day lag from the exposure. CONCLUSIONS We identified positive association between outpatient care and hospitalizations of children under 12 years due to acute respiratory diseases and the concentration of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere.
Gaspari, Romolo J; Paydarfar, David
Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning causes respiratory failure through two mechanisms: central apnea and pulmonary dysfunction. The vagus nerve is involved in both the central control of respiratory rhythm as well as the control of pulmonary vasculature, airways and secretions. We used a rat model of acute OP poisoning with and without a surgical vagotomy to explore the role of the vagus in OP-induced respiratory failure. Dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) injection (100mg/kg subcutaneously, 3 x LD50) resulted in progressive hypoventilation and apnea in all animals, irrespective of whether or not the vagi were intact. However, vagotomized animals exhibited a more rapidly progressive decline in ventilation and oxygenation. Artificial mechanical ventilation initiated at onset of apnea resulted in improvement in oxygenation and arterial pressure in poisoned animals with no difference between vagus intact or vagotomized animals. Our observations suggest that vagal mechanisms have a beneficial effect during the poisoning process. We speculate that vagally mediated feedback signals from the lung to the brainstem serve as a modest protective mechanism against central respiratory depressive effects of the poison and that bulbar-generated efferent vagal signals do not cause sufficient pulmonary dysfunction to impair pulmonary gas exchange.
S. P. Kokoreva
Full Text Available The analysis of the etiology of acute respiratory infections was carried out in 865 children hospitalized to a hospital infection in the ears 2009—2013. It was found that respiratory viruses dominated in the etiological structure of acute respiratory infections of children, with a leading position in the number of revised survey diagnoses in different years of observation occupied influenza, but in recent years there is a growth trend of respiratory syncytial virus infection. The most pronounced seasonality of hospitalized children to help in the verification of the diagnosis, there was just the influenza, and mycoplasma infection. Children of preschool and school age with influenza and micoplasma infections are hospitalized more often, while for respiratory diseases other etiology, especially with respiratory syncytial virus infection children up to 3 years are hospitalized.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between a bedside ultrasound evaluation during an episode of acute respiratory failure and the patient’s outcome. A retrospective observational study was conducted in the emergency departments (EDs of two hospitals in Como (Sant’Anna Hospital and Valduce Hospital over two years. Two hundred and twenty eight adult patients with acute respiratory failure were recruited for the study. One hundred and eight patients (group A received immediately a bedside ultrasound diagnostic test by expert investigastors at the time of ED admission, while 120 patients (group B were evaluated and managed without a preliminary ultrasound diagnostic approach. The concordance between initial and final diagnosis was statistically significant in group A vs group B (P<0.01. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in group A as compared with group B [3 (2.7% vs 6 (5%, respectively; P<0.01]; in group A only nine patients (8.3% compared with seventeen patients (14.1% in group B (P<0.01 were transferred to the intensive care unit for monitoring and treatment. The study proposed is not able to recommend the procedure because it is a retrospective design. In spite of this, our study supports the routine use of ultrasonography for the evaluation of patients having acute respiratory failure.
Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is frequently complicated with acute respiratory failure. In this article, we aim to focus on the management of the subgroup of SARS patients who are critically ill. Most SARS patients would require high flow oxygen supplementation, 20–30% required intensive care unit (ICU or high dependency care, and 13–26% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. In some of these patients, the clinical course can progress relentlessly to septic shock and/or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. The management of critically ill SARS patients requires timely institution of pharmacotherapy where applicable and supportive treatment (oxygen therapy, noninvasive and invasive ventilation. Superimposed bacterial and other opportunistic infections are common, especially in those treated with mechanical ventilation. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothoraces and pneumomediastinum may arise spontaneously or as a result of positive ventilatory assistance. Older age is a consistently a poor prognostic factor. Appropriate use of personal protection equipment and adherence to infection control measures is mandatory for effective infection control. Much of the knowledge about the clinical aspects of SARS is based on retrospective observational data and randomized-controlled trials are required for confirmation. Physicians and scientists all over the world should collaborate to study this condition which may potentially threaten human existence.
Weyrich, J.; Bogdanski, R.; Ortiz, J. U.; Kuschel, B.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Lobmaier, S. M.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used for the management of acute severe cardiac and respiratory failure. One of the indications is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which, in some severe cases, ECMO represents the only possibility to save lives. We report on the successful long-term use of ECMO in a postpartum patient with recurrent pulmonary decompensation after peripartum uterine rupture with extensive blood loss. PMID:27065489
Weyrich, J; Bogdanski, R; Ortiz, J U; Kuschel, B; Schneider, K T M; Lobmaier, S M
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used for the management of acute severe cardiac and respiratory failure. One of the indications is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which, in some severe cases, ECMO represents the only possibility to save lives. We report on the successful long-term use of ECMO in a postpartum patient with recurrent pulmonary decompensation after peripartum uterine rupture with extensive blood loss.
Grievink, L; Hoek, G; Boezen, HM; van't Veer, P; Brunekreef, B
This study investigated whether a high dietary intake or serum concentration of antioxidant (pro-) vitamins could attenuate the acute respiratory effects of air pollution in panels of adults (n=227) aged 50-70 yrs with chronic respiratory symptoms in two winters starting in 1993/1994. Subjects perfo
V. B. Rovny
Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.
Ely, E Wesley; Wheeler, Arthur P; Thompson, B Taylor; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Steinberg, Kenneth P; Bernard, Gordon R
The incidence of acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation increases 10-fold from the ages of 55 to 85 years, yet the rate of recovery and outcomes in older persons who develop acute lung injury are poorly defined. To examine age as an independent risk factor in recovery and intensive care unit discharge after acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 10 U.S. university-based medical centers. 902 mechanically ventilated patients enrolled in randomized, controlled trials for the treatment of acute lung injury. All patients were managed according to a standardized protocol for ventilator management and weaning. Frequency and time to achieve well-defined recovery landmarks, duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay, and survival. Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 19 days (interquartile range, 7 to >28 days) for patients 70 years of age or older (n = 173) compared with 10 days (interquartile range, 5 to 26 days) for patients younger than 70 years of age (n = 729) (P 28 days) and 16 days for the younger group (8 to >28 days) (P = 0.004). Survival rates decreased across increasing decades of age (P 0.2). After passing a spontaneous breathing trial, however, older patients required 1 more day than younger patients to achieve unassisted breathing (P = 0.002) and 3 more days to leave the intensive care unit (P = 0.005). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, age of 70 years or older was a strong predictor of in-hospital death (hazard ratio, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.0 to 3.2]; P acute lung injury compared with their younger counterparts, even after adjustment for covariates. Older survivors recovered from respiratory failure and achieved spontaneous breathing at the same rate as younger patients but had greater difficulty achieving liberation from the ventilator and being discharged from the intensive care unit.
Budge, Philip J.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M.; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.
Background Few community studies have measured the incidence, severity, and etiology of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among children living at high-altitude in remote rural settings. Methods We conducted active, household-based ARI surveillance among children aged RESPIRA-PERU study). ARI (defined by fever or cough) were considered lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) if tachypnea, wheezing, grunting, stridor, or retractions were present. Nasal swabs collected during ARI episodes were tested for respiratory viruses by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. ARI incidence was calculated using Poisson regression. Results During 755.1 child-years of observation among 892 children in 58 communities, 4,475 ARI were observed, yielding an adjusted incidence of 6.2 ARI/child-year (95% CI 5.9 – 6.5). Families sought medical care for 24% of ARI, 4% were classified as LRTI, and 1% led to hospitalization. Two of five deaths among cohort children were attributed to ARI. One or more respiratory virus was detected in 67% of 3957 samples collected. Virus-specific incidence rates per 100 child-years were: rhinovirus, 236; adenovirus, 73; parainfluenza virus, 46; influenza, 37; respiratory syncytial virus, 30; and human metapneumovirus, 17. Respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and parainfluenza virus 1-3 comprised a disproportionate share of LRTI compared to other etiologies. Conclusions In this high-altitude rural setting with low population density, ARI in young children were common, frequently severe, and associated with a number of different respiratory viruses. Effective strategies for prevention and control of these infections are needed. PMID:24378948
Adda, Mélanie; Coquet, Isaline; Darmon, Michaël; Thiery, Guillaume; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie
The current trend to manage critically ill hematologic patients admitted with acute respiratory failure is to perform noninvasive ventilation to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, failure of noninvasive ventilation may lead to an increased mortality. Retrospective study to determine the frequency of noninvasive ventilation failure and identify its determinants. Medical intensive care unit in a University hospital. All consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit over a 10-yr period who received noninvasive ventilation. A total of 99 patients were studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II at admission was 49 (median, interquartile range, 39-57). Fifty-three patients (54%) failed noninvasive ventilation and required endotracheal intubation. Their PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly lower (175 [101-236] vs. 248 [134-337]) and their respiratory rate under noninvasive ventilation was significantly higher (32 breaths/min [30-36] vs. 28 [27-30]). Forty-seven patients (89%) who failed noninvasive ventilation required vasopressors. Hospital mortality was 79% in those who failed noninvasive ventilation, and 41% in those who succeeded. Patients who failed noninvasive ventilation had a significantly longer intensive care unit stay (13 days [8-23] vs. 5 [2-8]) and a significantly higher rate of intensive care unit-acquired infections (32% compared with 7%). Factors independently associated with noninvasive ventilation failure by multivariate analysis were respiratory rate under noninvasive ventilation, longer delay between admission and noninvasive ventilation first use, need for vasopressors or renal replacement therapy, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Failure of noninvasive ventilation occurs in half the critically ill hematologic patients and is associated with an increased mortality. Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure might be used to guide decisions regarding intubation.
Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico
Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375
Vikram Bhausaheb Vikhe
Full Text Available Vasculotoxic snake bites are well known to cause local complications like necrosis and cellulitis and systemic complications such as coagulopathy, acute renal failure (ARF, and hemolysis. We report a case of young female patient who was bitten by a viper. She developed cellulitis, sepsis, ARF, and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation. She was treated for the above complications and all her renal and hematological parameters returned to normal on seventh day. After this, on the same day, patient developed Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome probably due to the direct toxic effect of venom on pulmonary vascular endothelium which has been reported as a late complication of snake venom. With close monitoring and proper management of complications, the patient recovered and walked out of the hospital on the twenty first day without any complications.
Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Sloth, Erik; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg;
of the clinical examination. In addition, most of the diseases, which are commonly seen in patients with acute respiratory symptoms, can be diagnosed using sonography. Sonography could be integrated as a part of the primary evaluation, potentially improving the diagnostic performance. We therefore evaluated...... the use of sonographic examination of the heart, lungs and deep veins, performed within one hour of the primary evaluation, in acute admitted patients with respiratory symptoms. Methods: We performed a prospective cross sectional blinded observational study, conducted in a medical emergency department....... Patients were included if one or more of the following symptoms or clinical findings were present: respiratory rate > 20, saturation heart, lungs and deep veins...
Yen, Yu-Ting; Liao, Fang; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.
The clinical picture of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation and respiratory failure, resembling that of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the events that lead to the recruitment of leukocytes are poorly understood. To study the cellular response in the acute phase of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-host cell interaction, we investigated the induction of chemokines, adhesion molecules, and DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin) by SARS-CoV. Immunohistochemistry revealed neutrophil, macrophage, and CD8 T-cell infiltration in the lung autopsy of a SARS patient who died during the acute phase of illness. Additionally, pneumocytes and macrophages in the patient's lung expressed P-selectin and DC-SIGN. In in vitro study, we showed that the A549 and THP-1 cell lines were susceptible to SARS-CoV. A549 cells produced CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) after interaction with SARS-CoV and expressed P-selectin and VCAM-1. Moreover, SARS-CoV induced THP-1 cells to express CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL3/MIP-1α, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES, which attracted neutrophils, monocytes, and activated T cells in a chemotaxis assay. We also demonstrated that DC-SIGN was inducible in THP-1 as well as A549 cells after SARS-CoV infection. Our in vitro experiments modeling infection in humans together with the study of a lung biopsy of a patient who died during the early phase of infection demonstrated that SARS-CoV, through a dynamic interaction with lung epithelial cells and monocytic cells, creates an environment conducive for immune cell migration and accumulation that eventually leads to lung injury. PMID:16501078
Kouchi, Hayet; Uppari, NagaPraveena; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida
Caffeine is widely used for the treatment of apnea of prematurity (AoP) but whether this effect varies with sex is unknown. To shed some light on this question, we present a summary of data obtained on the effects of caffeine on the respiratory chemoreflexes and apnea frequency in 1- and 12-days old male and female rats. Caffeine was either administered as a single acute injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) or for 10 consecutive days (7.5mg/kg/day between 3 and 12days of life by gavage, simulating its clinical use). Acute caffeine had little effects on breathing in 1-day old male and female rats. In 12-days old female rats caffeine reduced the response to hypercapnia (not hypoxia) compared to males. During the steady state of hypoxia females had a lower frequency of apneas than males, and acute injection of caffeine decreased the frequency of apnea, suppressing the differences between males and females. In 12-days old rats chronic administration of caffeine stimulated basal breathing and decreased the frequency of apnea similarly in males and females. In response to hypoxia, chronic caffeine administration also masked the difference in respiratory frequency between males and females observed in control rats. Female rats had lower frequency of apnea than males with or without caffeine treatment. These observations indicate that sex influences the respiratory responses to caffeine and this effect seems to depend on the modality of administration (acute vs chronic) and environmental oxygen (normoxia vs hypoxia). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory diseases (ARDs are a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The present case-controlled study investigated the hospitalizations by ARDs in children under one year of age and the association with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV in za Pelotas, RS. METHODS: All children under one year of age hospitalized due to ARDs from August 1997 to July of 1998 were followed-up in the four hospitals of the city. A standardized questionnaire was applied to the children's mother regarding symptoms of the actual illness in addition to social and demographic variables, nutrition, and previous morbidity. The final diagnosis of ARDs was performed by an arbiter (a pediatrician based on the hospital records of the children and the data on the questionnaire. Nasopharyngeal secretions were collected for RSV detection by direct immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The study included 650 children and the annual incidence rate of hospital admissions for ARDs was 13.9%. Admissions showed a seasonal pattern with most of the hospitalizations occurring from July to October. The main causes of admission were: pneumonia (43.7%, bronchiolitis (31.0%, asthma (20.3%, influenza (3.5%, otitis media (0.8% and laryngitis (0.6%. The overall prevalence of RSV was 30.7%, with 40.2% in bronchiolitis, 28.6% in influenza, 27.4% in asthma, 26.3% in pneumonia, and 25% in otitis media. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study confirm the high morbidity of ARDs in childhood and the seasonal pattern of ARDs hospitalizations and their association with RSV infection.
Katalan, Shahaf; Falach, Reut; Rosner, Amir; Goldvaser, Michael; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dvir, Ayana; Mizrachi, Avi; Goren, Orr; Cohen, Barak; Gal, Yoav; Sapoznikov, Anita; Ehrlich, Sharon; Kronman, Chanoch
ABSTRACT Pulmonary exposure to the plant toxin ricin leads to respiratory insufficiency and death. To date, in-depth study of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following pulmonary exposure to toxins is hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we established the pig as a large animal model for the comprehensive study of the multifarious clinical manifestations of pulmonary ricinosis. Here, we report for the first time, the monitoring of barometric whole body plethysmography for pulmonary function tests in non-anesthetized ricin-treated pigs. Up to 30 h post-exposure, as a result of progressing hypoxemia and to prevent carbon dioxide retention, animals exhibited a compensatory response of elevation in minute volume, attributed mainly to a large elevation in respiratory rate with minimal response in tidal volume. This response was followed by decompensation, manifested by a decrease in minute volume and severe hypoxemia, refractory to oxygen treatment. Radiological evaluation revealed evidence of early diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates while hemodynamic parameters remained unchanged, excluding cardiac failure as an explanation for respiratory insufficiency. Ricin-intoxicated pigs suffered from increased lung permeability accompanied by cytokine storming. Histological studies revealed lung tissue insults that accumulated over time and led to diffuse alveolar damage. Charting the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio in a mechanically ventilated pig confirmed that ricin-induced respiratory damage complies with the accepted diagnostic criteria for ARDS. The establishment of this animal model of pulmonary ricinosis should help in the pursuit of efficient medical countermeasures specifically tailored to deal with the respiratory deficiencies stemming from ricin-induced ARDS. PMID:28067630
Satriotomo, I; Nichols, N L; Dale, E A; Emery, A T; Dahlberg, J M; Mitchell, G S
Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) increases growth/trophic factor expression in respiratory motor neurons, thereby eliciting spinal respiratory motor plasticity and/or neuroprotection. Here we demonstrate that rAIH effects are not unique to respiratory motor neurons, but are also expressed in non-respiratory, spinal alpha motor neurons and upper motor neurons of the motor cortex. In specific, we used immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to assess growth/trophic factor protein expression in spinal sections from rats exposed to AIH three times per week for 10weeks (3×wAIH). 3×wAIH increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) immunoreactivity in putative alpha motor neurons of spinal cervical 7 (C7) and lumbar 3 (L3) segments, as well as in upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1). 3×wAIH also increased immunoreactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the high-affinity VEGFA receptor (VEGFR-2) and an important VEGF gene regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Thus, rAIH effects on growth/trophic factors are characteristic of non-respiratory as well as respiratory motor neurons. rAIH may be a useful tool in the treatment of disorders causing paralysis, such as spinal injury and motor neuron disease, as a pretreatment to enhance motor neuron survival during disease, or as preconditioning for cell-transplant therapies.
Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to the plant toxin ricin leads to respiratory insufficiency and death. To date, in-depth study of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS following pulmonary exposure to toxins is hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we established the pig as a large animal model for the comprehensive study of the multifarious clinical manifestations of pulmonary ricinosis. Here, we report for the first time, the monitoring of barometric whole body plethysmography for pulmonary function tests in non-anesthetized ricin-treated pigs. Up to 30 h post-exposure, as a result of progressing hypoxemia and to prevent carbon dioxide retention, animals exhibited a compensatory response of elevation in minute volume, attributed mainly to a large elevation in respiratory rate with minimal response in tidal volume. This response was followed by decompensation, manifested by a decrease in minute volume and severe hypoxemia, refractory to oxygen treatment. Radiological evaluation revealed evidence of early diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates while hemodynamic parameters remained unchanged, excluding cardiac failure as an explanation for respiratory insufficiency. Ricin-intoxicated pigs suffered from increased lung permeability accompanied by cytokine storming. Histological studies revealed lung tissue insults that accumulated over time and led to diffuse alveolar damage. Charting the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio in a mechanically ventilated pig confirmed that ricin-induced respiratory damage complies with the accepted diagnostic criteria for ARDS. The establishment of this animal model of pulmonary ricinosis should help in the pursuit of efficient medical countermeasures specifically tailored to deal with the respiratory deficiencies stemming from ricin-induced ARDS.
Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M
Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.
Mani, Raj Kumar; Schmidt, Werner; Lund, Laura W; Herth, Felix J F
Noninvasive ventilatory support has become the standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experiencing exacerbations leading to acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Despite advances in the use of noninvasive ventilation and the associated improvement in survival, as many as 26% of these patients fail noninvasive support and have a higher subsequent risk of mortality than patients treated initially with invasive mechanical ventilation. We report the use of a novel device to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in two patients who were experiencing acute hypercapnic respiratory failure because of an exacerbation of COPD and were deteriorating, despite support with noninvasive ventilation. This device provided partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal at dialysis-like settings through a single 15.5 Fr venovenous cannula inserted percutaneously through the right femoral vein. The primary results were rapid reduction in arterial carbon dioxide and correction of pH. Neither patient required intubation, despite imminent failure of noninvasive ventilation before initiation of extracorporeal support. Both patients were weaned from noninvasive and extracorporeal support within 3 days. We concluded that low-flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, or respiratory dialysis, is a viable option for avoiding intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with COPD experiencing an exacerbation who are failing noninvasive ventilatory support.
Yuly Andrea Remolina
Full Text Available To identify the viral aetiology in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI admitted to sentinel surveillance institutions in Bogotá in 2012.A cross-sectional study was conducted in which microarray molecular techniques for viral identification were used on nasopharyngeal samples of adult patients submitted to the surveillance system, and further descriptions of clinical features and relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, need for critical care, use of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay, were obtained.Respiratory infections requiring hospital admission in surveillance centres in Bogotá, Colombia.Ninety-one adult patients with acute respiratory infection (55% were female.Viral identification, intensive care unit admission, hospital stay, and mortality.Viral identification was achieved for 63 patients (69.2%. Comorbidity was frequently identified and mainly involved chronic pulmonary disease or pregnancy. Influenza, Bocavirus and Adenovirus were identified in 30.8%, 28.6% and 18.7% of the cases, respectively. Admission to the intensive care unit occurred in 42.9% of the cases, while mechanical ventilation was required for 36.3%. The average hospital stay was 9.9 days, and mortality was 15.4%. Antibiotics were empirically used in 90.1% of patients.The prevalence of viral aetiology of SARI in this study was high, with adverse clinical outcomes, intensive care requirements and high mortality.
Heitkamp, Darel E; Albin, Matthias M; Chung, Jonathan H; Crabtree, Traves P; Iannettoni, Mark D; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Jokerst, Clinton; McComb, Barbara L; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Ravenel, James G
The respiratory system is often affected by complications of immunodeficiency, typically manifesting clinically as acute respiratory illness. Ongoing literature reviews regarding the appropriateness of imaging in these patients are critical, as advanced medical therapies including stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, and immunosuppressive therapies for autoimmune disease continue to keep the population of immunosuppressed patients in our health care system high. This ACR Appropriateness Criteria topic describes clinical scenarios of acute respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients with cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and fever, in those with negative, equivocal, or nonspecific findings on chest radiography, in those with multiple, diffuse, or confluent opacities on chest radiography, and in those in whom noninfectious disease is suspected. The use of chest radiography, chest computed tomography, transthoracic needle biopsy, and nuclear medicine imaging is discussed in the context of these clinical scenarios. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
E. E. Lokshina
Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical efficacy, tolerance and safety of a new pelleted ibuprofen form for children in treatment of fever in patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Patients and methods: children aged from 6 to 12 years old with clinical manifestation of respiratory tract infections and requiring antipyretic treatment were included into the study. Children (n = 50 were administered ibuprofen at a single dose of 5–10 mg/kg of body weight, not more than 3–4 times per day. The efficacy assessment included time needed for temperature decrease (assessment was performed in 15, 30 and 60 minutes and duration of the antipyretic effect (assessment in 6, 8 and 12 hours. Rapidity of analgesic effect in children with ear ache, headache and myalgias was performed in 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6, 8 and 12 hours after the drug intake. Results: antipyretic effect of pelleted ibuprofen for children begins in 15 minutes after its intake. Stable temperature decrease during the first 6 hours was observed in 58% of children (the mean temperature was 37,1 ± 0,3 and maintained up for 12 hours. Relief of pain intensity was established in 62,1% of patients during the first 3 hours, and in 37,9% the pain syndrome was arrested completely. Conclusions: the new pelleted form of ibuprofen for children was proved to have high clinical efficacy and safety in treatment of fever in children with acute respiratory tract infections.
