Sample records for acute health problems

  1. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming


    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...

  2. Acute health problems in industrial production of swine and possible solutions

    Gagrčin Mladen


    Full Text Available The main characteristic of swine herds in the territory of the Republic of Serbia is an unsatisfactory health status accompanied by increased incidence of contagious parasitic, genetic and other disorders. All this is a consequence of long-term unfavorable production conditions (maintenance of animals, diet, treatment, prevention, etc, which to a large extent altered the course and outcome of the mentioned diseases, and which had direct impact on the parameters which determine the health status of animals in a population. The health status of swine populations in our country are mostly determined by the presence of swine plague, but also diseases of pluricausal character, such as coli in fections, actinobđcillosis, atrophic rhinitis dysentery, and others. One must also not forget the presence of diseases which can be maintained in herds for a long time as enzootic diseases (Aujeszkyi, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, etc. Among parasitic diseases trichinellosis deserves special attention since it endangers the health of humans more and more every day. Most of the mentioned diseases are exhibited in very different clinical forms, so that their timely detection is very difficult and their control complex. That is why swine production in our country is characterized by a low percentage of fertilization, small number of live and large number of still-born piglets, and a high level of mortality in all categories. A logical consequence of this is a small number of produced porkers per sow, mostly of poor quality. In conditions where there are many diseases of different etiology, their control is complex and consequences always connected to a reduction or complete annulment of the expected benefits from an animal of high genetic potential veterinary-medical protection must cede its place to health protection as a technology which is based on a policy of disease prevention. This implies the establishment and maintenance of a high health status in swine

  3. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain: a cross-sectional study

    Rodríguez-Artalejo Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90, nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32 and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61. There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54 and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79 among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea.

  4. COPD and other health problems

    ... this page: // COPD and other health problems To use the sharing ... diabetes, and high blood pressure. Staying Healthy With COPD Work closely with your doctor to keep COPD ...

  5. Mental health problems in health professionals

    Koinis Ar.


    Full Text Available Introduction: For the vast majority of nurses and doctors, the choice of their profession, represents a successful career, even though this isn’t a fact for everyone. For some of them reflects a journey into despair. A significant number of doctors and nurses, suffers from serious mental illness.Materials and Methods: It is conducted literature review of published journals from scientific databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Scholar Google, for the period 1985-2010, using keywords and combination of them: "health professionals", "psychiatric morbidity", "effects of stress on mental health "," mental disorders " Literature Review: There are researches in population health professionals, more often to doctors and nurses / only three, referred to mental illnesses mainly burnout, depression, anxiety disorders, alcoholism, and suicide and the effect thereof on the quality of life. Total of 215 studies were found and 48 of the were reviewed for this study.Conclusions: It is obvious from the literature, that mental health problems of the health professionals are not treated promptly or with the appropriate efficiency. The reasons associated with the stigma of mental illness by illness, the subsequent denial, the misconceived professional solidarity, culture of " medical omnipotence " for physicians. Τhe timeless trend of occupational health and diagnoses to self treated their health problems , even if the knowledge on specific issues are almost non-existent.

  6. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    ... chronic health conditions, learning disabilities, nutrition issues or eating disorders, relationship problems, sexual health issues, alcohol or drug ... Permission Requests Teen Talk Newsletter Like us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter © 1998-2017 | Young Men's ...

  7. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C


    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  8. Health problems of Maryland's migrant farm laborers.

    Go, V; Baker, T


    The health problems of Maryland's agricultural migrant labor force are presented for the information of Maryland's health care providers. Maryland's problems are placed in the context of U.S. and worldwide migrant labor practices.

  9. Health problems in Turner syndrome

    Mehdi Salek


    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular malformations are well-recognized congenital anomalies in Turner syndrome (TS, other clinical features and a great variety of dysmorphic signs can also be observed. There are few studies about different medical problems in pre-selected groups of patients with Turner syndrome. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of some medical problems in Turner syndrome.

    METHODS: This was a case series from April to October 2005. We studied 40 patients with TS who attended the Endocrine and Metabolic Research Center. Audiometry, echocardiography, ultrasonography of kidneys and urinary tracts, thyroid function tests, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were assessed in all patients and collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 10.

    RESULTS: Of the 40 subjects 62.5% (n = 25 had cardiac anomalies, 20% (n = 8 had high blood pressure, about 60% (n = 24 suffered from hearing loss and 15% (n = 6 suffered from duplication or dilatation of urinary collecting system. The relative frequency of hypothyroidism, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was 25% (n = 10, 30% (n = 12 and 32.5% (n = 13, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Medical problems are common in TS patients and the routine screening of their health conditions should be performed at the time of diagnosis and at

  10. NASH: A global health problem.

    Sanyal, Arun J


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health problem both in the Western world and in the East. This is mainly due to the high prevalence of the disease and its effects on the individual with NAFLD. In the USA, it is estimated that approximately a third of the general population has NAFLD. Increasing age, obesity and the presence of multiple features of metabolic syndrome, especially diabetes, are associated with a higher probability of having non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the individual with NAFLD, excess hepatic fat is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular events, abnormal resting electrocardiography and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have been corroborated in studies in teenagers as well as adults. There is also an increase in cardiovascular mortality, especially in those with NASH. In addition, there is an increased risk of death from a variety of non-hepatocellular cancers. From a liver perspective, NAFLD is associated with a 15-20% risk of progression to cirrhosis. The disease progresses more rapidly in those with diabetes, increasing age and obesity. The PNPLA3 gene mutation at position 148 is associated with not only steatosis, but with the likelihood of having steatohepatitis and increased inflammation and fibrosis. Once cirrhosis develops, the liver disease decompensates at the rate of 3-4% per year. NASH-related cirrhosis is a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer. All of these factors indicate that NAFLD is a common condition that has significant adverse health consequences for those who are afflicted. It is therefore a major public health hazard throughout the world.

  11. Spatial Hotspot Analysis of Acute Myocardial Infarction Events in an Urban Population: A Correlation Study of Health Problems and Industrial Installation

    Motahareh Sadat NAMAYANDE


    Full Text Available Background: The current study’s objectives were to find any possible spatial patterns and hotspot of cardiovascular events and to perform a correlation study to find any possible relevance between cardiovascular disease (CVE and location of industrial installation said above.Methods: We used the Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI hospital admission record in three main hospitals in Yazd, Yazd Province, Iran during 2013, because of CVDs and searched for possible correlation between industries as point-source pollutants and non-random distribution of AMI events. Results: MI incidence rate in Yazd was obtained 531 per 100,000 person-year among men, 458 per 100,000 person-year among women and 783/100,000 person-yr totally. We applied a GIS Hotspot analysis to determine feasible clusters and two sets of clusters were observed. Mean age of 56 AMI events occurred in the cluster cells was calculated as 62.21 15A±"> 14.75 yr. Age and sex as main confounders of AMI were evaluated in the cluster areas in comparison to other areas. We observed no significant difference regarding sex (59% in cluster cells versus 55% in total for men and age (62.21 15A±"> 14.7 in cluster cells versus 63.28 15A± "> 13.98 in total for men. Conclusion: We found proximity of AMI events cluster to industries installations, and a steel industry, specifically. There could be an association between road-related pollutants and the observed sets of cluster due to the proximity exist between rather crowded highways nearby the events cluster. Key words: Correlation study, Geographical Information System, Cardiac events, Industries, Hotspot

  12. [Problems in maintenance therapy in acute myeloid leukemias in adults].

    Gürtler, R; Raderecht, C


    Problems of maintaining therapy for acute myelocytic leukemias in adults are discussed. The analysis of the maintaining therapy in 22 patients affected with an acute myelocytic leukemia and living for more than 6 months revealed that the interval therapy with a high dosage of cytostatic combinations in the sense of the COAP scheme is preferable compared with the daily administration of 6-mercaptopurin, in addition methotrexate twice a week. Reasons for this are discussed.

  13. Penis Health: Identify and Prevent Problems

    ... can impact other areas of your life, causing stress or relationship problems and harming your self-confidence. Know the signs and symptoms of penis problems and what you can do to protect your penis health. Various factors can affect penis health — some modifiable and some not. For ...

  14. Acute coronary syndromes: an old age problem

    Alexander D Simms; Philip D Batin; John Kurian; Nigel Durham; Christopher P Gale


    The increasing population in older age will lead to greater numbers of them presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). This has implications on global healthcare resources and necessitates better management and selection for evidenced-based therapies. The elderly are a high risk group with more significant treatment benefits than younger ACS. Nevertheless, age related inequalities in ACS care are recognised and persist. This discrepancy in care, to some extent, is explained by the higher frequency of atypical and delayed presentations in the elderly, and less diagnostic electrocardiograms at presentation, potentiating a delay in ACS diagnosis. Under estimation of mortality risk in the elderly due to limited consideration for physiological frailty, co-morbidity, cognitive/psychological impairment and physical disability, less input by cardiology specialists and lack of randomised, controlled trials data to guide management in the elderly may further confound the inequality of care. While these inequalities exist, there remains a substantial opportunity to improve age related ACS outcomes. The selection of elderly patients for specific therapies and medication regimens are unanswered. There is a growing need for randomised, controlled trial data to be more representative of the population and enroll those of advanced age with co-morbidity. A lack of reporting of adverse events, such as renal impairment post coronary angiography, in the elderly further limit risk benefit decisions. Substantial improvements in care of elderly ACS patients are required and should be advocated. Ultimately, these improvements are likely to lead to better outcomes post ACS. However, the improvement in outcome is not infinite and will be limited by non-modifiable factors of age-related risk.

  15. Leptospirosis: an emerging global public health problem

    P Vijayachari; A P Sugunan; A N Shriram


    Leptospirosis has been recognized as an emerging global public health problem because of its increasing incidence in both developing and developed countries. A number of leptospirosis outbreaks have occurred in the past few years in various places such as Nicaragua, Brazil and India. Some of these resulted due to natural calamities such as cyclone and floods. It is a direct zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes belonging to different pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. Large number of animals acts as carriers or vectors. Human infection results from accidental contact with carrier animals or environment contaminated with leptospires. The primary source of leptospires is the excretor animal, from whose renal tubules leptospires are excreted into the environment with the animal urine. Majority of leptospiral infections are either sub clinical or result in very mild illness and recover without any complications. However, a small proportion develops various complications due to involvement of multiple organ systems. In such patients, the clinical presentation depends upon the predominant organs involved and the case fatality ratio could be about 40% or more. Febrile illness with icterus, splenomegaly and nephritis (known as Weil’s disease), acute febrile illness with severe muscle pain, febrile illness with pulmonary haemorrhages in the form of haemoptysis, jaundice with pulmonary haemorrhages, jaundice with heamaturea, meningitis with haemorrhages including sub conjunctival haemorrhage or febrile illness with cardiac arrhythmias with or without haemorrhages are some of the syndromes. Because of the protean manifestations of leptospirosis it is often misdiagnosed and under-reported. Although the basic principles of prevention such as source reduction, environmental sanitation, more hygienic work-related and personal practices etc., are same everywhere, there is no universal control method applicable to all epidemiological settings. Comprehensive

  16. Occupational Health and Safety Problems in Health Workers

    Meral Saygun


    There are many health and safety risks in occupational environment. These are causing occupational diseases and accidents that can directly affect individual’s health. One of the hazardous occupational places is health service area. Health workers are experienced with biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psycho-social risks in health service areas, especially in hospitals. Many researches from our country inform that these problems reached serious levels in last years and cause...

  17. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Hatice Yildirim Sari


    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  18. [Health and social problems in the aged].

    Grujić, V; Martinov-Cvejin, M; Ac-Nikolić, E


    This study reviews data from a poll conducted in three municipalities of Vojvodina on health and social problems of 60-year old and older people (n = 104). Poverty and illness are the main two problems aged people have to deal with, whereas exhaustion, pains, moving around with difficulty, poor vision, heart and breathing problems, as well as cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal system are the most frequent health problems. Socializing is poor in the old age. Every third aged person visits nobody, while every fifth aged person is visited by nobody. About 3% of examinees describe their relationships with children as negative. That is why it is necessary to organize a health care of the aged which should maintain health and functional abilities into the old age with adequate social care of both closed and open type as long as possible.

  19. What Health Problems Can Develop during Pregnancy?

    ... Who is at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What health problems can develop during pregnancy? Skip sharing on ...

  20. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    Winett, L B


    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes.

  1. Diversity in sexual health: Problems and dilemmas

    Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M. de


    The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2) psychos

  2. Diversity in sexual health: problems and dilemmas.

    Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M. de


    The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2) psychos

  3. Undocumented migrants have diverse health problems

    Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch;


    INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING...

  4. Acute kidney injury: Global health alert

    Philip Kam Tao Li


    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual, community, regional and in-hospital levels. Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies, as well as early recognition and management. Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI, increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high risk patients, and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers. Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections. More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community, increase awareness of AKI by governments, the public, general and family physicians and other health care professionals to help prevent the disease. Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI.

  5. Acute Kidney Injury:Global Health Alert

    Philip Kam TaoLi; Emmanuel A Burdmann; Ravindra L Mehta


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality.Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual,community,regional and in-hospital levels.Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies,as well as early recognition and management.Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI,increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high risk patients,and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers.Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections.More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community,increase awareness of AKI by governments,the public,general and family physicians and other health care professionals to help prevent the disease.Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI.

  6. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Strom, Daniel J.


    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  7. Health Problems and Health Care Seeking Behaviour of Rohingya Refugees

    Masud, Abdullah Al; Ahmed, Md. Shahoriar; Sultana, Mst. Rebeka; Alam, S. M. Iftekhar; Kabir, Russell; Arafat, S. M. Yasir; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos


    Abstract Background: Rohingya refugees are one of the most vulnerable group due to lack of health care system, personal hygiene, shelter, sanitation and violence. Aim: The present study aims to find out the health problems and health care seeking behavior of rohingya refugee peoples, to identify the socio-demographic information for such exposure group in relation to age, sex, occupation, living areas, to explore the patient’s physical, emotional, perceptions, attitudes and environmen...

  8. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John


    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  9. Problems for Paraprofessionals in Mental Health Services.

    Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby


    Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…

  10. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Sudhinta Sinha


    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  11. Acne as a public health problem

    Leda Semyonov


    Full Text Available Although acne is the most common skin disorder, epidemiological data on this condition are scarce. The social and economic effects of acne are mostly related to the high prevalence of this pathology, so much so that we can consider acne as a public health problem. Our proposal is to realize a computerized case sheet for each acne sufferer based on a minimum data set. This should include: patient’s age, sex, clinical form of acne and grade of severity. This information should then be introduced into a database management system. Examining the data collected we hope to contribute to the efficient use of health care resources and to improve management of public health problems highlighted in prior epidemiological investigations.

  12. Health and problem behavior among people with intellectual disabilities.

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H


    Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals.

  13. Dental Health Problems of the Geriatric Population

    Dummett, Clifton O.


    A topic seldom considered and even more rarely discussed among the dental components of the health professions is presented. The dentist's preoccupation with hosts of dental treatment problems has left little time for considering the perplexities of aging, critical illness, or dying or dead patient's relatives. Community dentistry has now forced upon our consciousness the fact that perhaps the subject is one which must not be avoided, if we are to fulfill completely our professional obligations to the public. PMID:423295

  14. Hypertension – a public health problem

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos


    Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five

  15. Handling of fuel chips - a health problem

    Stroemquist, L.H.; Blomqvist, G.; Karlsson, E.; Vincent, A.; Lundgren, R.; Eliasson, L.


    An investigation has been made about health problems and occurrence of mold in connection with handling of fuel chips. The investigation was composed of three different parts. First, an inquiry was made to chip stokers about handling, storage etc. of chips as well as possible medical trouble. The answers indicated that symptoms on allergic alveolitis are common among chip stokers, 13% of the answers. Second, a determination of the proportion of living airborne colony-forming mold fungi was made at some chip using units. Third, a pilot study was made to examine the possibilities to improve storability of fuel chips using high-temperature drying.

  16. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Patricia Steinert


    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  17. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Mary Kasule


    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  18. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    ... High Blood Pressure Managing Multiple Health Problems Nutrition Osteoporosis Stroke Related Documents PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources ...

  19. Who Is at Increased Risk of Health Problems during Pregnancy?

    ... is at increased risk of health problems during pregnancy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Some women are at increased risk for health problems during pregnancy. Important risk factors include the following: Overweight and ...

  20. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    ... therapy on top of that. To Pasch, the solution is for clinics to have a mental health ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Depression Infertility Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  1. Legionella is an emerging Public Health problem

    Paola Borella


    Full Text Available

    The issue of Legionnaires’ disease has emerged as a major public health problem, interesting not only researchers, but also managers of public and private organisations, those responsible for public health, the general population and occasionally magistrates.

    The cases of legionellosis are increasing as a result of improved etiological diagnostic methods, population lifestyles and characteristics which favour the presence of the responsible organism in the environment which leads to the frequent exposure and transmission of the disease to at-risk groups whose relative numbers are growing.

    Legionella spp is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen that finds its ideal habitat in warm-humid environments, it is able to survive in conditions unfavourable to other germs (elevated temperatures, presence of biocides, etc. and multiply in particular ecological niches (amoebas and other protozoa, biofilm.

    Because of this, it frequently colonises the hot water systems of houses, hotels, campsites, sports centres, hospitals, tertiary care centres, etc., as well as air-conditioning cooling towers, evaporative condensers and places where water stagnates at temperatures of at least 20°C. From our experience,the disease is frequently contracted by inhaling aerosols from the contaminated water systems of houses or work places, but it has also been contracted during stays in holiday accommodation, from using baths/showers in sports and recreation centres and finally during hospital stays.

  2. [Insomnia. A severe health care problem].

    Sánchez-Cárdenas, Ana Gabriela; Navarro-Gerrard, Christian; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José


    The magnitude which sleep has on personal well-being is similar to the effects of diet and exercise. Sleep deprivation has severe negative effects on an individual's overall health, and this is usually overseen. From 30 to 40 % of the population has presented insomnia at a certain moment of life and from 9 to 15 % have evolved into a chronic and severe insomnia. Recent investigations have related sleep deprivation with obesity, metabolic disorders, heart disease, mental health problems and dementia. Recently, more investigations have focused on the multiple alterations suffered by the immune system in cases of sleep deprivation. In order to make an opportune diagnosis of insomnia, it is vital to obtain a detailed history of the patients' sleep habits. In the physical exam one must search for signs and symptoms which might suggest an organic cause that generates the patient's insomnia. One of the pillars in treatment of these patients consists in acquiring an adequate sleep hygiene based on the optimization of the environment and the behavior that are associated with sleep.

  3. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David


    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  4. Inpatients’ perspectives of occupational therapy in acute mental health

    Lim, KH; Morris, J; Craik, C


    Background Research into service users’ views of occupational therapy in acute mental health is extremely limited. This collaborative study between South West London and St George’s Mental Health NHS Trust and Brunel University (UK) obtained inpatients’ perspectives of occupational therapy. Methods Service users and occupational therapists were involved in designing a self-report questionnaire and, following training, in recruiting participants and collecting data. Results Si...

  5. Ragging: A public health problem in India

    Garg Rajesh


    Full Text Available Ragging is any disorderly conduct that has the effect of teasing or handling with rudeness any student, which causes or is likely to cause annoyance, harm or to raise fear in a junior so as to adversely affect the psyche of the junior. Ragging is practiced all over the world, with different nomenclature like hazing, fagging; bapteme in French; doop in Dutch; and Mopokaste in Finnish. The first recorded cases of ragging were in the 8 th century BC during the Olympics in Greece. Ragging has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of physical, behavioral, emotional and social problems among the victims. It independently increases suicide risks. Some of the reasons given by students for ragging are they were also ragged by their seniors; sense of superiority; and introduction. Other factors perpetuating ragging are use of alcohol in hostels and lack of implementation of serious anti-ragging measures by college authorities. Various practical steps to control ragging must include strict role of authorities, ban on alcohol within college and hostels, surprise raids in hostels at night, postings (with accommodation of wardens in hostels, separate hostels for juniors, presence of college "disciplinary committee" and "cultural committee," strict punishments for those involved in ragging, actions by Medical Council of India (MCI and University Grants Commission (UGC against the erring colleges and universities and formulation of anti-ragging laws. Ragging should be declared a public health problem because it involves the physical, mental and social exploitation of not only an individual but also of his/her family and the society as a whole.

  6. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    Zee, van der S.


    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  7. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    Odlind, V


    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  8. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.


    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the li

  9. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem KidsHealth > For Teens > When ... impact a person's entire quality of life. Defining Overweight When people eat more calories than they burn ...

  10. Comorbidity of Mental Health Problems and Chronic Health Conditions in Children.

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Simpkins, Celeste G.


    A study compared Medicaid children with and without serious mental health problems (n=965) using parent reports of global health status, physical functioning, and general health perceptions. Children with more serious mental health problems were significantly more likely to have chronic health conditions. The number of conditions also predicted…

  11. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.


    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  12. Acute rheumatic fever: a public health concern in resource-poor settings

    Olusegun Busari


    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever remains a public health concern in developing countries as well as in poorer communities and among indigenous populations in some developed nations. It poses serious economic problem at individual, communal and national levels through direct and indirect health care costs. The objective of this article is to review acute rheumatic fever in the global context with some emphasis on the continuing burden of this disease in the developing settings. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, EMBASE and AJOL were searched with focus on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and control of acute rheumatic fever. The review shows that acute rheumatic fever still occurs under conditions of impoverished overcrowding and poor sanitation and where access to healthcare services is limited. Since acute rheumatic fever is a preventable disease, improved housing and sanitation, access to effective healthcare services, early diagnosis, registration of cases and follow up remain the bedrock of the control of this disease [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 153-169

  13. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael


    behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet...... pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health......Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...

  14. [Acute rheumatic fever in children, a diagnostic problem].

    Wieringa, J W; Ramaker, C; Wolf, B H M


    Three girls of Moroccan descent, aged 9, 10 and 7 years, presented with fever, joint pain and other symptoms. After Streptococcus infection and carditis were confirmed and the Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever were met, the patients were treated with penicillin and acetylsalicylic acid. All 3 patients recovered. However, the second girl presented 2 months later with cardiac decompensation caused by valve disorders, after which aortic and mitral valvuloplasty was performed. The third girl developed joint pain again after 3 weeks and was diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis; treatment was adjusted accordingly. The prevalence of rheumatic heart diseases is 10-20 times higher in developing countries than in industrialised nations. The diagnosis 'acute rheumatic fever' should be considered in children of school age with unexplained fever, also when the Jones criteria have not yet been met. This may apply to migrant children in particular.

  15. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;


    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted...... in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning....

  16. Health Problems in Pregnancy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Birth Defects Foundation) Also in Spanish Why Do Abdominal Muscles Sometimes Separate during Pregnancy? (Mayo Foundation for Medical ... Spanish National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Also in Spanish (Department of Health ...


    Petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) exposure has been linked to several health effects including lung cancer. The role of DE in the cardiopulmonary effects associated with particulate matter (PM) exposures is unclear; this uncertainty drives current research efforts to better underst...

  18. Contemporary health physics problems and solutions

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John


    This is the first text specifically designed to train potential health physicists to think and respond like professionals. Written by a former chairman of the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Panel of Examiners with more than 20 years of professional and academic experience in the field, it offers a balanced presentation of all the theoretical and practical issues essential for a full working knowledge of radiation exposure assessments. As the only book to cover the entire radiation protection field, it includes detailed coverage of the medical, university, reactor, fuel cycle, e

  19. Mental health nurses' views of recovery within an acute setting.

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Hunt, Glenn E


    How the principles of a recovery-oriented mental health service are incorporated in the day-to-day nursing practice of mental health nurses in inpatient settings is unclear. In this study, we interviewed 21 mental health nurses working in acute inpatient mental health units about a range of recovery-focused topics. Three overlapping themes were identified: (i) the perception of recovery; (ii) congruent humanistic approaches; and (iii) practical realities. Only four interviewees had some formal training about recovery. Most respondents recognize that positive attitudes, person-centred care, hope, education about mental illness, medication and side-effects, and the acknowledgement of individual recovery pathways are necessary to prevent readmission, and are central to a better life for people who live with a mental illness. This research supports the view that ideas and practices associated with the recovery movement have been adopted to some degree by nurses working at the acute end of the services continuum. However, most saw the recovery orientation as rhetoric rather than as an appropriately resourced, coordinated, and integrated program. These nurses, however, speak of much more detailed aspects of working with patients and being required to prepare them for the exigencies of living in the community post-discharge.

  20. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta


    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  1. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    Cuellar, Alison


    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  2. Contemporary health physics problems and solutions

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John


    A comprehensive and practical reference on radiation protection. Describes radiation basics, external and internal dosimetry and biological effects of ionizing radiation. Demonstrates the fundamentals and calculations as they are applied to various health physics fields. Over 375 worked examples, presented within the context of diverse scenarios, aid readers in testing their knowledge as well as applying the concepts to actual situations.

  3. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel


    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  4. Oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A review

    Kadalagere Lakshmana Girish Babu


    Full Text Available Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood. It is the most common childhood cancer in India. Advances in the treatment regimens have greatly increased the chances of survival. Both the disease and its treatment change the oral environment. In some cases, oral manifestations are the presenting feature of the disease and it will be the dentist′s responsibility to identify the underlying disorder and guide the diagnosis of the patient. Hence, the aim of present article is to review the literature concerning the oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.

  5. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    P Bhuyar


    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  6. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    Mansour Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Bayani; Ali Bayani


    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...


    Mihir Kumar


    Full Text Available INTRODCUTION: WHO’s definition of Physical, social and mental well - being is explained below. A positive mental health state indicates that the individual enjoys his routine; there are no undue conflicts. Health reiteration become s more imperative than health maintenanc e, where society’s responsibility is paramount. Health economics enables us to examine the burden caused by illness. In India, 620 million people live in rural area; only 9% of every one billion populatio n is covered under health schemes. Only 2% of GDP is spent on health, where the recommended percentage is 5%. In addition to this only 5% of annual family income is spent on curative health care. In the recent past rapid deterioration in the quality of environment has over - burdened the health problem. Occu pational Health is one of the environmental health sciences, concerned broadly with the health effects of work and of working conditions. Occupational illnesses and injuries have long been a preventable blight to health. A part from occupational diseases t here are some hazards which will impair health of employees in industries. Workers in every Occupation are faced with a multitude of hazards in the work place. Ronald Blake has classified occupational hazards into the following four categories. The most pr essing environmental health problems today, in terms of death and illness worldwide are those associated with poor households and communities in the development countries. According to WHO and the World Bank, environmental improvement at the household and community level would make the greatest difference for global health. This Article also focuses on the lung disease mainly occurring du e to hazards caused by the patient occupation. A good number of diseases like COAD, asthma and pneumoconiosis afflict the concerned population. Discussion has been made in threadbare about these problems in this article

  8. Mental health problems in a range of European countries.

    Schellevis, F.


    This presentation will start with the aggregated data on the prevalence if mental health problems from a range of European countries. The discussion will cover: a. The coding systems used throughout Europe. b. Cultural issues in diagnostics labels. c. Disease label definitions (using mental health a

  9. Mental health problems in a range of European countries.

    Schellevis, F.