Peng, Chung-Kan; Wu, Shu-Fen; Yang, Shih-Hsing; Hsieh, Chuan-Fa; Huang, Chung-Chih; Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Wu, Chin-Pyng
We have previously shown in patients receiving adaptive support ventilation (ASV) that there existed a Transition %MinVol (TMV%) where the patient's work of breathing began to reduce. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that higher TMV% would be associated with poorer outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure. In this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with acute respiratory failure on ASV between December 2012 and September 2013 in a mixed ICU. The TMV% was determined by adjusting % MinVol until mandatory respiratory frequency was between 0 and 1breath/min. TMV% was measured on the first two days of mechanical ventilation. A total of 337 patients (age: 70±16years) were recruited. In patients whose TMV% increased between Day 1 and Day 2, aOR for mortality was 7.0 (95%CI=2.7-18.3, pTMV% decreased. In patients whose TMV% was unchanged between Day 1 and Day2, aOR for mortality was 3.91 (95%CI=1.80-8.22, pTMV% from Day 1 to Day 2 was associated with higher risk of in-hospital death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Local treatment of 30 preschool children suffering from acute respiratory diseases, acute catarrhal tonsillopharyngitis was conducted using the drug Horlospas for Children, which is a metered dose spray containing sea salt, colloidal silver, chlorhexidine bigluconate, marigold and sage extracts, eucalyptus and mint essential oils. A notable acceleration of inflammation regression and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease were registered. The use of combined drug Horlospas for Children has reduced the number of catarrhal tonsillopharyngitis episodes in the winter, even in sickly children of preschool age.
Determinants of Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes during an Episode of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Effects of Comorbidities and Causes of Respiratory Failure
Angela Maria Grazia Pacilli
Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status.
Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients’ quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD. The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b a telehealth framework; (c CARS and (d machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA and a support vector machine (SVM classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.
Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didnÃ¢Â€Â™t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.
Agelebe, Efeturi; Musa, Tawakalit Lily; Ajayi, Idowu Adebowale
Reports on hypersensitivity diseases in Nigerians are rare. We report the incidence of anaphylaxis in three siblings following fatal outcome in their mother. Urticarial rashes were noticed in three siblings’ resident in a South Western Nigerian town, one week before presentation at our facility. All the three siblings developed respiratory distress four days after the rash was noticed. Onset of respiratory distress made the family seek care at a private hospital, where they were admitted and treated with intravenous aminophylline and ceftriaxone. The mother of the children had experienced the same symptoms earlier also. She took treatment and died in the same private hospital, where her children received care. Death of the mother and worsening respiratory distress in the children made the father effect transfer of the children to the paediatric emergency unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. The three children made a slow but uneventful recovery after instituting appropriate management for anaphylaxis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The cases are discussed with a view to create awareness amongst health practitioners about the occurrence of anaphylaxis in our society. The need for prompt recognition and appropriate management, when confronted with this disease is also underscored.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is not exactly known. Methods Using PCR technology, we attempted to detect various respiratory viruses from 115 Japanese children. Furthermore, the detected viruses were subjected to homology, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic analysis. Results Viruses were detected from 99 (86.1% patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV alone and human rhinovirus (HRV alone were detected in 47 (40.9% and 36 (31.3% patients, respectively. Both RSV and HRV were detected in 14 (12.2% patients. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV alone and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV alone were detected in 1 (0.9% patient each, respectively. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the RSV and HRV strains were classified into genetically diverse species or subgroups. In addition, RSV was the dominant virus detected in patients with no history of wheezing, whereas HRV was dominant in patients with a history of wheezing. Conclusions The results suggested that these genetically diverse respiratory viruses, especially RSV and HRV, might be associated with wheezing in Japanese children.
Full Text Available The complex of treatment of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI, acute rhinitis in 43 preschool children was supplemented by endonasal irrigations of Chistonos for children, which is a dosing gel spray containing sea salt, β-carotene, aloe and calendula extracts. A marked local symptomatic relief was registered, as well as an acceleration of the regression of inflammatory changes in the nasal cavity and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease. Prophylactic use of the product in the preseason allowed to decrease the ARVI (including influenza morbidity rate and to reduce the incidence of the severe form of the disease.
V. V. Kuzkov
Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.
Bauer, Philippe R; Kumbamu, Ashok; Wilson, Michael E; Pannu, Jasleen K; Egginton, Jason S; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen
To analyze bedside clinicians' perspectives regarding the decision process to optimize timing of intubation in sepsis-associated acute respiratory failure. This mixed methods study was conducted from March 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016. Using qualitative research methods, factors that influenced variability in the decision to intubate were organized into categories and used to build a theoretical explanatory model grounded in current practice variance. All coding schemes were independently reviewed for accuracy and consistency. Themes and findings were then refined with member checking by feedback from individuals and from an anonymous questionnaire until saturation was achieved. The practice of intubation varied according to 3 domains: (1) patient factors included the nature of the acute illness, comorbidities, clinical presentation, severity, trajectory, and values and preferences; (2) clinician factors included background, training, experience, and practice style; and (3) system factors included workload, policies and protocols, hierarchy, communications, culture, and team dynamics. In different contexts, intubation was considered early (elective), just in time (urgent), or late (rescue). The initial assessment, initial decision, and reassessment mattered. Recognizing that the variability in both the decision to intubate and its timing depends on many factors, and not on clinical criteria alone, should render the clinician more attentive to the eventual progression of the acute respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marimón, José María; Cilla, Gustavo; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio
The bacteriological methods traditionally used in the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) have limited sensitivity (culture, direct antigen detection, etc.) or require long periods to obtain results (appearance of antibodies). In the last few years, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) have been developed that allow pathogen-specific genetic targets to be detected in clinical samples. These techniques have been proven to be more sensitive than culture or direct detection and, unlike serological tests, are effective in the acute phase of the infection. However, NAAT also have certain limitations, such as the occasional presence of amplification inhibitors in clinical samples, the persistence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the mucosa of some individuals, and the lack of discrimination between pathogen infection and colonization in bacteria forming part of normal respiratory tract flora (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Recently developed real-time NAAT have raised expectations that some of these obstacles will be resolved, since these techniques allow bacterial load to be quantified. In the etiological diagnosis of ARI due to S. pneumoniae, the use of NAAT is still in an experimental phase. In M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, combining NAAT with serological tests could potentially improve diagnosis. NAAT show good sensitivity and specificity in the detection of Legionella; however, the practical utility of these techniques should be weighed against that of antigenuria. NAAT provide advantages over other techniques in Bordetella pertussis. At present, these techniques are not useful in the diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii acute infections.
As a consequence of the novel therapeutic option of mechanical ventilation in early intensive care medicine, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as a disease entity of its own representing the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Since its first description four decades ago, our knowledge about the aetiology, physiology, histology and epidemiology of this lethal pulmonary complication of severe acute diseases such as pneumonia or sepsis has been increasing steadily. The initial major therapeutic advances were due to improvements in intensive care medical procedures and monitoring. The large ARDS Network clinical trial on the magnitude of tidal volume impressively demonstrated the feasibility of targeted clinical trials in patients with ARDS that provide robust evidence in this field. This clinical trial, as well as following large-scale trials in ARDS patients, led to significant changes of ventilation therapy and therapeutic strategies that improve the outcome of this disease entity. Advances in the standardisation of care for ARDS patients involving innovative therapeutic procedures such as extracorporeal gas exchange systems will lead to a further improvement in ARDS management and outcome. Modern pulmonary medicine can play a pivotal role in this process and can contribute its rich experiences in all areas of the respiratory system.
Ivanics, E; Palya, V; Glavits, R; Dan, A; Palfi, V; Revesz, T; Benko, M
An outbreak of severe acute respiratory disease characterized by tracheitis and bronchitis was observed in young goslings on a large-scale goose farm in Hungary. Histological examination revealed amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the superficial epithelial cells of the trachea and bronchi. Adenovirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy, and the virus isolated from the trachea and the lungs was identified as egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus by serological and genomic examination. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intratracheal administration of the virus isolate to 1-day-old goslings free of EDS antibodies. The presence of EDS virus DNA in different organs of the naturally and experimentally infected goslings was detected by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report on the involvement of EDS virus in severe respiratory disease of geese.
Kishore, Praveen; Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Saikia, Bhaskar; Khilnani, Praveen
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare entity in infants. We report a case of GBS in a 5-month-old girl. The child presented with cough, loose stools, breathing difficulty, and listlessness. The child was treated as pneumonia with respiratory failure. Due to difficulty in weaning from ventilation with areflexia, marked hypotonia, and reduced power in all four limbs; possibilities of spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, and myopathies were kept. Nerve conduction velocity study was suggestive of mixed sensory-motor, severe axonal, and demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid study revealed albuminocytological dissociation. Child was diagnosed as GBS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Child recovered completely on follow-up. GBS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in acute onset respiratory failure with neuromuscular weakness in infants.
Pradeep Kumar Bhatia
Full Text Available Physiological changes of pregnancy imposes higher risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF with even a slight insult and remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although pregnant women have different respiratory physiology and different causes of ARF, guidelines specific to ventilatory settings, goals of oxygenation and weaning process could not be framed due to lack of large-scale randomized controlled trials. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women had higher morbidity and mortality compared to nonpregnant women. During this period, alternative strategies of ventilation such as high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhalational of nitric oxide, prone positioning, and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation were increasingly used as a desperate measure to rescue pregnant patients with severe hypoxemia who were not improving with conventional mechanical ventilation. This article highlights the causes of ARF and recent advances in invasive, noninvasive and alternative strategies of ventilation used during pregnancy.
Rudi, Juan Manuel; Molina, Fabiana; Díaz, Rocío; Bonet, Virginia; Ortellao, Lucila; Cantarutti, Diego; Gómez, Alejandra; Pierini, Judith; Cociglio, Raquel; Kusznierz, Gabriela
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were historically considered upper airway pathogens. However, they have recently been proven to cause infections in the lower respiratory tract, resulting in hospitalization of children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and chronic pulmonary obstruction. In this report, HRV frequency and seasonality are described together with patient clinical-epidemiological aspects. From a total of 452 surveyed samples, the HRV nucleic acids was detected in 172 (38.1%) and found in every month of the study year. 60% of inpatients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) associated with HRV were under 6 months of age and 31% had a clinical history, being preterm birth and recurrent wheezing the prevailing conditions. The most frequent discharge diagnoses were pneumonia (35.2%), bronchiolitis (32.4%), and bronchitis (12.4%). Fifteen point nine percent of patients required admission into intensive care units. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the association between HRV and children hospitalizations caused by ARI.
TU Guo-wei; JU Min-jie; XU Ming; RONG Rui-ming; ZHU Tong-yu; LUO Zhe
Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has long been used for immune-induction and anti-rejection treatments for solid organ transplantations.To date,few cases of ATG-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been published.Here,we present a case of ARDS caused by a single low-dose of ATG in a renal transplant recipient and the subsequent treatments administered.Although the patient suffered from ARDS and delayed graft function,he was successfully treated.We emphasize that the presence of such complications should be considered when unexplained respiratory distress occurs.Early use of corticosteroids,adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens,and conservative fluid management,as well as empiric antimicrobial therapies,may be effective strategies for the treatment of ARDS caused by ATG.
Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is a rare entity in infants. We report a case of GBS in a 5-month-old girl. The child presented with cough, loose stools, breathing difficulty, and listlessness. The child was treated as pneumonia with respiratory failure. Due to difficulty in weaning from ventilation with areflexia, marked hypotonia, and reduced power in all four limbs; possibilities of spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, and myopathies were kept. Nerve conduction velocity study was suggestive of mixed sensory-motor, severe axonal, and demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid study revealed albuminocytological dissociation. Child was diagnosed as GBS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Child recovered completely on follow-up. GBS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in acute onset respiratory failure with neuromuscular weakness in infants.
Antisynthetase syndrome has been recognized as an important cause of autoimmune inflammatory myopathy in a subset of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. It is associated with serum antibody to aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases and is characterized by a constellation of manifestations, including fever, myositis, interstitial lung disease, mechanic's hand-like cutaneous involvement, Raynaud phenomenon, and polyarthritis. Lung disease is the presenting feature in 50% of the cases. We report a case of a 60-year-old female with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which later proved to be an unexpected and initial manifestation of anti-Jo-1 antibody–positive antisynthetase syndrome. The present case showed resolution of ARDS after treatment with high-dose corticosteroids. Given that steroids are not greatly beneficial in the treatment of ARDS, it is likely that the improvement of the respiratory symptoms in this patient also resulted from the prompt suppression of the inflammatory systemic response by corticosteroids. PMID:27433180
Ehrlicher, L; Hoffmann, H G; Habermehl, K O
An investigation was made of the sensitivity and specificity of four-layer radio-immunoassays (RIA) in the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types A and B, as well as para-influenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 from nasopharyngeal aspirates of 146 patients with acute respiratory disease. The sensitivity of RIA was comparable with that of tissue culture isolation if the total number of positives is considered. The difference may have been caused both by a higher efficiency of the RIA for detection of inactivated or non-cultivable agents and by a higher efficiency of tissue culture methods if the samples contained only small amounts of antigen. Differences between the two antigen detection systems were found in particular with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza B virus. At present, the use of tissue culture isolation together with RIA is the optimal routine laboratory procedure for the diagnosis of respiratory infections.
Full Text Available Rational & Objective: Early detection of hypoxemia and oxygen therapy improves the outcome of children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARI. However, facility to measure oxygen saturation (SpO2 is not available in many health facilities of resource poor countries. We have studied prevalence of hypoxemia in children with ARI and examined value of various clinical signs to predict hypoxemia. Subjects & Methods: Consecutive children, aged 2 months - 59 months, with respiratory symptom(s attending the pediatric emergency service between Oct 2001 to December 2002 were studied. Presence or absence of cough, nasal flaring, ability to feed/drink, cyanosis, chestwall indrawing, wheeze, tachypnoea (respiratory rate >50/min in children up to 11 months and >40/min up to 59 months, crepitations on auscultation and oxygen saturation (SpO2, by Nellcorepulse oximeter and clinical diagnosis were recorded. Results: Of 2216 children studied 266 (11.9% had hypoxemia (SpO2 £90%. It was seen in 73.8% of 126 patients with WHO defined very severe pneumonia, 25.8% of 331 patients with severe pneumonia, 11% of 146 patients with bronochiolitis and 6.5% of 338 patients with acute asthma. Most sensitive indicators of hypoxemia were chestwall indrawing (sensitivity-90%, negative predictive value -98% and crepitations (sensitivity-75%, negative predictive value 95.7% while the best positive predictive value was seen with cyanosis (71.4% and inability to feed (47.6%. Nasal flaring had the good balance of sensitivity (64%, specificity (82% and positive predictive value (33% among the signs studied. Conclusion: None of the clinical signs of respiratory distress had all the attributes of a good predictors of hypoxemia. Chest wall indrawing was the most sensitive and 'inability to feed/ drink' was the most specific indicator.
Chua, Kaw Bing; Voon, Kenny; Crameri, Gary; Tan, Hui Siu; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer A; Suluraju, Sivagami; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa
First discovered in the early 1950s, reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were not associated with any known disease, and hence named orphan viruses. Recently, our group reported the isolation of the Melaka virus from a patient with acute respiratory disease and provided data suggesting that this new orthoreovirus is capable of human-to-human transmission and is probably of bat origin. Here we report yet another Melaka-like reovirus (named Kampar virus) isolated from the throat swab of a 54 year old male patient in Kampar, Perak, Malaysia who was suffering from high fever, acute respiratory disease and vomiting at the time of virus isolation. Serological studies indicated that Kampar virus was transmitted from the index case to at least one other individual and caused respiratory disease in the contact case. Sequence analysis of the four small class genome segments indicated that Kampar and Melaka viruses are closely related. This was confirmed by virus neutralization assay, showing an effective two-way cross neutralization, i.e., the serum against one virus was able to neutralize the other. Although the exact origin of Kampar virus is unknown, epidemiological tracing revealed that the house of the index case is surrounded by fruit trees frequently visited by fruit bats. There is a high probability that Kampar virus originated from bats and was transmitted to humans via bat droppings or contaminated fruits. The discovery of Kampar virus highlights the increasing trend of emergence of bat zoonotic viruses and the need to expand our understanding of bats as a source of many unknown viruses.
Fowler III, Alpha A; Kim, Christin; Lepler, Lawrence; Malhotra, Rajiv; Debesa, Orlando; Natarajan, Ramesh; Fisher, Bernard J; Syed, Aamer; DeWilde, Christine; Priday, Anna; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar
We report a case of virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with parenteral vitamin C in a patient testing positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus on viral screening. This report outlines the first use of high dose intravenous vitamin C as an interventional therapy for ARDS, resulting from enterovirus/rhinovirus respiratory infection. From very significant preclinical research performed at Virginia Commonwealth University with vitamin C and with the very positive results of a previously performed phase I safety trial infusing high dose vitamin C intravenously into patients with severe sepsis, we reasoned that infusing identical dosing to a patient with ARDS from viral infection would be therapeutic. We report here the case of a 20-year-old, previously healthy, female who contracted respiratory enterovirus/rhinovirus infection that led to acute lung injury and rapidly to ARDS. She contracted the infection in central Italy while on an 8-d spring break from college. During a return flight to the United States, she developed increasing dyspnea and hypoxemia that rapidly developed into acute lung injury that led to ARDS. When support with mechanical ventilation failed, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was initiated. Twelve hours following ECMO initiation, high dose intravenous vitamin C was begun. The patient’s recovery was rapid. ECMO and mechanical ventilation were discontinued by day-7 and the patient recovered with no long-term ARDS sequelae. Infusing high dose intravenous vitamin C into this patient with virus-induced ARDS was associated with rapid resolution of lung injury with no evidence of post-ARDS fibroproliferative sequelae. Intravenous vitamin C as a treatment for ARDS may open a new era of therapy for ARDS from many causes. PMID:28224112
Harald J. Hamre
Full Text Available Objective: Anthroposophic medications (AMED are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections.Methods: A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged 1 month, treated by anthroposophic physicians for acute otitis and respiratory infections. Physicians’ prescription data and patient reports of adverse events were analyzed. Main outcome measures were use of AMED and ADR to AMED.Results: Two patients had confirmed ADR to AMED: 1 swelling and redness at the injection site after subcutaneous injections of Prunus spinosa 5%, 2 sleeplessness after intake of Pneumodoron® 2 liquid. These ADR lasted one and two days respectively; both subsided after dose reduction; none were unexpected; none were serious. The frequency of confirmed ADR to AMED was 0.61% (2/327 of all different AMED used, 0.28% (2/715 of patients, and 0.004% (3/73,443 of applications.Conclusion: In this prospective study, anthroposophic medications used by primary care patients with acute respiratory or ear infections were well tolerated.Abbreviations: A-: anthroposophy; ADR: adverse drug reactions; AE: adverse events; AM: anthroposophic medicine; AMED: AM medication; C-: conventional; ENE-patients: eligible, not enrolled patients; IIPCOS: International Primary Care Outcomes Study
肖正伦; 黎毅敏; 陈荣昌; 李时悦; 钟淑卿; 钟南山
Objective To summarize the clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to discuss diagnosis and management of the disease.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 78 cases of SARS referred to the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases (GIRD) between December 22, 2002 and near the end of March 2003. Items reviewed cover all data concerning clinical manifestations, laboratory investigation and radiology.Results The patients in the study consisted of 42 males and 36 females, aged 20 -75 yrs (mean age 37. 5 +11.6 yrs), including 44 affected health-care professionals. Clinical symptoms seen in the group were fever (100. 0%), cough (88. 5%), and dyspnea (79. 5%). There were 12 cases (15. 3%) with WBCs ＜4.0×109/L, 49 cases (62. 8%) ranging between (4. 0 -10. 0) ×109/L and 17 cases (21.8%) over 10. 0 × 109/L. The average was(7. 58 ±4. 96) × 109/L, with 0.75 ±0. 14 (neutrophil) and 0.18 ±0.11 (lymphocyte). Chest films and CT scanning revealed changes related to pneumonia. The transmission of the disease was likely via close contact with contagious droplets.The prevalences of acute lung injury (ALI, in 37cases ) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 21 out of 37 cases ) were considerably high among the patients. Seven patients who developed ARDS complicated with multiple organs dysfunction syndrome (MODS) died.Conclusions A history of close contact, fever, sign of pneumonia by X-ray and normal-to-lowered WBC counts are favorable for the diagnosis of SARS. Recognition of All as the important index for critical SARS and comprehensive supportive management are of paramount in decreasing the mortality of the disease.
Amitoj Singh Chhina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing countries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the various risk factors, clinical profile and outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI in children aged 2 month to 5 years. OBJECTIVE : clinical features, laborato ry assessment and morbidity and mortality pattern associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children aged 2 months to 5 years. METHODS: 100 ALRI cases fulfilling WHO criteria for pneumonia, in the age group of 2 month to 5 years were evaluated for clinical profile as per a predesigned proforma in a rural medical college. RESULTS : Of cases 61% were infants and remaining 39%12 - 60 months age group, males outnumbered females with sex ratio of 1.3;1. Elevated total leukocyte counts for age were observed in only 22% of cases, of these 3% were having pneumonia, 9% severe pneumonia and 10% very severe pneumonia. Significant association was found between leukocytosis and ALRI severity (p= 0.0001 Positive blood culture was obtained in 8% of cases and was significantly associated with ALRI severity (p=. 0.027. Among the ALRI cases, 84% required oxygen supplementation at any time during the hospital stay and 8% required mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 1%; with 99% of cases recovering and getting discharged uneventfully. CONCLUSION : Among the clinical variables, the signs and symptoms of ALRI as per the WHO ARI Control Programme were found in almost all cases. Regarding the laboratory profile, leukocytosis and blood culture positivity w ere observed in a small percentage, but significant association with ALRI severity was observed for both. Thus, clinical signs, and not invasive blood tests are a better diagnostic tools, though the latter may provide additional therapeutic and prognostic information in severe disease
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by acute-onset dyspnea, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration, low pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, and an arterial oxygen tension/ inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200 mmHg. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, whether complicated by circulatory arrest, cardiogenic shock, and hypotension or not, was reported as an etiologic factor in the development of ARDS in the prethrombolytic era. In the thrombolytic era, two cases of AMI complicated with ARDS have been reported. ARDS in these two patients resulted from anaphylactic reaction to the thrombolytic agent and not from the hemodynamic consequences of AMI. Development of ARDS during the AMI period has not been reported after early successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Herein, we report a 61-year-old male patient with persistent chest pain who was diagnosed with Killip II anterior ST-segment elevation AMI. He was treated successfully with primary PCI 2.5 hours after the onset of chest pain. Unfortunately, on the third hospital day, acuteonset dyspnea (respiratory rate, 33 beats/min, fever (38.5°C, leukocytosis (white blood cell count, 18,360/μL, and diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration were noted. ARDS was diagnosed from the low PCWP (8 mmHg and a PaO2/FiO2 of less than 200 mmHg (160 mmHg. No usual causes of ARDS such as infection, aspiration, trauma, shock, or drug reactions were noted. We assumed that, in this particular patient, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome frequently induced by AMI might have caused this episode of ARDS. This may imply that AMI itself is a possible etiology of ARDS.
Tchidjou, Hyppolite Kuekou; Vescio, Fenicia; Boros, Stefano; Guemkam, Georgette; Minka, Esthelle; Lobe, Monny; Cappelli, Giulia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Tietche, Felix; Rezza, Giovanni
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa. The effects of climatic factors on occurrence of ARIs in the tropics are not clear. During the years 2006-07, we reviewed the clinical registers of the Chantal Biya Foundation (CBF), Yaoundé, Cameroon, paediatric hospital to investigate the association between climatic factors and ARIs in children. Our findings show that rain, high relative humidity and low temperatures are directly associated with an increase in the frequency of hospitalization from ARIs. Given the high frequency of hospitalization from ARIs we suggest that influenza vaccination campaigns should be implemented taking into account the seasonality in Cameroon.
O. I. Simonova
Full Text Available The authors show the data on current microbiological pattern in children with acute and chronic respiratory disorders and dynamics of microflora susceptibility to the most frequently used antibiotics over recent years. The principles of antibiotic choice and control for their efficiency, peculiarities of their usage in children and the most common side effects are given. New aspects of the usage of combined antibacterial agents - ecoantibiotics – are discussed. Including of the Lactulose Anhydro into their composition allows to achieve high microbiological efficacy and does not cause antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which has a great importance in pediatric practice.
Selvaraj, Kalaiselvi; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Majumdar, Anindo; Krishnan, Iswarya Santhana
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of death among children less than 5 years in India. Emergence of newer pathogenic organisms, reemergence of disease previously controlled, wide spread antibiotic resistance, and suboptimal immunization coverage even after many innovative efforts are major factors responsible for high incidence of ARI. Drastic reduction in the burden of ARI by low-cost interventions such as hand washing, breast feeding, availability of rapid and feasible array of diagnostics, and introduction of pentavalent vaccine under National Immunization Schedule which are ongoing are necessary for reduction of ARI.
Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.
Objective To study the role of heparin-binding protein(HBP)in sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS),and to evaluate the prognostic value of HBP in ARDS.Methods Sixty seven sepsis patients were enrolled in the prospective study.According to whether present ARDS,patients were divided into two groups:ARDS group and non-ARDS group.Blood samples were obtained within 2 hours after patients were diagnosed with sepsis.We measured the level of interleukin-6,interleukin-8 and HBP by ELISA,counted the
Raveau, T; Lassalle, V; Dubourg, O; Legout, A; Tirot, P
We report the case of a 63-year-old patient admitted to the ICU for an acute respiratory failure one week after an outpatient cataract surgery that revealed a nemaline rod myopathy. We present this rare myopathy whose particularities are its aetiology, which can be inherited, mostly with a congenital onset, or sporadic, and the variability of the age at presentation. We discuss the exceptional onset of severe unknown underlying diseases in the context of outpatient surgery. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
William R Henderson
Full Text Available The emergence of computed tomography imaging more than 25 years ago led to characterization of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS as areas of relatively normal lung parenchyma juxtaposed with areas of dense consolidation and atelectasis. Given that this heterogeneity is often dorsally distributed, investigators questioned whether care for ARDS patients in the prone position would lead to improved mortality outcomes. This clinical review discusses the physiological rationale and clinical evidence supporting prone positioning in treating ARDS, in addition to its complications and contraindications.
Combret, Yann; Prieur, Guillaume; LE Roux, Pascal; Médrinal, Clément
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, UpToDate, and SuDoc from 1990 to April 2015. Randomized controlled trials, controlled non-randomized trials and prospective studies of NIV (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP], bi-level CPAP, or neurally-adjusted ventilator assist) for bronchiolitis in infants younger than 2 years were included. Fourteen studies were included, for a total of 379 children. Of these, 357 were treated with NIV as first intention. Respiratory distress, heart rate, respiratory rate and respiratory effort improved (P<0.05). Results were inconclusive regarding prevention of endotracheal intubation. Few adverse events were reported. NIV reduced carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in 10 studies. Two randomized controlled studies reported a decrease of 7 mmHg in pCO2 (P<0.05). Predictive factors of NIV failure were apneas, high pCO2, young age, low weight, elevated heart rate and high pediatric risk of mortality score. NIV is mostly administered through a nasal mask, nasal cannula or helmet, with an initial expiratory positive airway pressure of 7 cmH2O. NIV shows promising results for the reduction of respiratory distress in acute viral bronchiolitis, as shown in several recent studies. However, there is a lack of robust studies to confirm this.
Full Text Available A 58-year-old Caucasian man treated with azathioprine to prevent rejection of an orthotopic liver transplant, presented to the Carl Hayden VA Medical Center with rapid respiratory decline and appeared septic. He required urgent intubation, mechanical ventilator support and empiric antibiotics. His clinical picture and imaging studies were consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, extensive infectious work up failed to reveal an offending organism. Review of his current medications implicated azathioprine and upon discontinuation of this agent, the patient made a rapid recovery. He was subsequently extubated, transferred out of the ICU and soon discharged home in good health. Prescribed for organ transplant rejection and a wide array of autoimmune diseases, azathioprine has been rarely correlated with pneumonitis and rapid respiratory failure. No reported cases were found in which azathioprine was used to treat liver transplant rejection and associated with development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However, there have been ARDS cases in which azathioprine was used for other purposes. We review all the available cases of azathioprine associated ARDS. The patients in these reports had similar clinical symptoms on presentation as our patient: hypoxia, febrile episodes and rapid development of ARDS with no infectious etiology. Most notable is the rapid resolution of ARDS after discontinuation of azathioprine. Although azathioprine toxicity related respiratory failure is rare, this correlation should still be considered in the differential for immunosuppressed patients presenting with rapid pulmonary decline. Further studies are needed and warranted to better correlate this connection, but it is imperative to recognize that the relationship exists.
Peñuelas, O; Esteban, A; Frutos-Vivar, F; Aramburu, J
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined according to the criteria of the 1994 consensus conference. These criteria aim to . However, the histological criteria that correspond to ARDS are the criteria of diffuse alveolar damage described in 1976 by Katzenstein et al., which are still valid at present. In the last decade, different studies have been published that have tried to correlate the clinical syndrome with the histological findings. These studies have been basically done in experimental animals, but also by the description of the pulmonary biopsy findings and post-mortem study findings. The present article aims to show discrepancy between clinical and histological diagnosis of the acute pulmonary lesion, basically having an effect on the difficulty of the ARDS diagnosis when its origin is pulmonary and the implications of this discrepancy in the clinical practice and research.
Vollman, Kathleen M
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a significant contributor to the morbidity and mortality of patients in the ICU. A variety of treatments are used to support the lung of the patient who has ARDS and improve gas exchange during the acute injury phase. It seems, however, that the simple, safe, and noninvasive act of prone positioning of the critically ill patient who has ARDS may improve gas exchange while preventing potential complications of high positive end-expiratory pressure, volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity. This article provides the critical care nurse with the physiologic rationale for use of the prone position, indications and contraindications for use, safe strategies for prone positioning, and care techniques and monitoring methods of the patient who is in the prone position.
Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa
This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes.
Lagier, D; Platon, L; Chow-Chine, L; Sannini, A; Bisbal, M; Brun, J-P; Blache, J-L; Faucher, M; Mokart, D
Severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with haematological diseases expose clinicians to specific medical and ethical considerations. We prospectively followed 143 patients with haematological malignancies, and whose lungs were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h, over a 5-y period. We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome, and in particular to evaluate the impact of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in these patients. A secondary objective was to identify the early (first 48 h from ICU admission) predictive factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. An evolutive haematological disease (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.13-2.69) and need for renal replacement therapy (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.52-3.31) were associated with long-term mortality. Resolution of neutropaenia during ICU stay (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and early microbiological documentation (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91) were associated with survival. The extent of pulmonary infiltration observed on the first chest X-ray and the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection were the most relevant early predictive factors of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Xu, Xuefeng; Dai, Huaping; Jia, Chun'e; Wang, Chen
To discuss the rationale, hypothesis, modality of extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients, and to summarize the experimental and clinical studies with inconsistent data which explored the EBP's efficacy in the areas of critical care medicine. Articles referred in this review were collected from the database of PubMed published in English up to June 2014. We had done a literature search by using the term "(sepsis OR acute lung injury OR acute respiratory distress syndrome) AND (extracorporeal blood purification OR hemofiltration OR hemoperfusion OR plasma exchange OR plasmapheresis OR adsorpiton)". Related original or review articles were included and carefully analyzed. Acute cellular and humoral immune disturbances occur in both sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Treatments aimed at targeting one single pro-/anti-inflammatory mediator have largely failed with no proven clinical benefits. Such failure shifts the therapeutic rationale to the nonspecific, broad-spectrum methods for modulating the over-activated inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response. Therefore, EBP techniques have become the potential weapons with high promise for removing the circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and promoting immune reconstitution. Over the years, multiple extracorporeal techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients have been developed, including hemofiltration (HF), high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF), high-cutoff hemofiltration (HCO-HF), hemo-perfusion or -adsorption (HP/HA), coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA), and plasma exchange (PE). These previous studies showed that EBP therapy was feasible and safe for the critically ill animal models or patients. However, data on their efficacy (especially on the clinical benefits, such as mortality) were inconsistent. It is not now to conclude that EBP intervention can purify septic or ARDS patients with high clinical efficacy
Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin
Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199
Zhu Runan; Song Qinwei; Qian Yuan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Sun Yu
Background Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children globally.This study aimed to determine the virus profile in children with ARI presenting with different severities.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARI in Beijing from September 2010 to March 2011 were investigated for 18 respiratory viruses using an xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast (RVP Fast) assay.The Pearson chisquare analysis was used to identify statistical significance.Results Of 270 cases from three groups of ARI patients,including Out-patients,In-patients and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU),viruses were detected in 176 (65.2％) specimens with the RVP Fast assay.The viral detection rate from the Out-patients group (50.0％) was significantly lower than that from the In-patients (71.1％) and ICU-patients (74.4％) groups.The virus distribution was different between the Out-patients group and the other hospitalized groups,while the virus detection rate and distribution characteristics were similar between the In-patients and ICU-patients groups.The coinfection rates of the Out-patients group,the In-patients group,and the ICU-patients group were 15.6％,50.0％ and 35.8％,respectively.In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (ADV),human rhinovirus (HRV) was frequently detected from children with serious illnesses,followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV),human bocavirus (HBoV) and coronaviruses.Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was detected in children with lower respiratory illness,but rarely from those with serious illnesses in the ICU-patient group.Conclusion In addition to so-called common respiratory viruses,virus detection in children with ARI should include those thoucht to be uncommon respiratory viruses,especially when there are severe ARI-related clinical illnesses.
Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kearney, Diana H; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Jeong, Jong H; Haralam, Mary Ann; Bowen, A'Delbert; Flom, Lynda L; Wald, Ellen R
Differentiating acute bacterial sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is challenging; 20% to 40% of children diagnosed with acute sinusitis based on clinical criteria likely have an uncomplicated URI. The objective of this study was to determine which signs and symptoms could be used to identify the subgroup of children who meet current clinical criteria for sinusitis but who nevertheless have a viral URI. We obtained sinus radiographs in consecutive children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. We considered the subgroup of children with completely normal sinus radiographs to have an uncomplicated URI despite meeting the clinical diagnostic criteria for sinusitis. We examined the utility of signs and symptoms in identifying children with URI. Of 258 children enrolled, 54 (20.9%) children had completely normal radiographs. The absence of green nasal discharge, the absence of disturbed sleep and mild symptoms were associated with a diagnosis of URI. No physical exam findings were particularly helpful in distinguishing between children with normal versus abnormal radiographs. Among children meeting current criteria for the diagnosis of acute sinusitis, those with mild symptoms are significantly more likely to have a URI than those with severe symptoms. In addition to assessing overall severity of symptoms, practitioners should ask about sleep disturbance and green nasal discharge when assessing children with suspected sinusitis; their absence favors a diagnosis of URI.
Wirbelauer, J; Speer, C P
Surfactant treatment in preterm infants and term newborns with (acute respiratory distress syndrome) ARDS-like severe respiratory failure has become part of an individualized treatment strategy in many intensive care units around the world. These babies constitute heterogeneous groups of gestational ages, lung maturity, as well as of the underlying disease processes and postnatal interventions. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure in preterm infants is characterized by a combination of primary surfactant deficiency and surfactant inactivation as a result of plasma proteins leaking into the airways from areas of epithelial disruption and injury. Various pre- and postnatal factors, such as exposure to chorioamnionitis, pneumonia, sepsis and asphyxia, induce an injurious inflammatory response in the lungs of preterm infants, which may subsequently affect surfactant function, synthesis and alveolar stability. Surfactant inactivation--and dysfunction--is also a hallmark in newborns with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia and other disorders affecting the pulmonary function. Although for the majority of suggested indications no data from randomized controlled trials exist, a surfactant replacement that counterbalances surfactant inactivation seems to improve oxygenation and lung function in many babies with ARDS without any apparent negative side effects. Newborns with MAS will definitely benefit from a reduced need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Clinical experience seems to justify surfactant treatment in neonates with ARDS.
Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.
Diamond, Wayde; MacDonald, Russell D
Drowning is a common cause of accidental death, particularly in younger people, and acute respiratory failure is common in these patients. This case report describes a healthy 18-year-old man who suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest due to submersion while swimming in a freshwater lake. First-responder cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using an automated external defibrillator resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. The patient was evacuated to a tertiary care center by a rotor-wing air medical crew. The crew experienced difficulties in oxygenating and ventilating the patient because of early-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This case report describes the pathophysiology and prehospital management of a patient with suspected early-onset ARDS secondary to drowning. This case report is unique because it describes the oxygenation and ventilation difficulties encountered in managing this patient in the transport setting, and possible strategies to deal with these difficulties. Finally, this case report highlights the prehospital bypass decision-making process for patients requiring specialized medical care.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acute respiratory failure (ARF is a common life-threatening complication in morbidly obese patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS. We aimed to identify the determinants of noninvasive ventilation (NIV success or failure for this indication. METHODS: We prospectively included 76 consecutive patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 diagnosed with OHS and treated by NIV for ARF in a 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital. RESULTS: NIV failed to reverse ARF in only 13 patients. Factors associated with NIV failure included pneumonia (n = 12/13, 92% vs n = 9/63, 14%; p<0.0001, high SOFA (10 vs 5; p<0.0001 and SAPS2 score (63 vs 39; p<0.0001 at admission. These patients often experienced poor outcome despite early resort to endotracheal intubation (in-hospital mortality, 92.3% vs 17.5%; p<0.001. The only factor significantly associated with successful response to NIV was idiopathic decompensation of OHS (n = 30, 48% vs n = 0, 0%; p = 0.001. In the NIV success group (n = 63, 33 patients (53% experienced a delayed response to NIV (with persistent hypercapnic acidosis during the first 6 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple organ failure and pneumonia were the main factors associated with NIV failure and death in morbidly obese patients in hypoxemic ARF. On the opposite, NIV was constantly successful and could be safely pushed further in case of severe hypercapnic acute respiratory decompensation of OHS.
Riishede, M; Laursen, C B; Teglbjærg, L S
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients. In this pro......INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients...... presumptive diagnosis at 4 hours from admission. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a semiblinded randomised prospective study. 288 patients will be included and randomised into the control or intervention group. All patients receive a standard diagnostic evaluation by the EP to assess the primary presumptive....... As standard for correct diagnosis, we perform a blinded journal audit after discharge. As primary analysis, we use the intention-to-treat analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first multicentre trial in EDs to investigate whether f-US, in the hands of the EP, increases the proportion of correct diagnosis...
Erranz, M Benjamín; Wilhelm, B Jan; Riquelme, V Raquel; Cruces, R Pablo
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most severe form of respiratory failure. Theoretically, any acute lung condition can lead to ARDS, but only a small percentage of individuals actually develop the disease. On this basis, genetic factors have been implicated in the risk of developing ARDS. Based on the pathophysiology of this disease, many candidate genes have been evaluated as potential modifiers in patient, as well as in animal models, of ARDS. Recent experimental data and clinical studies suggest that variations of genes involved in key processes of tissue, cellular and molecular lung damage may influence susceptibility and prognosis of ARDS. However, the pathogenesis of pediatric ARDS is complex, and therefore, it can be expected that many genes might contribute. Genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy-number variations are likely associated with susceptibility to ARDS in children with primary lung injury. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies can objectively examine these variations, and help identify important new genes and pathogenetic pathways for future analysis. This approach might also have diagnostic and therapeutic implications, such as predicting patient risk or developing a personalized therapeutic approach to this serious syndrome. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
JIANG Lufang; JU Liwen; JIANG Renjie; LIN Yuzun; ZHOU Liandi; YU Shunzhang; JIANG Qingwu
From April to June,2004,an outbreak of acute upper respiratory tract infections(AURTI)occurred in the north area of Jiangsu Province,China.Twenty throat swabs were collected with 13 of them presenting an adenovirus (Ad)-like cytopathogenic effect on HEp-2.These were verified as Ad by the electron microscope,direct immunofluorescence assay and Ad primer-mediated PCR.Moreover,they were identified as adenovirus type 3(Ad3)by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the amplification products.Subsequent serologic studies were carried out to finally diagnose and document the outbreak.The neutralization test of paired serum of six in nine cases show obviously increased antibodies titers.The positive rate of IgM,IgG and recovery phase neutralization antibodies of the cases were 3.7%,44.4%and 59.5%respectively while those of the controls were 0%,8.3%and 33.3%respectively.The Pvalues of Chi-Square were 0.510,0.018 and 0.226 respectively.The concordance between IgG detected by ELISA and neutralization antibodies detected by the neutralization test was 61.4%and the Pvalue of Kappa was 0.070.By the serologic study,we can definitively diagnose that this outbreak of acute respiratory infections was caused by Adenovirus 3.
Xiao-Hong Xu; Jia-Bin Chen; Yin-Wen Xia
Objective:To analyze the effect and mechanism of continuous blood purification (CBP) on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and provide reference for clinical treatment. Methods:80 cases of patients with ARDS in our hospital were analyzed, the clinical indicators and hemodynamic parameters before and after CBP were compared, and ELISA was used to detect expression change of serum interleukin family and ERK signaling pathway protein. 80 cases of healthy subjects during the same period were taken as control group.Results:Compared with before treatment, heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure were effectively normalized after CBP, hemodynamic parameters were effectively improved, and compared with control group, there were significant statistical differences (P<0.05); meanwhile, after CBP, interleukins IL2, IL6 and IL10 as well as TGFβlevels significantly decreased, MEK signaling pathway protein Ras, MEK and ERK1/2 expression significantly decreased, and compared with before treatment, there were significant statistical differences (P<0.01,P<0.05).Conclusions:Continuous blood purification may play the role of treating acute respiratory distress syndrome through reducing levels of interleukins and TGFβ as well as inhibiting MEK signaling pathway.
Tsou, Ian Y.; Kaw, Gregory J.; Chee, Thomas S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, 308433, Singapore (Singapore); Loh, Lik Eng; Chan, Irene [Department of Paediatric Medicine, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, 229899, Singapore (Singapore)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a major infectious disease pandemic that occurred in early 2003, and one of the diagnostic criteria is the presence of chest radiographic findings. To describe the radiographic features of SARS in a cluster of affected children. The chest radiographs of four related children ranging in age from 18 months to 9 years diagnosed as having SARS were reviewed for the presence of air-space shadowing, air bronchograms, peribronchial thickening, interstitial disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hilar lymphadenopathy and mediastinal widening. Ill-defined air-space shadowing was the common finding in all the children. The distribution was unifocal or multifocal. No other findings were seen on the radiographs. None of the children developed radiographic findings consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. All four children showed significant resolution of the radiographic findings 4-6 days after the initial radiograph. Early recognition of these features is important in implementing isolation and containment measures to prevent the spread of infection. SARS in children appears to manifest as a milder form of the disease as compared to adults. (orig.)