    This presentation will start with the aggregated data on the prevalence if mental health problems from a range of European countries. The discussion will cover: a. The coding systems used throughout Europe. b. Cultural issues in diagnostics labels. c. Disease label definitions (using mental health as the example). (aut. ref.)

  10. Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later Review found greater likelihood of ADHD, anxiety and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  11. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.


    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  12. Screening for Childhood Mental Health Problems: Outcomes and Early Identification

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Burk, Linnea R.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Woodward, Hermi R.; Kupfer, David J.


    Background: Many childhood psychiatric problems are transient. Consequently, screening procedures to accurately identify children with problems unlikely to remit and thus, in need of intervention, are of major public health concern. This study aimed to develop a universal school-based screening procedure based on the answers to three questions:…

  13. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    Sinnema, M.; Maaskant, M.A.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Nieuwpoort, I.C. van; Drent, M.L.; Curfs, L.M.G; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in adul

  14. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta


    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community.

  15. Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety cooperation

    Gammage, R B; Turner, J E


    The potential health impacts of synthetic fossil fuel products are considered mainly in terms of complex and potentially carcinogenic mixtures of polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. These components of oils and tars present an especially perplexing range of problems to those concerned with health protection. The nature of these problems, such as multifactorial exposure, are discussed within a framework of current and future standards to regulate human exposure. Some activities of government agencies, national laboratories, and professional societies are described. A case can be made for pooling the resources of these groups to achieve better solutions for assessing the acceptability of the various technologies and safeguarding human health.

  16. Common mental health problems and antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    Nel, Adriaan; Kagee, Ashraf


    This paper reviews the literature on various mental health problems and their impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders related to substance abuse were identified as key role-players influencing adherence. The severity of symptoms related to these disorders was found to be inversely related to ART adherence, with the possible exception of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD was found to have both positive and negative implications for adherence, with severity of symptoms ranging from health-protective concern to disabling distress. Possible solutions aimed at addressing the adverse effects of mental health problems on adherence are discussed. Routine screening in ART settings is suggested in settings where follow-up of positive screen scores are possible, along with the necessary interventions to resolve the disorder of concern. Suggested interventions include utilising psychotherapeutic treatment, both in isolation and in conjunction with medication, to address mental health problems. Furthermore, finding effective ways of marshalling social support is recommended for ensuring optimal adherence, and possibly mitigating the adverse effects of mental health problems. Further research is needed to find feasible ways of identifying, assessing and treating patients with mental health problems in resource-constrained settings where HIV prevalence is highest.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of primary health care personnel concerning mental health problems in developing countries.

    Ignacio, L L; de Arango, M V; Baltazar, J; Busnello, E D; Climent, C E; Elhakim, A; Farb, M; Guèye, M; Harding, T W; Ibrahim, H H; Murthy, R S; Wig, N N


    A semi-structured interview for assessing the knowledge and attitude of health workers concerning mental health problems was applied in seven developing country areas within the context of a World Health Organization coordinated collaborative study. The results indicate a lack of basic mental health training associated with a failure to recognize mental health problems, restricted knowledge concerning psychotropic drug therapy, and an inability to visualize practical forms of mental health care which could be introduced at primary care level. The results were used to design appropriate training programs, and the observations will be repeated to assess the effectiveness of training. PMID:6881406

  18. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    Prescott Gordon J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE. Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health

  19. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    Shi, X M


    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  20. [Telemedicine in acute stroke care--a health economics view].

    Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M


    Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.

  1. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others


    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  2. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald


    Aim: Despite the substantial proportion of adolescents use medicine for common health problems, prevalence of medicine use among adolescents with migrant background have rarely been documented, and the causal pathway continue to be poorly understood. The aim was to examine whether there are migrant...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School......-aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...

  3. Bullying involvement in primary school and common health problems

    Wolke, D; Woods, S; Bloomfield, L; Karstadt, L


    AIMS—To examine the association of direct (e.g. hitting) and relational (e.g. hurtful manipulation of peer relationships) bullying experience with common health problems.
METHODS—A total of 1639 children (aged 6-9 years) in 31 primary schools were studied in a cross sectional study that assessed bullying with a structured child interview and common health problems using parent reports. Main outcome measures were common physical (e.g. colds/coughs) and psychosomatic (e.g. ...

  4. Mental and Physical health related problems of Call centre workers.

    Dr. Vaibhavkumar Ramanuj


    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: The employees of a call centre in BPO may have certain occupational hazards which are unique for the industry. These may be mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from day and night shifts were interviewed to find out about various health problems. Results: Mental stress was one of the main self reported health problem, reported by 44% and 54% of the respondents of day and night shift respectively. Sleep disturbance and disturbance in biological rhythm was mainly reported by the night shift workers.

  5. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Ararsa Duguma Benti


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  6. Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.

    Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B


    Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related he...

  7. Condition of Health Problems in The District Health Offi ce Parigi Moutong Central Sulawesi Province, Efforts in Response of Health Problem

    Ahmad Erlan


    Full Text Available Background: District Parigi Moutong, Central Sulawesi Province is one of the Regional District Health Problems. Ranking Public Health Development Index Parigi Moutong to the level of Central Sulawesi was ranked 6 out of 9 districts/cities, while at the national level comes out to 320 of 440 districts/cities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to provide a picture of the health problems in Parigi Moutong. In more detail the objectives are observed after the implementation of such interventions and Booster Kalakarya prevention efforts in the area of health problems. Methods: The study is qualitative observational study of participatory design. Samples were taken by using purposive sampling to conduct in-depth interviews and document searches. Results: The results of in-depth interviews obtained information of some constraints inthe implementation of health programs, ie no actions/movements that were signifi cant in the response to the problem. Infant mortality in 2012, registered 7 cases. Substitution head of the health center too fast. This happens because the head of the health center has held PTT doctor working period of one year, which resulted in problems in sustainability programs in health centers. Internal monthly meeting at the Department of Health and the District Health Offi ce with the entire health center no. Effort or movement to address the problems associated Regional Health Problems has not be percieved. Conclusions: Implementation of Regional Booster Kalakarya and Health Troubled make changes to the head of health policy by forming groups Conscious Movement IHC and revitalization partnership TBA and midwives who are increasing numbers toddlersweighing scope and aid delivery by health personnel.

  8. Hispanic mothers' beliefs and practices regarding selected children's health problems.

    Mikhail, B I


    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the Hispanic mothers' initial sources of advice and help with children's illnesses; beliefs about the etiology and seriousness of certain children's illnesses, namely, fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, conjunctivitis, skin rash, minor wounds, and burns; practices for the management of these children's health problems, including the use of home remedies, if any. Interviews were conducted with 100 women of Hispanic origin who had at least one child age 5 years or less and who were attending a community clinic in a rural area of central California. Mothers' beliefs about problem etiologies varied widely and revealed several misconceptions, folk beliefs, and lack of knowledge. The findings also revealed that only 32% of the mothers used or would use health professionals as the initial source of advice or help with children's problems. The majority of the subjects (81%) admitted to using home remedies to manage children's problems; 17% sought the help of a folk healer (mainly for the treatment of empacho). The various types of home remedies used by mothers were described and included the ingestion or application of certain foods, fluids, herbal teas, or other materials as well as methods to eliminate the perceived causes of the problems. It is important to note that 11% of the mothers had used azarcon or greta (substances containing lead) for treating empacho and other stomach problems in children. The need for culturally responsive and sensitive health care is discussed.

  9. [Current problems in the pathological anatomy of acute neuroinfections in children].

    Tsinzerling, V A


    The analysis of the autopsy material of children dying from acute neuroinfections in a specialized department of the Research Institute of Children's Infections from 1954 to 1984 is presented. The increase of the importance of hypertoxic forms of meningococcal infection, purulent meningoencephalitis (particularly those of pneumococcal etiology) as well as acute viral encephalitis (particularly herpetic ones) is noted at present. The results of the materials studied by the author from 182 children dying of those infections at the period from 1971 to 1984, the problems of their patho- and tanatogenesis are discussed. Special attention is drawn to the necessity of considering the type of an etiological agent, its properties, the features of tissue response and those of the immunological resistance in the brain for the diagnosis and epicritic assessment of acute neuroinfections.

  10. The problems related to confidentiality and effectiveness of health care.

    Scherrer, J R


    The problem of the impact of confidentiality on health effectiveness is discussed along five points: (1) Communication facilities between health departments are main features of health information systems. (2) Efforts, costs, limits of data protection. The privacy violation risks have to be related to the data protection costs. (3) Paradox of the fundamental rights to confidentiality regarding privacy of the individual and the preponderant interest of the State. (4) Facing the increasing health costs, the need for medical and hospital control systems is assessed. (5) New benefits in medicine and in the quality of care are partly the results of more or less extensive studies in epidemiology at national levels. The general conclusion is concerned with the risks that the computer could become an instrumental substitute for human reason with the progressive drop out of responsibility of health officers.

  11. Violence in Mexico: A social or public health problem?

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra; Salazar Morales, Mario Rodolfo


    This article seeks to explain the importance of violence as a social phenomenon and public health, trying to envision this issue not only from a curative approach to health, but from the social determinants of health, such as economics, politics and the administration of justice. Here, the younger population lacks real opportunities with an “absent State” that fails to provide structure. These frameworks play a fundamental role in the manifestation of violence. Thus, the debate for addressing and resolving violence opens the way to new perspectives regarding social factors as part of a public health, which cannot be oblivious to the state of the collective. Thus, the analysis of this situation shows that we cannot keep overlooking the whole picture of the real problem in the social health of our world instead of focusing on its discordant parts.

  12. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel


    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  13. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel


    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service. PMID:27559474

  14. Workers with health problems : three perspectives on functioning at work

    Abma, Femke I.; Bultmann, Ute; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J. L.


    Purpose: Our aims were (i) to explore why it is that one worker with a health problem is able to stay at work while the other is not, (ii) to identify signals for decreased functioning at work, and (iii) to explore if and how this can be measured. Method: We conducted three focus groups: with worker

  15. Continuous admission to primary school and mental health problems

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Paulussen, T.G.W.


    Background: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We assessed men

  16. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011


    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  17. College Students: Mental Health Problems and Treatment Considerations.

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Yeung, Albert; Zulauf, Courtney; Wilens, Timothy


    Attending college can be a stressful time for many students. In addition to coping with academic pressure, some students have to deal with the stressful tasks of separation and individuation from their family of origin while some may have to attend to numerous work and family responsibilities. In this context, many college students experience the first onset of mental health and substance use problems or an exacerbation of their symptoms. Given the uniqueness of college students, there is a need to outline critical issues to consider when working with this population. In this commentary, first, the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use problems in college students and the significance of assessing age of onset of current psychopathology are described. Then, the concerning persistent nature of mental health problems among college students and its implications are summarized. Finally, important aspects of treatment to consider when treating college students with mental health problems are outlined, such as the importance of including parents in the treatment, communicating with other providers, and employing of technology to increase adherence. It is concluded that, by becoming familiar with the unique problems characteristic of the developmental stage and environment college students are in, practitioners will be able to better serve them.

  18. [Alzheimer's disease: a public health problem: yes, but a priority?].

    Dartigues, J F; Helmer, C; Dubois, B; Duyckaerts, C; Laurent, B; Pasquier, F; Touchon, J


    Alzheimer's Disease is a major Public Health problem for many reasons. First, it is a frequent disease since, in France, the prevalence was estimated at about 400.000 cases, and the annual incidence at 100.000 cases. The frequency of the disease increases, in particular due to the ageing of the population. This disease has major consequences on the life of the patient and his/her caretaker. The cost of the disease is important, estimated at about 50 milliards of French francs. Pharmaceutical treatment and other interventions are possible in particular to delay the nursing home placement. On the other hand, this disease is often ignored, under-diagnosed, underestimated and exposed to inequality in resorting to care. In summary, Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has all the criteria required for a major public health problem. In spite of this observation, AD is not yet considered as a priority for health authorities, although attitudes are changing.

  19. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    Lejars, M


    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity.

  20. A tool to guide the process of integrating health system responses to public health problems

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu


    Full Text Available An integrated model of health system responses to public health problems is considered to be the most preferable approach. Accordingly, there are several models that stipulate what an integrated architecture should look like. However, tools that can guide the overall process of integration are lacking. This tool is designed to guide the entire process of integration of health system responses to major public health problems. It is developed by taking into account the contexts of health systems of developing countries and the emergence of double-burden of chronic diseases in these settings. Chronic diseases – HIV/AIDS and NCDs – represented the evidence base for the development of the model. System level horizontal integration of health system responses were considered in the development of this tool.

  1. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia


    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  2. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: Peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    Maria eHuber


    Full Text Available The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs in comparison to normal hearing (NH peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years, their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as risk cases due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in the versions Self, Parent, and Teacher. The CI group showed significantly more Peer Problems than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a risk-group (35 risk cases and 11 non-classifiable persons and a non-risk group (n = 94, increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI-risk group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI-risk group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI adolescents without additional handicaps

  3. Problem-based learning in a health sciences librarianship course.

    Dimitroff, A; Ancona, A M; Beman, S B; Dodge, A M; Hutchinson, K L; LaBonte, M J; Mays, T L; Simon, D T


    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed.

  4. College Students: Mental Health Problems and Treatment Considerations

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Yeung, Albert; Zulauf, Courtney; Wilens, Timothy


    Attending college can be a stressful time for many students. In addition to coping with academic pressure, some students have to deal with the stressful tasks of separation and individuation from their family of origin while some may have to attend to numerous work and family responsibilities. In this context, many college students experience the first onset of mental health and substance use problems or an exacerbation of their symptoms. Given the uniqueness of college students, there is a n...

  5. E-therapy for mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; De Jong, Cor A J


    The widespread availability of the Internet offers opportunities for improving access to therapy for people with mental health problems. There is a seemingly infinite supply of Internet-based interventions available on the World Wide Web. The aim of the present study is to systematically assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning e-therapy for mental health problems. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the RCTs, based on a list of criteria for the methodological quality assessment as recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. The search yielded 14 papers that reported RCTs concerning e-therapy for mental-health problems. The methodological quality of studies included in this review was generally low. It is concluded that e-therapy may turn out to be an appropriate therapeutic entity, but the evidence needs to be more convincing. Recommendations are made concerning the method of reporting RCTs and the need to add some content items to an e-therapy study.

  6. Awareness of nutrition problems among Vietnamese health and education professionals.

    Pham, Thi Hai Quynh; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie


    Professionals who provide nutrition education and consulting to the public are encouraged to take into account the health, environmental and social contexts that influence health-related attitudes and behaviours in the population. This paper examined the awareness of shifts in population health outcomes associated with the nutrition transition in Vietnam among university nutrition lecturers, health professionals and school education professionals. Most of these professionals held accurate views of the current population health issues in Vietnam. However, they differed in their awareness of the seriousness of overweight and obesity. Although the majority indicated that the prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) had increased, nearly half believed that the government should complete its attempts to control undernutrition before trying to control obesity. More health professionals believed that food marketing was responsible for the growing prevalence of children's obesity, and more of them disapproved of the marketing of less healthy food to children. In contrast, the university nutrition lecturers were least aware of food marketing and the seriousness of obesity. Of the three groups, the university nutrition lecturers held less accurate perceptions of nutrition transition problems and their likely drivers. There is an urgent need for greater provision of public nutrition education for all three groups of professionals.

  7. External validation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV in Dutch intensive care units and comparison with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    S. Brinkman; F. Bakhshi-Raiez; A. Abu-Hanna; E. de Jonge; R.J. Bosman; L. Peelen; N.F. de Keizer


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate and compare the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV in the Dutch intensive care unit (ICU) population to the APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II. Materials and Methods: This is a prospectiv

  8. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    Hoek, G.


    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  9. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    Anderson KN


    Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition

  10. Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking and Alcohol-related Health Problems



    Objective To study the relationship between drinking environment, attitudes and situation and alcohol-related health problems. Methods A sample of 2327 respondents was randomly collected from Wuhan, Hubei Province in China by a face-to-face interview. The structural equation modeling analysis was performed for the data collected. Results Both parents' drinking behaviors and respondents' drinking situation strongly impacted the alcohol-related problems and diseases. Friends' or peers' drinking behaviors influenced the respondents' drinking attitudes and behaviors. Males experienced more alcohol-related problems and diseases than females. Conclusions Comparatively, parents' drinking behaviors exert the most significant influence on drinkers. Therefore, it is beneficial to restrict parents' drinking behaviors for the offsprings and the whole society, and an intensive professional education in early motherhood is also necessary for Chinese women.

  11. Health Care Seeking Behavior of Persons with Acute Chagas Disease in Rural Argentina: A Qualitative View

    Dinardi, Graciela; Canevari, Cecilia; Torabi, Nahal


    Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease largely underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic affecting marginalized rural populations. Argentina regularly reports acute cases of CD, mostly young individuals under 14 years old. There is a void of knowledge of health care seeking behavior in subjects experiencing a CD acute condition. Early treatment of the acute case is crucial to limit subsequent development of disease. The article explores how the health outcome of persons with acute CD may be conditioned by their health care seeking behavior. The study, with a qualitative approach, was carried out in rural areas of Santiago del Estero Province, a high risk endemic region for vector transmission of CD. Narratives of 25 in-depth interviews carried out in 2005 and 2006 are analyzed identifying patterns of health care seeking behavior followed by acute cases. Through the retrospective recall of paths for diagnoses, weaknesses of disease information, knowledge at the household level, and underperformance at the provincial health care system level are detected. The misdiagnoses were a major factor in delaying a health care response. The study results expose lost opportunities for the health care system to effectively record CD acute cases. PMID:27829843

  12. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E


    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  13. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  14. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.


    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s

  15. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: Are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda


    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s

  16. Mental health problems in people living with HIV: changes in the last two decades: the London experience 1990-2014.

    Adams, Catherine; Zacharia, Shilpa; Masters, Lisa; Coffey, Caroline; Catalan, Pepe


    Mental health problems continue to be a significant comorbidity for people with HIV infection, even in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Here, we report on the changes in the mental health diagnoses based on clinical case reports amongst people with HIV referred to a specialist psychological medicine department over a 24-year period, which include the relative increase in depressive and anxiety disorders, often of a chronic nature, together with a decline in acute mental health syndromes, mania, and organic brain disorders. In addition, new challenges, like the presence of HIV and Hepatitis C co-infection, and the new problems created by recreational drugs, confirm the need for mental health services to be closely involved with the general medical services. A substantial proportion of people with HIV referred to specialist services suffer complex difficulties, which often require the collaboration of both psychiatrists and psychologists to deal effectively with their difficulties.

  17. Burnout syndrom as a mental health problem among medical students

    Backović Dušan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Mental health problems of adolescents are among the prevailing problems of public health. While studying for their future medical profession, the students of medicine have to exchange emotions with the patients intensively, and the empathic relationship itself bears a risk of eventual ”emotional depletion”, which leads to ”professional lack of emotions”. The study was aimed at presenting burnout syndrome as a challenge for mental health of medical students, its importance for the future professional engagement of doctors and the possibilities of its prevention. Methods. The authors of this paper review and analyze data and conclusions of previous national and international studies from this field and suggest possibilities of overcoming the condition of burnout. Results. The frequency of burnout syndrome, which is the synonym for the above mentioned condition of emotional exhaustion, is twice as high in medical professionals, particularly young ones, as in other professions on average. Burnout syndrome is nowadays regarded as a psychological distress experienced during the educational process and it has been observed in as many as 50% of medical students. The most significant factors independently associated with student burnout are: personality traits, stressful personal life events and learning and training conditions at their faculties. Conclusions. It is of utmost importance to understand the causes and consequences of psychological distress in students, and the faculties should not only identify these problems, but also endeavor to promote health by developing strategies for improving personal well-being, which are important for future doctors to achieve professional success and develop resistance to stress.

  18. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Endsley, Patricia


    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  19. Recovery-oriented care in acute inpatient mental health settings: an exploratory study.

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ennis, Garry; Houghton, James; Lupson, Christine; Toomey, Nigel


    Australian mental health nurses will need to care with consumers of mental health services, within the domains of recovery. However, in acute inpatient mental health settings, nurses are without a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The intent of this qualitative study was to ask nurses to reflect on and describe current practice within acute inpatient services that are not overtly recovery-oriented. Results show that nurses can identify recovery and articulate with pragmatic clarity how to care within a recovery-oriented paradigm. Pragmatic modes of care described by nurses support using "champions" to assist with eventual system transformation in the delivery of mental health services.

  20. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem.

    Afifi, Tracie O


    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  1. Tackling 'wicked' health promotion problems: a New Zealand case study.

    Signal, Louise N; Walton, Mat D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Bowers, Sharron G; Carter, Kristie N; Gorton, Delvina; Heta, Craig; Lanumata, Tolotea S; McKerchar, Christina W; O'Dea, Des; Pearce, Jamie


    This paper reports on a complex environmental approach to addressing 'wicked' health promotion problems devised to inform policy for enhancing food security and physical activity among Māori, Pacific and low-income people in New Zealand. This multi-phase research utilized literature reviews, focus groups, stakeholder workshops and key informant interviews. Participants included members of affected communities, policy-makers and academics. Results suggest that food security and physical activity 'emerge' from complex systems. Key areas for intervention include availability of money within households; the cost of food; improvements in urban design and culturally specific physical activity programmes. Seventeen prioritized intervention areas were explored in-depth and recommendations for action identified. These include healthy food subsidies, increasing the statutory minimum wage rate and enhancing open space and connectivity in communities. This approach has moved away from seeking individual solutions to complex social problems. In doing so, it has enabled the mapping of the relevant systems and the identification of a range of interventions while taking account of the views of affected communities and the concerns of policy-makers. The complex environmental approach used in this research provides a method to identify how to intervene in complex systems that may be relevant to other 'wicked' health promotion problems.

  2. Substance-related health problems during rave parties in The Netherlands (1997-2008.

    Jan Krul

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe a 12-year (1997-2008 observation of substance-related incidents occurring at rave parties in the Netherlands, including length of visits to first-aid stations, substances used, and severity of the incidents. During rave parties, specifically trained medical and paramedical personnel staffed first aid stations. Visitors were diagnosed and treated, and their data were recorded using standardized methods. During the 12-year period with 249 rave parties involving about 3,800,000 visitors, 27,897 people visited a first aid station, of whom 10,100 reported having a substance-related problem. The mean age of these people was 22.3+/-5.4 years; 52.4% of them were male. Most (66.7% substance-related problems were associated with ecstasy or alcohol use or both. Among 10,100 substance-related cases, 515 required professional medical care, and 16 of these cases were life threatening. People with a substance-related problem stayed 20 min at the first aid station, which was significantly longer than the 5 min that those without a substance-related health problem stayed. These unique data from the Netherlands identify a variety of acute health problems related to the use of alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and GHB. Although most problems were minor, people using GHB more often required professional medical care those using the other substances. We recommended adherence to harm and risk reduction policy, and the use of first aid stations with specially trained staff for both minor and serious incidents.

  3. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems.

    Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura


    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation.

  4. Chronic Kidney Disease: A Public Health Problem That Needs a Public Health Action Plan

    Anton C. Schoolwerth, MD, MSHA


    Full Text Available For a health problem or condition to be considered a public health issue, four criteria must be met: 1 the health condition must place a large burden on society, a burden that is getting larger despite existing control efforts; 2 the burden must be distributed unfairly (i.e., certain segments of the population are unequally affected; 3 there must be evidence that upstream preventive strategies could substantially reduce the burden of the condition; and 4 such preventive strategies are not yet in place. Chronic kidney disease meets these criteria for a public health issue. Therefore, as a complement to clinical approaches to controlling it, a broad and coordinated public health approach will be necessary to meet the burgeoning health, economic, and societal challenges of chronic kidney disease.

  5. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care.


    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  6. Health problems of nursing workers in a public educational institution

    Carolina Luiza Bernardes


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the issues occurred with nursing workers through a Health Monitoring System for Nursing Workers (SIMOSTE and to describe the consequences of those problems. Method: This is a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study realized in a teaching hospital in the west region of the city of São Paulo. Results: From the SIMOSTE, 1.847 occurrences were registered in a six month period. Within the main occurrences, medical licenses, work related accidents with and without removals; psychiatric consultations and psychotherapy were highlighted. Conclusion: The data points out to the need for the development of new health vigilance actions to notify accidents and illness related to work, besides the prevention of issues.

  7. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman


    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.

  8. Health problems presented in general practice by survivors before and after a fireworks disaster: associations with mental health care.

    Ouden, D.J. den; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; IJzermans, C.J.


    Objective: To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design: (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting: General practice and a mental health

  9. Unmasking the health problems faced by the police personnel



    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.

  10. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino


    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  11. A multidisciplinary approach to the air quality and health problems in indoor arenas

    Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Alm, S.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Husman, T.; Jantunen, M.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Eklund, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lee, Kiyoung; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health


    Most ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas have internal combustion engines. They use either propane or petrol as fuel. The main exhaust pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and fine particles. In general, propane engines emit more NO{sub x} than petrol engines, but their CO emissions are smaller. The levels of these pollutants in indoor air depend on total amount of emissions volume of arena and effectiveness of ventilation. However, due to large variations in engine emissions the air quality in any single arena cannot be estimated without direct measurements. High levels of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) have been measured in indoor ice arenas of North America since 1960`s, and it is only recently that high NO{sub 2} levels have been measured also in Sweden. In health studies, attention has been paid mostly to epidemic acute poisonings among ice hockey players and spectators caused by large concentrations of CO. However, some cases of acute NO{sub 2} poisonings have also been described. The aims of this project are: (1) to examine the air quality in Finnish indoor ice arenas, (2) to study associations between the air quality and the major technical features of the arenas, (3) to assess personal exposures of ice hockey players, spectators and maintenance personnel to CO and NO{sub 2}, (4) to investigate short-term and longer-term health effects of CO and NO{sub 2} exposures on ice hockey players and maintenance personnel, (5) to inform the managers of ice arenas and the health authorities on the current air quality problems and health risks in Finnish indoor ice arenas. (author)

  12. For which health problems do cancer survivors visit their General Practitioner?

    Heins, M J; Korevaar, J C; Rijken, P M; Schellevis, F G


    Primary health care use of cancer patients is increased, even years after active treatment. Insight into the reasons for this could help in developing and improving guidelines and planning of health care, which is important given the expected increase in cancer survivors. Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care, we selected 1256 adult breast cancer, 503 prostate cancer and 487 colorectal cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2006. We compared diseases and complaints for which they contacted their General Practitioner (GP) 2-5 years after diagnosis to age and sex matched non-cancer controls from the same practice. Cancer patients consulted their GP more often than controls for acute symptoms such as abdominal pain and fatigue (18% more in breast cancer, 26% more in prostate cancer) and infections, such as cystitis or respiratory infections (45% in breast cancer and 17% in colorectal cancer). Consultations for chronic diseases and psychosocial problems were slightly increased: breast cancer patients had more contacts related to diabetes (55%), sleep disturbance (60%) and depression (64%), prostate cancer patients had more contacts related to hypertension (53) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 34%). Adverse drug effects were almost twice as often observed in prostate and colorectal cancer patients than in controls. Fear of cancer recurrence was noted as the reason for consulting the GP in only 20 patients. Concluding, increased primary health care use in cancer survivors is mostly related to common infections and acute symptoms, which may be due to direct effects of cancer treatment or increased health concerns.