Full Text Available Patients with chronic known or unknown interstitial lung disease (ILD may present with severe respiratory flares that require intensive management. Outcome data in these patients are scarce.Clinical and radiological features were collected in 83 patients with ILD-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF. Determinants of hospital mortality and response to corticosteroid therapy were identified by logistic regression.Hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 41% and 54% respectively. Pulmonary hypertension, computed tomography (CT fibrosis and acute kidney injury were independently associated with mortality (odds ratio (OR 4.55; 95% confidence interval (95%CI (1.20-17.33; OR, 7.68; (1.78-33.22 and OR 10.60; (2.25-49.97 respectively. Response to steroids was higher in patients with shorter time from hospital admission to corticosteroid therapy. Patients with fibrosis on CT had lower response to steroids (OR, 0.03; (0.005-0.21. In mechanically ventilated patients, overdistension induced by high PEEP settings was associated with CT fibrosis and hospital mortality.Mortality is high in ILD-associated ARF. CT and echocardiography are valuable prognostic tools. Prompt corticosteroid therapy may improve survival.
Mohamed, Hatem Saber; Meguid, Mona Mohamed Abdel
Background: We tested the hypothesis that nebulized budesonide would improve lung mechanics and oxygenation in patients with early acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during protective mechanical ventilation strategy without adversely affecting systemic hemodynamics. Methods: Patients with ALI/ARDS were included and assigned into two groups; budesonide group (30 cases) in whom 1 mg–2 ml budesonide suspension was nebulized through the endotracheal tube and control group (30 cases) in whom 2 ml saline (placebo) were nebulized instead of budesonide. This regimen was repeated every 12 h for three successive days alongside with constant ventilator settings in both groups. Hemodynamics, airway pressures, and PaO2/FiO2 were measured throughout the study period (72 h) with either nebulized budesonide or saline. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analyzed serologically as markers of inflammation at pre- and post-nebulization sessions. Results: We found a significant difference between the two groups regarding PaO2/FiO2 (P = 0.023), peak (P = 0.021), and plateau (P = 0.032) airway pressures. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly reduced after budesonide nebulizations. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding hemodynamic variables. Conclusion: Nebulized budesonide improved oxygenation, peak, and plateau airway pressures and significantly reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) without affecting hemodynamics. Trial Registry: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) at the number: ACTRN12615000373572. PMID:28217046
Suzuki, H; Hishida, A; Ohishi, K; Kimura, M; Honda, N
Studies were performed on previously nephrectomized dogs to examine roles of hormonal factors in plasma potassium alterations in acute alkalosis. Respiratory and metabolic alkalosis were induced by hyperventilation and intravenous NaHCO3 or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) infusion, respectively. Respiratory and NaHCO3-induced alkalosis provoked decreases in plasma potassium from the control value of 5.12 +/- 0.68 (SE) to 4.21 +/- 0.55 meq/l (P less than 0.01) and from 4.65 +/- 0.26 to 3.91 +/- 0.16 meq/l (P less than 0.01) within 180 min, respectively. In contrast, Tris-induced alkalosis elicited an increase in plasma potassium from the control value of 4.56 +/- 0.30 to 5.31 +/- 0.30 meq/l (P less than 0.01). Hypokalemia in respiratory alkalosis was associated with a decrease in the plasma norepinephrine concentration from the control level of 377 +/- 104 to 155 +/- 41 pg/ml (P less than 0.05) but not with changes in plasma levels of epinephrine, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and aldosterone. However, this hypokalemia was not affected by phentolamine. Also, somatostatin did not modify the hypokalemic response. NaHCO3-induced hypokalemia was associated with a decline in the plasma aldosterone and norepinephrine concentrations. The decline in plasma norepinephrine in NaHCO3-induced alkalosis followed the decrease in plasma potassium. In Tris-induced alkalosis, plasma insulin increased but norepinephrine decreased. The findings do not suggest fundamental roles of the hormonal factors in the plasma potassium alterations in bilaterally nephrectomized dogs with acute alkalosis.
陈丽峰; 柳君泽; 党永明; 宋熔
Objective: To investigate the roles of chloramphenicol (CAP) preconditioning in the oxidative respiratory function of cerebral mitochondria in rats exposed to acute hypoxia during acute hypoxia by observing the changes of mitochondrial oxidative respiratory function and cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (C), medication (M), hypoxia (H), and medication plus hypoxia (MH). Rats in groups M and MH were administered by peritoneal injection of CAP (50 mg/kg) every 12 h for 7 d before decapitation, but those in groups H and MH were exposed to a hypobaric chamber simulating 5 000 m high altitude for 24 h. The rat cerebral cortex was removed and mitochondria were isolated by centrifugation. Mitochondrial respiratory function and COX activity were measured by Clark oxygen electrode. Results: Compared with Group C, Group H showed significantly elevated state 4respiration (ST4), decreased state 3 respiration (ST3), and respiratory control rate (RCR) in mitochondrial respiration during acute hypoxic exposure. ST3 in Group MH was significantly lower than that in Group C, but was not significantly different from that in Groups H and M, while ST4 in Group MH was significantly lower than that in groups C and H. RCR in Group MH was higher than that in Group H, but lower than that in Group C. COX activity in Group H was significantly lower than that in Group C. In Group MH, COX activity increased and was higher than that in Group H, but was still lower than that in Group C. Conclusion: Acute hypoxic exposure could lead to mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, suggesting that CAP preconditioning might be beneficial to the recovery of rat respiratory finction. The change of COX activity is consistent with that of mitochondrial respiratory function during acute hypoxic exposure and CAP-administration, indicating that COX plays an important role in oxidative phosphorylation function of mitochondria from
Sarah M McMullen
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The efficacy of partial ventilatory support modes that allow spontaneous breathing in patients with acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is unclear. The objective of this scoping review was to assess the effects of partial ventilatory support on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and both hospital and intensive care unit (ICU lengths of stay (LOS for patients with ALI and ARDS; the secondary objective was to describe physiologic effects on hemodynamics, respiratory system and other organ function. METHODS: MEDLINE (1966-2009, Cochrane, and EmBase (1980-2009 databases were searched using common ventilator modes as keywords and reference lists from retrieved manuscripts hand searched for additional studies. Two researchers independently reviewed and graded the studies using a modified Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine grading system. Studies in adult ALI/ARDS patients were included for primary objectives and pre-clinical studies for supporting evidence. RESULTS: Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified, in addition to six prospective cohort studies, one retrospective cohort study, one case control study, 41 clinical physiologic studies and 28 pre-clinical studies. No study was powered to assess mortality, one RCT showed shorter ICU length of stay, and the other demonstrated more ventilator free days. Beneficial effects of preserved spontaneous breathing were mainly physiological effects demonstrated as improvement of gas exchange, hemodynamics and non-pulmonary organ perfusion and function. CONCLUSIONS: The use of partial ventilatory support modalities is often feasible in patients with ALI/ARDS, and may be associated with short-term physiological benefits without appreciable impact on clinically important outcomes.
LUH Shi-ping; CHIANG Chi-huei
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), which manifests as non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, respiratory distress and hypoxemia, could be resulted from various processes that directly or indirectly injure the lung.Extensive investigations in experimental models and humans with ALI/ARDS have revealed many molecular mechanisms that offer therapeutic opportunities for cell or gene therapy. Herein the present strategies and future perspectives of the treatment for ALI/ARDS, include the ventilatory, pharmacological, as well as cell therapies.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection.In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7% of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%. The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0 for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence.Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.
Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene
Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.
Rókusz, László; Jankovics, István; Jankovics, Máté; Sarkadi, Júlia; Visontai, Ildikó
Ten years have elapsed since the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, which resulted in more than 8000 cases worldwide with more than 700 deaths. Recently, a new coronavirus, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus emerged, causing serious respiratory cases and death. By the end of August 2013, 108 cases including 50 deaths were reported. The authors discuss a coronavirus-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome, which was detected in Hungary in 2005 and highlight its significance in 2013. In 2005 the patient was hospitalized and all relevant clinical and microbiological tests were performed. Based on the IgG antibody positivity of the serum samples, the patient was diagnosed as having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the past. The time and source of the infection remained unknown. The condition of the patient improved and he was discharged from the hospital. The case raises the possibility of infections in Hungary imported from remote areas of the world and the importance of thorough examination of patients with severe respiratory syndrome with unknown etiology.
Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.
Huang, Lei; Li, Tong; Xu, Lei; Hu, Xiao-min; Duan, Da-wei; Li, Zhi-bo; Gao, Xin-jing; Li, Jun; Wu, Peng; Liu, Ying-Wu
Background No definitive conclusions have been drawn from the available data about the utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to review our center’s experience with ECMO and determine predictors of outcome from our Chinese center. Material/Methods We retrospectively analyzed a total of 23 consecutive candidates who fulfilled the study entry criteria between January 2009 and December 2015. Detailed clinical data, ECMO flow, and respiratory parameters before and after the introduction of ECMO were compared among in-hospital survivors and nonsurvivors; factors associated with mortality were investigated. Results Hemodynamics and oxygenation parameters were significantly improved after ECMO initiation. Thirteen patients survived to hospital discharge. Univariate correlation analysis demonstrated that APACHE II score (r=−0.463, p=0.03), acute kidney injury (r=−0.574, p=0.005), membrane oxygenator replacement (r=−0.516, p=0.014) and total length of hospital stay (r=0.526, p=0.012) were significantly correlated with survival to hospital discharge, and that the evolution of the levels of urea nitrogen, platelet, and fibrinogen may help to determine patient prognosis. Sixteen patients referred for ECMO from an outside hospital were successfully transported to our institution by ambulance, including seven transported under ECMO support. The survival rate of the ECMO-transport group was comparable to the conventional transport or the non-transport group (both p=1.000). Conclusions ECMO is an effective alternative option for severe ARDS. APACHE II score on admission, onset of acute kidney injury, and membrane oxygenator replacement, and the evolution of levels of urea nitrogen, platelet, and fibrinogen during hospitalization may help to determine the in-hospital patient prognosis. By establishing a well-trained mobile ECMO team, a long-distance, inter
Sema Yilmaz; Diner Yildizdas; Kenan Daglioglu; Arbil Acikalin; Can Acipayam; Ibrahim Bayram; Derya Gumurdulu; Atila Tanyeli
Objective: To investigate salbutamol effects on histopathologic features of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: ARDS was designed in Wistar albino male rats, 250-300 g in weight, by intratracheal instillation of physiological saline solution. Anesthezied and tracheotomized rats with ARDS were pressure-controlled ventilated. At the end of the 210 minutes, two hours past and nebulized salbutamol inhalation was tried. All rats were assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n=10) control group, given no treatment, group 2 (n=10) received salbutamol. Nebulized salbutamol inhalation was given in the dosage of 0, 15 mg/kg/dose. Rats were continued to be on ventilator through the experiment. After the last inhalation, two hours past and their both lungs were excised for histopathological examination. Results: Rat-model ARDS had similar histopathological appearance occuring during the acute phase of the acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. A statistical difference was seen between control and salbutamol group (P=0.002) for HM. The margination of leukocytes was decreased in salbutamol group. The difference was significant (P<0.042). Hemorrhage and interstitial/intraalveolar edema were much lower in 0.15 mg/dose nebulized salbutamol group than that of control group. There was a significant difference statistically between two groups (P<0.001). Conclusions: Inhaled salbutamol therapy for ARDS is may be associated with the improvement of inflamation. Besides known effects of salbutamol, the reducing of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and hyaline membrane formation should be emphasized.
Zhai, Yijie; Franco, Luis M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Quarles, John M.; Arden, Nancy; Bucasas, Kristine L.; Wells, Janet M.; Niño, Diane; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Belmont, John W.; Couch, Robert B.
To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55%) had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32), other viral infections (N = 4), or no viral agent identified (N = 24). The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment). Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates. PMID:26070066
Full Text Available To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55% had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32, other viral infections (N = 4, or no viral agent identified (N = 24. The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment. Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates.
YIN Cheng-hong; HE Zheng-yi; MA Da-qing; ZHANG Shu-wen; WANG Bao-en; WANG Chao; WEN Yan; JIANG Li; LIU Ying; JIAO Yun-min; CHEN Jiang-hong; TANG Shu-zhen; YUE Mao-xing
@@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, firstly broke out in November 2002 in Guangdong and prevailed quickly in Beijing, Hong Kong, Taiwan and other regions of China. It was one of the most potential pandemic diseases and had affected more than 20 other countries.1,2 There have been a lot of resear-ches2-7 in terms of its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnostics, treatment and prevention, vaccines and so on.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a clinical, pathophysiological and radiographic pattern that has signs of pulmonary edema occur without elevated pulmonary venous pressures. Clinical presentation and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome are followed by frequently ordered portable chest X-ray in critically ill patients. We evaluated chest radiographs of ten cancer and other six critical care pediatric patients. The parenchymal imaging of lung in patients with cancer was reported the same as that of other critically ill children despite underlying pathophysiological variations in our investigation. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 270-273
Soeiro-Pereira, Paulo V.; Gomes, Eliane; Neto, Antonio Condino; D' Império Lima, Maria R.; Alvarez, José M.; Portugal, Silvia; Epiphanio, Sabrina
Malaria remains one of the greatest burdens to global health, causing nearly 500,000 deaths in 2014. When manifesting in the lungs, severe malaria causes acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). We have previously shown that a proportion of DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) develop ALI/ARDS and that these mice recapitulate various aspects of the human syndrome, such as pulmonary edema, hemorrhaging, pleural effusion and hypoxemia. Herein, we investigated the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS. Mice developing ALI/ARDS showed greater neutrophil accumulation in the lungs compared with mice that did not develop pulmonary complications. In addition, mice with ALI/ARDS produced more neutrophil-attracting chemokines, myeloperoxidase and reactive oxygen species. We also observed that the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and PbA induced the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) ex vivo, which were associated with inflammation and tissue injury. The depletion of neutrophils, treatment with AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist), Pulmozyme (human recombinant DNase) or Sivelestat (inhibitor of neutrophil elastase) decreased the development of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS and significantly increased mouse survival. This study implicates neutrophils and NETs in the genesis of experimentally induced malaria-associated ALI/ARDS and proposes a new therapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of severe malaria. PMID:27926944
Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Younes, Magdy
The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure), respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy "Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?" .
Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” .
Guo, Lei; Wang, Weiwei; Zhao, Nana; Guo, Libo; Chi, Chunjie; Hou, Wei; Wu, Anqi; Tong, Hongshuang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Changsong; Li, Enyou
Background It has been shown that the application of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy can improve the prognosis of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for intensive care unit (ICU) patients without ALI or ARDS is uncertain. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to identify the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for these patients. Methods We searched the Cochra...
Ghadri, Jelena R; Bataisou, Roxana D; Diekmann, Johanna; Lüscher, Thomas F; Templin, Christian
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy which is characterised by a transient left ventricular wall motion abnormality was first described in 1990. The disease is still not well known, and as such it is suggested that an emotional trigger is mandatory in this disease. We present the case of a 51-year old female patient seven years after bilateral lung transplantation, who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently suffered from atypical takotsubo cardiomyopathy with transient severe reduction of ejection fraction and haemodynamic instability needing acute intensive care treatment. Acute respiratory failure has emerged as an important physical trigger factor in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Little is known about the association of hypoxia and takotsubo cardiomyopathy which can elicit a life-threatening condition requiring acute intensive care. Therefore, experimental studies are needed to investigate the role of hypoxia in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Ruiz, Yolanda; Farrero, Eva; Córdoba, Ana; González, Nuria; Dorca, Jordi; Prats, Enric
Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (P(tcCO2)) monitoring is being used increasingly to assess acute respiratory failure. However, there are conflicting findings concerning its reliability when evaluating patients with high levels of P(aCO2). Our study evaluates the accuracy of this method in subjects with respiratory failure according to the severity of hypercapnia. We included subjects with respiratory failure, admitted to a respiratory intermediate care unit, who required arterial blood gas analysis. Simultaneously, P(tcCO2) was measured using a digital monitor. Relations between P(aCO2) and P(tcCO2) were assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was used to test data dispersion, and an analysis of variance test was used to compare the differences between P(aCO2) and the corresponding P(tcCO2) at different levels (level 1, 60 mm Hg). Eighty-one subjects were analyzed. The main diagnosis was COPD exacerbation (45%). P(tcCO2) correlated well with P(aCO2) (r2 = 0.93, P < .001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean P(aCO2) - P(tcCO2) difference of 4.9 ± 4.4 with 95% limits of agreement ranging from -3.6 to 13.4. The difference between variables increased in line with P(aCO2) severity: level 1, 1.7 ± 3.2 mm Hg; level 2, 3.7 ± 2.8; level 3, 6.8 ± 4.7 (analysis of variance, P < .001). Our study showed an acceptable agreement of P(tcCO2) monitoring with arterial blood gas analysis. However, we should consider that P(tcCO2) underestimates P(aCO2) levels, and its accuracy depends on the level of hypercapnia, so this method would not be suitable for acute patients with severe hypercapnia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Full Text Available Introduction. Acute respiratory viral infections are the special group of diseases, which in the structure of infectious pathology firmly occupies one of leading places. The problem of morbidity belongs to the number of leading medical problems not only in Ukraine but also in the whole world. In addition, there is a greater risk of epidemic flashes of acute respiratory infections in the conditions of megapolis with the expressed processes of migration and accumulation of people. Purpose of test – to promote efficiency of patients treatment with acute respiratory viral infections by complex application of preparation «Extralact» on a background traditional (base therapy without the use of other antiviral preparations, thoroughly to probe influence on clinical motion of the indicated illnesses, endogenous intoxication and immune status of organism. Patients & methods. Under a supervision was 60 patients (22 men and 38 women of young and middle age (hesitated from 18 to 58, which treated oneself concerning ARVI. Determined the indexes of Extralact efficiency: general duration of disease; frequency of development of complications; dynamics of clinical displays; dynamics of laboratory indexes, indexes of endogenous intoxication, and immunological indexes. Patients were randomised on 2 groups: a I group (30 persons – 50,0 % got treatment of base therapy preparations; the II group (30 patients – 50,0 % on a background base therapy got preparation «Extralact» for 2 capsules 3 times per days during 5 days. Results & discussion. Based on the examination of 60 patients with ARVI established following. Addition of base therapy of such patients of extralact in a dose 2 caps. 3 times daily during 5 days was accompanied by a significant advantage compared with only basic therapy on several grounds: the greater the number of patients advancing recovery up to 7 days, most regressed cough, relatively less there were complications. After 5 days of
Farias, Julio A; Fernández, Analía; Monteverde, Ezequiel; Flores, Juan C; Baltodano, Arístides; Menchaca, Amanda; Poterala, Rossana; Pánico, Flavia; Johnson, María; von Dessauer, Bettina; Donoso, Alejandro; Zavala, Inés; Zavala, Cesar; Troster, Eduardo; Peña, Yolanda; Flamenco, Carlos; Almeida, Helena; Nilda, Vidal; Esteban, Andrés
To describe the characteristics and outcomes of mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care units during the season of acute lower respiratory infections. Prospective cohort of infants and children receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 12 hrs. Sixty medical-surgical pediatric intensive care units. All consecutive patients admitted to participating pediatric intensive care units during a 28-day period. Of 2,156 patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units, 1185 (55%) received mechanical ventilation for a median of 5 days (interquartile range 2-8). Median age was 7 months (interquartile range 2-25). Main indications for mechanical ventilation were acute respiratory failure in 78% of the patients, altered mental status in 15%, and acute on chronic pulmonary disease in 6%. Median length of stay in the pediatric intensive care units was 10 days (interquartile range 6-18). Overall mortality rate in pediatric intensive care units was 13% (95% confidence interval: 11-15) for the entire population, and 39% (95% confidence interval: 23 - 58) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of 1150 attempts at liberation from mechanical ventilation, 62% (95% confidence interval: 60-65) used the spontaneous breathing trial, and 37% (95% confidence interval: 35-40) used gradual reduction of ventilatory support. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used initially in 173 patients (15%, 95% confidence interval: 13-17). In the season of acute lower respiratory infections, one of every two children admitted to pediatric intensive care units requires mechanical ventilation. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for mechanical ventilation. The spontaneous breathing trial was the most commonly used method for liberation from mechanical ventilation.
De Bels David
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to infect the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Infection severity can range from sub-clinical pulmonary infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Case presentation A previously healthy 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital for acute respiratory failure. Serum samples obtained every week starting from the day of admission showed clear-cut seroconversion for C. pneumoniae antibodies. All other cultures obtained during the first days of hospitalization were negative. Despite maximal ventilatory support (high positive end expiratory pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen of 1.0, nitric oxide inhalation, neuromuscular blocking agents and prone positioning, our patient remained severely hypoxemic, which led us to initiate an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodiafiltration were withdrawn on day 12. Our patient was extubated on day 18 and discharged from our Intensive Care Unit on day 20. He went home a month later. Conclusion We describe the first published case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to C. pneumoniae infection successfully treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a very useful tool in this syndrome. A quick and specific method for the definite diagnosis of Chlamydophila infection should be developed.
Kinjo, Takeshi; Nabeya, Daijiro; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Atsumi, Eriko; Fuchigami, Tatsuya; Aoki, Yoichi; Fujita, Jiro
A 62-year-old woman complained of diarrhea and vomiting after receiving chemotherapy for cervical cancer in association with high doses of corticosteroids. Two months later, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, and numerous Strongyloides stercoralis parasites were found in the intrabronchial discharge. Ivermectin was administered daily until nematodes were no longer detected in the sputum, and the patient's condition was successfully rescued. Antibodies for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) were positive. HTLV-1 infection and the administration of corticosteroids are known risk factors for strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Therefore, physicians should consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of patients from endemic areas who present with gastrointestinal symptoms under these risk factors.
Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate. Although many therapeutic trials have been performed for improving the mortality of severe ARDS, limited strategies have demonstrated better outcomes. Recently, advanced rescue therapies such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO made it possible to consider lung transplantation (LTPL in patients with ARDS, but data is insufficient. We report a 62-year-old man who underwent LTPL due to ARDS with no underlying lung disease. He was admitted to the hospital due to influenza A pneumonia-induced ARDS. Although he was supported by ECMO, he progressively deteriorated. We judged that his lungs were irreversibly damaged and decided he needed to undergo LTPL. Finally, bilateral sequential double-lung transplantation was successfully performed. He has since been alive for three years. Conclusively, we demonstrate that LTPL can be a therapeutic option in patients with severe ARDS refractory to conventional therapies.
Goswami, Prashant; Baruah, Jurismita
Several thousands of people, including children, suffer from acute respiratory disease (ARD) every year worldwide. Pro-active planning and mitigation for these diseases require identification of the major drivers in a location-specific manner. While the importance of air pollutants in ARD has been extensively studied and emphasized, the role of weather variables has been less explored. With Delhi with its large population and pollution as a test case, we examine the relative roles of air pollution and weather (cold days) in ARD. It is shown that both the number of cold days and air pollution play important roles in ARD load; however, the number of cold days emerges as the major driver. These conclusions are consistent with analyses for several other states in India. The robust association between ARD load and cold days provides basis for estimating and predicting ARD load through dynamical model, as well as impact of climate change.
Michalska, Agata; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Machała, Waldemar; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław
Blunt chest traumas are common nowadays due to development of motor transport. They are associated with high mortality rates because of serious injuries of internal organs. The mechanisms of injuries are complex and may cause damages ranging from small ones, such as bruises or abrasions, to life-threatening trauma. Among typical injuries there are rib fractures, sternal fractures, pneumothorax, hemothorax, diaphragm lacerations, pulmonary contusions, cardiac tamponade, cardiac rupture and many others. The authors of the article would like to emphasize the pathophysiology and diagnostic difficulties in such blunt chest trauma complications as pulmonary contusions and acute respiratory distress syndrome, for which no causal treatment is available and only early diagnosis and administration of symptomatic treatment may increase the patients' chances to survive. In Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Łódź, an opinion was issued on a case which illustrates the clinical problem.
Xi, Xiao-Tu; Wang, Mao-Jie; Huang, Run-Yue; Ding, Bang-Han
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by rash, leukocytosis, fever and arthralgia/arthritis. The most common pulmonary manifestations associated with AOSD are pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion. The present study describes a 40-year-old male with AOSD who developed fever, sore throat and shortness of breath. Difficulty breathing promptly developed, and the patient was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient did not respond to antibiotics, including imipenem, vancomycin, fluconazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin, doxycycline and meropenem, but was sensitive to glucocorticoid treatment, including methylprednisolone sodium succinate. ARDS accompanied by AOSD has been rarely reported in the literature. In conclusion, in a patient with ARDS who does not respond to antibiotic treatment, the involvement of AOSD should be considered.
Paul, Ian M
Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives.
Full Text Available Background: Considering that there was not any regional survey in Isfahan, Iran regarding the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI in different age groups of general population, the aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic feature of ARTIs in Isfahan using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 15 years old. Rhinovirus was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 50 years. Influenza virus B was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 5-50 years. Conclusion: Our study provides baseline information on the epidemiologic and clinical feature of outpatients with ARTIs in Isfahan city. Though our findings in this pilot study could be helpful in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ARTI, planning preventive interventional.
ZHANG Chuan-hai; XIONG Sheng; LI Jiu-xiang; QI Shu-yuan; WANG Yi-fei; LIU Xin-jian; LU Jia-hai; QIAN Chui-wen; WAN Zhuo-yue; YAN Xin-ge; ZHENG Huan-ying; ZHANG Mei-ying
@@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is the first severe viral epidemic we encountered this century, which once spread in more than thirty countries in 2003.1 The etiological agent of SARS has been confirmed to be a novel coronavirus, namely SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),2,3 and the first outbreak of SARS has been successfully controlled worldwide, but the identification of SARS-CoV isolated from wild animals, the emergence of some sporadic SARS cases later after that outbreak, all suggest that the recurrence of such an epidemic is not unlikely in the future. In this case, development of SARS vaccines and specific drugs is undoubtedly essential to the control and prevention from the possible outbreak.4,5
If you are back from a journey in one of the zones pointed out by WHO concerned by the severe acute respiratory disease syndrome (SARS), it is necessary to monitor your health for at least ten days. This syndrome shows a high fever accompanied by cough or difficulty in breathing. If you become ill, you have to contact as quickly as possible the CERN medical service by dialling 73802 - 73186 during work hours or the Fire Brigade 74444 outside work hours. Tell this service about your recent travel to one of the regions where WHO has reported cases*. * For instant, the areas identified are the cities of Hanoi, Hong Kong, Singapore and the Province of Guangdong (South of China) and Toronto. The medical service recommends to avoid any trip in these world areas until further instruction. CERN Medical Service
王志刚; 李兰娟; 罗芸; 张俊彦; 王敏雅; 程苏云; 张严峻; 王晓萌; 卢亦愚; 吴南屏; 梅玲玲; 王赞信
Background SARS-CoV is the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which has been associated with outbreaks of SARS in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Beijing of China, and other regions worldwide. SARS-CoV from human has shown some variations but its origin is still unknown. The genotyping and phylogeny of SARS-CoV were analyzed and reported in this paper. Methods Full or partial genomes of 44 SARS-CoV strains were collected from GenBank. The genotype, single nucleotide polymorphism and phylogeny of these SARS-CoV strains were analyzed by molecular biological, bioinformatic and epidemiological methods. Conclusion The results mentioned above suggest that SARS-CoV is responding to host immunological pressures and experiencing variation which provide clues, information and evidence of molecular biology for the clinical pathology, vaccine developing and epidemic investigation.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterised by different degrees of severity and different stages. Understanding these differences can help to better adapt the ventilatory settings to protect the lung from ventilator-induced lung injury by reducing hyperinflation or keeping the lung open when it is possible. The same therapies may be useful and beneficial in certain forms of ARDS, and risky or harmful at other stages: this includes high positive end-expiratory pressure, allowance of spontaneous breathing activity or use of noninvasive ventilation. The severity of the disease is the primary indicator to individualise treatment. Monitoring tools such as oesophageal pressure or lung volume measurements may also help to set the ventilator. At an earlier stage, an adequate lung protective strategy may also help to prevent the development of ARDS.
Kishore, Sunil; Chandelia, Sudha; Patharia, Neha; Swarnim
Sewing machine oil ingestion is rare but is possible due to its availability at home. Chemically, it belongs to hydrocarbon family which is toxic if aspirated, owing to their physical properties such as high volatility and low viscosity. On the contrary, sewing machine lubricant has high viscosity and low volatility which makes it aspiration less likely. The main danger of hydrocarbon ingestion is chemical pneumonitis which may be as severe as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with accidental ingestion of sewing machine lubricant oil, who subsequently developed ARDS refractory to mechanical ventilation. There was much improvement with airway pressure release ventilation mode of ventilation, but the child succumbed to death due to pulmonary hemorrhage.
V. N. Poptsov
Full Text Available Inhaled nitrous oxide (iNO therapy aimed at improving pulmonary oxygenizing function and at decreasing artificial ventilation (AV load has been used in foreign clinical practice in the past decade. The study was undertaken to evaluate the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of iNO in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that developed after car-diosurgical operations. Fifty-eight (43 males and 15 females patients aged 21 to 76 (55.2±2.4 years were examined. The study has demonstrated that in 48.3% of cases, the early stage of ARDS is attended by the increased tone pulmonary vessels due to impaired NO-dependent vasodilatation. In these patients, iNO therapy is an effective therapeutic method for correcting hemodynamic disorders and lung oxygenizing function.
Bakke, Skule A; Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Riddervold, Ingunn S;
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are frequently used inhospital for treating respiratory failure, especially in treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Early initiation of treatment...... is important for success and introduction already in the prehospital setting may be beneficial. Our goal was to assess the evidence for an effect of prehospital CPAP or NIV as a supplement to standard medical treatment alone on the following outcome measures; mortality, hospital length of stay, intensive care...... examine prehospital CPAP. Of these, only one small, randomized controlled trial shows a reduced mortality rate and a reduced intubation rate with supplemental CPAP. The other three studies have neutral findings, but in two of these a trend toward lower intubation rate is found. The effect of supplemental...
Full Text Available Sewing machine oil ingestion is rare but is possible due to its availability at home. Chemically, it belongs to hydrocarbon family which is toxic if aspirated, owing to their physical properties such as high volatility and low viscosity. On the contrary, sewing machine lubricant has high viscosity and low volatility which makes it aspiration less likely. The main danger of hydrocarbon ingestion is chemical pneumonitis which may be as severe as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with accidental ingestion of sewing machine lubricant oil, who subsequently developed ARDS refractory to mechanical ventilation. There was much improvement with airway pressure release ventilation mode of ventilation, but the child succumbed to death due to pulmonary hemorrhage.
ZHENG Guo-shou; BAI Xiang-jun; ZHAN Cheng-ye
Objective: To investigate the high risk factors related to acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ) following serious thoracoabdominal injuries.Methods: The clinical data of 282 patients with serious thoracoabdominal injuries were retrospectively studied. Univariate and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors related to ARDS following serious thoracoabdominal injuries.Results: The incidence of ARDS was 31.9% (90/282) in patients with serious thoracoabdominal injuries.The mortality caused by ARDS was 37.8% (34/90). The univariate analysis and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the clinical conditions such as elder age, shock,dyspnea, abnormal arterial blood gas, hemopneumothorax,pulmonary contusion, flail chest, coexisting pulmonary diseases, multiple abdominal injury and high ISS score were the independent high risk factors related to ARDS.Conclusion: There are many high risk factors related to ARDS following severe thoracoabdominal injuries, which should be detected early and treated timely to decrease the incidence and mortality of ARDS.
Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Ponce-Rosas R, E Raúl; Irigoyen-Coria, Arnulfo; Halabe-Cherem, José
The aim of this study was to correlate the socio structural variables of the Simplified Index of Family Poverty with the self-perception of resources that conform social capital among patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD). We used a qualitative and quantitative methodology. The sample included 848 cases distributed in seven Rural Medicine Units of Mexico. We considered three pathways described by Kawachi where social capital might have an impact on individual health. The bivariate correlation and discriminant analysis showed that when there is evidence of poverty in the family, the statistically significant differences are mainly observed in self-perception. Moral support of sons and daughters is thereby increased when there is an ARD. We concluded that when there is a higher index of family poverty there is a decreased access to social resources when a family member is diagnosed with an ARD.
Full Text Available Antisynthetase (AS syndrome is a major subgroup of inflammatory myopathies seen in a minority of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Although it is usually associated with elevated creatine phosphokinase level, some patients may have amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM like presentation with predominant skin involvement. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the main pulmonary manifestation and may be severe thereby determining the prognosis. It may rarely present with a very aggressive course resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We report a case of a 43-year-old male who presented with nonresolving pneumonia who was eventually diagnosed to have ADM through a skin biopsy without any muscle weakness. ADM may be associated with rapidly progressive course of interstitial lung disease (ADM-ILD which is associated with high mortality. Differentiation between ADM-ILD and AS syndrome may be difficult in the absence of positive serology and clinical presentation may help in clinching the diagnosis.
Amado-Rodríguez, L; Del Busto, C; García-Prieto, E; Albaiceta, G M
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still related to high mortality and morbidity rates. Most patients with ARDS will require ventilatory support. This treatment has a direct impact upon patient outcome and is associated to major side effects. In this regard, ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) is the main concern when this technique is used. The ultimate mechanisms of VALI and its management are under constant evolution. The present review describes the classical mechanisms of VALI and how they have evolved with recent findings from physiopathological and clinical studies, with the aim of analyzing the clinical implications derived from them. Lastly, a series of knowledge-based recommendations are proposed that can be helpful for the ventilator assisted management of ARDS at the patient bedside. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
LIU You-ning; TIAN Qing; HU Hong; XIE Li-xin; FAN Bao-xing; XU Hong-min; CHEN Wei-jun
@@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging and highly contagious infection caused by a newly discovered strain of coronavirus.1 Since the clinical case definition of SARS is similar to other severe atypical pneumonias, specific laboratory tests that can accurately diagnose SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection are important. However, published data are insufficient to investigate whether clinically diagnosed SARS patients may include some non-SARS pneumonia. Therefore, we aimed to determine clinical and laboratory features to differentiate SARS patients from non-SARS pneumonias that could reduce misdiagnosis of SARS. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory characteristics after the initial onset of SARS, as well as its convalescent-phase, was examined from clinically diagnosed 197 SARS patients.
Ken Yan Ching Chow; Chung Chau Hon; Raymond Kin Hi Hui; Raymond Tsz Yeung Wong; Chi Wai Yip; Fanya Zeng; Frederick Chi Ching Leung
The sudden outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 prompted the establishment of a global scientific network subsuming most of the traditional rivalries in the competitive field of virology. Within months of the SARS outbreak, collaborative work revealed the identity of the disastrous pathogen as SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, although the rapid identification of the agent represented an important breakthrough, our understanding of the deadly virus remains limited. Detailed biological knowledge is crucial for the development of effective countermeasures, diagnostic tests, vaccines and antiviral drugs against the SARS-CoV. This article reviews the present state of molecular knowledge about SARS-CoV, from the aspects of comparative genomics, molecular biology of viral genes, evolution, and epidemiology, and describes the diagnostic tests and the anti-viral drugs derived so far based on the available molecular information.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of an intravascular lymphoma with severe pulmonary involvement mimicking pulmonary embolism is described. Case presentation A 38-year-old man was referred to our intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure and long lasting fever. Appropriate investigations failed to demonstrate any bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycobacterial infection. A chest computed tomography scan ruled out any proximal or sub-segmental pulmonary embolism but the ventilation/perfusion lung scan concluded that there was a high probability of pulmonary embolism. The cutaneous biopsy pathology diagnosed intravascular lymphoma. Conclusion Intravascular lymphoma is a rare disease characterized by exclusive or predominant growth of neoplastic cells within the lumina of small blood vessels. Lung involvement seems to be common, but predominant lung presentation of this disease is rare. In our patient, urgent chemotherapy, along with adequate supportive care allowed complete recovery.
Xu Xuefeng; Dai Huaping; Jia Chun'e; Wang Chen
Objective To discuss the rationale,hypothesis,modality of extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients,and to summarize the experimental and clinical studies with inconsistent data which explored the EBP's efficacy in the areas of critical care medicine.Data sources Articles referred in this review were collected from the database of PubMed published in English up to June 2014.Study selection We had done a literature search by using the term "(sepsis OR acute lung injury OR acute respiratory distress syndrome) AND (extracorporeal blood purification OR hemofiltration OR hemoperfusion OR plasma exchange OR plasmapheresis OR adsorpiton)".Related original or review articles were included and carefully analyzed.Results Acute cellular and humoral immune disturbances occur in both sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Treatments aimed at targeting one single pro-/anti-inflammatory mediator have largely failed with no proven clinical benefits.Such failure shifts the therapeutic rationale to the nonspecific,broad-spectrum methods for modulating the over-activated inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response.Therefore,EBP techniques have become the potential weapons with high promise for removing the circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and promoting immune reconstitution.Over the years,multiple extracorporeal techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients have been developed,including hemofiltration (HF),high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF),high-cutoff hemofiltration (HCO-HF),hemo-perfusion or-adsorption (HP/HA),coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA),and plasma exchange (PE).These previous studies showed that EBP therapy was feasible and safe for the critically ill animal models or patients.However,data on their efficacy (especially on the clinical benefits,such as mortality) were inconsistent.Conclusions It is not now to conclude that EBP intervention can purify septic or ARDS
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No comprehensive analysis is available on the viral etiology and clinical characterization among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI in China during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and post-pandemic period. METHODS: Cohort of 370 hospitalized children (1 to 72 months with SARI from May 2008 to March 2010 was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA specimens were tested by a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets. The viral distribution and its association with clinical character were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Viral pathogen was detected in 350 (94.29% of children with SARI. Overall, the most popular viruses were: enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV (54.05%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (51.08%, human bocavirus (BoCA (33.78%, human parainfluenzaviruse type 3 (PIV3 (15.41%, and adenovirus (ADV (12.97%. Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus (IFV but was only detected in 20 (5.41% of children. Moreover, detection rate of RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV among suburb participants were significantly higher than that of urban area (P<0.05. Incidence of VSARI among suburb participants was also significant higher, especially among those of 24 to 59 months group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Piconaviruses (EV/RV and paramyxoviruses are the most popular viral pathogens among children with SARI in this study. RSV and hMPV significantly increase the risk of SARI, especially in children younger than 24 months. Higher incidence of VSARI and more susceptibilities to RSV and hMPV infections were found in suburban patients.
DiBlasi, Robert M; Myers, Timothy R; Hess, Dean R
Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator. When given via the inhaled route it is a selective pulmonary vasodilator. INO is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of term and near-term neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure associated with clinical or echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with the intention of making recommendations related to the clinical use of INO for its FDA-approved indication. Specifically, we wrote these evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to address the following questions: (1) What is the evidence for labeled use? (2) What are the specific indications for INO for neonates with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure? (3) Does the use of INO impact oxygenation, mortality, or utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)? (4) Does INO affect long-term outcomes? (5) Is INO cost-effective therapy? (6) How is the appropriate dosing regimen and dose response to INO established? (7) How is the dose of INO titrated and weaned? (8) Which INO delivery system should be used? (9) How should INO be implemented with different respiratory support devices? (10) What adverse effects of INO should be monitored, and at what frequency? (11) What physiologic parameters should be monitored during INO? (12) Is scavenging of gases necessary to protect the caregivers? Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system, 22 recommendations are developed for the use of INO in newborns.
Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Antúnez-Fernández, Cristina; Milano-Manso, Guillermo; Cordón-Martínez, Ana María; Urda-Cardona, Antonio
Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015. Those with a full blood count in the first 48hours of respiratory distress were included. Infants with underlying disease, bacterial superinfection, and premature infants <32 weeks of gestation were excluded. The main dichotomous variable was PICU admission. Other variables were: gender, age, post-menstrual age, gestational and post-natal tobacco exposure, admission month, type of lactation, and days of onset of respiratory distress. Lymphocyte counts were categorised by quartiles. Bivariate analysis was performed with the main variable and then by logistic regression to analyse confounding factors. The study included 252 infants, of whom 6.6% (17) required PICU admission. The difference in mean±SD of lymphocytes for patients admitted to and not admitted to PICU was 4,044±1755 and 5,035±1786, respectively (Student-t test, P<.05). An association was found between PICU admission and lymphocyte count <3700/ml (Chi-squared, P=.019; OR: 3.2) and it was found to be maintained in the logistic regression, regardless of age and all other studied factors (Wald 4.191 P=.041, OR: 3.8). A relationship was found between lymphocytosis <3700/ml in the first days of respiratory distress and a worse outcome in previously healthy infants <12 months and gestational age greater than 32 weeks with RSV-AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Full Text Available In spite of commonly spread positive opinion about the antibacterial and antiviral properties of garlic, very few and fragmented data exist on the benefits of garlic and garlic-based preparations in the prevention of acute respiratory diseases (ARD. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of timereleased garlic powder tablets (Allicor in prevention of ARD in children. At the first stage, in open-labeled 5-months study it has been shown that ARD morbidity was reduced by 2.4-fold in 172 Allicor-treated (600 mg daily schoolchildren aged 7-16 as compared to 468 controls. At the second stage, the effects of Allicor (300 mg daily on ARD morbidity were investigated in the double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized 5-months comparative study in 42 children aged 10-12 in comparison with 41 placebo-treated children and 73 benzimidazole-treated children. Allicor treatment reduced ARD morbidity by 2.4-fold as compared to placebo, and by 1.7-fold as compared to benzimidazole. Health index in Allicor-treated group was 1.5-fold higher as compared either to placebo- or benzimidazole-treated children. The results of this study have demonstrated that garlic powder tablets Allicor are effective in non-specific prevention of acute respiratory infections in children and possess no side effects. Additionally, the commonly used ARD prevention withbenzimidazole turned to be entirely ineffective in placebocontrolled study, so the development of new useful and safe efficient drugs like garlic-based preparations is of ultimate importance.
Jose L Nieto-Torres
Full Text Available Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV envelope (E gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS
Amy M Ahasic
Full Text Available RATIONALE: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2 have been examined for relationships with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and to circulating adipokine levels, but many gaps in knowledge remain. The current study aims to assess the association between potentially functional polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS risk and mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients with risk factors for ARDS admitted to the ICU were enrolled and followed prospectively for development of ARDS. ARDS cases were followed through day 60 for all-cause mortality. 2067 patients were successfully genotyped using the Illumina CVD BeadChip high-density platform. Of these, 567 patients developed ARDS. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 9 SNPs were hypothesized to be functional based on their location (promoter, exon, or 3' untranslated region. These 9 SNPs were analyzed for association with ARDS case status and mortality among ARDS cases. RESULTS: After multivariable analysis and adjustment for multiple comparisons, no SNPs were significantly associated with ARDS case status. Among ARDS cases, homozygotes for the minor allele of rs2082940 (ADIPOQ had increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.36-5.00, p = 0.0039 after adjustment for significant covariates. The significance of this association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR_q = 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: A common and potentially functional polymorphism in ADIPOQ may impact survival in ARDS. Further
Full Text Available Background. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome is a recently recognized new infectious respiratory illness, which first appeared in southern China in November 2002, and has since then within months spread to 29 countries. In total, 8437 cases and 813 deaths occurred (situation as of August 1, 2003. SARS is caused by a novel coronavirus that is primarily spread by large droplet transmission, less commonly by surface contamination or by air (airborne. Around half of the infected were health care workers; the majority of cases acquired the infection in the hospital.Conclusions. Incubation period of SARS is 2 to 10 days. Early manifestations include fever, myalgia, and headache, followed 2 to 4 days later by cough, shortness of breath, and diarrhea. In 10–20% of patients, tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation is required. Case-fatality is approximately 15%, in patients aged 60 years or older may be higher than 40%. There is no specific therapy or vaccine, and management consists of supportive care. This article summarizes updated information regarding epidemiology, clinical features, etiologic agent, modes of transmission of the disease, and infection control measures to contain SARS.