  13. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Marijke Veenstra


    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  14. Awareness and health seeking behaviour of rural adolescent school girls on menstrual and reproductive health problems.

    Singh, M M; Devi, R; Gupta, S S


    A study was conducted on 130 girl students aged 13-17 years in Haryana to assess their awareness and health seeking behaviour regarding menstrual and reproductive health. Mean age at menarche of the girls was 13.6 +/- 0.83 years. Awareness about the process of menstruation was poor. Commonest reported menstrual problem was dysmenorrhoea (40.7%) followed by irregular menses (2.3%) of which only 5.3% consulted a doctor and 22.4% took over the counter medications from the chemist shops. Knowledge about normal duration of pregnancy and need for extra food during pregnancy was poor. Most of the girls knew about importance, duration of child spacing and need for three medical examinations during pregnancy. Major sources of information were television (73.1%), radio (37.1%) and parents (36.1%). Girls preferred to consult parents (49.2%) and doctors (44.6%) for help at times of having reproductive health problems. This study highlights the need for educating school girls about adolescent health, pregnancy and reproductive health problems through schools and parents by the health professionals.

  15. Focused ultrasound examination of the chest on patients admitted with acute signs of respiratory problems

    Riishede, M; Laursen, C B; Teglbjærg, L S


    INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients. In this pro......INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients...... presumptive diagnosis at 4 hours from admission. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a semiblinded randomised prospective study. 288 patients will be included and randomised into the control or intervention group. All patients receive a standard diagnostic evaluation by the EP to assess the primary presumptive....... As standard for correct diagnosis, we perform a blinded journal audit after discharge. As primary analysis, we use the intention-to-treat analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first multicentre trial in EDs to investigate whether f-US, in the hands of the EP, increases the proportion of correct diagnosis...

  16. Worker Attitudes towards Mental Health Problems and Disclosure

    CS Dewa


    Full Text Available Background: There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave.Objective: Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace.Methods: Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey.Results: A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability.Conclusion: Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.

  17. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  18. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Hounsgaard, Lise


    This article reports on and compares two separate studies of the interactional characteristics of forensic mental health staff and acute mental health staff as they interact with inpatients, respectively. Both studies were conducted using participant observation, along with informal and formal...... interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff...

  19. Associations between physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in sexually active Danes

    Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete


    Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....

  20. [Sickness - disease - illness - health: Problems of global definitions and consequences].

    Schroeder-Kurth, Traute Marianne


    Globalization on the one side is highly wellcome as simplifying trade, communication or tourism. On the other side globalization seems to uniform cultural values, which causes anxieties and outrage in many countries. Since decades "western" medical knowledge is being transferred into the Third World. This paper begins with the problem of a worldwide understanding of terms like sickness, disease, illness and health. Results gained from investigations in the field of Medical Anthropology emphasize the importance to integrate any cultural values and symbols of the target population. Examples given to demonstrate difficulties and requirements for any transfer of western medicine into those countries. A close view into the health systems, concepts of health and disease, coping and treatment in England, France, Germany and the USA shows considerable divergences. "Western" medicine is not based on an uniform conception, but is modulated by traditional values of the nations. Any attempt to globalize "western" medicine must respect and integrate the inherited thinking pattern and medical system of a population in order to benefit the people.

  1. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)


    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  2. Health-related quality of life assessment in Indonesian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia



    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL in children with cancer were conducted in developed countries. The aims of this study were to assess the HRQOL in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients in Indonesia and to assess the influence of demographic and medical characteristics on HRQOL. Methods After cultural linguistic validation, a cross-sectional study of HRQOL was conducted with childhood ALL patients and their guardians in various phases of treatment using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 3.0 Cancer Module. Results Ninety-eight guardians and 55 patients participated. The internal consistency of both scales ranged from 0.57 to 0.92. HRQOL of Indonesian patients was comparable with those in developed countries. There were moderate to good correlations between self-reports and proxy-reports, however guardians tended to report worse HRQOL than patients. Children of the 2–5 year-group significantly had more problems in procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety and communication subscales than in older groups (p Conclusion Younger children had more problems in procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety and communication subscales. Therefore, special care during intervention procedures is needed to promote their normal development. Psychosocial support should be provided to children and their parents to facilitate their coping with disease and its treatment.

  3. Sleep Problems Before and After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

    Belguzar Kara


    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare patients’ sleep problems before and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and also to determine factors affecting sleep problems in patients undergoing AMI. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Coronary Intensive Care Unit in a training hospital between January 1 and April 30, 2007. The sample of the study was composed of 26 patients with a first-ever AMI. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to determine the patient and illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Post Sleep Inventory Scale (PSIS. The Shapiro-Wilks test, descriptive statistics, paired samples t test, Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 53.2 ± 12.6 years and approximately 81% were males. The patients’ mean bedtime (t= -3.422, p= 0.001, quality of nocturnal sleep (t= -3.221, p= 0.001, awakening (t =-3.533, p<0.001 and total PSIS scores (t= -5.652, p<0.001 were significantly higher after AMI compared to before AMI. The mean PSIS scores of patients undergoing AMI were statistically significant different by gender (z= -2.164, p= 0.030 and working status (z= -2.171, p= 0.030. There was a negative correlation between the PSIS score and haemoglobin and haematocrit values (r= -0.503, p<0.01; r= -0.473, p<0.05; respectively. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the patients’ reported sleep problems between before and after AMI. The results of this study showed that sleep problems were more common among women, patients not working and those with anemia. Nurses should be aware of the sleep problems and factors that affect to sleep problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 687-694

  4. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid


    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  5. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: an underestimated major health problem.

    Khalil, Jihane; Bensaid, Badr; Elkacemi, Hanan; Afif, Mohamed; Bensaid, Younes; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health problem among patients with cancer, its incidence in this particular population is widely increasing. Although VTE is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients, its severity is still underestimated by many oncologists. Thromboprophylaxis of VTE now considered as a standard of care is still not prescribed in many institutions; the appropriate treatment of an established VTE is not yet well known by many physicians and nurses in the cancer field. Patients are also not well informed about VTE and its consequences. Many studies and meta-analyses have addressed this question so have many guidelines that dedicated a whole chapter to clarify and expose different treatment strategies adapted to this particular population. There is a general belief that the prevention and treatment of VTE cannot be optimized without a complete awareness by oncologists and patients. The aim of this article is to make VTE a more clear and understood subject.

  6. [Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems].

    Dahlerup, Jens; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Björn


    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life and more serious prognosis in patients with chronic diseases. The cause of iron deficiency and anemia is usually a combination of increased loss and decreased intestinal absorption and delivery from iron stores due to inflammation. Oral iron is first line treatment, but often hampered by intolerance. Intravenous iron is safe, and the preferred treatment in patients with chronic inflammation and bowel diseases. The goal of treatment is normalisation of hemoglobin concentration and recovery of iron stores. It is important to follow up treatment to ensure that these objectives are met and also long-term in patients with chronic iron loss and/or inflammation to avoid recurrence of anemia.

  7. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.


    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  8. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Zakir Bekturganov


    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  9. Public health problem of zoonoses with emphasis on Q fever.

    Beslagić, E; Hamzić, S; Beslagić, O; Zvizdić, S


    Zoonoses are animal and human diseases. Q fever is primarily a zoonosis-an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans under certain conditions. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that Q fever should be considered as a public health problem in many countries where it is present, but unrecognizable due to inadequate disease controls. Through specific serological diagnosis of clinically suspected human Q fever cases, we are trying to determine a level of general Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) exposition among populations in different regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This would be a contribution in controlling the present and the future disease outbreaks, as well as its prevention, which is one of the prime objectives of public health. During the period from January to June 2004, in the Laboratory of the Department for Microbiology in the Medical Faculty of the University of Sarajevo, of 58 tested sera from 48 clinically suspected individuals, we confirmed the presence of specific anti-C. burnetii antibodies in 30 sera (51.7%), from 25 seropositive individuals (52.0%), by means of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing. Urgent steps must be taken in public education to help decrease the risk of C. burnetii infection among at-risk populations in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Is DDT use a public health problem in Mexico?

    López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Arreola, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Espinosa-Torres, F; Jiménez, C; Cebrián, M; Waliszewski, S; Saldate, O


    We review the potential impact of DDT on public health in Mexico. DDT production and consumption patterns in Mexico during the last 20 years are described and compared with those in the United States. In spite of the restrictions on DDT use in antimalaria campaigns in Mexico, use of DDT is still higher than in other Latin American countries. We analyzed information from published studies to determine accumulated levels of this insecticide in blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples from Mexican women. Current lipid-adjusted DDE levels from women living in Mexico City are 6.66 ppb in mammary adipose tissue and 0.594 ppm in total breast milk. Finally, the methodological limitations of existing epidemiological studies on DDT exposure and breast cancer are discussed. We conclude that DDT use in Mexico is a public health problem, and suggest two solutions: identification of alternatives for the control of malaria and educational intervention to reduce DDT exposure. We also recommend strengthening epidemiological studies to evaluate the association between accumulated DDT levels in adipose tissue and breast cancer incidence among Mexican women. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8793339

  11. Prevalence of Obesity: A Public Health Problem Poorly Understood

    Theresa A. Nicklas


    Full Text Available This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of the obesity epidemic and recommend that simply reducing that food/food group/nutrient will solve the problem. This is simplistic and unlikely to be effective in long term management of the obesity problem. This article also acknowledges discrepancies in the literature and the lack of consensus opinions from systematic reviews. Failure to consider the evidence as a whole can lead to inaccurate reports which may, in turn, adversely influence clinical practice, public policy, and future research. This article also considers where the line should be drawn between individual choice and responsibility and public regulation. Using sugar sweetened beverages as an example, the article considers the lack of a consistent association between added sugars and weight in the literature and calls for policy recommendations that are based on science and emphasizes the need for evidence-based policies rather than policy-based evidence.

  12. Secure Internet video conferencing for assessing acute medical problems in a nursing facility.

    Weiner, M; Schadow, G; Lindbergh, D; Warvel, J; Abernathy, G; Dexter, P; McDonald, C J


    Although video-based teleconferencing is becoming more widespread in the medical profession, especially for scheduled consultations, applications for rapid assessment of acute medical problems are rare. Use of such a video system in a nursing facility may be especially beneficial, because physicians are often not immediately available to evaluate patients. We have assembled and tested a portable, wireless conferencing system to prepare for a randomized trial of the system s influence on resource utilization and satisfaction. The system includes a rolling cart with video conferencing hardware and software, a remotely controllable digital camera, light, wireless network, and battery. A semi-automated paging system informs physicians of patient s study status and indications for conferencing. Data transmission occurs wirelessly in the nursing home and then through Internet cables to the physician s home. This provides sufficient bandwidth to support quality motion images. IPsec secures communications. Despite human and technical challenges, this system is affordable and functional.

  13. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  14. [Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems].

    Ikehara, Yoshikazu


    Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems were initially discussed from the perspective of personal liberty. However, the autonomy of persons with mental health problems has been growing in importance as an issue of involuntary placement and treatment since the last part of the twentieth century, because the purpose of involuntary placement is not the deprivation of liberty but to provide adequate treatment under medical supervision. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) adds a new perspective from non-discrimination and equality. Article 14 of CRPD states that "the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty." This provision should be construed from a perspective of non-discrimination. Conventional types of involuntary placement mainly based on dangerousness (UN-MI Principle 16-1a) and incompetency (UN-MI Principle16-1b) are not allowed by Article 14. There is a discussion on the difference between "mental disability" and "mental illness". Some people argue that CRPD should apply not to persons with mental illness, but to those with mental disabilities. However, CRPD does not provide a definition of "disability". It states that its definition is developing. ICF also mentions that ICD-10 and ICF should complement each other. Thus, CRPD should apply to the involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental illness as well. It is clear that Article 14 intends to change the situation whereby persons who have been described using various terms, such as madness, lunacy, insanity, mental illness, mental disability, mental health problems, and users, are involuntarily hospitalized/placed. The significance of Article 14 will be lost if it cannot be applied to psychiatric hospitalization. From the perspective of non-discrimination, we have to universalize involuntary placement and treatment or completely abolish them. We cannot tolerate a situation where a type of

  15. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Jing Wu


    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  16. Experience based co-design reduces formal complaints on an acute mental health ward.

    Springham, Neil; Robert, Glenn


    An acute mental health triage ward at Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust was attracting high levels of formal service user and family complaints. The Trust used experience based co-design to examine the issues and redesign procedures. This resulted in an immediate eradication of formal complaints for a period of 23 months. This paper describes two outcomes: firstly, the successful adaptations made to the experience based co-design methodology from its origins in physical care, in order to ensure it was safe and effective in an acute mental health setting; and, secondly, the changes made to the ward as a result of this quality improvement intervention.

  17. Teaching Community Health Assessment Skills in a Problem-based Format.

    Sass, Pamela; Edelsack, Pyser


    Describes a four-week rotation at the State University of New York Health Science Center in Brooklyn in which medical residents are taught community health assessment using a problem-based format. They use demographic and health data to create rates they believe will help to illuminate the health status and health issues of their assigned…

  18. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    S. A. M. K. Bashar


    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  19. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh.

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K


    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 +/- 1.88 vs. 0.20 +/- 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  20. Dengue: an escalating public health problem in Latin America.

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Méndez-Galván, Jorge


    Dengue infection is a significant and escalating public health problem in Latin America. Its re-emergence and subsequent rise in the region over the past 50 years has largely been caused by a combination of a lack of political will, the radical growth of urban populations, migration flow and insufficient financial resources. Its increased incidence has been compounded by climate change, poor sanitation and extreme poverty, which lead to more breeding sites of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In order to control dengue effectively, an integrated approach incorporating vector management and environmental and social solutions is required. To achieve success, these programmes require commitment and responses at both national and community level. The development of a vaccine is a vital tool in the fight against dengue. For successful introduction, those implementing vaccination need to be educated on the value of such a strategy. Effective political leadership, innovative financial mechanisms and co-operation across all disciplines, sectors and national borders are essential to eradication of the disease.

  1. [Scorpion stings: a public health problem in Morelos (Mexico)].

    Bourée, Patrice; Frinot Joseph, P; Fernot Joseph, P; Gil, R E Morell; Fils-Aimé, F; Barrera, R Rosales; Goyffon, M


    Scorpion stings represent a major public health problem in Mexico. Their annual incidence is estimated at 150,000 cases; 800-1,000 people die from them each year, 72.5% of whom are children younger than 5 years old. The states most affected are Aguascalientes, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, and Zacatecas. Morelos is an endemic zone, and scorpion stings are relatively frequent, but the indigenous population underestimates the risks. In this locality, scorpion stings lead to high morbidity, with an average of 10,219 cases each year, and a prevalence varying from 584.86 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1994 to 2043.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2003. Because of this upsurge, systematic medical supervision and serum therapy are necessary if scorpion poisoning is suspected in a child. The indigenous community as well as tourists visiting Mexico must be informed about the substantial risk of scorpion poisoning.

  2. [Allergies, an increasing public health problem: causes and consequences].

    de Weck, A


    Allergies due to IgE immunoglobulins and belonging to the atopic syndrome, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema have increased in prevalence three times during the past 20-30 years in most industrialized countries. The causes of that increase are still much debated but seem to be related to multiple changes in the environment. Our recent studies on dog atopy indicate that the interaction of a dominant gene responsible for high IgE production but with variable expression, according to several environmental factors acting during infancy, could explain observations made in man. Allergic diseases have become an important portion of public health costs, amounting to approximately 200 billions French Francs in the European Community. Early and adequate care for the about 20% of allergic patients which are severely affected, as well setting up a systematic prevention policy would have a moderating influence on the increasing costs, and would achieve improvements in the quality of life of allergic patients. Appropriate measures include fostering medical and political awareness about the problem's urgency, the formation of an appropriate body of specialists and an Allergological education at all levels, as well as the definition of a screening and care providing policy taking in account existing medical structures.

  3. Anemia in Mexican women: a public health problem

    Shamah-Levy Teresa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence and distribution of anemia among women of childbearing age (12 to 49 years participating in the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The survey had a probabilistic design and was representative at the national level, of urban and rural areas and four regions: North, South, Center, and Mexico City. Hemoglobin concentration was determined in capillary blood samples using a portable photometer (HemoCue, in 17 194 women, 697 of whom were pregnant. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.8% in pregnant women and 20.8% in non-pregnant women. Higher prevalences were observed in rural as compared to urban areas, both in pregnant (28.0% vs 27.7% and non-pregnant (22.6% vs 20.0% women, but the differences were not statistically significant (p >0.05. Women in the South had the greatest prevalence (23.2%, followed by those in the North (20.9%, Center (20.6%, and Mexico City (16.4%. Non-pregnant indigenous women had a prevalence of 24.8%, while in non-indigenous women the prevalence was 20.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia in women of childbearing age is a growing public health problem that justifies the implementation of interventions for its prevention and control.

  4. Exploring the impact of health information technology on communication and collaboration in acute care nursing.

    Cashen, Margaret S; Bradley, Victoria; Farrell, Ann; Murphy, Judy; Schleyer, Ruth; Sensmeier, Joyce; Dykes, Patricia C


    A focus group using nursing informatics experts as informants was conducted to guide development of a survey to explore the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinary communication in acute care settings. Through analysis of focus group transcripts, five key themes emerged: information, communication, care coordination, interdisciplinary relationships, workflow, and practice effectiveness and efficiency. This served as the basis for development of a survey that will investigate perceptions of acute care providers across the United States regarding the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinar communication in acute care settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of survey development including analysis of transcripts, emergence of key themes, and the processes by which the themes will be employed to inform survey development.

  5. Are parenting behaviors associated with child sleep problems during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    McCarthy, Maria C; Bastiani, Jessica; Williams, Lauren K


    Sleep disturbance is a recognized common side effect in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although associated with treatment factors such as hospitalization and corticosteroids, sleep problems may also be influenced by modifiable environmental factors such as parenting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine sleep problems in children undergoing treatment for ALL compared to healthy children and whether parenting practices are associated with sleep difficulties. Parents of 73 children aged 2-6 years who were (1) in the maintenance phase of ALL treatment (ALL group, n = 43) or (2) had no major medical illness (healthy control group, n = 30) participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires measuring their child's sleep behavior and their own parenting practices. Parents of children undergoing ALL treatment reported significantly more child sleep problems; 48% of children with ALL compared to 23% of healthy children had clinical levels of sleep disturbance. Parents of the ALL group also reported significantly more lax parenting practices and strategies associated with their child's sleep including co-sleeping, comforting activities, and offering food and drink in the bedroom. Results of multivariate regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for illness status, parent-child co-sleeping was significantly associated with child sleep difficulties. Strategies employed by parents during ALL treatment may be a potential modifiable intervention target that could result in improved child sleep behaviors. Future research aimed at developing and testing parenting interventions aimed to improve child sleep in the context of oncology treatment is warranted.

  6. Health-related quality of life among children with mental health problems: a population-based approach

    Dey Michelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with mental health problems have been neglected in health-related quality of life (HRQOL studies. Therefore, the aims of the current study were 1 to assess the influence of the presence of mental or physical health problems on HRQOL; and 2 to analyze the effects of item overlap between mental health problems and HRQOL-measurements. Methods Proxy- and self-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 of children 9–14 years old was assessed across children with mental health problems (n = 535, children with physical health problems (n = 327, and healthy controls (n = 744. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with health status, severity of symptoms, status of medication use, gender and nationality as independent, and HRQOL scores as dependent variables. The effects of item overlap were analyzed by repeating regression analyses while excluding those HRQOL items that contextually overlapped the most frequently-occurring mental health problem (attention deficits. Results Severity of symptoms was the strongest predictor of reduced HRQOL. However, all other predictors (except for the status of medication use also contributed to the prediction of some HRQOL scores. Controlling for item overlap did not meaningfully alter the results. Conclusions When children with different health constraints are compared, the severity of their particular health problems should be considered. Furthermore, item overlap seems not to be a major problem when the HRQOL of children with mental health problems is studied. Hence, HRQOL assessments are useful to gather information that goes beyond the clinical symptoms of a health problem. This information can, for instance, be used to improve clinical practice.

  7. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea


    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  8. 45 CFR 1308.7 - Eligibility criteria: Health impairment.


    ... or acute health problem which adversely affects learning. (b) The health impairment classification... asthma, uncontrolled seizure disorders, heart conditions, lead poisoning, diabetes, AIDS, blood...

  9. Acute pancreatitis

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  10. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children.

    Bahadur Singh, Tej


    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  11. Health Problems in the Classroom 6-12: An A-Z Reference Guide for Educators.

    Huffman, Dolores M.; Fontaine, Karen Lee; Price, Bernadette K.

    This guide provides a resource for middle and high school teachers, teacher aides, administrators, and educators, covering health problems that affect students in grades 6-12. The handbook alphabetically lists the most current health concerns for this age group. Part 1, "Health Issues in the Classroom," includes (1) "Health, Illness, and…

  12. Definition and Classification of Acute Kidney Injury:Contributions and Problems in the Clinical Practice

    CHEN Yi-pu


    @@ Definition and Classification of Acute Kidney Injury Before the RIFLE classification system of acute renal failure (ARF) was proposed in the Second Conference of Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI, an international volunteer organization mainly composed of intensivists and nephrologists in developed countries) in 2002, there were more than 35 diagnostic criteria of ARF in different literatures, which led to confusion in clinical practice and epidemiological investigation(1).

  13. Two cases of viper bite: still an important health problem

    Adrija Hajra


    Full Text Available Viper venoms act mainly as hemotoxic. Manifestations of snakebites depend on specific toxins that constitute the venom. The local and systemic snake bite related symptoms are directly linked to the toxicity of the venom. Edema, ecchymoses, hematoma, and gangrenous lesions are reported to occur as local symptoms. Systemic symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, delirium, jaundice, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and coma. Death from secondary infections, neurotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, intracranial hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are the well-known facts. For reduction of morbidity and mortality, it is important that antiserum is administered at the appropriate dose as early as possible after snake bite. There are several case reports about various complications of viperid bite. Here we are discussing two cases of viper bite. These cases are unique because of the extensive tissue necrosis. One of them succumbed to septicemia after acute pancreatitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1274-1277

  14. [Problems and ethical challenges in public health communication].

    Loss, J; Nagel, E


    Health communication, e.g., mass media campaigns, patient information leaflets or websites, plays an important role in public health. It contributes to citizen empowerment and helps them make informed decisions in health matters. However, public health communication can lead to adverse effects on both individual and societal level, e.g., by inaccurate or partial information, discriminatory messages, scandalizing coverage or inadequate tailoring to relevant target groups. It seems important to suggest ethical criteria for health information, e.g., (1) accuracy, completeness and balance, (2) transparency, (3) participation of the target group, (4) respect for human dignity, (5) social justice and equity, (6) appropriateness. Thoughtfulness is important in order not to stigmatize population subgroups. In addition, it is laborious to comprehensively and correctly present benefits and risks of a certain health behavior. Marketing principles guide how to 'sell' a certain health behavior, but health campaigns should not manipulate target persons for the sake of a population health aim. It remains unclear, however, how the different providers of health information can be held ethically responsible.

  15. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges.

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn


    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges.

  16. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M


    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  17. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems

    Žekas Romualdas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities. To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. Discussion In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. Summary The restructuring of health care system

  18. Real and alleged problems for Daniels's account of health justice.

    Kelleher, J Paul


    Norman Daniels's theory of health justice is the most comprehensive and systematic such theory we have. In one of the few articles published so far on Daniels's new book, Just Health, Benjamin Sachs argues that Daniels's core "principle of equality of opportunity does not do the work Daniels needs it to do." Yet Sachs's objections to Daniels's framework are deeply flawed. Where these arguments do not rely on significant misreadings of Daniels, they ignore sensible strands in Just Health that considerably dull their force. After disarming Sachs's arguments against Daniels's theory, I explain why I agree with Sachs's conclusion: Daniels's equality of opportunity-based account of health justice rests on shaky foundations.

  19. Correlation of oral health of children with acute leukemia during the induction phase

    Kanchan P. Dholam


    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of acute leukemia′s- a common childhood malignancy, involves intensive and powerful multi-drug chemotherapeutic regime. Oral lesions are a common complication in these patients affecting oral health status. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and assess the oral health status of newly diagnosed leukemic pediatric patients during induction phase and its correlation to outcome of induction therapy. Material Methods: Oral examinations was done in 33 children between the age group of 5-15 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myloblastic leukemia (AML, who were undergoing chemotherapy. Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified, (OHI-S decayed missing filled teeth index (def/DMFT, Loe and Sillness index for gingiva, and complete blood count at first and fourth week of induction phase were recorded for each patient. The changes in the oral health status were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: During an induction phase it was observed that level of OHI-S (P = 0.002, Loe and Sillness index (P = 0.003, def/DMFT index (P = 0.076, platelet count (P = 0.00 increased significantly and no significant difference was noted in hemoglobin (P = 0.4 and total leucocytes count (P = 0.11. Conclusion: It was observed that, although oral health status had significantly worsened, the induction outcome was not affected.

  20. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    Hannan, Terry J


    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [ The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects.

  1. Sexual Problems in Men: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Men with Low Testosterone Levels (National Institute on Aging) Clinical Trials Premature Ejaculation (National Institutes of Health) Male Sexual Dysfunction (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  2. Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Walsh, Kenneth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim


    Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. PMID:27789958

  3. Operation Safe Haven: an evaluation of health surveillance and monitoring in an acute setting.

    Bennett, C; Mein, J; Beers, M; Harvey, B; Vemulpad, S; Chant, K; Dalton, C


    From May to June 1999, 3,920 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo arrived in Australia as part of Operation Safe Haven. These people were evacuated from refugee camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Initial processing in Australia occurred at East Hills Reception Centre, and accommodation for the duration of stay was provided in eight Haven Centres in five States. The arrival of a large number of refugees in a short time frame is unprecedented in Australia. A health surveillance system was developed and critical health data were collected to assess health status and needs, plan care, monitor for potential outbreaks of communicable diseases, track service use, to meet international reporting requirements and document our response to this crisis. In this article the health surveillance system is evaluated and suggestions are offered for the formulation of specific guidelines necessary for health surveillance in acute settings.

  4. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  5. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung


    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  6. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T


    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  7. Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care

    Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic

  8. Health problems in children and adolescents before and after a man-made disaster.

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Kerssens, J.J.; Yzermans, C.J.


    OBJECTIVE:: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems

  9. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.


    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch na

  10. Mental health problems in children with intellectual disability: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.


    Background: The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children wit

  11. Empowering Preschool Teachers to Identify Mental Health Problems: A Task-Sharing Intervention in Ethiopia

    Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G.; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F.


    In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is…

  12. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Alemu, Yirgalem


    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  13. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David


    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

  14. The course of mental health problems in children presenting with abdominal pain in general practice

    Gieteling, Marieke J.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvone; Passchier, Jan; Koes, Bart W.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Leuwen, Y.L.V.