Kurogi, H; Inaba, Y; Tanaka, Y; Ito, Y; Sato, K; Omori, T
A cytopathogenic virus was isolated in the primary culture of bovine kidney cells from a nasal swab of affected calves in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Japan in 1971. It agglutinated human type O erythrocytes and produced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Viral replication was inhibited by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, indicating that the viral nucleic acid was RNA. The virus was resistant to ether, chloroform, sodium deoxycholate, and acid, and passed readily through Sartorius' membrane filter 100 nm in pore size, but not through the filter 50 nm in pore size. Electron microscopy showed many spherical particles 60 approximately 75 nm in diameter with a double-layered capsid in a sample taken at a buoyant density of 1.34 produced by CaCl equilibrium centrifugation. The virus suspended in 1M MgCl2 solution was stable against heating at 50 degrees C for 30 minutes, but not against freezing at -20 degrees C for 60 minutes. The virus was resistant to, and increased in infectivity after, treatment with 0.063 approximately 1.0% trypsin. These properties were consistent with those established for the reoviruses. Most affected cattle showed a significant rise of antibody titer against reovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, whereas only a few of them presented a serological evidence for recent infection with parainfluenza virus type 3, bovine adenovirus type 7, and bovine parovirus.
Full Text Available Conventionally, a substantial number of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation (MV to avert catastrophe of hypoxemia and hypercapnia. However, mechanical ventilation per se can cause lung injury, accelerating the disease progression. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO provides an alternative to rescue patients with severe respiratory failure that conventional mechanical ventilation fails to maintain adequate gas exchange. The physiology behind ECMO and its interaction with MV were reviewed. Next, we discussed the timing of ECMO initiation based on the risks and benefits of ECMO. During the running of ECMO, the protective ventilation strategy can be employed without worrying about catastrophic hypoxemia and carbon dioxide retention. There is a large body of evidence showing that protective ventilation with low tidal volume, high positive end-expiratory pressure, and prone positioning can provide benefits on mortality outcome. More recently, there is an increasing popularity on the use of awake and spontaneous breathing for patients undergoing ECMO, which is thought to be beneficial in terms of rehabilitation.
Koulouras, Vasilios; Papathanakos, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Nakos, Georgios
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome with heterogeneous underlying pathological processes. It represents a common clinical problem in intensive care unit patients and it is characterized by high mortality. The mainstay of treatment for ARDS is lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure sufficient for alveolar recruitment. Prone positioning is a supplementary strategy available in managing patients with ARDS. It was first described 40 years ago and it proves to be in alignment with two major ARDS pathophysiological lung models; the "sponge lung" - and the "shape matching" -model. Current evidence strongly supports that prone positioning has beneficial effects on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung protection and hemodynamics as it redistributes transpulmonary pressure, stress and strain throughout the lung and unloads the right ventricle. The factors that individually influence the time course of alveolar recruitment and the improvement in oxygenation during prone positioning have not been well characterized. Although patients' response to prone positioning is quite variable and hard to predict, large randomized trials and recent meta-analyses show that prone position in conjunction with a lung-protective strategy, when performed early and in sufficient duration, may improve survival in patients with ARDS. This pathophysiology-based review and recent clinical evidence strongly support the use of prone positioning in the early management of severe ARDS systematically and not as a rescue maneuver or a last-ditch effort.
Park, Jihye; Byun, Il Hwan; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Jung-Won
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical emergency that threatens life. To this day, ARDS is very rarely reported by iodine contrast media, and there is no reported case of ARDS induced by gadolinium contrast media. Here, we present a case with ARDS after the use of gadobutrol (Gadovist) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast medium. A 26 years old female without any medical history, including allergic diseases and without current use of drugs, visited the emergency room for abdominal pain. Her abdominopelvic computed tomography with iodine contrast media showed a right ovarian cyst and possible infective colitis. Eighty-three hours later, she underwent pelvis MRI after injection of 7.5 mL (0.1 mL/kg body weight) of gadobutrol (Gadovist) to evaluate the ovarian cyst. She soon presented respiratory difficulty, edema of the lips, nausea, and vomiting, and we could hear wheezing upon auscultation. She was treated with dexamethasone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Her chest X-ray showed bilateral central bat-wing consolidative appearance. Managed with mechanical ventilation, she was extubated 3 days later and discharged without complications.
Chan-Yeung, Moira; Yu, W C
To describe the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Descriptive case series. Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, China The outbreak started with a visitor from southern China on 21 February. At the hospitals where the first cases were treated the disease spread quickly among healthcare workers, and then out into the community as family members became infected. By 1 April, 685 cases had been reported with 16 deaths. Symptoms include high fever and one or more respiratory symptoms (including cough, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing). Changes in lung tissue suggest that part of the lung damage is due to cytokines induced by the microbial agent, which has led to empirical treatment with corticosteroids, broad spectrum antiviral agent, and antibacterial cover. There is strong evidence that a novel coronavirus is the pathogen. Precautions for droplet infection should be instituted, including the wearing of masks and rigorous disinfection and hygiene procedures. On 27 March the Department of Health announced drastic measures, including vigorous contact tracing and examination, quarantine of contacts in their homes, and closure of all schools and universities. The rapidity of the spread of the disease and the morbidity indicate that the agent responsible is highly infectious and virulent. Strict infection control measures for droplet and contact transmission by healthcare workers, a vigilant healthcare profession, and public education are essential for disease prevention.
Yeo, Hye Ju; Cho, Woo Hyun; Kim, Dohyung
A clinical trial of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as an alternative ventilator tool is being performed as a new indication for ECMO. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of awake ECMO to increase the success rate of weaning patients from ECMO and ventilator care during treatment of postoperative severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical reports of 10 patients who underwent awake ECMO due to postoperative ARDS between August 2012 and May 2015. We analyzed patient history, the partial arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, and patient outcome. Seven patients (70%) were weaned from ECMO without difficulty; one patient failed to maintain awake ECMO, was re-intubated after 2 days of awake ECMO, and was re-tried on awake ECMO after 4 days of ventilator care. We weaned that patient from ECMO 2 days later. We weaned a total of eight patients (80%) from awake ECMO. The ECMO duration of surviving patients was 9.13±2.2 days (range, 6-12 days), and mean ventilator use duration was 6.8±4.7 days (range, 2-16 days). Two cases failed awake ECMO and died due to disease aggravation. Awake ECMO was a useful weaning strategy after severe postoperative ARDS, as it avoids long-duration use of mechanical ventilation. Additionally, it is possible for patients to breathe spontaneously, which might prevents respiratory muscle dystrophy.
Hsueh, Po-Ren; Yang, Pan-Chyr
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV. The disease has a high propensity to spread to household members and healthcare workers and may be associated with transmission and outbreaks in the community. Severe illness in immunocompromised patients, sophisticated hospital facilities and treatment procedures, particularly those that generate aerosols, and lack of adequate isolation and control measures, can amplify transmission and contribute to so-called "super-spreading" events. The presence of non-specific clinical manifestations at presentation and a lack of validated early diagnostic methods and effective management pose great difficulty for frontline physicians in the containment of this disease. The mortality of SARS is in the region of 10 to 15%; the presence of underlying disease, high initial C-reactive protein levels, and positive SARS-CoV in nasopharyngeal aspirate samples are associated with a higher risk of respiratory failure and mortality. Despite the disappearance of SARS cases worldwide, the potential evolution of SARS-CoV in animals suggests the disease may re-emerge in the future. Heightened levels of clinical suspicion, rapid case detection and isolation, and contact tracing are essential to effective management of future outbreaks. Further ongoing requirements for successful management include research on the immunopathogenesis of SARS and the development of timely and reliable diagnostic tests, effective antiviral and immunomodulatory agents, and vaccines for the disease.
Gu, Wan-Jie; Chen, Kun; Ni, Hongying
Conventionally, a substantial number of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation (MV) to avert catastrophe of hypoxemia and hypercapnia. However, mechanical ventilation per se can cause lung injury, accelerating the disease progression. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides an alternative to rescue patients with severe respiratory failure that conventional mechanical ventilation fails to maintain adequate gas exchange. The physiology behind ECMO and its interaction with MV were reviewed. Next, we discussed the timing of ECMO initiation based on the risks and benefits of ECMO. During the running of ECMO, the protective ventilation strategy can be employed without worrying about catastrophic hypoxemia and carbon dioxide retention. There is a large body of evidence showing that protective ventilation with low tidal volume, high positive end-expiratory pressure, and prone positioning can provide benefits on mortality outcome. More recently, there is an increasing popularity on the use of awake and spontaneous breathing for patients undergoing ECMO, which is thought to be beneficial in terms of rehabilitation. PMID:28127231
Vásquez, M L; Mosquera, M; Cuevas, L E; González, E S; Veras, I C; Luz, E O; Batista Filho, M; Gurgel, R Q
Magnitude and distribution of Diarrhoea and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children were studied within a larger broader research that focused on health education. Two household surveys were conducted in a sample of families with at least one child under five years of Recife and Olinda in April-May 1992 and 1994. The total number of children studied was 5,436. The estimated adjusted annual incidence rate (AAIR) of diarrhoea was 2.7 episodes per child. The two-week incidence rate of diarrhoea was 10.2% for both years. Risk factors associated with higher incidence of diarrhoea were age (under two years), lack of sanitation facilities, and absence of electrical appliances in the household. Estimated AAIR of ARI was 9. 5 episodes per child. The two-week incidence rate of ARI was 41.0% in 1992 and 32.6% in 1994. Majority of ARIs affected the upper respiratory tract (75.9%). The only factor consistently associated with a higher risk of ARI was age (under three years). Study results indicate that both pathologies are still an important health problem for children under five in Pernambuco. In particular, in the case of diarrhoea the need for improving the access to basic services, such as water supply and sewage system is urgently needed.
Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun
A newly identified betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has been isolated from several patients with respiratory and renal disease in the Middle East. While only a few infected patients have been identified, the mortality of the infection is greater than 50%. Like its better-known cousin severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), HCoV-EMC appears to have originated from bats. In a recent article in mBio, Müller et al. described several important differences between the two viruses [M. A. Müller et al., mBio 3(6):e00515-12, 2012, doi:10.1128/mBio.00515-12]. Unlike SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC can directly infect bat cells. As important, HCoV-EMC does not enter cells using the SARS-CoV receptor, human angiotensin-converting receptor-2 (hACE2). These results provide a strong incentive for identifying the host cell receptor used by HCoV-EMC. Identification of the receptor will provide insight into the pathogenesis of pulmonary and renal disease and may also suggest novel therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis. The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.
JIANG Jian-xin; LI Li
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a poor prognosis in spite of the recent development of new therapeutic strategies. Cell-based therapy with stem cells has been considered as a promising way for the treatment of vital organ damage. Putative endogenous stem cells have been shown to be located within the adult lung in the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neu-roendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, as well as within the alveolar epithelium. These stem cells are hypothesized to be the source of lung regeneration and repair. But this mechanism seems to be insufficient after lung injury. There is increasing excitement over the last few years with the suggestion that exogenous stem cells may offer new treatment options for ARDS. Exogenous stem cells have the abihty to differentiate and function as both airway and lung parenchymal epithelial cells in both in vitro and in-creasingly in vivo experiments. However, there is great con-troversy concerning the repair effect of adult stem cells in lung injury. This review evaluates the advances in endog-enous respiratory stem cells, and assesses the evidence for the use of stem cells in the repair of lung injury.
Hatcher, Christopher L; Mott, Tiffany M; Muruato, Laura A; Sbrana, Elena; Torres, Alfredo G
Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders, an incapacitating disease with high mortality rates in respiratory cases. Its endemicity and ineffective treatment options emphasize its public health threat and highlight the need for a vaccine. Live attenuated vaccines are considered the most viable vaccine strategy for Burkholderia, but single-gene-deletion mutants have not provided complete protection. In this study, we constructed the select-agent-excluded B. mallei ΔtonB Δhcp1 (CLH001) vaccine strain and investigated its ability to protect against acute respiratory glanders. Here we show that CLH001 is attenuated, safe, and effective at protecting against lethal B. mallei challenge. Intranasal administration of CLH001 to BALB/c and NOD SCID gamma (NSG) mice resulted in complete survival without detectable colonization or abnormal organ histopathology. Additionally, BALB/c mice intranasally immunized with CLH001 in a prime/boost regimen were fully protected against lethal challenge with the B. mallei lux (CSM001) wild-type strain.
Background Military recruits are at a higher risk of acute respiratory disease (ARD) and the causative agents might change over time, which needs to be investigated. Methods The nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were consecutively collected from conscripts for three years in a military training center. The real-time lfuorescent quantitative PCR assays were conducted for 15 species of common respiratory pathogens; the serum anti-Legionella pneumophila antibodies were detected by indirect immunolfuorescence (IIF) assay, and serum anti-Microplasma pneumoniae antibodies, serum anti-in-lfuenza B virus and anti-inlfuenza A virus-IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA. Results The prevalences of ARD were 59.3% (108/182) in 2008, 23.3% (50/215) in 2009,and 19.6% (40/204) in 2010. Among the patients with ARD from 2008 to 2010, the inlfuenza B virus infection accounted for 45.4%, 30.0% and 55.0%, and seasonal inlfuenza A virus infection for 8.3%, 8.0% and 5.0%, respectively; the positive rates of serum anti-Legionella pneumophila and anti-Microplasma pneumoniae antibodies in recruits was lower than 10% each year respectively in the three years without diagnostic signiifcance. Conclusion The early appropriate diagnosis and treatment of ARD in military personnel will ensure the power strength of armed forces.
McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.
A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509
Enoki, Masafumi; Tojima, Hirokazu [Tokyo Rosai Hospital (Japan)
A 73-year-old man presented with dyspnea, cough, fever, appetite loss and stridor due to bronchial stenosis. Fiber-optic bronchoscopy revealed an endobronchial lesion in the right main bronchus and biopsy specimens showed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical stage of lung cancer was IIIB (T4N2M0). The patient received 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 43 days to a field including the right hilum and mediastinum. The tumor decreased in size and stenosis of the bronchus disappeared. A week after completion of radiation the patient began to have high grade fever and dyspnea, and progressive hypoxia developed. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Despite mechanical ventilation with PEEP and the administration of steroids, he died of respiratory failure three weeks after completion of radiation. Necropsy specimens obtained from the left lung revealed massive deposition of fibrin in the alveolar airspaces associated with hyaline membranes and hyperplasia of type II cells indicating diffuse alveolar damage. The patient had mild pulmonary fibrosis on a CT scan taken before the start of radiotherapy. We conclude that care should be taken if the case has pulmonary fibrosis because radiation therapy can precipitate severe radiation pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome in such cases. (author)
André V. Lomar
Full Text Available Severe pulmonary involvement in malaria has been frequently reported in cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection, but rarely in vivax malaria. Among the 11 previous cases of vivax-related severe respiratory involvement described in the literature, all except one developed it after the beginning of anti-malarial treatment; these appear to correspond to an exacerbation of the inflammatory response. We report the case of a 43-year-old Brazilian woman living in a malaria-endemic area, who presented acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS caused by P. vivax before starting anti-malarial treatment. The diagnosis was made based on microscopic methods. A negative rapid immunochromatographic assay, based on the detection of Histidine Rich Protein-2 (HRP-2 of P. falciparum, indicated that falciparum malaria was unlikely. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient was discharged from the hospital. We conclude that vivax malaria-associated ARDS can develop before anti-malarial therapy.
Full Text Available Background. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs are important cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing country. Methods. This observational study was conducted over two-year period in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Eastern India. Nasal and throat swabs were collected, transported to the laboratory at 2–8°C in viral transport media, and then processed for detection of viruses using mono/multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 300 children aged 2–60 months with ARIs were included. The most common age group affected with LRI was 2–12 mo and with URI was >12–60 mo. Viruses were detected in 248 cases. In URI, 77 were positive for single virus and 19 were positive for more than one virus; in LRI, 113 were positive for single virus and 12 were positive for more than one virus. The most common viruses isolated from URI cases were rhinovirus and adenovirus. The most common viruses isolated from LRI cases were respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. Most cases occurred in the months of January, December, and August. Conclusion. Viruses constitute a significant cause of ARI in children under five. RSV, ADV, RV, and IFV were the most prevalent viruses isolated.
Brandhof WE van den; Bartelds AIM; Wilbrink B; Verweij C; Bijlsma K; Nat H van der; Boswijk H; Pronk JDD; Dorigo-Zetsma JW; Heijnen MLA; NIVEL; CIE; LIS
To provide insight into the virological aetiology of influenza-like illnesses and other acute respiratory infections, nose/throat swabs were taken by 30-35 general practitioners of the sentinel surveillance network of The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research from a random selection of p
Acute bacterial respiratory infections (ABRIs) require treatment with antibiotics. Although antibiotics may address the underlying pathogenic factors, over-the-counter (OTC) agents can play an adjuvant role in relieving mucus-related symptoms. This complimentary role contributes to the healing process and is supported by current clinical guidelines.
Bos, Lieuwe D; Schouten, Laura R; Cremer, Olaf L; Ong, David S Y; Schultz, Marcus J
BACKGROUND: A recently developed prediction score based on age, arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) and plateau pressure (abbreviated as 'APPS') was shown to accurately predict mortality in patients diagnosed with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (
Kurkcu, Recep; Gokhan, Ismail
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute exercise on respiratory functions, heart-beats, blood pressure, total antioxidative capacity (TAC), oxidative stress index (OSI), lipid hydro-peroxide (LOOHs) and Paraoxonase (PON) in school boys. A sample of 18 male amateur wrestlers are selected for this study. The participants…
Tjhie, J.H.T.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Roosendaal, R.; Brule, A.J.C. van den; Bestebroer, T.M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.
In this retrospective study Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in samples (n=457) from children presenting with acute respiratory infection to general practitioners during 1992-97. Samples were collected in autumn and winter, an
Wosten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Bos, Albert; Bem, Reinout A.; Dierdorp, Barbara S.; Dekker, Tamara; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; van der Loos, Chris M.; van den Berg, Elske; Bruijn, Martijn; van Woensel, Job B.; Lutter, Rene
Objective: Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effector peptide angiotensin II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was identified as the counter-regulatory enzyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts
Objective To determine the value of oxygenation index in assessing the outcome of mechanical ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS).Methods From September 2008 to September 2013,patients meeting the Berlin definition of ARDS were evaluated in this retrospective study.Data included oxygenation
Objective To evaluate the effects of prone position ventilation(PPV) combined with inhalation of NO on oxygenation of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)patients. Methods A total of 21 patients with ARDS composed of 15 male and 6 female aged ranging from 2 to
Townsend, Joy; Greenland, Katie; Curtis, Val
To estimate the national costs relating to diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections from not handwashing with soap after contact with excreta and the costs and benefits of handwashing behaviour change programmes in India and China. Data on the reduction in risk of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection attributable to handwashing with soap were used, together with World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, to estimate DALYs due to not handwashing in India and China. Costs and benefits of behaviour change handwashing programmes and the potential returns to investment are estimated valuing DALYs at per capita GDP for each country. Annual net costs to India from not handwashing are estimated at US$ 23 billion (16-35) and to China at US$ 12 billion (7-23). Expected net returns to national behaviour change handwashing programmes would be US$ 5.6 billion (3.4-8.6) for India at US$ 23 (16-35) per DALY avoided, which represents a 92-fold return to investment, and US$ 2.64 billion (2.08-5.57) for China at US$ 22 (14-31) per DALY avoided - a 35-fold return on investment. Our results suggest large economic gains relating to decreases in diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection for both India and China from behaviour change programmes to increase handwashing with soap in households. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knapik, Piotr; Przybylski, Roman; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Koba, Rafał; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Borowicz, Marcin; Włoczka, Grzegorz; Pawlak, Szymon; Zembala, Marian
Pandemic influenza particularly often is associated with symptoms of acute respiratory failure, and in case of refractory hypoxemia patients may have indications for the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The paper presents a case of a pandemic influenza virus infection, where classical indications for veno-venous ECMO occured. Practical aspects of this kind of treatment in the intensive care unit are discussed.
Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K; Ndeezi, Grace
Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, based...
Wosten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Bos, Albert; Bem, Reinout A.; Dierdorp, Barbara S.; Dekker, Tamara; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; van der Loos, Chris M.; van den Berg, Elske; Bruijn, Martijn; van Woensel, Job B.; Lutter, Rene
Objective: Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effector peptide angiotensin II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was identified as the counter-regulatory enzyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts a
Lucisano, Gaetano; Capria, Maria; Matera, Giovanni; Presta, Pierangela; Comi, Nicolino; Talarico, Roberta; Rametti, Linda; Quirino, Angela; Giancotti, Aida; Fuiano, Giorgio
Coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) is an extracorporeal blood purification therapy based on non-specific pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator adsorption on a special resin cartridge coupled with continuous veno-venous haemofiltration or continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration and is one of the emerging treatments for septic patients. However, in the literature, there are limited data about its efficacy in treating patients with acute diseases but without the traditional criteria for sepsis. We describe the case of a 43-year-old male who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to pneumonia and acute kidney injury, whose clinical conditions rapidly improved after early CPFA therapy.
Full Text Available Meng-Yuan Dai,1 Jin-Ping Qiao,2 Yuan-Hong Xu,2 Guang-He Fei1 1Pulmonary Department, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Patients and methods: We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results: Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion: Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. Keywords: COPD, acute exacerbation, respiratory infectious, phenotypes, LOS, CAT
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients in 108 sentinel hospitals in 24 provinces of China was conducted from January 2009-September 2013. We enrolled hospitalized all-age patients with ALRI, and collected respiratory specimens, blood or serum collected for diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human influenza virus, adenoviruses (ADV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, human coronavirus (hCoV and human bocavirus (hBoV. We included 28,369 ALRI patients from 81 (of the 108 sentinel hospitals in 22 (of the 24 provinces, and 10,387 (36.6% were positive for at least one etiology. The most frequently detected virus was RSV (9.9%, followed by influenza (6.6%, PIV (4.8%, ADV (3.4%, hBoV (1.9, hMPV (1.5% and hCoV (1.4%. Co-detections were found in 7.2% of patients. RSV was the most common etiology (17.0% in young children aged <2 years. Influenza viruses were the main cause of the ALRIs in adults and elderly. PIV, hBoV, hMPV and ADV infections were more frequent in children, while hCoV infection was distributed evenly in all-age. There were clear seasonal peaks for RSV, influenza, PIV, hBoV and hMPV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ALRIs associated with viral pathogens. RSV is common in young children and prevention measures could have large public health impact. Influenza was most common in adults and influenza vaccination should be implemented on a wider scale in China.