    Objective. To investigate the course of mental health problems in children presenting to general practice with abdominal pain and to evaluate the extent to which abdominal pain characteristics during follow-up predict the presence of mental health problems at 12 months' follow-up. Design. A prospect

  15. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster.

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.


    BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  16. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris


    Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  17. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda


    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  18. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Meirong Liu


    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  19. Preparation for Community Health Nursing: Issues and Problems.

    And Others; White, Caroline


    Highlights of a survey of community health nursing agencies and faculty suggest the need for better planning and collaboration between service and education in preparing students for this field. Survey data tables are included. (CT)

  20. [Hepatitis C as a public health problem in Mexico].


    We report the results of a multidisciplinary seminar approaching the recognition and construction of hepatitis C as a health issue in Mexico. Its prevalence is 1.4% and its incidence is estimated in 19 300 new cases per year.As transfusion decreases as a risk factor, the relevance of nosocomial transmission and use of intravenous or intranasal drugs increases. It is necessary to develop new contents for the social representation and risk perception of the disease. Response guided treatment based on PCR-RNA has modified the treatment schemes, a very important issue when considering policies for management. Legislation about hepatitis C in the country is limited. Assignments of the Federal Government and the federative entities in the country regarding health issues are framed in the 13th article of the General Mexican health law. It is necessary to advance towards the development of a public health policy at the national level for hepatitis C.

  1. The problem with competencies in global health education.

    Eichbaum, Quentin


    The demand for global health educational opportunities among students and trainees in high-income countries (HICs) has led to a proliferation of available global health programs. In keeping with the drive towards competency-based medical education, many of these programs have been defining their own global health competencies. Developing such competencies presents several unique challenges, including (1) a failure to take sufficient account of local contexts coupled with a lack of inclusiveness in developing these competencies, (2) the disjunction between the learning approaches of "individualism" in HICs and the relative "collectivism" of most host countries, and (3) shortcomings associated with assessing competencies in resource-limited settings. To meet these challenges, the author recommends reenvisioning the approach to competencies in global health using fresh metaphors, innovative modes of assessment, and the creation of more appropriate competency domains.

  2. Aging Parents: 7 Warning Signs of Health Problems

    ... memory problems are a fairly common part of aging, and sometimes medication side effects or underlying conditions contribute to memory loss. There's a difference, though, between normal changes in memory and the type of memory loss ...

  3. Pedagogical promise and problems: teaching public health law.

    Syrett, K; Quick, O


    This article considers the case for teaching public health law as a distinct subject of study within the academic curriculum. It offers proposals on syllabus design, assessment and objectives by reference to the authors' own teaching experience, and also seeks to serve as a resource for those considering the introduction of a course in this field. There is consideration of the conceptual analysis of public health law, and an exploration of the obstacles and opportunities involved in teaching public health law in higher education. To date, issues of public health law have received coverage, if at all, almost exclusively in the context of existing medical or healthcare law modules. Although difficult obstacles remain to be surmounted before the subject can be fully embraced, its marginalization appears to be increasingly misplaced in light of growing awareness of the policy challenges presented by public health and the potential for law to function as a valuable tool to assist in addressing such challenges. There are also potent pedagogical arguments for the teaching of public health law on a liberal academic curriculum.

  4. Developing confidence in mental health students to recognise and manage physical health problems using a learning intervention.

    Chadwick, Angelina Lilja; Withnell, Neil


    Globally, there is increased recognition of a higher prevalence of physical ill health and mortality in individuals with mental health problems. A review of the literature highlighted the need to address deterioration in physical health of those with mental health problems through better recognition and management on the part of mental health nurses. However, mental health nurses have been found to lack confidence and be unsure of their role within this area. The aim of the project was to develop pre-registration mental health students' confidence to be able to recognise and manage physical health deterioration through the use of high fidelity human patient simulation, the development of contextualised clinical scenarios and additional theory around the A to E mnemonic structured assessment. The project involved 95 third year mental health student nurses, using a self-rating pre and post intervention questionnaire to measure their perceived confidence levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Findings demonstrate improved overall confidence levels in recognising and managing physical health deterioration in human patient simulators displaying mental health problems.

  5. The Role of Health Systems in Obesity Management and Prevention: Problems and Paradigm Shifts

    Kirk, Sara F. L.; Penney, Tarra L


    This paper provides an overview of a new section of Current Obesity Reports, called Health Services and programs. This new section seeks to better understand the problems within health systems around obesity management and prevention and to discuss the latest research on solutions. There are few health system issues that are quite as controversial as obesity and there remain several key problems inherent within existing obesity management and prevention approaches that necessitate the adoptio...

  6. Assessing the accuracy of an inter-institutional automated patient-specific health problem list

    Taylor Laurel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health problem lists are a key component of electronic health records and are instrumental in the development of decision-support systems that encourage best practices and optimal patient safety. Most health problem lists require initial clinical information to be entered manually and few integrate information across care providers and institutions. This study assesses the accuracy of a novel approach to create an inter-institutional automated health problem list in a computerized medical record (MOXXI that integrates three sources of information for an individual patient: diagnostic codes from medical services claims from all treating physicians, therapeutic indications from electronic prescriptions, and single-indication drugs. Methods Data for this study were obtained from 121 general practitioners and all medical services provided for 22,248 of their patients. At the opening of a patient's file, all health problems detected through medical service utilization or single-indication drug use were flagged to the physician in the MOXXI system. Each new arising health problem were presented as 'potential' and physicians were prompted to specify if the health problem was valid (Y or not (N or if they preferred to reassess its validity at a later time. Results A total of 263,527 health problems, representing 891 unique problems, were identified for the group of 22,248 patients. Medical services claims contributed to the majority of problems identified (77%, followed by therapeutic indications from electronic prescriptions (14%, and single-indication drugs (9%. Physicians actively chose to assess 41.7% (n = 106,950 of health problems. Overall, 73% of the problems assessed were considered valid; 42% originated from medical service diagnostic codes, 11% from single indication drugs, and 47% from prescription indications. Twelve percent of problems identified through other treating physicians were considered valid compared to 28

  7. The problems and directions of financing mechanisms’ development in Health Assistance System

    Gheorghe Costandachi


    Full Text Available The essay discloses the main problem of Moldovan public health system is the significant gap between state free public health maintenance and its financial support. Here're the problems are met moldovan public health during reforming financing mechanisms in the transition period, also are presented interests of subjects of this system and informal sources of incomes. Author describes the interests of head physicians of medical institutions in relation to system of financing of public health services consist. In the final of work is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation and financing mechanisms'development in Health Assistance System on Moldova.

  8. Physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescents with burns: a controlled, longitudinal study.

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der


    OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted

  9. Students Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems: Do Australian University Websites Provide Clear Pathways?

    Laws, Thomas A.; Fiedler, Brenton A.


    Mental health problems in young Australians continue to be a major public health issue. Studying at university can generate social pressures particularly for youth, which have been associated with the onset of a mental illness or a worsening of an existing condition. Many universities provide health services to support students with health…

  10. School Social Work with Students with Mental Health Problems: Examining Different Practice Approaches

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.


    School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…

  11. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.


    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  12. Problem structuring in health technology assessment : an argumentative approach to increase its usefulness

    Moret-Hartman, Margriet


    This thesis addresses the problem of the limited impact of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) research on health policy and clinical practice. HTA is a type of policy research that aims to provide information concerning medical technologies in order to support health care decision making. Although,

  13. [Problems of formal organizational structure of industrial health care complexes].

    Włodarczyk, C


    The author formulates the thesis that the description of organizational structure of industrial health care complex calls for isolation of the following aspects:--structure of territorial links--systemof organizational units and divisions--organization of basic functions--structure of management--structure of supervision of middle and lowe-level personnel--composition of health care complex council--system of accessibility ranges. Each of the above aspects has been considered on the basis of operative rules of law, using organizational analysis methods.

  14. Conceptualizing childhood health problems using survey data: a comparison of key indicators

    Miller Anton R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many definitions are being used to conceptualize child health problems. With survey data, commonly used indicators for identifying children with health problems have included chronic condition checklists, measures of activity limitations, elevated service use, and health utility thresholds. This study compares these different indicators in terms of the prevalence rates elicited, and in terms of how the subgroups identified differ. Methods Secondary data analyses used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Canadian children (n = 13,790. Descriptive analyses compared healthy children to those with health problems, as classified by any of the key indicators. Additional analyses examined differences between subgroups of children captured by a single indicator and those described as having health problems by multiple indicators. Results This study demonstrates that children captured by any of the indicators had poorer health than healthy children, despite the fact that over half the sample (52.2% was characterized as having a health problem by at least one indicator. Rates of child ill health differed by indicator; 5.6% had an activity limitation, 9.2% exhibited a severe health difficulty, 31.7% reported a chronic condition, and 36.6% had elevated service use. Further, the four key indicators captured different types of children. Indicator groupings differed on child and socio-demographic factors. Compared to children identified by more than one indicator, those identified only by the severe health difficulty indicator displayed more cognitive problems (p Conclusion We provide information useful to researchers when selecting indicators from survey data to identify children with health problems. Researchers and policy makers need to be aware of the impact of such definitions on prevalence rates as well as on the composition of children classified as

  15. Health should not have to be problem: Talking health and accountability in an Internet forum on veganism

    Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.


    This article draws upon insights from discursive psychology to examine how participants in an Internet forum on veganism orient to the relationship between food choice, health and accountability. First, we explore the ways in which participants ascribe responsibility for health problems like vitamin

  16. Health, work, and personal-related predictors of time to return to work among employees with mental health problems

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bultmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Martin, Marie; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner


    Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness ab

  17. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine


    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  18. [Nutrition and the problem of maternal and neonatal health].

    Volgarev, M N


    Actual nutrition patterns of pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, and young children were analysed together with the breast milk composition in different regions of this country. The influence of maternal nutrition on the breast milk composition and infant health status is demonstrated. Special attention is devoted to the development and use of new food products for feeding healthy and sick children.

  19. Health expectancy and the problem of substitute morbidity

    Water, H.P.A.D.E. van


    During the past century, the developed world has not only witnessed a dramatic increase in life expectancy (ageing), but also a concomitant rise in chronic disease and disability. Consequently, the tension between 'living longer' on the one hand and health-related 'quality of life' on the other has

  20. The impact of oral health on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly.

    Kirsten Solemdal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. BACKGROUND: Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 (55 men acutely hospitalized elderly, coming from their own homes and with adequate cognitive function, were included. Dental status, decayed teeth, oral bacteria, oral hygiene, dry mouth and tongue changes were recorded. Growth of oral bacteria was assessed with CRT® Bacteria Kit. Taste ability was evaluated with 16 taste strips impregnated with sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste solutions in 4 concentrations each. Correct identification was given score 1, and maximum total taste score was 16. RESULTS: Mean age was 84 yrs. (range 70-103 yrs.. Total taste score was significantly and markedly reduced in patients with decayed teeth, poor oral hygiene, high growth of oral bacteria and dry mouth. Sweet and salty taste were particularly impaired in patients with dry mouth. Sour taste was impaired in patients with high growth of oral bacteria. CONCLUSION: This study shows that taste ability was reduced in acutely hospitalized elderly with caries activity, high growth of oral bacteria, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Our findings indicate that good oral health is important for adequate gustatory function. Maintaining proper oral hygiene in hospitalized elderly should therefore get high priority among hospital staff.

  1. Latex allergy: a health care problem of epidemic proportions.

    Agarwal, Sanjay; Gawkrodger, David J


    Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns of the decade. The induction of latex allergy commonly occurs after exposure of skin or mucous membrane to natural rubber latex. It is usually a type I, immediate hypersensitivity reaction mediated by IgE which can range from mild skin erythema to anaphylaxis and death. To manage latex allergy appropriately, prompt and correct diagnosis is essential. This depends primarily on clinical history, latex specific IgE RAST (in vitro) and skin prick test (in vivo). It affects people who are frequently exposed to products made of natural rubber latex, such as, health care workers, workers in the rubber industry and those who have had multiple surgical operations. The prevalence in the general population was estimated at 0.7% in a population study in France, but this can be higher in health care workers (up to 17%) and in patients with spina bifida to almost 65%. Prevention strategies should therefore target at risk population, rather than the population as a whole. At present this primarily involves providing non-powdered latex gloves in hospitals and primary health care centres. However, once latex allergy has been established, the situation becomes more complicated. Health care workers either have to be moved to a latex free environment or in extreme circumstances may have to give up their occupation. For patients undergoing operations most hospitals have adopted a latex free protocol. It is important that this is understood and followed by every member of the staff. Those who have had serious adverse reactions should wear Medi-Alert bracelets and in exceptional circumstances may need to keep epinephrine injections on their person. Future strategies focus on the reduction of allergens during latex manufacture, development of suitable non latex gloves and immunotherapy including desensitisation of latex allergic individuals and development of candidate vaccine.

  2. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel


    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.

  3. Problem drug use the public health imperative: what some of the literature says

    Bevan Gez


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With more than 200,000 problem drug users is contact with structured treatment services in England the public health imperative behind drug treatment is great. Problem drug use for many is a chronic and relapsing condition, where "cure" is often neither a reasonable or appropriate expectation and it can further be argued that in these circumstances problem drug use is no different from any number of chronic and enduring health conditions that are managed in the health care system and therefore should be conceptualised as such. Discussion A public health approach to drug treatment emphasises the need for drug users in or accessing treatment, to reduce their harmful drug use, reduce drug use related risks such as sepsis and overdose and stay alive for longer. However a public health perspective in relation to problem drug use isn't always either apparent or readily understood and to that end there is still a significant need to continue the arguments and debate that treatment and interventions for problem and dependent drug users need to extend beyond an individualistic approach. For the purposes of discussion in this article public and population health will be used interchangeably. Summary A recognition and acceptance that a public and population health approach to the management of problem drug users is sound public health policy also then requires a long term commitment in terms of staffing and resources where service delivery mirrors that of chronic condition management.

  4. Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification

    Bertrand Dominique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health status of prisoners in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2. Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender. Results A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5; 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160. Illicit drug use (40.2% and mental health problems (32.6% were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6% had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%, infectious diseases (23.5%, musculoskeletal (19.2%, injury related (18.3%, digestive (15.0% or respiratory problems (14.0%. Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police. Conclusion Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.

  5. Comparisons between inner-city and private school adolescents' perceptions of health problems.

    Walker, D K; Cross, A W; Heyman, P W; Ruch-Ross, H; Benson, P; Tuthill, J W


    A youth health survey was administered to 247 students in an inner-city ghetto high school and 404 students in a private boarding school. Significant differences between the two socioeconomic groups were found for responses about health information, health concerns and problems, and health status and service utilization. Sex-related issues were of greater concern to the private school youth and they desired more help with depression-sadness and birth control. Inner-city youth had more health worries and indicated a desire for more help with physical problems such as toothaches, headaches, and stomach aches, and social problems such as racial discrimination and parent relations. From a list of 22 health problems, the inner-city youth ranked dental problems, acne, and health worries highest while the private school youth ranked depression-sadness, tiredness, and acne highest. Regardless of social class, most adolescents perceived large gaps in their health education. One implication of our data is that the specific self-reported needs and concerns of adolescents should be considered in planning health services and education programs.

  6. Digital Networked Information Society and Public Health: Problems and Promises of Networked Health Communication of Lay Publics.

    Kim, Jeong-Nam


    This special issue of Health Communication compiles 10 articles to laud the promise and yet confront the problems in the digital networked information society related to public health. We present this anthology of symphony and cacophony of lay individuals' communicative actions in a digital networked information society. The collection of problems and promise of the new digital world may be a cornerstone joining two worlds-pre- and postdigital network society-and we hope this special issue will help better shape our future states of public health.

  7. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology


    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  8. Negative Affectivity is Common to Pediatric Behavioral Health Problems

    Simone Behar


    Full Text Available A significant number of youth in the United States experience mental illness; within these youth, comorbidity is considered the rule, not the exception. Rather than treat each disorder distinctly, recent research examines common psychopathological processes shaping various presenting problems to simultaneously target deficits and excesses. Contemporary research hypothesizes that negative affectivity pervades multiple psychiatric problems in youth. The present study sought to examine negative affectivity in an intent-to-treat sample of young patients presenting at an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. Young patients (n=54 with internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, or both completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders. MANOVA results indicated no significant difference between the groups. Additionally, no gender differences were found. Findings suggest negative affectivity is a core feature of psychopathology in general, and thus a valuable focus for transdiagnostic treatments.

  9. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    Price, O; Baker, J A


    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation.

  10. [The oral health problems of Sun King Louis XIV].

    Eijkman, M A J


    King Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France was a man plagued by a variety of chronic diseases, such as rheumatism, intestinal infections, fistula, headaches, chronic fever, malaria, urinary infections, gout, and chronic oral problems. At his birth, 2 deciduous teeth were already erupted, and at a very young age he already suffered from caries. In 1685, when he revoked the Edict of Nantes, a clumsy extraction of all maxillary teeth gave rise to a large maxillary bone defect and an oroantral communication.

  11. Mobilizing Black America: Solutions to Black Health Problems


    the most obese ethnic group in America. Too many black children are overweight because black adults feed them a steady diet of fatty and salty foods...start and elementary school children in the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. EPSDT has been instrumental in...blood cholesterol, obesity , unhealthy diets, and smoking are the leading causes (major risk factors) of these killers. The underlying problems associated

  12. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy


    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  13. Acute inpatient palliative medicine in a cancer center: clinical problems and medical interventions--a prospective study.

    Lagman, Ruth; Rivera, Nilo; Walsh, Declan; LeGrand, Susan; Davis, Mellar P


    The clinical characteristics and medical interventions of the 100 consecutive cancer admissions to the acute care inpatient palliative medicine unit at the Cleveland Clinic for 2 months are described. Median age was 62 years (range, 31 to 92 years). The male-female ratio was 1:1. Most admissions were referred by hematology-oncology and had prior antineoplastic therapy. Reasons for admission were symptom control and cancer-related complications. Patients underwent invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, hydration, transfusions, radiation, or chemotherapy, or a combination, during their admission. Most were discharged home with hospice care or had outpatient clinic follow-up. The mortality rate was 20%. Aggressive multidisciplinary management of symptoms, disease complications, comorbid conditions, and psychosocial problems were provided. Palliative medicine physicians provided continuity of care in the outpatient clinic and at home. An acute inpatient palliative medicine unit within a tertiary level medical center has a definable and important role in comprehensive cancer care.

  14. Laying the foundations of a culture of health as a pedagogical problem

    Khalajtsan A.P.


    Full Text Available Purpose : to show the dominant influence of educational - educational process lay the groundwork for a culture of health students. Material : processed more than 40 references, conducted a survey, questionnaires and observation of the living conditions of students. Results : named main reasons for creating a culture of health of students should be considered as primary pedagogical problem. The preconditions and conditions of the foundations of the culture of youth health, namely: social, educational, health, environmental, economic, geographic, individual. Traced the sequence and phasing of the pedagogical process of building a culture of health of students in the course of many years of teaching in higher education. Conclusions : proven pedagogical influence priority basis forming a culture of health of students in the individual development and identity formation for learning in higher education. The sequence and structure of the solution of pedagogical problems of forming the foundations of a culture of health students.

  15. Continuous quality improvement in acute health care: creating a holistic and integrated approach.

    Sewell, N


    Reviews the range of quality activity in a National Health Service hospital trust, using a staff questionnaire survey, self-assessment against the Baldrige Quality Award criteria, and the application of the SERVQUAL approach to service quality assessment. Reviews the acute health care quality programme literature. Finds that there are needs for greater integration of quality effort, to engage with patients in a more meaningful manner, and to achieve greater commitment and involvement from clinicians and managers. Identifies lack of time and resources as a major barrier to greater application of quality programmes. Explores ways of developing a more holistic and integrated programme of quality improvement. Describes the creation and implementation of a model for continuous improvement in health care quality.

  16. [Ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care: integrative literature review].

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida


    The aim of this study is to identify ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care and resources for coping based on publications on the subject. An integrative literature review was performed between the months of October and November 2013, using the databases: BDTD, CINAHL, LILACS, MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, RCAAP and SciELO. Articles, dissertations and theses published in Portuguese, English and Spanish were included, totalling 31 studies published from 1992 to 2013. This analysis resulted in four categories: ethical problems in the relationship between team members, ethical problems in the relationship with the user, ethical problems in health services management and resources for coping with ethical problems. Results showed that nurses need to be prepared to face ethical problems, emphasizing the importance of ethics education during the education process before and during professional practice to enhance the development of ethical sensitivity and competence for problem resolution.

  17. Regression analysis for solving diagnosis problem of children's health

    Cherkashina, Yu A.; Gerget, O. M.


    The paper includes results of scientific researches. These researches are devoted to the application of statistical techniques, namely, regression analysis, to assess the health status of children in the neonatal period based on medical data (hemostatic parameters, parameters of blood tests, the gestational age, vascular-endothelial growth factor) measured at 3-5 days of children's life. In this paper a detailed description of the studied medical data is given. A binary logistic regression procedure is discussed in the paper. Basic results of the research are presented. A classification table of predicted values and factual observed values is shown, the overall percentage of correct recognition is determined. Regression equation coefficients are calculated, the general regression equation is written based on them. Based on the results of logistic regression, ROC analysis was performed, sensitivity and specificity of the model are calculated and ROC curves are constructed. These mathematical techniques allow carrying out diagnostics of health of children providing a high quality of recognition. The results make a significant contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine and have a high practical importance in the professional activity of the author.

  18. [The salt content of food: a public health problem].

    Uzan, A; Delaveau, P


    Salt abuse in nutrition may exert harmful effects on health, increasing arterial hypertension and its cardiovascular consequences. It is a risk factor, particularly for older subjects and those having chronic diseases such as arterial hypertension, some renal diseases, and obesity. In subjects more particularly vulnerable, the maintenance of sodium balance, which is mainly aldosterone dependent, is perturbed. Although the use of salt for food preservation has greatly declined, it remains a serious risk factor. Excessive salt intake however results more often from poor dietary habits. The WHO and AFSSA have advised to reduce daily salt intake to 5 g, whereas it is currently about 9-10 g. In spite of repeated warnings, salt abuse remains the causal agent for many disease conditions, mainly arterial hypertension. That is why legislative measures should be taken in order to limit the salt content of food industry products, particularly as a preservative in foods. A large-scale public information campaign would be necessary with participation of public health partners, particularly physicians and pharmacists.

  19. The Metric and the Threshold Problem for Theories of Health Justice: A Comment on Venkatapuram.

    Schramme, Thomas


    Any theory of health justice requires an account of what areas of social life are important enough to be of public concern. What are the goods that ought to be provided as a matter of justice? This is what I will call the metric problem. The capabilities approach puts forward a particular solution to this problem. In this article I will discuss some issues of such an approach in relation to Sridhar Venkatapuram's well-known theory. Another problem I examine is how to determine a threshold of provision within a theory of justice. What is enough in terms of health justice? I argue that we need such a threshold to avoid healthism, the expansion of the pursuit of health over and above the treatment and prevention of disease. This is an especially pertinent problem in public health, which is also the context of Venkatapuram's theory.

  20. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel


    Background Patients have medicines reviews conducted by different health care professionals in different settings. Introducing a clinical panel to drug related problems (DRPs) to evaluate their clinical significance is common practice. The clinical panel discuss the potential consequences and com...

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease: an expanding global health problem.

    M'Koma, Amosy E


    This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases' longevity and an increase in

  2. Danish translation and validation of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaires on overuse injuries and health problems

    Jorgensen, J. E.; Rathleff, C. R.; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal;


    The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC-O) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on Health Problems (The OSTRC-H) make it possible to monitor illness and injury at regular intervals capturing prevalence and incidence of acute injury, overuse...... respondents; response rate was 89%. The OSTRC-H was distributed to 58 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 86%. No major disagreements were observed between the original and translated versions of the questionnaires. The OSTRC-O had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.80-0.93). The primary...... reliability analyses including all participants, showed reliability ICC: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.77. The secondary reliability analyses that only included subjects who did not change injury region from the test to the retest showed an ICC of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92).The questionnaires were found to be valid...

  3. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti


    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  4. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    Longstreth, J.


    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  5. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor


    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population.

  6. Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence


    Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (m...

  7. Physical and Mental Health Problems of the Elderly in a Rural Community of Sepang, Selangor


    The prevalence of aging population is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries like Malaysia. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of physical and mental health problems, and (2) to determine the association of these health problems with socio demographic factors among the elderly in a rural community in Sepang, Selangor. A cross sectional study design was used. Five out of nine villages were selected via random sampling. The elderly i...

  8. Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study

    McKenna Lisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. Methods A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale - a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes - was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. Results 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05, year of the course (p = 0.09, and gender (p = 0.04 for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.

  9. Nurses' perceptions of multidisciplinary team work in acute health-care.

    Atwal, Anita; Caldwell, Kay


    Multidisciplinary teamwork is viewed as one of the key processes through which care is managed in the British National Health Service, and yet is often viewed as one of the most problematic. Working in a multidisciplinary team requires many skills, which involves understanding not only one's own role but also the role of other professionals. The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of multidisciplinary teamwork in acute health-care. Nineteen nurses were interviewed using the critical incident approach to obtain their perceptions of multidisciplinary teamwork. Direct observation was conducted to record interactions between nurses and health-care professionals in multidisciplinary teams. In total, 14 meetings were attended in elder care and orthopaedics and seven in acute medicine. The findings of this study identified three barriers that hindered teamwork: (i) differing perceptions of teamwork; (ii) different levels of skills acquisitions to function as a team member; and (iii) the dominance of medical power that influenced interaction in teams. Thus, education establishments and nursing managers need to ensure that the acquisition of team-playing skills is an integral part of continued professional development.

  10. Ready, aim fire! Mental health nurses under siege in acute inpatient facilities.

    Ward, Louise


    It has been clearly acknowledged and well-documented that physical, emotional, and psychological violence is a central theme and an expected workplace hazard for registered nurses working in acute inpatient mental health care facilities. Limited research, however, has focused on how registered nurses have been able to cope within this environment and adequately protect themselves from harm. A critical feminist research project recently explored the lived experience of 13 Australian, female, registered nurses working in a busy metropolitan acute inpatient mental health care facility. "Fear" was exposed as the precursor to violence and aggression, both "fear as experienced by the nurse" and "fear as experienced by the patient." The participants reported experiencing a sense of fear when they could not accurately or confidently anticipate a patient response or reaction. They identified this relationship with fear as being "part of the job" and part of the unpredictable nature of caring for people experiencing complex distortions in thinking and behavior. The participants believed, however, that additional workplace pressures complicated the therapeutic environment, resulting in a distraction from patient care and observation. This distraction could lead to nurse-patient miscommunication and the potential for violence. This article discusses a major theme to emerge from this study, "Better the devil you know!" The theme highlights how mental health nurses cope with violence and why they choose to continue working in this complex care environment.