Akritidou, Sofia; Panagiotidou, Evangelia; Sourla, Evdokia; Konstanta, Soultana; Kotoulas, Serafim-Xrisovalantis; Bikos, Vasilios; Bagalas, Vasilios; Katalin, Fekete; Pitsiou, Georgia; Ioannis, Stanopoulos; Athanasia, Pataka
Leptospirosis is a microbial infection which occurs in humans and animals and is caused by Leptospira (Leptospira spp.). In Greece, it occurs at a frequency of 0.22:100,000, and 24 severe cases have been reported in 2013. It manifests in three forms: anicteric (90%), icteric (5–10%) and severe. Severe leptospirosis can be a rare cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to intubation, jaundice, alveolar bleeding and multi-organ failure. A 71-year-old male patient presented at the emergency department with dyspnea on exertion, fever, gastrointestinal disorders, muscle aches and fatigue, that started four days ago. Occupation with pigeons was also reported. Blood gas analysis revealed severe type I respiratory failure, and a chest CT was performed, revealing ARDS. The patient was intubated. Acute renal failure (urea: 238, creatinine: 4.81) that required renal replacement therapy developed along with increased bilirubin (max value of total: 8.2 with direct: 7.42), and positive direct and indirect Coombs test. Moreover, hemorrhage through the tracheal tube complicated the clinical condition, resulting to obstruction of tracheal tube. Furthermore, anemia, thrombocytopenia and severe leycocytosis were also observed (white blood cells: 42,620). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to vasculitis and connective tissue disease was suspected, and a complete immunological control was ordered. Infectious pathogens, such as Str. Pneumoniae, Legionella, Mycoplasma, Leptospira spp., Chlamidia, HBV, HCV, influenza were also suspected and all the necessary samples were tested. He received levofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, vibramycin, and oseltamivir, but after receiving the positive results for leptospira, antibiotic treatment was revised with the final choice of levofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Despite improvement of renal and liver function, leycocytosis, CRP and PCT values, high fever begun that was attributed at first to the Jarisch
Juliette Lucinda Hunt
Full Text Available To date, there have been several systematic reviews with meta-analysis that have shown no reduction in mortality with the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Importantly, these reports fail to make a distinction between the pediatric and adult patient. The number of adult patients in these reviews are far greater than the number of pediatric patients which makes it difficult to interpret the data regarding the role of iNO on the pediatric population. Extrapolating data from the adult population to the pediatric population is complicated, as we know that physiology and the body’s response to disease can be different between adult and pediatric patients. iNO has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension. Recently, Bronicki et al. published a prospective randomized control trial investigating the impact of iNO on the pediatric patient population with acute respiratory failure. In this study, a benefit of decreased duration of mechanical ventilation and an increased rate of ECMO-free survival was demonstrated in patients who were randomized to receiving iNO, suggesting that there may be benefit to the use of iNO in pediatric ARDS (PARDS that has not been demonstrated in adults. iNO has repeatedly been shown to transiently improve oxygenation in all age groups, and yet neonates and pediatric patients have shown improvement in other outcomes that have not been seen in adults. The mechanism that explains improvement with the use of iNO in these patient populations are not well understood but does not appear to be solely a result of sustained improvement in oxygenation. There are physiologic studies that suggest alternative mechanisms for explaining the positive effects of iNO, such as platelet aggregation inhibition and reduction in systemic inflammation. Hence the role of iNO by various mechanisms
Kurtin, P; Charney, A N
Acute respiratory alkalosis and acidosis alter rat ileal and colonic but not jejunal electrolyte transport. To examine the role of altered intracellular pH, pHi, and HCO3 concentration, (HCO3)i, we measured pHi in mucosa scraped from the jejunum, ileum, and colon of anesthetized, mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats. During states of respiratory alkalosis (Pco2 24.9 +/- 0.8 mmHg, pH 7.586 +/- 0.014), respiratory acidosis (Pco2 67.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg, pH 7.228 +/- 0.007), and normocapnia (Pco2 41.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg, pH 7.401 +/- 0.006), pHi was measured by determining the distribution of 5,5-dimethyl[2-14C]oxazolidine-2,4-dione, using [3H]inulin as a marker of extracellular space. (HCO3)i was calculated using portal vein Pco2. In the ileum, the pHi of 6.901 +/- 0.029 was similar in alkalosis [(HCO3)i 5.4 +/- 0.3 mM], acidosis [(HCO3)i 12.4 +/- 0.6 mM], and normocapnia [(HCO3)i 8.6 +/- 0.8 mM). In both the jejunum and colon, pHi was increased in alkalosis [pHi 6.998 +/- 0.038, (HCO3)i 6.7 +/- 0.6 mM] and decreased in acidosis [pHi 6.789 +/- 0.024, (HCO3)i 10.4 +/- 0.6 mM] as compared with normocapnia [pHi 6.915 +/- 0.026, (HCO3)i 8.9 +/- 0.7 mM] (colon data given). Net electrolyte transport measured by in vivo perfusion revealed that ileal and colonic, but not jejunal, net Na and Cl absorption was decreased during alkalosis and increased during acidosis. These data suggest that, during respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, pHi is maintained in a qualitatively similar way in the jejunum, ileum, and colon with quantitatively greater or lesser changes in (HCO3)i.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Labrousse, J; Tenaillon, A; Massabie, P; Simonneau, G; Lissac, J
To determine the influence of intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), the level of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was compared during IPPB and after a short period off the respirator in 68 occasions on 42 patients with an acute respiratory failure (ARF) of various etiologies. During IPPB, the average PCWP was in the normal range in patients with toxic or neurologic comas and in cases of increased pulmonary capillary permeability edema (IPCPE), PCWP slightly increased within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with ARF and in hemodynamic acute pulmonary edema (HAPE). During the weaning stage, PCWP decreased in the groups of coma, COPD, and IPCPE, but increased in HAPE. The weaning test demonstrates that IPPB influenced PCWP in all patients. Therefore, PCWP cannot be assumed to represent the left ventricle filling pressure. The weaning test allows differentiation of IPCPE from HAPE. In the event of over-infusion or hypovolemia, PCWP measured under IPPB can lead to misinterpretation if not followed up by a second measurement off the respirator.
Marini, John J; Gattinoni, Luciano
To describe the clinical implications of an often neglected mechanism through which localized acute lung injury may be propagated and intensified. Experimental and clinical evidence from the medical literature relevant to the airway propagation hypothesis and its consequences. The diffuse injury that characterizes acute respiratory distress syndrome is often considered a process that begins synchronously throughout the lung, mediated by inhaled or blood-borne noxious agents. Relatively little attention has been paid to possibility that inflammatory lung injury may also begin focally and propagate sequentially via the airway network, proceeding mouth-ward from distal to proximal. Were this true, modifications of ventilatory pattern and position aimed at geographic containment of the injury process could help prevent its generalization and limit disease severity. The purposes of this communication are to call attention to this seldom considered mechanism for extending lung injury that might further justify implementation of low tidal volume/high positive end-expiratory pressure ventilatory strategies for lung protection and to suggest additional therapeutic measures implied by this broadened conceptual paradigm.
Full Text Available Chronic alcohol ingestion increases the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, a severe form of acute lung injury, characterized by alveolar epithelial and endothelial barrier disruption and intense inflammation. Alcohol abuse is also associated with a higher incidence of sepsis or pneumonia resulting in a higher rate of admittance to intensive care, longer inpatient stays, higher healthcare costs, and a 2–4 times greater mortality rate. Chronic alcohol ingestion induced severe oxidative stress associated with increased ROS generation, depletion of the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH, and oxidation of the thiol/disulfide redox potential in the alveolar epithelial lining fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Across intracellular and extracellular GSH pools in alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages, chronic alcohol ingestion consistently induced a 40–60 mV oxidation of GSH/GSSG suggesting that the redox potentials of different alveolar GSH pools are in equilibrium. Alcohol-induced GSH depletion or oxidation was associated with impaired functions of alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages but could be reversed by restoring GSH pools in the alveolar lining fluid. The aims of this paper are to address the mechanisms for alcohol-induced GSH depletion and oxidation and the subsequent effects in alveolar barrier integrity, modulation of the immune response, and apoptosis.
Praptiningsih, Catharina Y; Lafond, Kathryn E; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storms, Aaron D; Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, Angela D; Samaan, Gina; Titaley, Christiana R; Yelda, Fitra; Kreslake, Jennifer; Storey, Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M
Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities.
Feddy, Lee; Barker, Julian; Fawcett, Pete; Malagon, Ignacio
Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with sever multiorgan failure from 15 to 50%, depending on the series. In some of these patients, conventional methods of ventilation and respiratory support will fail, demanding the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Abdominal compartment syndrome is potentially harmful in this cohort of patients. We describe the successful treatment of three patients with severe acute pancreatitis who underwent respiratory ECMO and where intra abdominal pressure was monitored regularly. Retrospective review of case notes. Three patients with severe acute pancreatitis requiring ECMO suffered from increased intra abdominal pressure during their ICU stay. No surgical interventions were taken to relieve abdominal compartment syndrome. Survival to hospital discharge was 100%. Monitoring intraabdominal pressure is a valuable adjunct to decision making while caring for these high-risk critically ill patients.
D. I. Levikov
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a recruiting maneuver (RM and adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 patients (14 men and 2 women aged 46 to 78 years (range 62±5.6 years with ARDS of various genesis. RM was made, by stepwisely increasing PEEP and inspiratory pressure under the control of dynamic lung compliance and hemodynamic parameters. The values of blood gas composition and hemodynamics were determined during the study. Results. RM caused an increase in oxygenation index (OI from 153.5±48.3 to 348.5±53.2 mm Hg. Oxygenation values returned to the baseline levels 30—40 min after the PEEP was set at the closure point of +2 cm H2O. If the set PEEP was 8—10 cm H2O higher than the objective, the effect of RM was retained for as long as 24 hours. When RM was performed using the maximum pressure of 50—60 cm H2O, the cardiac index (CI was lower in all the patients and 30—50% of the baseline values were achieved in all cases, which required the optimization of cardiotonic therapy. The time of this pronounced reduction in cardiac output with RM was not longer than 5 min. After RM, during mechanical ventilation with 18—26 cm H2O PEEP, the CI did not practically differ from the baseline values (3.31±0.41 and 3.37±0.36 l/min/m2, respectively, though the dopamine dose required to maintain normal hemodynamics was somewhat higher (7.5±2.3 and 6.3±2.6 ^g/kg/min. Conclusion. Analysis of the given cases suggests that RM is highly effective in patients at the early stages of acute lung injury. The duration of RM effects may depend on the set PEEP level in individual cases. Setting PEEP at a level of +2—4 cm H2O fails to prevent repeated alveolar derecruitment in a number of patients. In these cases, it is expedient to individually adjust PEEP levels, by taking into account the long-term changes in OI and Cdyn. In
Lazzeri, Chiara; Cianchi, Giovanni; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Batacchi, Stefano; Peris, Adriano; Gensini, Gian Franco
Bedside use of Doppler echocardiography is being featured as a promising, clinically useful tool in assessing the pulmonary circulation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present review is aimed at summarizing the available evidence obtained with echocardiography on right ventricle (RV) function and pulmonary circulation in ARDS and to highlight the potential of this technique in clinical practice (only articles in English language were considered). According to the available evidence on echocardiographic findings, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) echocardiography (transthoracic and transesophageal) has a growing role in the management ARDS patients mainly because of the strict interactions between the lung (and ventilation) and the RV and pulmonary circulation; (b) there may be a continuum of alterations in RV size and function and pulmonary circulation which may end in the development of acute cor pulmonale, probably paralleling ARDS disease severity; and (c) the detection of acute cor pulmonale should prompt intensivists to tailor their ventilatory strategy to the individual patient depending on the echocardiography findings. Bearing in mind the clinical role and growing importance of echocardiography in ARDS and the available evidence on this topic, we present a flow chart including the parameters to be measured and the timing of echo exams in ARDS patients. Despite the important progress that echocardiography has gained in the evaluation of patients with ARDS, several open questions remain and echocardiography still appears to be underused in these patients. A more systematic use of echocardiography (mainly through shared protocols) in ARDS could help intensivists to tailor the optimal treatment in individual patients as well as highlighting the limits and potential of this methodology in patients with ALI.
10.1 Respiratory failure2003068 Evaluation of non-invasive ventilation in a-cute respiratory failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. GU Jianyong(顾俭勇), et al. Dept E-mergen, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Shanghai J Med 2002; 25 (12): 741 - 743.Objective:To observe the effect of non-invasive venti-lation(NIV) in acute respiratory failure with chronic
Henderson, F W; Collier, A M; Sanyal, M A; Watkins, J M; Fairclough, D L; Clyde, W A; Denny, F W
We analyzed data from a 14-year longitudinal study of respiratory infections in young children to determine the relative importance of viral respiratory infection and nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as factors influencing the occurrence of acute otitis media with effusion. The incidence of this disorder was increased in children with viral respiratory infections (average relative risk, 3.2; P less than 0.0001). Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus (type A or B), and adenovirus conferred a greater risk of otitis media than did infection with parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, or rhinovirus. Colonization of the nasopharynx with Str. pneumoniae or H. influenzae had a lesser effect on the incidence of the disease (average relative risk; 1.5; P less than 0.01). Infections with the viruses more closely associated with acute otitis media (respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and influenza A or B) were correlated with an increased risk of recurrent disease. Prevention of selected otitis-associated viral infections should reduce the incidence of this disease.
Full Text Available Inhalations (inhalation of medicinal substances are one of the effective ways to treat upper respiratory tract diseases and colds. Inhalation therapy is used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can be complications of acute respiratory viral infections. The main rules of inhalation are as follows to conduct the procedure better after 1.5 hours after eating; clothes should not impede breathing; the procedure can be carried out only while sitting or standing; solution for the inhaler for treatment of bronchitis should be fresh; it is necessary to strictly keep the prescribed dosage; the time of the procedure should also be respected — usually it is from 1 to 4 minutes, sometimes for adults up to 10 minutes, for children the inhalation period is shorter — 1–2 minutes. Contraindications to inhalation are body temperature above 37.5 degrees; propensity to nasal bleeding in a patient; propensity to increased arterial pressure, with cardiovascular failure; purulent inflammation of the tonsils; respiratory failure. The procedure should be stopped immediately in case of appearance of adverse symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty in breathing. Therefore, inhalations must be prescribed by a doctor after examination of a patient. During inhalations in rhinitis, you should try to inhale the vapor through the nose. For effective treatment of rhinitis, inhalations from coniferous plants are very suitable: fir, pine, juniper, larch, from steamed dried chamomile flowers, mint, and blackberry leaves. Honey inhalations can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. Medical herbal inhalation for children should be carried out from the age of two years. This must be done under the constant supervision of an adult. Leaves of coniferous trees: pine, fir, if or juniper, cedar
Dunne, Patrick J; Macintyre, Neil R; Schmidt, Ulrich H; Haas, Carl F; Jones-Boggs Rye, Kathy; Kauffman, Garry W; Hess, Dean R
For the busy clinician, educator, or manager, it is becoming an increasing challenge to filter the literature to what is relevant to one's practice and then update one's practice based on the current evidence. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to long-term oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, airway management, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory care education, and respiratory care management. These topics were chosen and reviewed in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care.
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the association between passive smoking and the severity of acute lower respiratory illnesses (ALRI among 351 children aged 3–27 months admitted to hospital. A total of 297 children provided hair samples, which were analysed for hair nicotine levels as an indicator of passive smoking. A severity of illness grading system was developed by using clinical and management criteria used by the medical staff at hospital. The OR for children with more severe illness being exposed to higher nicotine levels was 1.2, 95% CI: 0.57–2.58 when using dichotomised respiratory severity levels and upper versus lower nicotine quartile levels. In an ordinal logistic regression model, the OR of more severe illness being associated with higher nicotine levels was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.92–1.25. When analysis was limited to the more severe cases, the OR of the least severe category compared to the most severe category, in relation to nicotine levels in hair, was 1.79 (95% CI: 0.5–6.30. The ordinal logistic regression of this group of severely-ill children (OR 1.1 (95% CI: 0.94–1.29 was not substantially different from the overall study subjects. Conclusion In general, children with more severe illness tended to have higher levels of nicotine in their hair, although the results were within the limit of chance. Possible explanations of our results include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS being an initiator of ALRI rather than a risk to severity, exposure levels of ETS were too low to demonstrate an effect on severity, or the power of this study was not high enough to detect an association.
Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately 25 million people in the United States visit their primary care physician each year for acute respiratory infections (ARI. They are a common cause of unnecessary prescription of antibiotics; despite well-validated national treatment guidelines, around 73% of adults with ARI are prescribed antibiotics in the United States. Inappropriate use of antibiotics has profound implications. Methods: Our aim was to increase adherence to antibiotic guidelines for treatment of ARI in an internal medicine outpatient practice. We used a package of active and passive interventions to improve physician awareness of treatment guidelines; these included short sessions of didactic teaching, antibiotic guidelines posters in patient examination rooms and staff areas, clinical decision support (CDS tools integrated into the electronic medical record system, guideline adherence report cards for providers, and reiteration of CDS tool use and guideline adherence at monthly group meetings. Process measures were the rate of use of CDS tools for the management of ARI and patient callbacks within 72 h for the same issue. Outcome measures were compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Results: Our low-cost interventions led to a significant improvement in ARI treatment guideline adherence. There was improvement in compliance with treatment guidelines for sinusitis (90.90% vs. 57.58%, p<0.001, pharyngitis (64.28% vs. 25.00%, p = 0.003, upper respiratory infection (96.18% vs. 73.68%, p = 0.008, and the aggregated measure of ARI (91.25% vs. 78.6%, p<0.001. Rate of CDS tool usage was 40.5% with a 72-h callback rate of 0.05%. Conclusion: Simple, low-cost interventions can improve appropriate antibiotic use for ARI and change the prescribing habits of providers in an outpatient setting. Provider and patient education is a vital component of antibiotic stewardship. Simple interventions for common outpatient conditions can have a positive impact
Full Text Available Background: Non-invasive measurement of oxygenation is a routine procedure in clinical practice, but transcutaneous monitoring of PCO 2 (PtCO 2 is used much less than expected. Methods : The aim of our study was to analyze the value of a commercially available combined SpO 2 /PtCO 2 monitor (TOSCA-Linde Medical System, Basel, Switzerland in adult non-invasive ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Eighty critically ill adult patients, requiring arterial blood sample gas analyses, underwent SpO 2 and PtCO 2 measurements (10 min after the probe was attached to an earlobe simultaneously with arterial blood sampling. The level of agreement between PaCO2 - PtCO 2 and SaO 2 - SpO 2 was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Results : Both, SaO 2 from blood gas analysis and SpO 2 from the transcutaneous monitor, and PaCO 2 and PtCO 2 were equally useful. No measurements were outside of the acceptable clinical range of agreement of ± 7.5 mmHg. Conclusions : The accuracy of estimation of the TOSCA transcutaneous electrode (compared with the "gold standard" blood sample gas analysis was generally good. Moreover, TOSCA presents the advantage of the possibility of continuous non-invasive measurement. The level of agreement of the two methods of measurement allows us to state that the TOSCA sensor is useful in routine monitoring of adults admitted to an intermediate respiratory unit and undergoing non-invasive ventilation.
Marta L DeDiego
Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV that lacks the envelope (E gene (rSARS-CoV-ΔE is attenuated in vivo. To identify factors that contribute to rSARS-CoV-ΔE attenuation, gene expression in cells infected by SARS-CoV with or without E gene was compared. Twenty-five stress response genes were preferentially upregulated during infection in the absence of the E gene. In addition, genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, cell metabolism, immunoregulation, inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle and differentiation were differentially regulated in cells infected with rSARS-CoV with or without the E gene. Administration of E protein in trans reduced the stress response in cells infected with rSARS-CoV-ΔE or with respiratory syncytial virus, or treated with drugs, such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin that elicit cell stress by different mechanisms. In addition, SARS-CoV E protein down-regulated the signaling pathway inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1 of the unfolded protein response, but not the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK or activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6 pathways, and reduced cell apoptosis. Overall, the activation of the IRE-1 pathway was not able to restore cell homeostasis, and apoptosis was induced probably as a measure to protect the host by limiting virus production and dissemination. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines was reduced in rSARS-CoV-ΔE-infected cells compared to rSARS-CoV-infected cells, suggesting that the increase in stress responses and the reduction of inflammation in the absence of the E gene contributed to the attenuation of rSARS-CoV-ΔE.
Zielecki, Florian; Weber, Michaela; Eickmann, Markus; Spiegelberg, Larissa; Zaki, Ali Moh; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan; Weber, Friedemann
Infections with human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) are associated with severe pneumonia. We demonstrate that HCoV-EMC resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in productively infecting primary and continuous cells of the human airways and in preventing the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses. However, HCoV-EMC was markedly more sensitive to the antiviral state established by ectopic IFN. Thus, HCoV-EMC can utilize a broad range of human cell substrates and suppress IFN induction, but it does not reach the IFN resistance of SARS-CoV.
V. A. Tumanskiy
Full Text Available V.А. Tumanskіy, S.І. Ternishniy, L.M. Tumanskaya Pathological changes in the lungs were studied in the work of 42 patiens who died from severe closed intracranial injury (SCII. It was complicated with acute respiratory insufficient (ARI. The most modified subpleural areas were selected from every lobe of the lungs for pathological studies. Prepared histological sections were stained by means of hemotoxylin and eosin and by Van Giеson for light microscopy. The results of the investigation have shown absence of the significant difference of pathological changes in the lungs of patients who died from ARI because of severe brain injury and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Pathognomic pathological changes in the lungs as a result of acute lung injury syndrome (ALIS were found in deceased patients on the third day since the SCII (n=8. There was a significant bilateral interstitial edema and mild alveolar edema with the presence of red and blood cells in the alveoli, vascular plethora of the septum interalveolar and stasis of blood in the capillaries, the slight pericapillary leukocyte infiltration, subpleural hemorrhage and laminar pulmonary atelectasis. In deceased patients on 4-6 days after SCII that was complicated with ARI (n=14, morphological changes had been detected in the lungs. It was pathognomic for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS with local pneumonic to be layered. A significant interstitial pulmonary edema was observed in the respiratory part of the lungs. The edema has spread from the walls of the alveoli into the interstitial spaces of the bronchioles and blood vessels, and also less marked serous-hemorrhagic alveolar edema with presence of the fibrin in the alveoli and macrophages. The ways of intrapleural lymphatic drainage were dilatated. Histopathological changes in the lungs of those who died on the 7-15th days after severe closed craniocerebral injury with ARI to be complicated (n=12 have been indicative of two
Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.