    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala


    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  12. The general practitioner and mental health problems: challenges and strategies for medical education

    Dinarte Alexandre Ballester

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Within the context of primary health care and mental disorders, our aim was to study the opinions of general practitioners regarding attendance of people with mental health problems. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative focal group study among primary care services in the cities of Porto Alegre and Parobé, State of Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: A deliberately selected sample of 41 general practitioners who were working in basic health services met in focal groups. Two videos were presented, which simulated consultations for patients with depression and psychoses. The discussions about the identification and handling of mental health problems were recorded and assessed via content analysis. RESULTS: The opinions related to the difficulties of diagnosing and treating mental problems, the involvement of relatives in caring for patients, the difficulty of compliance with the treatment, the uncertainty experienced by physicians and the difficulty of referring patients to specialized services. CONCLUSIONS: The general practitioners indicated that they perceived the mental health problems among their clientele, but the diagnosis and treatment of these problems are still seen as a task for specialists. The challenge of continuing education on mental health requires methods of interactive and critical teaching, such as the problem-based approach.

  13. Mental Health Services Use Predicted by Number of Mental Health Problems and Gender in a Total Population Study

    Maj-Britt Posserud


    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7–9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH, school psychology services (SPS, health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services.

  14. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.


    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  15. Adolescent health problems in India: A review from 2001 to 2015

    Punyatoya Bej


    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which all the habits and behaviour like high risk behaviour, substance abuse and eating habits develop that have lifelong impact. In India, programmes have been launched to address all the problems faced during adolescent period, still then adolescents are facing problems. In this review the problems faced by Indian adolescents were highlighted from the past 14 years’ studies. The studies were searched from 2001 to 2015 from Pub Med, Google scholar and other community medicine and public health related journals. The problems included were sexual health and teenage pregnancy, problems related to menstruation, illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol use. Anaemia, eating problems, obesity, behavioural problems and oral health among adolescent were also reviewed. Nineteen abstracts and 52 full texts were available. Sexual health knowledge among adolescent varies from 41% to poor. Knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality is less. Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea varies from 67.2% to 56.15% among adolescent girls. Prevalence of tobacco use varies from 25.1 to 12%. Prevalence of obesity varies from 3.4% to 0.35% and overweight varies from 5.5% to 5.84%. Prevalence of anaemia varies from 29% to 41.1%. Adolescents are facing depressive problems, physical fights, worry and loneliness. Prevalence of depression varies from 18.4% to 13.3%. Prevalence of dental problems varies from 18.2 to 41%. The review revealed that adolescents in India are facing problems of sexually transmitted infections, dysmenorrhea, tobacco and alcohol use, depression, physical fights, worry, loneliness and oral health problems. This needs a participation of family, community and government to resolve the issue.

  16. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria


    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  17. Fibrous drugs for curing various common health problems

    Sanjay L Dakhara


    Full Text Available In the past 50 years, dietary fiber has become an increasingly significant area of nutritional focus, debate, and research. Advances in food production practices have resulted in more refined foods being available and consumed across the world and particularly in developed nations such as the US. While refined foods are typically more palatable to consumers, the content of dietary fiber is greatly reduced. Currently, many diseases are believed to be associated with a lack of dietary fiber intake and, furthermore, significant health benefits are thought possible via increased consumption of many dietary fibers. There is no well accepted definition for dietary fiber, but most of the references mention the inability of humans to fully digest fibers; most others say about fibers being made of various monomer units of variable length and some mention plant origin. There are many raw materials/ingredients that can increase the fiber content in foods, each with its own set of functional and sensory characteristics, including acacia gum, beta-glucan, cellulose, chitin/chitosan, corn bran, corn fiber, inulin, oat bran/oat fiber, pea fiber, pectin, polydextrose, psyllium, resistant starch, rice bran, soy fibers, wheat bran, and wheat fiber. All these fibers are unique in their functional capability for treatment of number of diseases.

  18. Fibrous drugs for curing various common health problems.

    Dakhara, Sanjay L; Anajwala, Chetan C; Selote, Vidula S


    In the past 50 years, dietary fiber has become an increasingly significant area of nutritional focus, debate, and research. Advances in food production practices have resulted in more refined foods being available and consumed across the world and particularly in developed nations such as the US. While refined foods are typically more palatable to consumers, the content of dietary fiber is greatly reduced. Currently, many diseases are believed to be associated with a lack of dietary fiber intake and, furthermore, significant health benefits are thought possible via increased consumption of many dietary fibers. There is no well accepted definition for dietary fiber, but most of the references mention the inability of humans to fully digest fibers; most others say about fibers being made of various monomer units of variable length and some mention plant origin. There are many raw materials/ingredients that can increase the fiber content in foods, each with its own set of functional and sensory characteristics, including acacia gum, beta-glucan, cellulose, chitin/chitosan, corn bran, corn fiber, inulin, oat bran/oat fiber, pea fiber, pectin, polydextrose, psyllium, resistant starch, rice bran, soy fibers, wheat bran, and wheat fiber. All these fibers are unique in their functional capability for treatment of number of diseases.

  19. Occupational health problems of highway restaurant workers of Pune, India.

    Kokane, S; Tiwari, R R


    To meet the ever-increasing demand for new cuisines, the catering industry in India is becoming more prominent day by day. According to a recent estimate, more than two million restaurants are now dominating the present scenario of the Indian catering industry. The health hazards in restaurants vary according to the place that a worker is employed. The hazards among kitchen staff include several different types of accidents such as burns from deep fryers, slipping on grease and cuts from knives, whereas musculoskeletal disorders are more common among waiters and helpers who usually bear load. The present cross-sectional study included 127 workers from 15 restaurants and dhabas situated at Pune-Mumbai high way. Interview technique followed by clinical examination was the tool for data collection. Musculoskeletal symptoms such as low back pain, fatigue, body ache and pain in limbs were present in 18 (14.2%) of the workers. Gastrointestinal complaints such as heartburn, abdomen pain, stomatitis, etc. were reported by 12 (9.4%) subjects, while skin-related symptoms, such as itching and discoloration were reported in 12 (9.4%) subjects. Seventy-three (57.5%) of the subjects were free from any symptoms.

  20. Zika virus: a new arboviral public health problem.

    Demir, Tulin; Kilic, Selcuk


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). Virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. Due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, Guillain-Barre syndrome increases the interest on this virus gradually. Along with the vector-borne transmission, exposure via blood transfusion and sexual contact are further concerns. Since December 2015, CDC reported 440.000-1.300.000 possible cases in Brazil and as of 19 January 2016, El Salvador, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Surinam, French Guana, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama are the countries with active epidemic. CDC recommends ZIKV screening for all pregnants including asymptomatic cases those living in the active epidemic areas. Recently, virus is detected in the USA and most European countries including UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, and Italy as a travel-associated infection. Owing to the changing world with increased capabilities for transportation globally, this vector-borne infection represents a valuable marker for the ability of spreading of any infection from its original area that it was first seen. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date data and reports in terms of the importance of the ZIKV infection in the public health.

  1. Disorders of the spine. A major health and social problem.

    Raciborski, Filip; Gasik, Robert; Kłak, Anna


    According to the data published in The Lancet, in 2010 musculoskeletal disorders were the cause of nearly 166 million years lived with disability (YLDs), with neck and low back pain accounting for 69.9% of the total. In Poland, in 2014 low back pain was self-reported by 28.4% of women and 21.2% of men aged 15 years and over, neck pain by 21% of women and 13% of men, and middle back pain by 19% of women and 12.9% of men. In 2015, nearly 33 million man-days were lost due to spine disorders, and nearly 2.7 million medical certificates were issued for back pain (15% of the total). With the current demographic changes (population ageing) and lifestyle-related factors increasing the potential for back problems, the demand for a wide range of medical services to treat disorders of the spine and their symptoms may be expected to increase substantially over the coming years.

  2. Health-related problems and quality of life in patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis

    T. de Jong (Tim); M. Maliepaard (Marianne); N. Bannink (Natalja); H. Raat (Hein); I.M.J. Mathijssen (Irene)


    textabstractPurpose: We conducted this study to gauge the health-related problems, quality of life and the performance of the Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI-3) in patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis. Patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis have various physical and me

  3. Promoting Adolescent Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems: Strategies for School-Based Professionals

    Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana


    Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…

  4. Common chronic health problems and life satisfaction among Macau elderly people

    Sydney X.X. Hu


    Conclusion: Lowest life satisfaction was reported among Macau elderly people living with mobility related chronic medical illness. Policies and practices should pay more attention to mobility related health problems or issues of elderly people, such as eye health and neuromuscular weaknesses.

  5. Consultations for mental problems in general practices with and without mental health nurses.

    Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.


    Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health

  6. Perceived School Safety is Strongly Associated with Adolescent Mental Health Problems

    Nijs, Miesje M.; Bun, Clothilde J. E.; Tempelaar, Wanda M.; de Wit, Niek J.; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M.; Boks, Marco P. M.


    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary sc

  7. A Rare Heart Rhythm Problem in Acute Rheumatic Fever: Complete Atrioventricular Block

    Ayse Kibar


    Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease remains the most important cause of acquired heart disease in children and young adults. Different kinds of rhythm and conduction disturbances may be seen during the course of acute rheumatic fever (ARF. Long PR intervals are found commonly in rheumatic fever, but complete atrioventricular (AV block is an exceptionally rare manifestation. This case report is about a 14 year-old-female patient diagnosed as ARF based on migratory arthralgia and mild carditis who also developed complete heart block on admission. Electrocardiogram on the 3rd day of hospitalization depicts 2nd degree atrioventricular block (Mobitz I combined with PR prolongation. The ECG revealed a normal sinus rhythm with PR prolongation on the 4th day of hospitalization. Rarely, complete AV heart block can occur as a complication of ARF and may develop during the acute phase

  8. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.


    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  9. Identification and management of psychosocial problems among toddlers in Dutch preventive child health care

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Objectives: To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among preschool children in the general population and to determine the association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic factors, and m

  10. Health technology assessment and ill-structured problems: a case study concerning the drug mebeverine.

    Moret-Hartman, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Grin, J.


    OBJECTIVES: The practical significance of health technology assessment (HTA) in policy decisions or clinical practice has been challenged. Possibly, problem definitions underlying HTA do not concur sufficiently with the problem definitions held by policy makers or clinicians. We performed an in-dept

  11. Conference Addresses Problems of Reproduction and Women’s Health Care



    REPRODUCTION and health are important problems concerning women’s progress and development. Since the 1960s the subjects have attracted the attention of the world. Awareness of these problems has gradually increased to the extent that some concepts have generally been agreed upon. They are:

  12. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

    Deniz Kocoglu


    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  13. African-American clergy's perceptions of the leading health problems in their communities and their role in supporting parishioners' health.

    Watson, Donnie W; West, Donnie W; Bisesi, Lorrie; Tanamly, Susie; Branch, Cheryl A; Novgrod, Judith; Sim, Tiffanie; Williams, Eugene


    This article is a report on a survey of Southern California pastors to learn of their perceptions of the leading health problems in their congregations. Participants (N=41) identified stress, overweight, and obesity as the top three health indicators that effect the health of their congregations. Tobacco use and substance abuse were listed among the top five. From a list of health problems, pastors felt that from the pulpit they could impact parishioners responsible sexual behavior most. Pastors expressed their opinions about the reasons for certain maladies and addictions. The findings indicate room for improvement in building clergy's understanding of the nature of illness and addiction and in empowering them in their role of supporting healthy behaviors in the African-American community.

  14. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)


    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  15. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas


    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  16. Implicit theories and youth mental health problems: a random-effects meta-analysis.

    Schleider, Jessica L; Abel, Madelaine R; Weisz, John R


    Compared to youths who believe that personal traits are malleable, those who believe that personal traits are fixed experience more academic and self-regulatory distress. Recently, studies have begun to explore relations between beliefs about the malleability of personal traits, or implicit theories, and youth mental health problems. We synthesized this emerging body of research in youths (ages 4-19) across 45 effect sizes from 17 research reports. Studies were included if they assessed youth mental health and implicit theories and did not manipulate implicit theory or affective/behavioral states prior to measuring these variables. Our random-effects meta-analysis using clustered data analysis techniques (i.e., effect sizes nested within samples) revealed that youths holding entity theories-the belief that personal traits are fixed-showed more pronounced mental health problems. This association between entity theories and mental health problems was evident across methodological factors and problem types (internalizing versus externalizing; psychopathology versus general distress). Limitations include the small number of eligible studies, insufficient data to test further demographic moderators, and few longitudinal studies on this topic. Overall, findings support the value of parsing the implicit theory-mental health link in youths. Implicit theories may prove to be promising targets for treatment and prevention of youth mental health problems.

  17. Acute bronchodilator responsiveness and health outcomes in COPD patients in the UPLIFT trial

    Decramer Marc


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debate continues as to whether acute bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR predicts long-term outcomes in COPD. Furthermore, there is no consensus on a threshold for BDR. Methods At baseline and during the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT® trial, patients had spirometry performed before and after administration of ipratropium bromide 80 mcg and albuterol 400 mcg. Patients were split according to three BDR thresholds: ≥12% + ≥200 mL above baseline (criterion A, ≥15% above baseline (criterion B; and ≥10% absolute increase in percent predicted FEV1 values (criterion C. Several outcomes (pre-dose spirometry, exacerbations, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score were assessed according to presence or absence of BDR in the treatment groups. Results 5783 of 5993 randomized patients had evaluable pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry at baseline. Mean age (SD was 64 (8 years, with 75% men, mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 1.33 ± 0.44 L (47.6 ± 12.7% predicted and 30% current smokers. At baseline, 52%, 66%, and 39% of patients had acute BDR using criterion A, B, and C, respectively. The presence of BDR was variable at follow-up visits. Statistically significant improvements in spirometry and health outcomes occurred with tiotropium regardless of the baseline BDR or criterion used. Conclusions A large proportion of COPD patients demonstrate significant acute BDR. BDR in these patients is variable over time and differs according to the criterion used. BDR status at baseline does not predict long-term response to tiotropium. Assessment of acute BDR should not be used as a decision-making tool when prescribing tiotropium to patients with COPD.

  18. Care Transitions in Long-term Care and Acute Care: Health Information Exchange and Readmission Rates.

    Yeaman, Brian; Ko, Kelly J; Alvarez del Castillo, Rodolfo


    Care transitions between settings are a well-known cause of medical errors. A key component of transition is information exchange, especially in long-term care (LTC). However, LTC is behind other settings in adoption of health information technologies (HIT). In this article, we provide some brief background information about care transitions in LTC and concerns related to technology. We describe a pilot project using HIT and secure messaging in LTC to facilitate electronic information exchange during care transitions. Five LTC facilities were included, all located within Oklahoma and serviced by the same regional health system. The study duration was 20 months. Both inpatient readmission and return emergency department (ED) visit rates were lower than baseline following implementation. We provide discussion of positive outcomes, lessons learned, and limitations. Finally, we offer implications for practice and research for implementation of HIT and information exchange across care settings that may contribute to reduction in readmission rates in acute care and ED settings.

  19. The Role of Health Systems in Obesity Management and Prevention: Problems and Paradigm Shifts.

    Kirk, Sara F L; Penney, Tarra L


    This paper provides an overview of a new section of Current Obesity Reports, called Health Services and programs. This new section seeks to better understand the problems within health systems around obesity management and prevention and to discuss the latest research on solutions. There are few health system issues that are quite as controversial as obesity and there remain several key problems inherent within existing obesity management and prevention approaches that necessitate the adoption of new paradigms and practices. Beginning with articles on addressing weight bias and stigma in health professional training, promoting new models of weight management provision, reviewing the role of regulation and generating an understanding of obesity through a complex systems lens, this new section will encourage readers to better address the challenging problems in obesity management and in doing so, overcome the 'paradigm paralysis' that has characterized the last few decades of obesity research and practice.

  20. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  1. Excel 2016 for health services management statistics a guide to solving problems

    Quirk, Thomas J


    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching health services management statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Health Services Management Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical health service management problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in health service courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Health Services Management Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply...

  2. Excel 2013 for health services management statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    Quirk, Thomas J


    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach health services management statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2010 for Health Services Management Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical health services management problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in health services management courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Health Services Management Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers ho...

  3. The problems of formation of students' motivation for their health preservation.

    Kozlova V.A.


    Full Text Available The article views the problem of influence of positive motivation on high students' health preservation. The essence of contemporary scientific notions concerning motivation as a psycho phenomenon has been substantiated. A concise analysis of latest psychological and pedagogical sources has been made. Theoretical background concerning the formation of students' youth motivation activity aimed at preserving and strengthening health has been defined. Practical methods of influence on health preserving behavior as well as working out of algorithm of stage-by-stage improvements of health maintenance have been described.

  4. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

    Indira Dey (Pal


    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  5. Physical and Mental Health Problems of the Elderly in a Rural Community of Sepang, Selangor

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj; Afifi, Mustaqim


    The prevalence of aging population is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries like Malaysia. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of physical and mental health problems, and (2) to determine the association of these health problems with socio demographic factors among the elderly in a rural community in Sepang, Selangor. A cross sectional study design was used. Five out of nine villages were selected via random sampling. The elderly in the selected villages were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire which included the GDS-30, ECAQ and Barthel Index. Out of 263 elderly residents (6.2% of the total population), 223 agreed to participate in the study giving a response rate of 84.8%. The mean age of the respondents was 69.7 + 6.8 years with a median of 68 years. The prevalence of physical health problems such as chronic illness and functional dependence were 60.1% and 15.7%, respectively. While the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression and cognitive impairment were 7.6% and 22.4%, respectively. Among the health problems studied, depression was found to be significantly associated with unemployment (p<0.05), where as cognitive impairment was significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, marital status and level of education (p<0.05). PMID:22977360

  6. Noise, sleep and poor health: Modeling the relationship between road traffic noise and cardiovascular problems.

    Fyhri, Aslak; Aasvang, Gunn Marit


    Several adverse effects have been associated with exposure to traffic noise. Studies supporting a noise-stress-health model have suggested links between noise level and increased noradrenalin concentrations in urine, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Among the more commonly documented effects, sleep disturbances have been regarded as being the most serious. Both noise annoyance and sleep disturbance have been proposed as important mediators of the impact of noise on health. The present paper investigates the relationships among long-term noise exposure, annoyance, sleeping problems and subjective health complaints by the use of a structural equation model. Further, it aims at giving insight into how noise sensitivity is related to sleep disturbances from road traffic noise. Finally, it examines whether any effect of noise exposure or response to noise can be detected on prevalence of cardiovascular problems, when information on sleep disturbances is included in a model. Data from a questionnaire survey conducted among a population sample in Oslo (N=2786) are combined with nighttime noise levels calculated from outside each respondents dwelling, at the bedroom façade. The results of the analysis showed significant relationships between noise annoyance at night and sleeping problems. The model also showed strong links among pseudoneurological complaints, annoyance and sleeping problems, thus pointing to the importance of including information on psychosomatic disorders and mild psychological problems in future studies looking at potential health effects of noise. The analysis showed no relationship between neither noise exposure nor response to noise and cardiovascular problems.

  7. The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.

    Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A


    Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers.

  8. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena


    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health.

  9. The making of a public health problem: multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in India.

    Engel, Nora C


    This paper examines how actors construct the public problem of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India. MDR-TB has been framed by the World Health Organization as a pressing, global public health problem. The responses to MDR-TB are complicated as treatment takes longer and is more expensive than routine TB treatment. This is particularly problematic in countries, such as India, with high patient loads, a large and unregulated private sector, weak health systems and potentially high numbers of MDR-TB cases. This paper analyses how actors struggle for control over ownership, causal theories and political responsibility of the public problem of MDR-TB in India. It combines Gusfield's theory on the construction of public problems with insights from literature on the social construction of diseases and on medical social control. It highlights that there are flexible definitions of public problems, which are negotiated among actor groups and which shift over time. The Indian government has shifted its policy in recent years and acknowledged that MDR-TB needs to be dealt with within the TB programme. The study results reveal how the policy shift happened, why debates on the construction of MDR-TB as a public problem in India continue, and why actors with alternative theories than the government do not succeed in their lobbying efforts. Two main arguments are put forward. First, the construction of the public problem of MDR-TB in India is a social and political process. The need for representative data, international influence and politics define what is controllable. Second, the government seems to be anxious to control the definition of India's MDR-TB problem. This impedes an open, critical and transparent discussion on the definition of the public problem of MDR-TB, which is important in responding flexibly to emerging public health challenges.

  10. Everyday solutions for everyday problems: how mental health systems can support recovery.

    Slade, Mike


    People who experience mental illness can be viewed as either fundamentally different than, or fundamentally like, everyone else in society. Recovery-oriented mental health systems focus on commonality. In practice, this involves an orientation toward supporting everyday solutions for everyday problems rather than providing specialist treatments for mental illness-related problems. This change is evident in relation to help offered with housing, employment, relationships, and spirituality. Interventions may contribute to the process of striving for a life worth living, but they are a means, not an end. Mental health systems that offer treatments in support of an individual's life goals are very different than those that treat patients in their best interests. The strongest contribution of mental health services to recovery is to support everyday solutions to everyday problems.

  11. Living with Stigma: Depressed Elderly Persons’ Experiences of Physical Health Problems

    Anne Lise Holm


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of depressed elderly persons’ lived experiences of physical health problems. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 depressed elderly persons who suffer from physical health problems. A hermeneutic analysis was performed, yielding one main theme, living with stigma, and three themes: longing to be taken seriously, being uncertain about whether the pain is physical or mental, and a sense of living in a war zone. The second theme comprised two subthemes, feeling like a stranger and feeling dizzy, while the third had one subtheme: afraid of being helpless and dependent on others. Stigma deprives individuals of their dignity and reinforces destructive patterns of isolation and hopelessness. Nurses should provide information in a sensitive way and try to avoid diagnostic overshadowing. Effective training programmes and procedures need to be developed with more focus on how to handle depressive ill health and physical problems in older people.

  12. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    Kojima Masayo


    Full Text Available Abstract The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.

  13. Excel 2010 for health services management statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    Quirk, Thomas J


    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach health services management statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical health services management problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.   Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in health services management courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2010 for Health Services Management Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work....

  14. How far can systematic reviews inform policy development for "wicked" rural health service problems?

    Humphreys, John S; Kuipers, Pim; Wakerman, John; Wells, Robert; Jones, Judith A; Kinsman, Leigh D


    Policy makers and researchers increasingly look to systematic reviews as a means of connecting research and evidence more effectively with policy. Based on Australian research into rural and remote primary health care services, we note some concerns regarding the suitability of systematic review methods when applied to such settings. It suggests that rural and other health services are highly complex and researching them is akin to dealing with "wicked" problems. It proposes that the notion of "wicked" problems may inform our understanding of the issues and our choice of appropriate methods to inform health service policy. Key issues including the complexity of health services, methodological limitations of traditional reviews, the nature of materials under review, and the importance of the service context are highlighted. These indicate the need for broader approaches to capturing relevant evidence. Sustained, collaborative synthesis in which complexity, ambiguity and context is acknowledged is proposed as a way of addressing the wicked nature of these issues.

  15. Physical and psychological health problems of garment workers in the Fiji.

    Chand, Anand


    This paper unravels the physical and psychological health problems of garment workers in Fiji. It is based on research work done between 1997-2007. Majority of the garment workers are women. The main physical health problems faced by workers are: 'Occupational fatigue syndrome', body pains, obesity, and bladder and kidney problems. The major psychological problems work stress and depression. Work stress and depression are caused by 'intensification of work' to meet daily targets, strict factory rules and regulations, poor pay, poor working conditions, in-human abuse, and fear of job loss. Since garment workers do not have much education and skills they have no other option but to work for the garment industry and suffer in silence.

  16. Relationship between selected health problems and exposures among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia.

    Chee, H L; Rampal, K G


    A study conducted between 1998-2001 on the semiconductor industry in Penang and Selangor found that irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea and stress were identified as the three leading health problems by women workers from a checklist of 16 health problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, including age, working duration in current factory, and marital status, in a multiple logistic regression model, wafer polishing workers were found to experience significantly higher odds of experiencing irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea was found to be significantly associated with chemical usage and poor ventilation, while stress was found to be related to poor ventilation, noise and low temperatures.

  17. Health problems of people with intellectual disabilities: the impact for general practice

    Straetmans, Jos MJAA; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny MJ; Schellevis, Francois G; Dinant, Geert-Jan


    This study aimed to analyse the health problems and prescriptions of people with intellectual disabilities registered with GPs. Within the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice evidence was gathered on the differences in health problems between people with intellectual disabilities and control persons (without intellectual disabilities). In a 1:5 matched sample, people with intellectual disabilities paid 1.7 times more visits to GPs. They presented a different morbidity pattern, and received four times as many repeat prescriptions. People with intellectual disabilities increase a GP's workload. PMID:17244427

  18. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;


    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  19. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P


    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  20. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Connell Janice


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  1. Predicting nonresponse bias from teacher ratings of mental health problems in primary school children.

    Stormark, Kjell Morten; Heiervang, Einar; Heimann, Mikael; Lundervold, Astri; Gillberg, Christopher


    The impact of nonresponse on estimates of mental health problems was examined in a prospective teacher screen in a community survey of 9,155 7-9 year olds. For 6,611 of the children, parents consented to participation in the actual study (Responders), while for 2,544 children parental consent was not obtained (Nonresponders). The teacher screen involved assessment of a broad set of symptoms of mental health problems and functional impairment. Calculations of non-response coefficients, a function of effect sizes and non-response proportion, revealed only ignorable nonresponse bias for both mean scores and correlations. However, the results from binary logistic regressions revealed that children ascribed signs of mental health problems by their teachers were less likely to participate. This was most frequent among children with only moderate symptoms. However, it also involved children with high symptom scores related to inattention, hyperactivity, emotions and peer relationship problems. These findings suggest that measures based on effect size can underestimate the magnitude of non-response bias and that a logistic regression approach may be more appropriate for studies geared at estimating prevalence of mental health problems in children.

  2. Child abuse, drug addiction and mental health problems of incarcerated women in Israel.

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren


    The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. The present problems and future needs of primary health care in Malaysia.

    Ming, H T


    This article examines the numerous problems faced by primary health care in Malaysia, care that traditionally has been a private sector activity. While general practitioners have adapted, and are continually adapting, to the needs of a multiracial society with diverse cultural patterns, it is hoped that with the emergence of a dynamic discipline of family practice, family doctors will be able to provide a sophisticated form of primary health care that will serve the needs of the people.

  4. Common chronic health problems and life satisfaction among Macau elderly people

    Hu, Sydney X. X.; Wai In Lei; Ka Kei Chao; Hall, Brian J.; Siu Fung Chung


    Aim: Most elderly people live with one or more health problems and their quality of life is affected. This study aimed to compare life satisfaction of elderly people living with common chronic medical illness compared with those without these health conditions in order to identify conditions that most affect life satisfaction of elderly people living in the community. Method: The data was collected by a questionnaire survey of 529 elderly living in community dwellings of Macau using a sing...

  5. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Helen Odell-Miller


    This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client ...