Daniel C Medina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, exhibits high levels of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and malaria. With the increasing awareness that the aforementioned infectious diseases impose an enormous burden on developing countries, public health programs therein could benefit from parsimonious general-purpose forecasting methods to enhance infectious disease intervention. Unfortunately, these disease time-series often i suffer from non-stationarity; ii exhibit large inter-annual plus seasonal fluctuations; and, iii require disease-specific tailoring of forecasting methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this longitudinal retrospective (01/1996-06/2004 investigation, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection of the lower tract, and malaria consultation time-series are fitted with a general-purpose econometric method, namely the multiplicative Holt-Winters, to produce contemporaneous on-line forecasts for the district of Niono, Mali. This method accommodates seasonal, as well as inter-annual, fluctuations and produces reasonably accurate median 2- and 3-month horizon forecasts for these non-stationary time-series, i.e., 92% of the 24 time-series forecasts generated (2 forecast horizons, 3 diseases, and 4 age categories = 24 time-series forecasts have mean absolute percentage errors circa 25%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The multiplicative Holt-Winters forecasting method: i performs well across diseases with dramatically distinct transmission modes and hence it is a strong general-purpose forecasting method candidate for non-stationary epidemiological time-series; ii obliquely captures prior non-linear interactions between climate and the aforementioned disease dynamics thus, obviating the need for more complex disease-specific climate-based parametric forecasting methods in the district of Niono; furthermore, iii readily decomposes time-series into seasonal
The development and validation of a multidimensional sum-scaling questionnaire to measure patient-reported outcomes in acute respiratory tract infections in primary care: the Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Questionnaire: ARTIQ
Aabenhus, R.; Thorsen, H.; Siersma, V.
OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcomes are seldom validated measures in clinical trials of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in primary care. We developed and validated a patient-reported outcome sum-scaling measure to assess the severity and functional impacts of ARTIs. METHODS: Qualitati......, sum-scaling questionnaire with high face and content validity and adequate psychometric properties for assessing severity and functional impacts from ARTIs in adults is available to clinical trials and audits in primary care....
Galvin, Imelda M; Steel, Andrew; Pinto, Ruxandra; Ferguson, Niall D; Davies, Mark W
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are syndromes of severe respiratory failure that are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. Artifical ventilatory support is commonly required and may exacerbate lung injury. Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been proposed as a less injurious form of ventilatory support for these patients. Although PLV has been shown to improve gas exchange and to reduce inflammation in experimental models of ALI, a previous systematic review did not find any evidence to support or refute its use in humans with ALI and ARDS. The primary objective of this review was to assess whether PLV reduced mortality (at 28 d, at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), at discharge from hospital and at one, two and five years) in adults with ALI or ARDS when compared with conventional ventilatory support.Secondary objectives were to determine how PLV compared with conventional ventilation with regard to duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, duration of respiratory support, duration of oxygen therapy, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, incidence of infection, long-term cognitive impairment, long-term health related quality of life, long- term lung function, long-term morbidity costs and adverse events. The following adverse events were considered: hypoxia (arterial PO2 blood pressure < 90 mm Hg sustained for longer than two minutes or requiring treatment with fluids or vasoactive drugs), bradycardia (heart rate < 50 beats per minute sustained for longer than one minute or requiring therapeutic intervention) and cardiac arrest (absence of effective cardiac output). In this updated review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 10, 2012, in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to November 2012); EMBASE (Ovid SP, 1980 to November 2012) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost,1982 to November 2012) for published studies. In our original review, we searched until
Migiyama, Yohei; Hirosako, Susumu; Tokunaga, Kentaro; Migiyama, Emi; Tashiro, Takahiro; Sagishima, Katsuyuki; Kamohara, Hidenobu; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a high mortality and recurrence rate, especially in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, new therapeutic strategies against severe pneumonia are needed. This study evaluated the efficacy of aerosolized tobramycin for P. aeruginosa VAP in ARDS patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who developed VAP caused by P. aeruginosa during the course of ARDS at the intensive care unit (ICU) of Kumamoto University Hospital. Aerosolized tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) 240 mg was administered daily for 14 days in addition to systemic antibiotics. A total of 44 patients (TIS group, n = 22; control group, n = 22) were included in the analysis. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of clinical characteristics, including acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score upon ICU admission. The TIS group had significantly lower recurrence of P. aeruginosa VAP (22.7% vs. 52.4%, P = 0.04) and ICU mortality (22.7% vs. 63.6%, P < 0.01) than the control group. Bacterial concentration in tracheal aspirate (mean log 10 cfu/mL ± SD on days 2-5: 1.2 ± 1.3 vs. 5.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.01) decreased more rapidly and markedly in the TIS group compared with the control group. Aerosolized tobramycin was an effective therapeutic strategy for P. aeruginosa VAP patients with ARDS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Moine, P; McIntyre, R; Schwartz, M D; Kaneko, D; Shenkar, R; Le Tulzo, Y; Moore, E E; Abraham, E
Activation of the nuclear regulatory factor NF-kappaB occurs in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may contribute to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in this setting. Because of the important role that NF-kappaB activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kapppaB counterregulatory mechanisms, involving IkappaB proteins, in alveolar macrophages obtained from 7 control patients without lung injury and 11 patients with established ARDS. Cytoplasmic levels of the NF-kappaB subunits p50, p65, and c-Rel were significantly decreased in alveolar macrophages from patients with ARDS, consistent with enhanced migration of liberated NF-kappaB dimers from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of IkappaBalpha were not significantly altered in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS, compared with controls. In contrast, nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were significantly decreased in patients with ARDS compared with controls (P = 0.02). No IkappaBgamma, IkappaBbeta, or p105 proteins were detected in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages from control patients or patients with ARDS. The presence of activated NF-kappaB in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS implies the presence of an ongoing stimulus for NF-kappaB activation. In this setting, appropriate counterregulatory mechanisms to normalize nuclear levels of NF-kappaB and to suppress NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, such as increased cytoplasmic and nuclear IkappaBalpha levels or decreased Bcl-3 levels, appeared to be induced. Nevertheless, even though counterregulatory mechanisms to NF-kappaB activation are activated in lung macrophages of patients with ARDS, NF-kappaB remains activated. These results suggest that fundamental abnormalities in transcriptional mechanisms involving NF-kappaB and important in the
Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Rial, Analía; Saavedra, José M; Chabalgoity, José A
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung's immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages. This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained. SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs' immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated
Searcy, Randi J; Morales, James R; Ferreira, Jason A; Johnson, Donald W
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome of acute lung injury that is characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and severe hypoxemia second to a pathogenic impairment of gas exchange. Despite significant advances in the area, mortality remains high among ARDS patients. High mortality and a limited spectrum of therapeutic options have left clinicians searching for alternatives, spiking interest in selective pulmonary vasodilators (SPVs). Despite the lack of robust evidence, SPVs are commonly employed for their therapeutic role in improving oxygenation in patients who have developed refractory hypoxemia in ARDS. While inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) also impacts arterial oxygenation by decreasing ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatching and pulmonary shunt flow, this effect is not different from inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). The most effective and safest dose for yielding a clinically significant increase in PaO2 and reduction in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) appears to be 20-30 ng/kg/min in adults and 30 ng/kg/min in pediatric patients. iEPO appears to have a ceiling effect above these doses in which no additional benefit may be derived. iNO and iEPO have shown similar efficacy profiles; however, they differ with respect to cost and ease of therapeutic administration. The most beneficial effects of iEPO have been seen in adult patients with secondary ARDS as compared with primary ARDS, most likely due to the difference in etiology of the two disease states, and in patients suffering from baseline right ventricular heart failure. Although iEPO has demonstrated improvements in hemodynamic parameters and oxygenation in ARDS patients, due to the limited number of randomized clinical trials and the lack of studies investigating mortality, the use of iEPO cannot be recommended as standard of care in ARDS. iEPO should be reserved for those refractory to traditional therapies.
Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are mostly accompanied by changes of mucociliary clearance. The paper presents the possibility of using combination preparation with different points of application for the treatment of tracheobronchial drainage disturbances in respiratory diseases in children.
Full Text Available Aims: The study aimed at correlation of post-stroke dysphagia with area and volume of infarct/ bleed, and with subsequent in-hospital respiratory morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: 50 patients of acute stroke were serially recruited. Standard Staff swallowing assessment was performed within 24 hours of admission along with pulse oximetry. Ischemic strokes were classified as per OCPS registry. In-hospital respiratory morbidity and mortality, mode of nutrition and disability status at discharge were noted. Results: 21/50 (42% patients had post-stroke dysphagia during their hospital course. Among infarcts, Total Anterior Circulation Infarcts (TACI had 100% incidence of dysphagia, followed by Partial Anterior Circulation Infarcts (PACI-36%, Posterior Circulation infarcts (POCI-33%, and Lacunar infarcts (LACI-18%. 67% of hemorrhages had post-stroke dysphagia. Staff swallowing assessment had a sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 73% respy., for predicting respiratory morbidity. The corresponding figures for Pulse oximetry were 79% and 91%.
Dec, Paweł Łukasz; Lesińska, Anna Justyna; Bocheńska, Anna; Wasilewski, Piotr; Feldyk, Grzegorz; Kubisa, Anna; Pieróg, Jarosław; Bielewicz, Michał; Grodzki, Tomasz
Acute respiratory failure resistant to conventional pulmonary therapy often requires intensive medical care. In rare cases, ventilator therapy proves insufficient, and only the option of employing veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO V-V) remains. The present article describes the case of a 23-year-old patient who experienced severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with associated multiple organ failure. The patient was admitted to the pulmonary ward of the Alfred Sokołowski Regional Pulmonary Hospital in Szczecin-Zdunowo with suspected pneumonia of unknown etiology. After the initial 5 days of diagnostics at the pulmonary ward, the patient required a further 97 days of hospital treatment and spent 63 days at the Intensive Care Unit. There, he underwent ECMO V-V therapy lasting 22 days, which resulted in the improvement of his arterial blood gas parameters and clinical condition. PMID:26336483
江山平; 黄莉文; 陈锡龙; 王景峰; 伍卫; 尹松梅; 陈为宪; 詹俊; 严励; 马丽萍; 李建国; 黄子通
Objective To identify valid measures for preventing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among protected healthcare workers in isolation units.Methods Architectural factors, admitted SARS cases and infection of healthcare workers in different isolation wards between January 30 and March 30, 2003 were analyzed.Results Four types of isolation wards were analyzed, including the ward where the thirty-first bed was located on the twelfth floor, the laminar flow ward in the Intensive Care Unit where the tenth bed was located on the fifteenth floor, the ward where the twenty-seventh bed was located on the thirteenth floor of the Lingnan Building, and thirty wards on the fourteenth to eighteenth floors of the Zhongshan Building. The ratios (m2/m3) of the area of the ventilation windows to the volume of the rooms were 0, 0, 1∶ 95 and 1∶ 40, respectively. Numbers of SARS cases in the wards mentioned above were 1, 1, 1 and 96, respectively. Total times of hospitalization were 43, 168, 110 and 1272 hours, respectively. The infection rates of the healthcare workers in the areas mentioned above were 73.2%, 32.1%, 27.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The difference in the infection rates was of statistical significance.Conclusions Isolating SARS cases in wards with good ventilation could reduce the viral load of the ward and might be the key to preventing outbreaks of SARS among healthcare workers along with strict personal protection measures in isolation units.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS emerged in later February 2003, as a new epidemic form of life-threatening infection caused by a novel coronavirus. However, the immune-pathogenesis of SARS is poorly understood. To understand the host response to this pathogen, we investigated the gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from SARS patients, and compared with healthy controls. Results The number of differentially expressed genes was found to be 186 under stringent filtering criteria of microarray data analysis. Several genes were highly up-regulated in patients with SARS, such as, the genes coding for Lactoferrin, S100A9 and Lipocalin 2. The real-time PCR method verified the results of the gene array analysis and showed that those genes that were up-regulated as determined by microarray analysis were also found to be comparatively up-regulated by real-time PCR analysis. Conclusions This differential gene expression profiling of PBMCs from patients with SARS strongly suggests that the response of SARS affected patients seems to be mainly an innate inflammatory response, rather than a specific immune response against a viral infection, as we observed a complete lack of cytokine genes usually triggered during a viral infection. Our study shows for the first time how the immune system responds to the SARS infection, and opens new possibilities for designing new diagnostics and treatments for this new life-threatening disease.
Jia-Hai LU; Nan-Shan ZHONG; Ding-Mei ZHANG; Guo-Ling WANG; Zhong-Min GUO; Juan LI; Bing-Yan TAN; Li-Ping OU-YANG; Wen-Hua LING; Xin-Bing YU
The non-structural proteins (nsp or replicase proteins) of coronaviruses are relatively conserved and can be effective targets for drugs. Few studies have been conducted into the function of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nsp5. In this study, bioinformatics methods were employed to predict the secondary structure and construct 3-D models of the SARS-CoV GD strain nsp5. Sequencing and sequential comparison was performed to analyze the mutation trend of the polymerase nsp5 gene during the epidemic process using a nucleotide-nucleotide basic local alignment search tool (BLASTN) and a protein-protein basic local alignment search tool (BLASTP). The results indicated that the nsp5 gene was steady during the epidemic process and the protein was homologous with other coronavirus nsp5 proteins. The protein encoded by the nsp5 gene was expressed in COS-7 cells and analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This study provided the foundation for further exploration of the protein's biological function, and contributed to the search for anti-SARS-CoV drugs.
WAN-NIAN LIANG; MIN LIU; QI CHEN; ZE-JUN LIU; XIONG HE; XUE-QIN XIE
Objective To describe the specific features of the contact history of probable cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Beijing. Methods Data of SARS cases notified from the Beijing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC) and supplemented by other channels were collected. All the data were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology. Results ①The number of probable cases with contact history was significantly higher than the excluded cases. ②The proportion of probable cases with contact history descended with epidemic development, but this situation did not occur in health care workers (HCWs). ③The fatality rate of probable cases with contact history was significantly higher than the cases without contact history (OR=1.489). ④The proportion of probable cases with contact history was 85.86% among health care workers, which was significantly higher than that of non-health care workers (85.86% v.s. 56.44%, OR=4.69). Conclusions ①The susceptible persons with contact history may not get infected, and the contact history is just a sufficient condition of infecting SARS; ②There are 3 conceivable reasons for the descending trend of the proportion in probable cases with contact history; ③The contact history is one of the risk factors of the death of SARS cases; ④The risk of contacting with SARS among health care workers is approximately 5 times higher than that of non-HCWs.
Lidegran, Marika; Jorulf, Haakan [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Astrid Lindgren Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Palmer, Kenneth; Linden, Viveka [Department of ECMO, Astrid Lindgren Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)
Heading AbstractBackground. In patients with acute severe respiratory failure (ARF) treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) the radiological evaluation has until now almost exclusively relied on bedside radiography and US. At St. Goeran/Karolinska ECMO centre CT has become a routine complement to bedside examinations.Objective. To review retrospectively the frequency, indications and findings on CT of patients with ARF on ECMO and to evaluate the risk of complications associated with transportation for CT examinations.Materials and methods. One hundred twelve neonates, children and adults were treated with ECMO from May 1994 to January 2001. Forty-six per cent of these patients had CT examinations on one or more occasions during ECMO, giving a total number of 238 examination sites on 104 occasions. All CT examinations were performed in the Paediatric Radiology Department and included a 10-min transport using a mobile ECMO system.Results. CT was more often performed in older patients and in patients with long ECMO runs. The main indications were suspected complications of ECMO and/or the underlying disease or a delay in clinical improvement. In 57% of the CT occasions, significant findings affecting treatment were revealed. There were no complications associated with the examinations or transport.Conclusions. CT is safe and useful in evaluation of patients with ARF during ECMO. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background and aims. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common causative agents of acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs. The objective of this study was to assess their susceptibility to several antibiotics.Materials and methods. A total of 58 strains (16 S. pneumoniae, 19 H. influenzae and 23 M. catarrhalis were isolated from samples collected in two paediatric centres, and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics tested by E-test. Results. Among H. influenzae isolates, 10.5% were resistant to ampicillin (all β-lactamase-positive, and 88.9% were susceptible to cefaclor. High β-lactam resistance rates (penicillin: 31.3% and cephalosporins: 18.7 to 31.3% had been observed among S. pneumonia strains. Only 50% of isolates were susceptible to azithromycine. 91.3% of M. catarrhalis isolates β-lactamases producers were resistant to ampicillin while susceptible to the most tested antibiotics. Conclusions. Except M. catarrhalis β-lactamases producing strains, frequency of antibiotic resistance was mainly observed among S. pneumoniae, and to a lesser extent among H. influenzae clinical isolates, suggesting the need for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the management of RTIs.
Full Text Available Abstract Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality and case-fatality (up to 30-35% due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden.
Bellos, Anna; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Qazi, Shamim A; Gayer, Michelle; Checchi, Francesco
Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate) of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality) and case-fatality (up to 30-35%) due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden.
吴红金; 王凡; 王斌; 王升启; 赵锡银; 姚军; 许萍; 段姝伟
Objective: To explore the changes of tongue pictures in the developing process of disease in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and to compare the tongue pictures of SARS patients with those of suspected SARS patients. Methods: Materials of tongue picture were dynamically collected from 34 SARS patients and 35 suspected SARS patients, and the difference and similarity between them were analyzed. Meanwhile, the changes in clinic symptoms and tongue picture after integrative medicinal treatment were observed. Results: Characteristics of tongue picture in SARS patients were changed along with the progress of the disease, showing that there existed a tendency of the pathogen invading from exterior to interior, from surface to the deep. Also the tongue pictures were varied due to the coexistence of dampness pathogen; the time of the early stage was generally 1-1.5 days, shorter than that of other stages.While in the patients with suspected SARS, the tongue picture was mostly red with thin white or yellow coating, comparatively steady and showing no obvious change along with the development of the disease. Conclusion: Observing the tongue picture and its changes in different stages can be helpful to understanding the property of pathogenic evil and its developing rules, thus offering a basis for clinical treatment.
L. R. Ishrefova
Full Text Available Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI and influenza are among the topical problems of healthcare. The children’s morbidity index in preschool educational institutions in Krasnoselsky district of St. Petersburg in 2008–2014 varied from 1359.6 to 1768.5 per 1000 children attending these institutions. In general educational schools the morbidity index in the aforesaid period were 422.6–521.6 (p < 0.001. From 49.3 to 55.4% of children were vaccinated against influenza; from 3600 to 4700 children annually stayed unimmunized due to medical contraindications and parents’ refusals from prophylactic immunization. The research objective is clinical-epidemiological substantiation of effectiveness of application of Echinacea botanical medicine to reduce the ARVI morbidity and the rate of complications after the disease among children attending educational institutions. As a result of the research it was established that the ARVI morbidity index in the group of the children who received the Echinacea preparation was 76.8; in the comparison group it was 94.2 per 100 people (p < 0.01; RR = 0.80; CI = 0.7–0.9. The rate of complications (bronchitis, otitis, adenoiditis, pneumonia, sinusitis among the children who received the preparation was 2–4.8 times lower.
WAN-NIAN LIANG; RUO-GANG HUANG; XUE-QIN XIE; ZHE-NGLAI WU; TAO ZHAO; ZE-JUN LIU; BAO-YING GUAN; XIONG HE; MIN LIU; QI CHEN; GAI-FEN LIU; JIANG WU
Objective To summarize lessons learned from an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China during the spring of 2004. Methods Data of SARS cases were officially reported by Beijing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC) and Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (APCDC) and results of epidemiological investigations were collected and analyzed. Results Three generations of 11 cases of SARS were identified during the outbreak. Initial two cases were most likely to be infected in Diarrhea Virus Laboratory of National Institute of Virology, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and main mode of transmission was direct contact with SARS patients. Delay in detecting initial case resulted in spread of the illness at hospitals and communities with two generations of secondary cases. Conclusions SARS outbreak in 2004 has yielded following lessons for public health globally. (1) Lab bio-safety programs should be made and should be strictly abided by. Studies in highly pathogenic viruses such as SARS coronavirus should be utmost cautious. (2) Management systems of occupational exposure to virus and disease surveillance need to be strengthened to take all risk factors into account so as to detect potential patients with infectious disease as early as possible.
Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H
To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children diarrhea and ARTIs in younger children. Interventions specifically designed to promote maternal autonomy and decision-making may lead to improved child health.
Full Text Available Biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene are the most used cooking fuels in Tanzania. Biomass fuel use has been linked to Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI in children. It is not clear whether the use of charcoal and kerosene has health advantage over biomass fuels. In this study, the effects of biomass fuels, charcoal/kerosene on ARI in children under five years old in Tanzania are quantified and compared based on data from Tanzania Demographic and Health survey conducted between 2004 and 2005. Approximately 85% and 15% of children were from biomass fuels and charcoal/kerosene using homes respectively. Average ARI prevalence was about 11%. The prevalence of ARI across various fuel types used for cooking did not vary much from the national prevalence. Odds ratio for ARI, adjusting for childÃ¢Â€Â™s sex, age and place of residence; motherÃ¢Â€Â™s education, motherÃ¢Â€Â™s age at child birth and household living standard, indicated that the effect of biomass fuels on ARI is the same as the effect of charcoal/kerosene (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.78-1.42. The findings suggest that to achieve meaningful reduction of ARI prevalence in Tanzania, a shift from the use of biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene for cooking to clean fuels such as gas and electricity may be essential. Further studies, however, are needed for concrete policy recommendation.
Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Sang-Min
Uric acid acts as both a pathogenic inflammatory mediator and an antioxidative agent. Several studies have shown that uric acid level correlates with the incidence, severity, and prognosis of pulmonary diseases. However, the association between uric acid level and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been studied. This study was conducted to elucidate how serum uric acid level is related with clinical prognosis of ARDS. A retrospective cohort study with propensi