  6. Problems with diagnosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Shiramizu, Hideki; Oda, Shinri; Matsumae, Mitsunori


    The diagnostic efficacy of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared and the problems with diagnosis were investigated in 81 patients with aneurysmal SAH within 24 hours after onset who underwent FLAIR imaging and CT on admission. The number of hematomas in the cisterns and ventricles were evaluated by clot scores. In addition, the frequency of undetected hematomas was calculated for the cisterns and ventricles. Clot scores were significantly higher for FLAIR imaging than for CT in the lateral sylvian, quadrigeminal, and convexity cisterns. On the other hand, clot scores were significantly higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging in the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns. The overall frequency of undetected SAH was 2% for FLAIR imaging and 14% for CT. With the exception of the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns, the frequency of undetected SAH was higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging. In this study, FLAIR imaging was more sensitive than CT for the detection of acute SAH within 24 hours after onset. However, the diagnostic efficacy of FLAIR imaging was reduced in comparatively tight cisterns.

  7. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages.

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra


    The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being.

  8. Health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic foot problems in Malaysia.

    Mazlina, M; Shamsul, A S; Jeffery, F A Saini


    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of foot problems on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with diabetes in Malaysia. Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess the HRQoL of 140 diabetic patients with foot problems attending outpatient diabetic foot clinic in a tertiary hospital, University Malaya Medical Centre. Their HRQoL were compared with 134 diabetic patients without foot problems attending the same clinic. The median score of all the eight SF-36 domains differed significantly between the two groups, where patients with foot problems having statistically significant lower scores. The two domains that were most severely compromised were components of the physical health: Physical Functioning and Role Physical domains. The SF-36 scale scores in diabetic patients with foot problems were also lower than those of the SF-36 norms for the Malaysian population. In conclusion, the results showed that diabetic foot problems negatively affect the patients' HRQoL in both physical and mental health aspects based on the SF-36.

  9. Health, work, and personal-related predictors of time to return to work among employees with mental health problems

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bültmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E.H.


    Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness.......41–0.94) and private sector (HR: 0.65, CI: 0.44–0.96) returned to work slower compared to employees working in the governmental sector. Gender, education, cohabitation, size of workplace, lowback and upper-neck pain and employment at baseline did not predict RTW. Conclusion: Our results indicate that time to RTW...

  10. Health problems presented to family practices in the Netherlands 1 year before and 1 year after a disaster.

    Soeteman, R.J.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dirkzwager, A.J.; Donker, G.A.; Veen, P.M. ten; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Zee, J. van der


    BACKGROUND: Disasters often have negative health consequences. Studies of health problems presented in family practice before and after a disaster are rare. The present study analyzed health problems before and after a disaster and predictors of increased morbidity after the disaster as presented in

  11. Risk score for predicting adolescent mental health problems among children using parental report only : the TRAILS study

    Burger, Huibert; Boks, Marco P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.


    OBJECTIVE: To construct a risk score for adolescent mental health problems among children, using parental data only and without potentially stigmatizing mental health items. METHODS: We prospectively derived a prediction model for mental health problems at age 16 using data from parent report on 167

  12. Doctor, can you spare some time? The role of workload in general practitioners' involvement in patients' mental health problems

    Zangtinge, E.M.


    GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological probl

  13. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen


    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  14. Low-Income Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Parent Confidence: The Role of Family Health Problems and Partner Status

    Ontai, Lenna; Sano, Yoshie; Hatton, Holly; Conger, Katherine J.


    Parenting confidence can be undermined by the presence of frequent or persistent health problems, particularly for people living in rural communities that have limited access to adequate health care. However, little is known about how minor health problems in the family impact parenting. The current study examined single and coresident mothers'…

  15. Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Costs from the Perspective of the Supplementary Health System

    Vanessa Teich


    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is defined as a “group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia”, representing the leading cause of death worldwide, with a high clinical and financial impact. In this sense, the development of economic studies assessing the costs related to the treatment of ACS should be considered.Objective:To evaluate costs and length of hospital stay between groups of patients treated for ACS undergoing angioplasty with or without stent implantation (stent+ / stent-, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and treated only clinically (Clinical from the perspective of the Brazilian Supplementary Health System (SHS.Methods:A retrospective analysis of medical claims of beneficiaries of health plans was performed considering hospitalization costs and length of hospital stay for management of patients undergoing different types of treatment for ACS, between Jan/2010 and Jun/2012.Results:The average costs per patient were R$ 18,261.77, R$ 30,611.07, R$ 37,454.94 and R$ 40,883.37 in the following groups: Clinical, stent-, stent+ and CABG, respectively. The average costs per day of hospitalization were R$ 1,987.03, R$ 4,024.72, R$ 6,033.40 and R$ 2,663.82, respectively. The average results for length of stay were 9.19 days, 7.61 days, 6.19 days and 15.20 days in these same groups. The differences were significant between all groups except Clinical and stent- and between stent + and CABG groups for cost analysis.Conclusion:Hospitalization costs of SCA are high in the Brazilian SHS, being significantly higher when interventional procedures are required.

  16. The emerging role of exercise and health counseling in patients with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy during outpatient management

    Jarden, Mary; Adamsen, Lis; Kjeldsen, Lars


    This study investigates the feasibility, safety and benefits of a 6-week exercise and health counseling intervention in patients with acute leukemia undergoing consolidation chemotherapy during outpatient management. Seventeen of twenty patients completed study requirements (85%), adherence...... to exercise was 73% and for health counseling 92%. There were improvements in the 6-min-walk-distance (p=0.0013), sit-to-stand test (p=0.0062), the right and left biceps arm-curl tests p=0.0002 and p=0.0002, respectively; health-related quality of life (p=0.0209) (FACT-An), vitality (p=0.0015), mental health...

  17. Resilience associated with mental health problems among methadone maintenance treatment patients in Guangzhou, China.

    Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao


    A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, ORu = 0.96 and 0.96, p resilience was independently associated with probable depression (ORa = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and anxiety (ORa = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Resilience was independently associated with depression and anxiety. As resilience is changeable, interventions targeting mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.


    Rekha S


    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The importance of the subject in lives of the people and the fact that much of the oral problems could be prevented by adopting simple measures to maintain the hygiene in the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral diseases, knowledge, and oral hygiene practices including health care seeking behavior, proper diet and oral habits for a healthy mouth of school children in Bijapur using a questionnaire and oral examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects for this study were randomly selected from three schools of Bijapur in the age group of 7-12 years. A total of 300 children were screened with the help of predesigned questionnaire and scored in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. RESULTS: Out of 300 students 37.33% of the children having oral problems belonged to the age group of ten. Out of 300 students 18% had carious teeth. Out of 300 students 67.67% brushed their teeth once a day. Out of 300 students 75.33% brushed their teeth in horizontal strokes only. A significant relationship was found between the frequency of brushing and the oral problems faced by the students. Chi-square test also showed a significant relationship between the type of strokes and the oral problems faced by the students. Out of 235 students who having oral problems, 80.43% did not visit the dentist for regular check-ups. CONCLUSION: The oral hygiene of school children in Bijapur was poor with oral diseases like discolored teeth, caries, and bad breaths, bleeding gums, mouth ulcers and malposition. A high prevalence of discolored teeth and caries shows a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to improve the oral health status of children in Bijapur.

  19. Conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking for mental health problems

    Rickwood D


    Full Text Available Debra Rickwood, Kerry ThomasFaculty of Health, University of Canberra, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Despite a high level of research, policy, and practice interest in help-seeking for mental health problems and mental disorders, there is currently no agreed and commonly used definition or conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking.Methods: A systematic review of research activity in the field was undertaken to investigate how help-seeking has been conceptualized and measured. Common elements were used to develop a proposed conceptual measurement framework.Results: The database search revealed a very high level of research activity and confirmed that there is no commonly applied definition of help-seeking and no psychometrically sound measures that are routinely used. The most common element in the help-seeking research was a focus on formal help-seeking sources, rather than informal sources, although studies did not assess a consistent set of professional sources; rather, each study addressed an idiosyncratic range of sources of professional health and community care. Similarly, the studies considered help-seeking for a range of mental health problems and no consistent terminology was applied. The most common mental health problem investigated was depression, followed by use of generic terms, such as mental health problem, psychological distress, or emotional problem. Major gaps in the consistent measurement of help-seeking were identified.Conclusion: It is evident that an agreed definition that supports the comparable measurement of help-seeking is lacking. Therefore, a conceptual measurement framework is proposed to fill this gap. The framework maintains that the essential elements for measurement are: the part of the help-seeking process to be investigated and respective time frame, the source and type of assistance, and the type of mental health concern. It is argued that adopting this framework will facilitate progress in the field by

  20. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    Harnett, P J


    The term \\'performance management\\' has an aversive \\'managerial\\' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an \\'image problem\\'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management \\'image problem\\' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  1. Self-reported occupational health problems among dentists in Himachal Pradesh, India: A descriptive survey

    Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available Background: Occupation-related health problems are associated with risk or danger as a consequence of the nature of working conditions. Unique working conditions in dentistry can affect the health of dentists. Aim: The aim of this study is to collect information from dentists in Himachal Pradesh concerning common occupation-related health problems, their knowledge and the precautions they commonly took to avoid such problems. Settings and Design: Questionnaire survey conducted on a systematic random sample of 465 dentists among 1395 dentists registered in the state dental council. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were sent by mail in September 2011 to systematic random sample of 465 dentists. The dentists were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it by mail using the stamped addressed envelope provided. Statistically Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago. Z test was used for statistical comparison. Results: The response rate from the dentists was 81.7%. The most common problem experienced was musculoskeletal pain (46.1% followed by allergic dermatitis of the hands (7.6%. Nearly, all of the respondent dentists wore gloves (100% and face masks (97.4% during work. 1/10 th respondents reported that they had received instructions or training through interactive workshops in occupational health and safety. Conclusions: There seems to be a substantial demand for continuing education on occupational health and safety among dentists in Himachal Pradesh. Hence, more emphasis on occupational health and safety is put into dental training with more continuing education activities on occupational health and safety to practicing dentists.

  2. Relationship between age at gonadectomy and health problems in kittens adopted from shelters.

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H


    Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24 months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed.

  3. Quality of health in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only: A NOPHO-AML study

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Glosli, Heidi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi;


    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors, and approximately 50% are cured with chemotherapy only. Limited data exist about their long-term morbidity and social outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare the self-reported use of health care services...

  4. Quality of health in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only: A NOPHO-AML study

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Glosli, Heidi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi;


    BACKGROUND: More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors, and approximately 50% are cured with chemotherapy only. Limited data exist about their long-term morbidity and social outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare the self-reported use of health...

  5. Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory health of children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms

    van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory sym

  6. Mental health problems of Iranian female adolescents and its association with pubertal development: a nationwide study.

    Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk


    Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  7. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

    Aria Sotoudeh


    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  8. Inquiry Learning of High School Students through a Problem-Based Environmental Health Science Curriculum

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Smith, Grant


    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which high school students improved their inquiry capabilities in relation to scientific literacy through their experience of a problem-based environmental health science curriculum. The two inquiry capabilities studied were scientific questioning and approaches to inquiry into their own…

  9. The problems of design and construction of health facilities in Angola

    Bindanda Antonio Afonso


    Full Text Available Angola is a country with great economic potential, which can contribute to the solution of construction, architecture and social problems of the country in case of rational use of financial resources. The author focuses on the negative factors that prevent the health authorities from the efficient construction of large hospitals and clinical facilities in Angola. Brief description of the Angolan population is given. The article provides a brief overview of the climate and overall social health problems. Basing on the stated goals, the following problems are considered: Features of architectural and planning decisions of clinical facilities and a brief description of the existing hospitals. The article deals with those minor progressive changes in planning decisions and in the siting of health facilities. Space-planning decisions, the most rational options and requirements for building new hospitals in Angola. The author indentified the main factors that influence architectural solutions for the design and construction of medical facilities. The most rational design options for clinic hospitals were determined. The objectives of the study were formulated with a view to identifying architectural solutions in the construction of new clinical hospitals. The main objective of the study is to improve health care in Angola. The problems are considered in order to identify rational architectural design of new clinical hospitals.

  10. Investigation of medical board reports of disability due to mental health problems

    Mesut Yildiz


    Conclusion: We think that this report might be helpful for regulations related to disabled people, and might guide adult psychiatric services for patients who present to medical boards for disability due to mental health problems. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 253-258

  11. Health related quality of life, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in children

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C.M.J.; Kooloos, V.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Kolk, A.M.; van der Laan, I.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Egeler, R.M.


    Background: This study was designed to evaluate generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive functioning and behaviour problems of children with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Furthermore, we investigated which medical determinants and social demographic facto

  12. Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Service Use in Dutch Young Adults

    K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)


    textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The s

  13. Physical health problems experienced in the early postoperative recovery period following total knee replacement

    Szötz, Kirsten; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hørdam, Britta


    BACKGROUND: The length of stay in hospital following total knee replacement is markedly shortened due to fast-track programmes. Patients have to be responsible for their recovery at a very early stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of physical health problems and the level...

  14. Clinical Problems in Community Mental Health Care for Patients with Severe Borderline Personality Disorder

    B. Koekkoek; B. van Meijel; A. Schene; G. Hutschemaekers


    The objective of this research was to assess the problems that professionals perceive in the community mental health care for patients with severe borderline personality disorder that do not fit into specialized therapy. A group of national experts (n = 8) participated in a four-phase Delphi-procedu

  15. Long-Term Mental Health Problems after Delirium in the ICU

    Wolters, Annemiek E.; Peelen, Linda M.; Welling, Maartje C.; Kok, Lotte; De Lange, Dylan W.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S.


    Objectives: To determine whether delirium during ICU stay is associated with long-term mental health problems defined as symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder.  Design: Prospective cohort study.  Setting: Survey study, 1 year after discharge from a medical-surgical ICU i

  16. Excessive Alcohol Use Can Be a Problem (A Minute of Health with CDC)


    Excessive alcohol consumption can result in severe health, social, and financial problems. It causes more than 88,000 deaths each year. This podcast discusses the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption.  Created: 3/30/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/30/2017.

  17. Excessive Alcohol Use Can Be a Problem (A Cup of Health with CDC)


    Excessive alcohol consumption can result in severe health, social, and financial problems. In this podcast Dr. Lela McKnight-Eily discusses the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption.  Created: 3/30/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/30/2017.

  18. Healing a Vulnerable Self : Exploring Return to Work for Women With Mental Health Problems

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla


    Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory

  19. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne


    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  20. Comparing the prevalence of mental health problems in children 6-11 across Europe

    Kovess-Masfety, V.; Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Otten, R.; Koç , C.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.


    Background: Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffer from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the cross-national prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6-11 across seven European countries including Italy, Germany, the Netherlands

  1. Mental health problems during puberty : Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan


    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.5

  2. Difficulties for University Students with Mental Health Problems: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

    Markoulakis, Roula; Kirsh, Bonnie


    Postsecondary institutions are witnessing an increase in the number and severity of student mental health problems, necessitating an understanding of the difficulties these students encounter in striving for higher education. The authors conducted a critical interpretive synthesis of 10 articles pertaining to difficulties experienced by students…

  3. Measuring the Self-Esteem of Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: Theory Meets Practice.

    Willoughby, Colleen; Polatajko, Helene; Currado, Catherine; Harris, Kathryn; King, Gillian


    Comparison of the self-esteem of 39 adolescents with mental health problems to that of a normative sample for the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results indicate no difference between the two groups' self-esteem following participation in a prevocational program. Dimensions of self-concept that are most important to the adolescent will…

  4. Parental Strain, Mental Health Problems, and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Study.

    Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy


    Although poor parenting practices place youth living in under resourced communities at heightened risk for adjustment difficulties, less is known about what influences parenting practices in those communities. The present study examines prospective linkages between three latent constructs: parental strain, mental health problems and parenting practices. Parental victimization by community violence and life stressors were indicative of parental strain; depressive, anxious, and hostile symptoms were indicators of parental mental health; and parental knowledge of their child's activities and child disclosure were indicators of parenting practices. Interviews were conducted annually for 3 waves with 316 female caregivers (92% African American) parenting youth in low-income inner-city communities. Structural equation modeling revealed that parental strain, assessed at Wave 1, predicted changes in mental health problems one year later, which in turn predicted parenting practices at Wave 3. These results suggest that parental strain can compromise a caregiver's ability to parent effectively by impacting their mental health. Opportunities for intervention include helping caregivers process trauma and mental health problems associated with parental strain.

  5. Canadians with health problems: their use of specialized services and their waiting experiences.

    Ho, Thi; Morris, Kathleen


    Improving access to healthcare has been a consistent priority for Canadians. In particular, reducing patient waiting times for health services has been a prominent policy issue. Across the country, governments are using a range of strategies to reduce patient waiting times for care, with a particular focus on reducing waits for specialized services. Although information is emerging on waits for selected procedures, there is limited information on whether the utilization of services or waiting experiences of Canadians with health problems are different from those of the general population. Data from the Health Services Access Survey (2001-2005) were used to compare waiting experiences for specialized services between adults with health problems and healthier adults. The specialized services included specialist visits for a new illness or condition, non-emergency surgery and diagnostic tests. National-level estimates revealed that adults with health problems were more likely to self-report that they required specialized services. However, the median waiting times for these services were comparable to those of healthier adults.

  6. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

    Barbara Padalino


    Full Text Available Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650 of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%; gastrointestinal problems (27%; pyrexia (19%; traumatic injuries (15%; and death (12%. Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p < 0.05; with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress.

  7. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia.

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary


    Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013-2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress.

  8. Agency problems of global budget system in Taiwan's National Health Insurance.

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the agency problem presented by the global budget system followed by hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, we examine empirically the interaction between the principal: Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) and agency: medical service providers (hospitals); we also describe actual medical service provider and hospital governance conditions from a agency theory perspective. This study identified a positive correlation between aversion to agency hazard (self-interest behavior, asymmetric information, and risk hedging) and agency problem risks (disregard of medical ethics, pursuit of extra-contract profit, disregard of professionalism, and cost orientation). Agency costs refer to BNHI auditing and monitoring expenditures used to prevent hospitals from deviating from NHI policy goals. This study also found agency costs negatively moderate the relationship between agency hazards and agency problems The main contribution of this study is its use of agency theory to clarify agency problems and several potential factors caused by the NHI system. This study also contributes to the field of health policy study by clarifying the nature and importance of agency problems in the health care sector.

  9. Consequences and Possible Predictors of Health-damaging Behaviors and Mental Health Problems in Pregnancy – A Review

    Ulrich, F.; Petermann, F.


    In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy. In addition, the characteristics of pregnant women which increase their risk of developing such behaviors or mental disorders are described. A better knowledge of these risks should make it easier for clinicians to identify cases at risk early on and put measures of support in place. A review of the literature has shown that certain characteristics of pregnant women (e.g. her relationship with her partner, a previous history of mental illness prior to pregnancy) are associated with various health-damaging behaviors as well as with impaired mental health. Affected women often show an accumulated psychosocial stress which was already present prior to the pregnancy and which may persist even after the birth of the child. PMID:27904164

  10. Building on a national health information technology strategic plan for long-term and post-acute care: comments by the Long Term Post Acute Care Health Information Technology Collaborative.

    Alexander, Gregory L; Alwan, Majd; Batshon, Lynne; Bloom, Shawn M; Brennan, Richard D; Derr, John F; Dougherty, Michelle; Gruhn, Peter; Kirby, Annessa; Manard, Barbara; Raiford, Robin; Serio, Ingrid Johnson


    The LTPAC (Long Term Post Acute Care) Health Information Technology (HIT) Collaborative consists of an alliance of long-term services and post-acute care stakeholders. Members of the collaborative are actively promoting HIT innovations in long-term care settings because IT adoption for health care institutions in the United States has become a high priority. One method used to actively promote HIT is providing expert comments on important documents addressing HIT adoption. Recently, the Office of the National Coordinator for HIT released a draft of the Federal Health Information Technology Strategic Plan 2011-2015 for public comment. The following brief is intended to inform about recommendations and comments made by the Collaborative on the strategic plan.

  11. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Cuzick, J.M.


    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  12. Developing a market orientation in the Health Service: a survey of acute NHS Trusts in Scotland.

    Laing, A W; Galbraith, A


    Argues that the introduction of the quasi market mechanism into the Health Service has required that managers within NHS trusts acquire new managerial skills relating to market operations and, more importantly, reorientate their organizations towards the marketplace. Examines the pattern of development which has occurred within acute trusts across Scotland in the past three years, and argues that managers in the majority of trusts have developed a remarkably robust and relevant conceptualization of the nature and application of marketing within the NHS, reflecting the difficulties managers have faced in selling the concept of marketing to a generally sceptical body of clinicians. Notes, in part owing to such professional scepticism, that the development of marketing as an implementable approach to operations has lagged significantly behind the managerial conceptualization, although this cannot be attributed solely to resistance from clinicians and other health care professionals. Rather, suggests that such limited progress in implementing a market orientation reflects a range of "structural" barriers, both within individual trusts and the specific market environment faced by trusts.

  13. Evaluation of sleep related breathing problems and sleep disturbances among health related employees at Fayoum University Hospitals

    Radwa Ahmed Elhefny


    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the daytime somnolence is common among health care workers followed by nocturnal sleep problems. Urbanization and large scale of industrialization can explain the incidence of sleep problems among rural living.

  14. Application and implications of Mental Health Act 2007 (NSW) certificate use in acute generalist settings.

    Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Sharma, Swapnil


    Objective This retrospective study aimed to explore the appropriate application and implications of Mental Health Act 2007 (NSW) (MHA) certificate use in a metropolitan generalist hospital in New South Wales. Methods A de-identified MHA certificate review was undertaken within acute generalist medical and surgical specialties between June 2012 and May 2013. To assess differences, data were separated into two categories according to whether certificates were completed by psychiatry trainees or generalist medical officers. Analysis of indications for detention was also undertaken and qualitatively matched against legislative criteria. Results A total of 43 MHA certificates were included in the review, which highlighted missing elements in most certificates. Differences were found when professional consensus by the researchers was used to match documentation to legislative criteria. The researchers disagreed with nine of the 16 indications (mental illness/mental disorder) by the generalist medical officers and only one indication by a psychiatry trainee. Six of the certificates appeared to be related to lack of capacity and need for treatment of medical conditions, thus more related to Guardianship Act 1987 (NSW) applications. Conclusion This study highlights inconsistencies in legislative knowledge and requirements between professional groups. Education and training opportunities have been identified to ensure greater consistency in application of the MHA, preservation of patient rights and avoidance of stigma. MHA use in this setting should be exercised with caution and by appropriately trained individuals. What is known about the topic? The MHA and its state and territory counterparts provide for the treatment, care and support of people who have a mental illness and the protection of a person's rights therein. Despite not being intended for application in generalist facilities, mental health legislation is widely used in generalist facilities and certificates are

  15. Study of health problems and nutritional status of tea garden population of Assam

    Medhi G


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assam is the highest tea producer state in the country. There is scarcity of reliable information on health and nutritional status among tea garden population of Assam to enable initiating public health response to their health needs. AIMS: To describe health problems and nutritional status among tea garden population of Assam. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional survey in eight randomly selected tea gardens of Dibrugarh district of Assam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of participants were recorded. Health problems and nutritional status were assessed through medical examination, evaluation of medical records, anthropometry and laboratory investigations. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Percentage prevalence; Chi-square test was applied wherever applicable. RESULTS: Out of 4,016 participants, 1,863 were male and 2,153 were female. They were mostly illiterate, and nearly 52.9% (1,197 of 2,264 of adults were manual workers in the garden. Alcohol and oral tobacco use were common. Prevalence of underweight among children was 59.9% (357 of 596, and thinness among adults was 69.9% (1,213 of 1,735. Anemia was widespread. Worm infection (65.4%, 217 of 332; skin problems; respiratory infections, including tuberculosis; filariasis were present in a significant way. Children suffered more in various diseases. Major noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, stroke were emerging in the community and were associated with modifiable risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use. CONCLUSION: Health status of the population can be ameliorated through better hygienic practices, environmental sanitation, creating health awareness, nutritional intervention and overall improvement of socioeconomic conditions of the population.

  16. Tackling racism as a "wicked" public health problem: Enabling allies in anti-racism praxis.

    Came, Heather; Griffith, Derek


    Racism is a "wicked" public health problem that fuels systemic health inequities between population groups in New Zealand, the United States and elsewhere. While literature has examined racism and its effects on health, the work describing how to intervene to address racism in public health is less developed. While the notion of raising awareness of racism through socio-political education is not new, given the way racism has morphed into new narratives in health institutional settings, it has become critical to support allies to make informing efforts to address racism as a fundamental cause of health inequities. In this paper, we make the case for anti-racism praxis as a tool to address inequities in public health, and focus on describing an anti-racism praxis framework to inform the training and support of allies. The limited work on anti-racism rarely articulates the unique challenges or needs of allies or targets of racism, but we seek to help fill that gap. Our anti-racism praxis for allies includes five core elements: reflexive relational praxis, structural power analysis, socio-political education, monitoring and evaluation and systems change approaches. We recognize that racism is a modifiable determinant of health and racial inequities can be eliminated with the necessary political will and a planned system change approach. Anti-racism praxis provides the tools to examine the interconnection and interdependence of cultural and institutional factors as a foundation for examining where and how to intervene to address racism.

  17. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Jean-Claude Moubarac


    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  18. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: cause for concern & call for action.

    Sunitha, Singh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna


    The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition), tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types) specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs) including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal) coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  19. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.


    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  20. Serological cross reactivity to CMV and EBV causes problems in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus infection.

    Hyams, Catherine; Mabayoje, Diana A; Copping, Ruth; Maranao, Desmond; Patel, Mauli; Labbett, Wendy; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern as a major cause of enterically-transmitted hepatitis worldwide. The detectable window of viraemia is narrow, and HEV IgM and IgG rise simultaneously in acute infection. Furthermore, previous investigators have shown HEV IgM false positive reactions occur against EBV, CMV and potentially hepatitis A. A retrospective analysis of HEV serology testing was performed at a London tertiary referral hospital over a 3-year period. A thousand four hundred and twenty three serum samples were tested for HEV serology, with 33 samples HEV IgM positive and 28 HEV IgM equivocal. One hundred and eleven samples were HEV IgG positive but IgM negative suggesting past infection. No patients with HEV IgM positivity had false positive reactions against hepatitis A. A high degree of EBV and CMV cross reactivity was noted, with 33.3% and 24.2% of HEV IgM positive samples also testing positive for EBV and CMV IgM, respectively. HEV RNA was detected in four HEV IgM positive samples, indicating true positivity, although three demonstrated cross reactivity against EBV. Only 13.3% of samples with positive HEV IgM were HEV PCR positive, highlighting a low positive predictive value of serology testing. Overall a high level of HEV, EBV and CMV IgM cross reactivity was demonstrated, indicating that serology is unreliable in the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. It is concluded that that the diagnosis of viral hepatitis should be based on clinical features, raised transaminases, serology, and confirmatory PCR testing.

  1. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi


    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  2. Acute Respiratory Infections In Underfives : Experience At Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Hospital. Ballabgarh

    Reddaiah V.P


    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the symptoms and signs with which under-fives with acute respiratory infections are admitted to a rural hospital? Objectives: i To analyse the symptoms, signs and diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Infections in under-fives. ii To compare the experience with WHO guidelines. Design: Retrospective analysis of under-five patients admitted with ARI. Setting: Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Hospital, Ballabgarh. Participants; Under-fives admitted with ARI. Outcome: Signs, symptoms, diagnosis of ARI. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis of findings. Results: 73.6% admitted were males, 63.2% were infants. The most commonly complained symptoms at the time of admission were fever (69.6%, Cough (63.2%, breathlessness (61.6% inability to feed (19.2 and diarrhoea (19.2%. 76.0% had crepitations, 26.4% had chest in drawing, 23.2% had ronchi, and 14.4%had respiratory distress. Only 33.3% had respiratory rate more than 60 per minute among children less than 2 months old, 56.9% had respiratory rate more than 50 per minute among children 2-12 month old. 54.3% had respiratory rate more than 40 per minute among 12 months to 5 years of age. 76% had pneumonias. The case fatality rate (CFR was 12.8% and most of the deaths occurred within 24 hours of arrival. The C.F.R was more in females and among young infants. Conclusion: Fever should be included in the lead symptoms of ARI along with cough and breathlessness. There is a need for looking at Respiratory rate for recognition of Pneumonias.

  3. Prediction of acute stroke progression by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

    Vinh Phuong; Tran Van Huy


    Objective To determine the occurrence of neurological changes during the first 48 hours after acute stroke as it relates to the initial stroke severity assessment. Methods The assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed serially for the first 48 hours on 68 consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Department of Geriatric Cardiology at the Khanh Hoa Hospital, Nha Trang, Vietnam. Incidence of stroke progression (a ≥ 3-point increase on the NIHSS) was recorded and analysis performed to determine its association with initial stroke severity and other demographic and physiological variables. Deficit resolution by 48 hours, defined as an NIHSS score of 0 or 1, measured the frequency of functional recovery predicted by the initial deficit.Results Overall progression was noted in 28% of events (19/68). Applying Bayes' solution to the observed frequency of worsening, the greatest likelihood of predicting future patient progression occurred with NIHSS score of =7 and >7. Patients with an initial NIHSS score of =7 experienced a 13% (6/47) worsening rate versus those of an initial score of>7 with a 62% (13/21) worsening rate (P<0.01). 42.5%(20/47) of those with an initial score of =7 were functionally normal at 48 hours, whereas only 4.7% (1/21) of those with scores of >7 retnrned to a normal examination within this period (x2, P<0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that the early clinical course of neurological deficit after acute stroke be dependent on the initial stroke severity and that a dichotomy in early outcome exist surrounding an initial NIHSS score of 7. These findings may have significant implications for the design and patient stratification in treatment protocols with respect to primary clinical outcome.

  4. Getting stuck in the blues: persistence of mental health problems in Australia.

    Roy, John; Schurer, Stefanie


    Do episodes of mental health (MH) problems cause future MH problems, and if yes, how strong are these dynamics? We quantify the degree of persistence in MH problems using nationally representative, longitudinal data from Australia and system generalized method of moments (GMM), and correlated random effects approaches are applied to separate true from spurious state dependence. Our results suggest only a moderate degree of persistence in MH problems when assuming that persistence is constant across the MH distribution once individual-specific heterogeneity is accounted for. However, individuals who fell once below a threshold that indicates an episode of depression are up to five times more likely to experience such a low score again a year later, indicating a strong element of state dependence in depression. Low income is a strong risk factor in state dependence for both men and women, which has important policy implications.

  5. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: a review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen


    Mental health nurses work with acutely unwell patients, and the busy setting is characterised by unpredictable events. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, analyse and synthesize research in adult acute inpatient mental health units, which focused on nurse-patient interaction. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1999-present. Qualitative studies published in English were included if they specifically investigated nurse-patient interaction in acute inpatient care in adult settings. Eighteen studies were included (23 papers). Findings were grouped into the following six categories: 1) sophisticated communication; 2) subtle discriminations; 3) managing security parameters; 4) ordinary communication; 5) reliance on colleagues; and 6) personal characteristics. These studies of acute inpatient mental health units reveal that nurse communication involves interpersonal approaches and modalities that exemplify highly developed communication and personal skills designed specifically for this challenging setting. Further quality research should focus on the conditions that enable the development of therapeutic interactional skills and the relationship of these skills to the nuanced context in which they are practiced.

  6. Health problems and stress in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing employees.

    Padma, V; Anand, N N; Gurukul, S M G Swaminatha; Javid, S M A Syed Mohammed; Prasad, Arun; Arun, S


    Stress is high in software profession because of their nature of work, target, achievements, night shift, over work load. 1. To study the demographic profile of the employees. 2. To access the level of job stress and quality of life of the respondents. 3. To study in detail the health problems of the employees. All employees working in IT and BPO industry for more than two years were included into the study. A detailed questionnaire of around 1000 IT and BPO employees including their personal details, stress score by Holmes and Rahe to assess the level of stress and master health checkup profile were taken and the results were analysed. Around 56% had musculoskeletal symptoms. 22% had newly diagnosed hypertension,10% had diabetes, 36% had dyslipidemia, 54% had depression, anxiety and insomnia, 40% had obesity. The stress score was higher in employees who developed diabetes, hypertension and depression. Early diagnosis of stress induced health problems can be made out by stress scores, intense lifestyle modification, diet advice along with psychological counselling would reduce the incidence of health problems in IT sector and improve the quality of work force.

  7. Health problems and stress in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing employees

    Padma, V.; Anand, N. N.; Gurukul, S. M. G. Swaminatha; Javid, S. M. A. Syed Mohammed; Prasad, Arun; Arun, S.


    Stress is high in software profession because of their nature of work, target, achievements, night shift, over work load. 1. To study the demographic profile of the employees. 2. To access the level of job stress and quality of life of the respondents. 3. To study in detail the health problems of the employees. All employees working in IT and BPO industry for more than two years were included into the study. A detailed questionnaire of around 1000 IT and BPO employees including their personal details, stress score by Holmes and Rahe to assess the level of stress and master health checkup profile were taken and the results were analysed. Around 56% had musculoskeletal symptoms. 22% had newly diagnosed hypertension,10% had diabetes, 36% had dyslipidemia, 54% had depression, anxiety and insomnia, 40% had obesity. The stress score was higher in employees who developed diabetes, hypertension and depression. Early diagnosis of stress induced health problems can be made out by stress scores, intense lifestyle modification, diet advice along with psychological counselling would reduce the incidence of health problems in IT sector and improve the quality of work force. PMID:26015763

  8. Problems incurred by agricultural pilots and its relations with occupational health and safety

    Mateus Zanatta


    Full Text Available This study assesses qualitative information from studies that address the problems incurred by agricultural pilots in the execution of their work, which may be related to the occupational health and safety. The aim is to investigate whether the evolution of the technologies used in agricultural aviation is accompanied by an improvement in working conditions. In order to achieve this, it was performed a systematic review through computerized search engines to gather existing information on this subject. Data synthesis included the exposure factors presented in work environment and their relations with occupational health and safety. The main problems associated with the health and safety covered in the studies includes exposure to chemicals, noise exposure and unfavorable thermal conditions, improper use or lack of personal and collective protective equipment, team management and occupational health management. Although they are not treated in more detail, other problems are presented in studies that evaluated the conditions of the work environment. These include training and education, working time management, shocks and vibrations, gravitational forces, personal relationships, weather conditions and pilot’s responsibilities.

  9. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    HA Qazi


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

  10. A study of health problems and loneliness among the elderly in Chandigarh

    Bhatia V


    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the health-related problems of the aged and why do they feel lonely? Objective: To study the health-related problems and loneliness among the elderly in different micro-environment groups. Participants: Aged persons of age 65 years and above. Setting: Urban and rural area of Chandigarh. Design: Cross-sectional. Statistical Analysis: t-test and Z test. Results: During the study, it was found that out of the total 361 aged persons of Chandigarh, 311 (86.1% persons reported one or more health-related complaints, with an average of two illnesses. The illness was higher among the females (59.5% as compared to males (40.5%. The main health-related problems were disorders of the circulatory system (51.2%, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (45.7%. It was also found that loneliness was prevalent more in females (72.8% as compared to males (65.6%. Loneliness was more prevalent among persons who lived alone (92.2% as compared to those who lived with their spouse (58.9% or when husband and wife lived with the family (61.4%. It was higher among the widows (85.2% and widowers (75.8% who lived with the family as compared to the aged who lived with the spouse (58.9% and the aged husband and wife who lived with the family (61.4%. Conclusion: Special geriatric services should be started in the hospitals as the majority of the aged have one or more health-related problems. The aged persons should be involved in social activities to avoid loneliness among them.

  11. The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces

    Thornicroft Graham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As with the general population, a proportion of military personnel with mental health problems do not seek help. As the military is a profession at high risk of occupational psychiatric injury, understanding barriers to help-seeking is a priority. Method Participants were drawn from a large UK military health study. Participants undertook a telephone interview including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ; a short measure of PTSD (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD; a series of questions about service utilisation; and barriers to care. The response rate was 76% (821 participants. Results The most common barriers to care reported are those relating to the anticipated public stigma associated with consulting for a mental health problem. In addition, participants reported barriers in the practicalities of consulting such as scheduling an appointment and having time off for treatment. Barriers to care did not appear to be diminished after people leave the Armed Forces. Veterans report additional barriers to care of not knowing where to find help and a concern that their employer would blame them for their problems. Those with mental health problems, such as PTSD, report significantly more barriers to care than those who do not have a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Conclusions Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatise mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Further interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring that Service personnel have access to high quality confidential assessment and treatment remain priorities for the UK Armed Forces.

  12. Prevalence of Mental Health problems in sentenced men in prisons from Andalucía (Spain

    M. López

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of different mental health problems in men serving prison sentences in Andalusia. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a random sample of 472 men interned in two prisons located in Andalusia. We collected socio-demographic and general criminal and penitentiary data, and we identified mental health problems with two validated instruments for epidemiological research in mental health: the SCID-I interview to diagnose Axis 1 disorders of the DSM-IV and the self-applied questionnaire IPDE to estimate personality disorders. We analyzed the data (proportions and confidence intervals with the SPSS-18 statistical package. Results: 82.6% of the sample had a history of having suffered some type of mental health problem throughout their life (prevalence-life and 25.8 have suffered from them in the past month (month prevalence. The most common disorders of the Axis I (DSM-IV are related to abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances (prevalence life of 65.9% and month prevalence of 6.6%, with an important but less frequent presence of affective (31.4%-9.3%, anxiety (30.9%-10, 4% and psychotic disorders (9.5%-3, 4%. As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% ("5" cutoff point and the 79.9 ("4" cut-off point. Conclusions: The male inmate population in prisons in Andalucía shows a high prevalence of mental health problems, similar to that found in other Spanish and international prisons, but their care needs should take into account the different pathologies that they present.

  13. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio


    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  14. Mental health problems and satisfaction with amount of state compensation for intentional violent crime victimization in the Netherlands.

    Kunst, M J J


    The current study explored whether self-reported mental health problems among victims of violent crime (n = 151) affect their ratings of satisfaction with amount of financial compensation awarded by the Dutch state and vice versa. This topic is important to address, because satisfaction is often used as an indicator of quality of victim services. Relying on medical literature about satisfaction with compensation in patient populations, it was expected that satisfaction levels would be negatively associated with mental health problems. Mental health problems were assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. A threshold of 11/12 on this scale was used to differentiate between victims with and without probable mental health problems. In line with expectations, victims with probable mental health problems reported significantly lower levels of satisfaction than those without. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding. Findings were discussed in light of study limitations and directions for future research.

  15. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    Silverman, Michael J.


    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: Will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recove...

  16. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    Silverman, Michael J.


    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recover...

  17. Computer related health problems among software professionals in Mumbai: A cross-sectional study

    Saurabh R Shrivastava


    Full Text Available Context: Computers have become an epitome of modern life, being used in every aspect of life. This has also ushered in a new genre of occupation-related health problem. Aims: To estimate prevalence of health problems among software professionals. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 4 months duration from January 2011 to April 2011 was conducted among software professionals working with a private firm. Materials and Methods: List of software professionals working with the firm was obtained and then all professionals satisfying the inclusion criteria were included as study subjects. Inclusion Criteria: working in current job since past 6 months and on computer for at least 4 h/day. The selected study participants were then interviewed face to face using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire after taking their informed consent. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17 using the chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of any type of computer-related morbidity in software professionals was 178 (89%. The proportion of visual, musculoskeletal, and stress was found to be 67%, 63%, and 44%, respectively. A statistically significant association was found between subjects with visual and musculoskeletal complaints using antiglare screen and soft keypads and those not using them respectively. Conclusions: Ocular discomfort, musculo-skeletal disorders and psycho-social problems form key category of health problems found among constant computer users. This study has also brought into focus factors contributing to the occurrence of these problems. Thus, the problem requires a multidisciplinary action and hence there is an immediate need for the concerned authorities to collaborate and enforce suitable preventive measures.

  18. Mental health problems in adolescence and the interpretation of unambiguous threat.

    Julie D Henry

    Full Text Available Aberrant threat perception has been linked to paranoia, anxiety and other mental health problems, and is widely considered to be a core, transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. However, to date there has been only limited investigation of whether mental health problems are associated with a biased interpretation of stimuli that have explicit (as opposed to ambiguous connotations of threat. In the present study, 41 adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness and 45 demographically matched controls were asked to provide danger ratings of stimuli normatively rated as being either low or high in potential threat. All participants were also asked to complete background measures of cognitive function, mental health and wellbeing. The results indicated that the two groups did not differ in their capacity to discriminate between low and high threat stimuli, nor did they differ in the absolute level of threat that they attributed to these stimuli. However, for the control group, the overall level of threat perceived in facial stimuli was correlated with two important indices of mental health (depression and anxiety. No associations emerged in the clinical group. These data are discussed in relation to their potential implications for the role of aberrant threat perception in transdiagnostic models of mental health.

  19. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms

    Noordhuizen JPTM


    Full Text Available Abstract Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  20. Mental Health Problems in Adolescence and the Interpretation of Unambiguous Threat

    Henry, Julie D.; Moses, Ernestina; Castellini, Julieta; Scott, James


    Aberrant threat perception has been linked to paranoia, anxiety and other mental health problems, and is widely considered to be a core, transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. However, to date there has been only limited investigation of whether mental health problems are associated with a biased interpretation of stimuli that have explicit (as opposed to ambiguous) connotations of threat. In the present study, 41 adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness and 45 demographically matched controls were asked to provide danger ratings of stimuli normatively rated as being either low or high in potential threat. All participants were also asked to complete background measures of cognitive function, mental health and wellbeing. The results indicated that the two groups did not differ in their capacity to discriminate between low and high threat stimuli, nor did they differ in the absolute level of threat that they attributed to these stimuli. However, for the control group, the overall level of threat perceived in facial stimuli was correlated with two important indices of mental health (depression and anxiety). No associations emerged in the clinical group. These data are discussed in relation to their potential implications for the role of aberrant threat perception in transdiagnostic models of mental health. PMID:26039081

  1. Online Information Searches and Help Seeking for Mental Health Problems in Urban China.

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Shizhan


    In recent years, the Internet has emerged as an alternative information source on mental health problems. Yet, the profile of the typical Internet help seeker is to be determined. Based on data from a household survey of 2558 Beijing residents, the study investigates online information searches and help seeking for mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regressions are estimated for respondents' access to the Internet, and mental-health-related information searches and help seeking on the Internet for the whole community sample and the most psychologically distressed subsample. The study identifies a digital divide in online help seeking for mental health issues based on age, migration and hukou status, and socio-economic factors. Youth and high socio-economic status are significant predictors of Internet access and use. Among the whole community sample, rural-to-urban migrants are less likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Among the most psychologically distressed subsample, urban-to-urban migrants are significantly more likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Given the shortage of mental health professionals in China, online information dissemination and guided self-help, if properly designed, could offer a means to reach large numbers of individuals in a cost-effective manner.

  2. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey

    Nerrière Eléna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Conclusion Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

  3. Interactive computerized learning program exposes veterinary students to challenging international animal-health problems.

    Conrad, Patricia A; Hird, Dave; Arzt, Jonathan; Hayes, Rick H; Magliano, Dave; Kasper, Janine; Morfin, Saul; Pinney, Stephen


    This article describes a computerized case-based CD-ROM (CD) on international animal health that was developed to give veterinary students an opportunity to "virtually" work alongside veterinarians and other veterinary students as they try to solve challenging disease problems relating to tuberculosis in South African wildlife, bovine abortion in Mexico, and neurologic disease in horses in Rapa Nui, Chile. Each of the three case modules presents, in a highly interactive format, a problem or mystery that must be solved by the learner. As well as acquiring information via video clips and text about the specific health problem, learners obtain information about the different countries, animal-management practices, diagnostic methods, related disease-control issues, economic factors, and the opinions of local experts. After assimilating this information, the learner must define the problem and formulate an action plan or make a recommendation or diagnosis. The computerized program invokes three principles of adult education: active learning, learner-centered education, and experiential learning. A medium that invokes these principles is a potentially efficient learning tool and template for developing other case-based problem-solving computerized programs. The program is accessible on the World Wide Web at International_web/international_menu.html>. A broadband Internet connection is recommended, since the modules make extensive use of embedded video and audio clips. Information on how to obtain the CD is also provided.

  4. Oral health status of patients with acute coronary syndrome – a case control study

    Ziebolz Dirk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this investigation was to assess the state of oral health of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and to compare this with that of a provably healthy control group (H. Methods 33 patients who were receiving treatment as inpatients following acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris took part in the study (ACS-group. A healthy control group (H-group made up of blood donors, was formed following matching for age, gender, and smoking habit with the study patient group. The dental investigation consisted of the dental status (DMF-T, a plaque-Index (PI, an assessment of gingival inflammation (GI and periodontal situation (Periodontal Screening Index: PSR®/PSI, and attachment loss (AL. Statistical evaluation: t-test, Mann–Whitney-test and chi- squared test (level of significance p  Results The mean DMF-T of the ACS-group (18.7 ± 6.8 and the H-group (19.4 ± 5.1 showed no difference (p = 0.7. Although, in the ACS-group the average loss of teeth (M-T: 8.4 ± 5.2 was higher than in the H-group (M-T: 5.8 ± 6.6 the difference was not significant (p = 0.2. Whereas with the PI no difference between the two groups was found (p = 0.9, the ACS-group showed significantly more signs of inflammation (GI than the H-group (p = 0.045. In the case of PSR®/PSI, there was no difference between the two groups (p = 0.7. With regard to AL, no difference was revealed between ACS- and H-group (p = 0.2. Conclusion Although, the state of oral health of the ACS-group differed only insignificantly from that of control, patients with ACS showed more signs of gingival inflammation and a higher loss of teeth.

  5. Mental health problems during puberty: Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    Albertine J Oldehinkel; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan


    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental health was assessed by the Youth Self-Report, pubertal (Tanner) stage by parent-rated drawings of secondary sex characteristics. Overall, higher Tanner stages were related t...

  6. Injuries and noncommunicable diseases: emerging health problems of children in developing countries.

    Deen, J L; Vos, T; Huttly, S R; Tulloch, J


    The present article identifies, for children living in developing countries, the major causes of ill-health that are inadequately covered by established health programmes. Injuries and noncommunicable diseases, notably asthma, epilepsy, dental caries, diabetes mellitus and rheumatic heart disease, are growing in significance. In countries where resources are scarce it is to be expected that increasing importance will be attached to the development and implementation of measures against these problems. Their control may benefit from the application of elements of programmes directed against infectious, nutritional and perinatal disorders, which continue to predominate.

  7. Problems

    Yekini Shehu


    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  8. Mental health problems and educational attainment in adolescence: 9-year follow-up of the TRAILS study.

    Karin Veldman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. METHODS: Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9 year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. RESULTS: Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model. When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11-4.83. Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83-5.32. Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25-3.94. For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. CONCLUSIONS: Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood.

  9. [Environmental spread of Taenia proglottids: an atypical yet interesting public health problem in schools].

    Dutto, M; Sapino, G; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A


    We report herein a new case of teniasis caused by Taenia saginata (tapeworm) in a pediatric patient with done-on-purpose dispersion of proglottids happened in an elementary school inside the health district ASL CN-1. This new case highlights how teniasis in children is not as rare, as it is not so rare dispersal of proglottids in the environment, made on purpose, by the same subjects that have been parasitized. The environmental dispersion of proglottids is an important public health problem that requires a rapid and joint management of the problem aiming to identify the parasite as quickly as possible, given the different pathogenic larval stage of three species of tapeworm that can infest the man.

  10. New approaches to divorce with children: A problem of public health

    Vezzetti, Vittorio Carlo


    This broad review elaborates on the most up-to-date knowledge on biochemical and psychobiological aspects of parental loss and other childhood adversities during divorce involving minor children. So far, divorce involving minor children was unfortunately considered by authorities only as a purely juridical problem, and this approach has often allowed a completely different approach according to the Courts. Now, scientific research, also making use of animal models, is demonstrating the biological basis of the problem and the indisputable consequences on the well-being and health of children. The innovative conclusion of this review is that this argument (because of its frequency and gravity) is primarily a question of public health and that it is necessary to further harmonize practices in this area. PMID:28070408

  11. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine


    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  12. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan


    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  13. Work-related health problems among resident immigrant workers in Italy and Spain

    Aldo Rosano


    Full Text Available

    Background: in both Spain and Italy the number of immigrants has strongly increased in the last 20 years, currently representing more than the 10% of workforce in each country. The segregation of immigrants into unskilled or risky jobs brings negative consequences for their health. The objective of this study is to compare prevalence of work-related health problems between immigrants and native workers in Italy and Spain.

    Methods: data come from the Italian Labour Force Survey (n=65 779 and Spanish Working Conditions Survey (n=11 019, both conducted in 2007. We analyzed merged datasets to evaluate whether interviewees, both natives and migrants, judge their health being affected by their work conditions and, if so, which specific diseases. For migrants, we considered those coming from countries with a value of the Human Development Index lower than 0.85. Logistic regression models were used, including gender, age, and education as adjusting factors.

    Results: migrants reported skin diseases (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.49; 95%CI: 0.59-3.74 and musculoskeletal problems among those employed in agricultural sector (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.69-1.96 more frequently than natives; country-specific analysis showed higher risks of musculoskeletal problems among migrants compared to the non-migrant population in Italy (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.48-1.59 and of respiratory problems in Spain (OR=2.02; 95%CI: 1.02-4.0. In both countries the risk of psychological stress was predominant among national workers.

    Conclusions: this collaborative study allows to strength the evidence concerning the health of migrant workers in Southern European countries.

  14. Health and the right to information: the problem of pesticide presence in food

    Teixeira T. M.


    Full Text Available This article analyses the current problem of pesticide presence in food from a perspective of a lack of information about products used in food production. The article establishes the assumptions of a directly proportional relationship between health and healthy eating, and the basic right of being informed about the food quality. It concludes with hypothesis and discus-sion on the reasons for this lack of information on the preparation of in natura food products.

  15. Strategies for biosafety and minimizing the risk of health problems in laboratories of a university center

    Kirchner, Rosane Maria; Loebens,Luíza; Scherer, Mônica Elisa; Ochôa, Priscila Ozelame; Chaves, Magda Antunes de; Silinske, Jaqueline; Soares, Adriana Ribas

    2013-01-01 project provided to study environmental risks triggering of aggravating health problems in Teaching and Research laboratories in a university center and to aware workers from these places in order to develop procedures to minimize the risk of personal accidents and environmental contamination. There were lectures, interviews, distribution of educational material and preparation of risk maps, which are displayed in each of the laboratories involved. ...

  16. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.


    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56…

  17. The role of somatic health problems in the recognition of depressive and anxiety disorders by general practitioners

    Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van Oppen, Patricia; van der Horst, Henriette; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.


    Background: Recognition of depression and anxiety by general practitioners (GPs) is suboptimal and there is uncertainty as to whether particular somatic health problems hinder or facilitate GP recognition. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between somatic health problem

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Mental Health Problems among Children with Hearing Loss

    Niclasen, Janni; Dammeyer, Jesper


    More knowledge is needed about the characteristics of mental health problems among deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) children. This study investigates the factor structure of one of the most widely used screening tools, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the prevalence of mental health problems among D/HH children. Our data were…

  19. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  20. Religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems and their parents : The TRAILS study

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.


    Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were as

  1. Exploring the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems in children: implications for measurement and practice.

    Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Vostanis, Panos; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda


    Quality of life is typically reduced in children with mental health problems. Understanding the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems and the factors that moderate this association is a pressing priority. This was a cross-sectional study involving 45,398 children aged 8-13 years from 880 schools in England. Self-reported quality of life was assessed using nine items from the KIDSCREEN-10 and mental health was assessed using the Me and My School Questionnaire. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status) was also recorded. Quality of life was highest in children with no problems and lowest in children with both internalising and externalising problems. There was indication that quality of life may be reduced in children with internalising problems compared with externalising problems. Approximately 12 % children with mental health problems reported high quality of life. The link between mental health and quality of life was moderated by gender and age but not by socio-economic status or ethnicity. This study supports previous work showing mental health and quality of life are related but not synonymous. The findings have implications for measuring quality of life in child mental health settings and the need for approaches to support children with mental health problems that are at particular risk of poor quality of life.

  2. Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score

    Pothirat C


    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Atikun Limsukon, Athavudh Deesomchok, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Nittaya PhetsukDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice.Objective: To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients.Methods: The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit.Results: A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.37–0.46 and 0.18 (95% CI, -0.23–0.60, respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19. There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6

  3. Mental health problems of young refugees: duration of settlement, risk factors and community-based interventions.

    Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Klasen, Henrika; Makatini, Zethu; Rahimi, Zohreh; Hodes, Matthew


    Little is known about the characteristics of young psychologically-distressed refugees in mental health services, and how they vary according to the duration of settlement. This study of 102 young refugees referred to a community-based mental health service describes past adversities and current circumstances, referral problems, service utilization and treatment outcomes using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The more recently-arrived refugees had significantly higher levels of close exposure to war and violence, were more likely to have suffered separation from immediate family and to have insecure legal status. Those refugees settled longer were significantly more likely to be referred because of conduct problems while there was a trend in recent arrivals to present with internalizing pathology. A comparison of the teachers' and parents' mean SDQ scores of the study's young refugees sample and a national study representative of Great Britain as a whole showed that young refugees have higher scores in total problem and all subscales scores than the British scores. Community-based mental health services for young refugees appeared effective - significant improvement was found in SDQ scores for the sub-group (n = 24) who took up the treatments offered. The implications are discussed for service development and practitioners.

  4. Quality of Life in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Problems: An Explorative Study

    Filip Morisse


    Full Text Available The field of intellectual disability (ID is strongly influenced by the Quality of Life paradigm (QOL. We aimed at investigating whether or not the QOL paradigm also applies to clients with ID and cooccurring mental health problems. This paper aims at stimulating a debate on this topic, by investigating whether or not QOL domains are universal. Focus groups with natural and professional network members were organized to gather qualitative data, in order to answer two questions: (1 Are the QOL dimensions conceptualized in the model of Schalock et al. applicable for persons with ID and mental health problems? (2 What are indicators relating to the above-mentioned dimensions in relation to persons with ID and mental health problems? The results offer some proof for the assumption that the QOL construct seems to have universal properties. With regard to the second question, the study revealed that the natural and professional network members are challenged to look for the most appropriate support strategies, taking specific indicators of QOL into account. When aspects of empowerment and regulation are used in an integrated manner, the application of the QOL paradigm could lead to positive outcomes concerning self-determination, interdependence, social inclusion, and emotional development.

  5. Relationship between Physical Disabilities or Long-Term Health Problems and Health Risk Behaviors or Conditions among US High School Students

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Lollar, Donald J.


    Background: This study explores the relationship between self-reported physical disabilities or long-term health problems and health risk behaviors or adverse health conditions (self-reported engagement in violent behaviors, attempted suicide, cigarette smoking, alcohol and other drug use, sexual activity, physical activity, dietary behaviors,…

  6. Biomass power plants and health problems among nearby residents: A case study in Thailand

    Chudchawal Juntarawijit


    Full Text Available Objectives: Electricity generation from biomass has become a boom business. However, currently, concerns over their environmental and health impact have emerged. This study aimed to explore these health problems by studying two small biomass power plants in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data concerning chronic diseases and health symptoms was collected from 392 people by trained interviewers by the use of a questionnaire. Results: Residents living within 1 km from the power plants had a higher prevalence of allergies (Odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0, asthma (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0-8.4. The risks of other symptoms, itching/rash, eye irritation, cough, stuffy nose, allergic symptoms, sore throat, and difficulty breathing among those living within 0.5 km from the power plants (OR = 2.5-8.5 were even more marked. Conclusions: It has been concluded that without a proper control, pollution from the biomass power plants can cause significant health problems to the nearby residents.

  7. Gambling participation and problems among employees at a university health center.

    Petry, Nancy M; Mallya, Sarita


    This study evaluated the frequency and intensity of gambling behaviors among employees at an academic health center. Employees were sent an anonymous questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, participation in gambling activities, and gambling-related problems. Of the 904 respondents, 96% reported gambling in their lifetimes, with 69% gambling in the past year, 40% in the past two months, and 21% in the past week. The most common forms of gambling were lottery and scratch tickets, slot machines, card playing, sports betting, bingo, and track. Only 1.2% of the sample reported gambling on the internet. Using scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, 3.0% of the respondents were classified as Level 2 (or problem) gamblers, and an additional 1.8% were Level 3 (or pathological) gamblers. Compared to Level 1 (non-problem) gamblers, Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers were more likely to be male, single, and employed full-time, and to have lower income and education. About half of the Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers reported interest in an evaluation of their gambling behaviors and treatment interventions. These data suggest the need to screen for gambling problems in health care professionals and to provide gambling-specific treatments.

  8. Are Men's Reproductive Health Problems and Sexual Behavior Predictors of Welfare?

    Amoo, Emmanuel O; Oni, Gholahan A; Ajayi, Mofoluwake P; Idowu, Adenike E; Fadayomi, Theophilus O; Omideyi, Adekunbi K


    The study examined men's reproductive health problems and sexual behavior and their implications for men's welfare in Nigeria. It used the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data set of 2013. The analysis used only male recode files, representing 17,359 males. The dependent variable is the computed wealth index, which was selected as proxy for welfare condition. Analysis involved univariate and multivariate levels. The findings indicated that 49.3% of the respondents currently have more than one sexual partner. The total lifetime sexual partner index identifies 70.2% of the men interviewed have had at least two sexual partners in their lifetime. It revealed that men who experience reproductive health challenges, such as sexually transmitted infections and genital ulcer, are 44% and 93%, respectively, less likely to enjoy good welfare condition. It also indicated that men in urban area are 7.256 times more likely to enjoy good welfare condition compared with their rural counterparts. There is a negative association between total lifetime sexual partnerships and exposure to good welfare. The study concludes that social workers, marriage counselors, other health personnel, and policy makers need to focus on the practice of multiple sexual partnership and reproductive health diseases as major determinants of men's welfare. The authors suggest that the index of welfare should include reproductive health issues and indicators of sexual behavior. Also, there is need for the establishment of specialized reproductive health care services and centers that are accessible to all men for effective servicing of reproductive health needs of men in the country.

  9. Development of quality indicators for monitoring outcomes of frail elderly hospitalised in acute care health settings: Study Protocol

    Travers Catherine M; Morris John N; Jones Richard N; Wright Olivia; Martin-Khan Melinda; Brand Caroline A; Tropea Joannne; Gray Leonard C


    Abstract Background Frail older people admitted to acute care hospitals are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including geriatric syndromes, although targeted care strategies can improve health outcomes for these patients. It is therefore important to assess inter-hospital variation in performance in order to plan and resource improvement programs. Clinical quality outcome indicators provide a mechanism for identifying variation in performance over time and between hospitals, however to...

  10. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.


    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  11. Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N; Hansen, A M; Ivens, U I; van Lelieveld, D; Malmros, P; Matthiasen, L; Nielsen, B H; Nielsen, E M


    During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of

  12. Do pollution time-series studies contain uncontrolled or residual confounding by risk factors for acute health events?

    Bukowski, John


    Acute health effects from air pollution are based largely on weak associations identified in time-series studies comparing daily air pollution levels to daily mortality. Much of this mortality is due to cardiovascular disease. Time-series studies have many potential limitations, but are not thought to be confounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking status or hypertension) because these chronic risk factors are not obviously associated with daily pollution levels. However, acute psychobehavioral variants of these risk factors (e.g., smoking patterns and episodes of stress on any given day) are plausible confounders for the associations observed in time-series studies, given that time-series studies attempt to predict acute rather than chronic health outcomes. There is a fairly compelling literature on the strong link between cardiovascular events and daily "triggers" such as stress. Stress-related triggers are plausibly associated with daily pollution levels through surrogate stressors such as ambient temperature, daily workload, local traffic congestion, or other correlates of air pollution. For example, variables such as traffic congestion and industrial activity increase both stress-related health events and air pollution, suggesting the potential for classical confounding. Support for this argument is illustrated through examples of the well-demonstrated relationship between emotional stress and heart attack/stroke.

  13. Clinical and Epidemiological behavior of Acute Dentoalveolar Abscess in Patients of the Health Area VII in Cienfuegos

    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán


    Full Text Available Background: acute dentoalveolar abscess is a dental emergency and one of the major condition affecting the population; however, there are few studies on the subject. Objective: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of acute dentoalveolar abscess in patients of the health area VII in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2013 in the Health Area VII, Cienfuegos. The universe consisted of 672 patients and the sample included 374 individuals selected by simple random sampling. Primary data recording and data collection was obtained from medical records prior informed consent of the patients. The main variables were age, sex, pulp irritating agents. Results: females were more affected with 55, 35% and the 19-34 year age group with 33.69%. The main pulp irritator was microbial, 59.36%. Among the iatrogenic factors, the remains of decayed tissues were significant with 32.35%. Conclusions: there is a high number of patients with acute dentoalveolar abscess, thus, as a dental emergency, the dentist should know the characteristics and factors that develop the disease to promote a comprehensive job in terms of health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of affected patients.

  14. Assessment of factors responsbile for climate change and human health problems

    Jena, V. K.


    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space. Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased PMs level in air. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Keywords: Climate change, responsible factors, health effects,

  15. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick


    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  16. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Sara Evans-Lacko

    Full Text Available A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems.Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34. This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems.These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  17. Current problems in national hospitals of Phnom Penh: finance and health care.

    Uy, Sophoat; Akashi, Hidechika; Taki, Kazumi; Ito, Katsuki


    The current problems in Cambodia's national hospitals subsist in a geographic imbalance in the location of staff and health facilities, and low staff motivation largely due to inadequate payment. This paper aims to investigate the associations among hospital performance, hospital finances, and other related issues in five national hospitals in Phnom Penh, using annual reports of the five hospitals and annual statistics of the Ministry of Health, from 2000 to 2004. The bed occupancy rates (BOR), average lengths of stay (ALS), hospital mortality rates (HMR), maternal and neonatal mortality rates, numbers of patients, main health problems of inpatients, numbers of health personnel, staff incentives, and annual hospital income were used in this study as indicators of five hospitals in Phnom Penh city. The ALS varied from 3.8 to 9 days. The numbers of health personnel (physician, medical assistant, secondary nurses, primary nurses, secondary midwives, and primary midwives) per 100 beds were from 114 to 282. Supplemental salary per staff also differed greatly among these hospitals; the salaries were the highest at Calmette hospital (US$ 212.8) and the lowest at Preah Kossamak (US$ 12.4). In the five hospitals, the average BOR was 58.8%, and the mean of total annual income was US$ 1,427,852 per year. Although not significant, there was a tendency for higher supplemental salaries to be associated with higher BOR (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0.70, p = 0.188). This study showed the differences in the hospital indicators among five national hospitals in Phnom Penh city, and the tendency of higher BOR in the hospitals paying higher supplemental salaries to the staff. Higher supplemental salary to the staff seemed to contribute the better hospital performance.

  18. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Walsh, Sophie D; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William


    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  19. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  20. Recording of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of COPD in UK electronic health care records

    Rothnie KJ


    Full Text Available Kieran J Rothnie,1,2 Hana Müllerová,3 Sara L Thomas,2 Joht S Chandan,4 Liam Smeeth,2 John R Hurst,5 Kourtney Davis,3 Jennifer K Quint1,2 1Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 3Respiratory Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Uxbridge, London; 4Medical School, 5UCL Respiratory, University College London, London, UK Background: Accurate identification of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD within electronic health care records is important for research, public health, and to inform health care utilization and service provision. We aimed to develop a strategy to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in secondary care data and to investigate the validity of strategies to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in primary care data. Methods: We identified patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD with linked Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES data. We used discharge summaries for recent hospitalizations for AECOPD to develop a strategy to identify the recording of hospitalizations for AECOPD in HES. We then used the HES strategy as a reference standard to investigate the positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of strategies for identifying AECOPD using general practice CPRD data. We tested two strategies: 1 codes for hospitalization for AECOPD and 2 a code for AECOPD other than hospitalization on the same day as a code for hospitalization due to unspecified reason. Results: In total, 27,182 patients with COPD were included. Our strategy to identify hospitalizations for AECOPD in HES had a sensitivity of 87.5%. When compared with HES, using a code suggesting hospitalization for AECOPD in CPRD resulted in a PPV of 50.2% (95

  1. The usefulness of circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems

    Hidekuni Inadera


    Full Text Available Because the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, one of the key targets of public health is obesity and its associated pathological conditions. Obesity occurs as a result of white adipose tissue enlargement, caused by adipocyte hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy. Recently, endocrine aspects of adipose tissue have become an active research area and these adipose tissue-derived factors are referred to as adipokines. These adipokines interact with a range of processes in many different organ systems and influence a various systemic phenomena. Therefore, dysregulated production of adipokines has been found to participate in the development of metabolic and vascular diseases related to obesity. The obese state is also known to be associated with increased local and systemic inflammation. Adipokines influence not only systemic insulin resistance and have pathophysiological roles in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, but also contribute toward an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Thus, circulating levels of adipokines can be used as high-throughput biomarkers to assess the obesity-related health problems, including low grade inflammation. This review focuses on the usefulness of measuring circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems.

  2. Long term GP opinions and involvement after a consultation-liaison intervention for mental health problems

    Passerieux Christine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared Mental Health care between Psychiatry and Primary care has been developed to improve the care of common mental health problems but has not hitherto been adequately evaluated. The present study evaluated a consultation-liaison intervention with two objectives: to explore long-term GP opinions (relating to impact on their management and on patient medical outcome and to determine the secondary referral rate, after a sufficient time lapse following the intervention to reflect a "real-world" primary care setting. Methods All the 139 collaborating GPs (response rate: 84.9% were invited two years after the intervention to complete a retrospective telephone survey for each patient (181 patients; response rate: 69.6%. Results 91.2% of GPs evaluated effects as positive for primary care management (mainly as support and 58.9% noted positive effects for patient medical outcome. Two years post-intervention, management was shared care for 79.7% of patients (the GP as the psychiatric care provider and care by a psychiatrist for 20.3% patients. Secondary referral occurred finally in 44.2% of cases. Conclusion The intervention supported GP partners in their management of patients with common mental health problems. Further studies are required on the appropriateness of the care provider.

  3. Smokeless tobacco: A major public health problem in the SEA region: A review

    Prakash C Gupta


    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand′s successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  4. Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence

    O'Sullivan Peter B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models.

  5. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S


    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  6. Differences in Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of ADHD Symptoms and Other Mental Health Problems

    Vaya Papageorgiou


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptoms and other mental health problems appear early in life and proper treatment is essential for a positive long-term outcome. The present study examines the level of agreement, and potential gender differences, between parents' and teachers' reports of ADHD symptoms and other mental health problems in 305 Greek children aged between 6-9 years. Methods: Parents and teachers of 147 boys and 158 girls attending the first three grades of 10 primary schools in the wider area of Northern Greece completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ- Goodman, 1997 and the Child Attention Profile (CAP- Barkley, 1990. Results: The level of agreement between parents' and teachers' reports was low to moderate for the SDQ (0.16-0.34 and satisfactory for the CAP (0.60-0.66. Parents reported more hyperactivity, emotional, and conduct problems than teachers according to SDQ and more overactivity and attention-deficit with hyperactivity according to CAP. Gender differences in ratings were found as well, since boys were reported as being more hyperactive according to SDQ and as having more overactivity and attention-deficit with hyperactivity according to CAP than girls. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of using multiple informants to gather data on disruptive behaviour through rating scales.

  7. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra


    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  8. Declining mortality following acute myocardial infarction in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System

    Piñeros Sandy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI is declining worldwide. We sought to determine if mortality in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA has also been declining. Methods We calculated 30-day mortality rates between 2004 and 2006 using data from the VHA External Peer Review Program (EPRP, which entails detailed abstraction of records of all patients with AMI. To compare trends within VHA with other systems of care, we estimated relative mortality rates between 2000 and 2005 for all males 65 years and older with a primary diagnosis of AMI using administrative data from the VHA Patient Treatment File and the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MedPAR files. Results Using EPRP data on 11,609 patients, we observed a statistically significant decline in adjusted 30-day mortality following AMI in VHA from 16.3% in 2004 to 13.9% in 2006, a relative decrease of 15% and a decrease in the odds of dying of 10% per year (p = .011. Similar declines were found for in-hospital and 90-day mortality. Based on administrative data on 27,494 VHA patients age 65 years and older and 789,400 Medicare patients, 30-day mortality following AMI declined from 16.0% during 2000-2001 to 15.7% during 2004-June 2005 in VHA and from 16.7% to 15.5% in private sector hospitals. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital effects, the overall relative odds of death were similar for VHA and Medicare (odds ratio 1.02, 95% C.I. 0.96-1.08. Conclusion Mortality following AMI within VHA has declined significantly since 2003 at a rate that parallels that in Medicare-funded hospitals.

  9. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse


    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran



    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  11. Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a health, nutriotial and social problem for children up to 18 years of age.



    Work specifies the problems of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 - of site for health, in nutrition and social problems. The theoretical part is characterized by diabetes mellitus type 1, its causes, symptoms, treatment with diet and takes into account the specific problems arising from this condition for age. The practical part comprises the results of the questionnaire survey, which focuses on the problems of diabetes mellitus type 1 in childhood, and the level of knowledge about diabe...

  12. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar


    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. PMID:27688627

  13. Using problem-based learning for occupational and environmental health nursing education: pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural workers.

    Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew


    Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

  14. Psychotic symptoms are associated with physical health problems independently of a mental disorder diagnosis: results from the WHO World Health Survey.

    Moreno, Carmen; Nuevo, Roberto; Chatterji, Somnath; Verdes, Emese; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis


    This study explored whether physical health problems are related to psychotic symptoms independently of a mental disorder diagnosis. A total of 224,254 subjects recruited for the World Health Organization World Health Survey were subdivided into those with both a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis and at least one psychotic symptom in the 12 months prior to the evaluation, those with at least one psychotic symptom in the past 12 months but no lifetime diagnosis of psychosis, and those without psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months and without a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis. The three groups were compared for the presence of medical conditions, health problems, and access to health care. Medical conditions and health problems (angina, asthma, arthritis, tuberculosis, vision or hearing problems, mouth/teeth problems, alcohol consumption, smoking, and accidents), medication consumption, and hospital admissions (but not regular health care visits) were more frequent in individuals with psychotic symptoms but no psychosis diagnosis, compared to those with no symptoms and no diagnosis. The number of medical conditions increased with the number of psychotic symptoms. Given the sample analyzed, this trend seems to be independent from the socio-economic development of the country or the specific health care system.

  15. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G


    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  16. Harmful rights-doing? The perceived problem of liberal paradigms and public health.

    Coggon, J


    The focus of this paper is public health law and ethics, and the analytic framework advanced in the report Public health: ethical issues by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics. The author criticises the perceived problems found with liberal models associated with Millian political philosophy and questions the Report's attempt to add to such theoretical frameworks. The author suggests a stronger theoretical account that the Council could have adopted--that advanced in the works of Joseph Raz--which would have been more appropriate. Instead of seeking to justify overruling the legitimate interests of individuals in favour of society, this account holds that the interests are necessarily interwoven and thus such a conflict does not exist. It is based on an objective moral account and does not require an excessive commitment to individuals' entitlements.

  17. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Helen Odell-Miller


    Full Text Available This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client group. To support these points of view, the article includes a case study showing a psychoanalytically informed approach in music therapy. This paper was given as a keynote address at the 1994 Australian Conference of Music Therapy.

  18. Problems in Using Diagnosis in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Research

    Leonard Bickman


    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a three-part study on diagnosis of children with affective and behavior disorders. We examined the reliability, discriminant, and predictive validity of common diagnoses used in mental health services research using a research diagnostic interview. Results suggest four problems: a some diagnoses demonstrate internal consistency only slightly better than symptoms chosen at random; b diagnosis did not add appreciably to a brief global functioning screen in predicting service use; c low inter-rater reliability among informants and clinicians for six of the most common diagnoses; and d clinician diagnoses differed between sites in ways that reflect different reimbursement strategies. The study concludes that clinicians and researchers should not assume diagnosis is a useful measure of child and adolescent problems and outcomes until there is more evidence supporting the validity of diagnosis.

  19. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N


    In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans......, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors...... causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal...

  20. Awareness, practices, and health problems of backpackers traveling during flooding in Thailand during 2011.

    Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Kusolsuk, Teera; Silachamroon, Udomsak


    During late 2011, Thailand experienced its worst flooding in 50 years with over 4.6 million people directly affected. During the flooding we conducted a cross sectional survey of backpackers in the Khao San Road area of Bangkok to determine awareness, practices, and their incidence of health problems during the flooding. A total of 422 subjects completed questionnaires which were analyzed. Seventy percent were European and 12.3% were North American. The overall median age was 27 years and the median stay in Thailand was 22 days. Most of the backpackers were aware of the flooding in Thailand; some had sought travel health information prior to their trip from various sources including the internet, their family physician or a travel clinic. However, even in travel clinics specific health advice related to flooding, such as leptospirosis risk/prevention, was rarely given to travelers. Fifteen point four percent of subjects (65/422) had come into contact with floodwater; 30.8% of those (20/65) washed their feet/legs afterward. Our findings indicate most backpackers were inadequately aware of potential health hazards, such as leptospirosis, during the floods.

  1. Early childhood caries in preschool children of Kosovo - a serious public health problem

    Meqa Kastriot


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been widely studied, early childhood caries (ECC remains a serious public health problem, especially in countries where there is no national program of oral health assessment and no genuine primary oral health care, such as in Kosovo. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC and analyze caries risk factors. Methods The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Prishtina, capital of Kosovo. Data were collected through clinical examination and interviews. Dmft data were recorded according to WHO criteria. Bacterial examination (CRT bacteria test and plaque test of Greene-Vermillion were used. Results The mean dmft of preschool children was found to be 5.8. The prevalence of ECC was 17.36%, with a mean dmft of 11 ± 3.6. Streptococcus mutans prevalence in ECC children was 98%. A significant correlation between dmft and S mutans counts (≥105 CFU/mL saliva was demonstrated. A correlation was also found between daily sweets consumption and dmft in children with ECC (P P Conclusion The prevalence of ECC was high among preschool children in the municipality of Kosovo. We recommend increasing parents' knowledge of proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and increasing preschool children's accessibility to dental services.

  2. Help-seeking for emotional problems in major depression : findings of the 2006 Estonian health survey.

    Kleinberg, Anne; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko


    To study help-seeking among the general population and people with major depression. 12-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18-84 years (n = 6,105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The factors associated with help-seeking, received help, and health service use were analyzed. The prevalence of 12-month help-seeking for emotional symptoms was 4.8%. The rate of 12-month help-seeking in the depressed sample was 34.1%. Depressed people used non-mental health services 1.5-3 times more than non-depressed persons even when adjusted for the chronic somatic disorder. Only one third of depressed persons sought help, which was most of all associated with severity of depression. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression leads to an increased use of expensive but non-specific health services by depressed persons.

  3. The problem involving OPMEs and the health plans contracts: outline and analysis of the issue

    MARTINS, Paulo Roberto do Nascimento


    Full Text Available This paper has as its scope to introduce and analyze some of most polemic issues involving the indications of OPMEs within the health plans contracts. During the text, are exhibited normative elements related to this context, as well as some judicial decisions concerning this matter, aiming to defend, with reasonable grounds, that the indication of the patient’s doctor, when choosing prostheses and orthoses, cannot be taken as the unique nor necessarily the best opinion, given the existence of other interests, beyond the patient’s health, that are often in stake as well. At the end, it is explained that, in light of the currently existing regulation in Brazil, in the context of the supplementary health system, to the patient’s doctor is given the authority only to indicate the characteristics of the materials needed, leaving it to the health plans Operators the choice of the brand and the manufacturer. As long as the courts deny these rules, this serious problem will not be solved.

  4. Study of epidemiological features of health problems in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in an urban community

    Manjusha K Deotale


    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is said to be universal reproductive phenomenon. Menopause although not a disease is associated with annoying physiological changes and varied symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, urinary and genital changes, dyspareunia, insomnia and many psychological dysfunctions such as anxiety, depression, lack of concentration and decreased self-esteem. Every woman's experience of the menopause is unique; she may experience all of the symptoms or none of them. Some find the transition barely noticeable while others find it life altering. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among peri and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years residing at Government colony, Bandra, Mumbai, Maharashtra for a period of 1-year. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used for collecting data. A booklet on "care during menopause" was used for giving health education. Results: In this study, mean age at natural menopause was 45.32 years (standard deviation ±2.79. Our study participants reported mostly muscular and joint pain (44.86%, urological symptoms (23.43%, vasomotor symptoms (21.14%, vulvovaginal symptoms (19.43%, psychological symptoms (15.14%, weight gain (14.86%, psychosexual symptoms (11.43% and hirsutism (1.43%. Conclusions: There is a necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to the problems of menopause with more stress on promotive and preventive interventions. There should be provision of relevant health services, health education and promotional activities to cope up with the health needs of women in their postmenopausal years.

  5. Oral health status, dental anxiety, and behavior-management problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad


    Mental disorders have been shown to affect children's oral health. This study was carried out to investigate the oral health status, dental anxiety (DA), and behavior-management problems (BMPs) during dental treatment in 6- to 9-yr-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study and control groups included 40 children with ODD/ADHD and 80 normal children, respectively. All participants received an amalgam restoration. During the procedure, the children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl Rating Scale and the Verbal Skill Scale. Parents rated their children's DA using the parental version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental subscale (CFSS-DS). Comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the gingival index and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth. The findings showed that DA and BMPs were significantly higher in children with ODD/ADHD than in the controls. Furthermore, the frequency of DA and BMPs was higher in children with both ODD/ADHD and a comorbid anxiety disorder than in those without comorbid anxiety disorder. Children with ODD/ADHD had significantly higher DMFT/dmft scores than those in the control group, whereas the difference in gingival index was not statistically significant. In conclusion, children with ODD/ADHD had higher levels of DA, BMP and poorer oral health status.

  6. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    Heinze, K.; Lin, A; Reniers, RL; Wood, SJ


    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (M age±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, M age±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months ...

  7. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh


    Full Text Available This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity for voluntary culling and has a negative influence on the subsequent productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is influenced by the interactive effect of environment, management, health, and genetic factors. In addition, diseases mainly affect dairy cow productivity by decreasing reproductive efficiency, shortening the expected length of productive life and by lowering milk production. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull dairy cows showing one or more of these problems is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is considerable debate among dairy scientists and bovine practitioners regarding the economic impact of these problems in a dairy operation and the most effective management or therapeutic intervention for treating them. Because of this controversy, dairy managers should focus on prevention and control of risk factors associated with each problem rather than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions.

  8. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  9. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study.

    Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Toben, Alexandra C; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J Glenn


    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.

  10. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan


    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings.

  11. Evaluation of a comedy intervention to improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems in a women's prison.

    Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire


    Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem.

  12. Cyber and traditional bullying victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems and suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Rienke Bannink

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. METHODS: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181. Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying

  13. A Nurse's Guide to the Acute Management of Suicidal Patients in the Student Health Center

    Baker, Howard S.


    The acute management of suicidal patients requires that the helper (1) be aware of feelings of anger and fear toward these patients and (2) try to understand the nature of the patients' depression and helpless feelings. (MM)

  14. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard


    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Affinnih, Yahya H


    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  16. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    Matsumoto, Kazunori


    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  17. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky


    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.

  18. Health problems among migrant construction workers: A unique public-private partnership project

    Balkrishna B Adsul


    Full Text Available Background: Construction sector is a booming industry and involves many hazardous activities. Migrant labor in the industry is susceptible to various health and occupational hazards. In a unique public-private partnership project, a medical team from a public sector teaching hospital in Mumbai provided comprehensive on-site health care services to the construction workers of a private construction company. Objective: To study socio-demographic profile and morbidity pattern of construction workers. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study at construction site Vidyavihar (West, Mumbai, was carried out over the period of May to November 2010. Materials and Methods: A medical team provided comprehensive on-site health care services, and a Health Card was devised to maintain the record of socio-demographic, occupational details, and complete physical examination findings of the workers who participated in the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 15.0. Results: Of the 1337 workers (all males examined, 1289 (96.4% belonged to 15-45 years age group. The mean age of the workers was 26.25 ± 8.49 years. A third of the migrants belonged to West Bengal. The average number of health problems in the workers was 1.41. Regular consumers of tobacco and alcohol were 50.48 and 14.65%, respectively. Nearly one-fifth of the workers had febrile illness, of which 20.71% had suspected malaria; 12.6% had respiratory infections, while 3.4% were found to have hypertension. There was a statistically significant association (P < 0.05 between type of occupation and morbidity status.

  19. Mental Health Problems Among Preschoolers in Germany: Results of the BELLA Preschool Study.

    Wlodarczyk, Olga; Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka; Kriston, Levente; Wendt, Carolin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike


    In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence rates of overall and specific mental health problems (MHP), as well as consequential impairments, were examined in a representative community sample of German preschoolers. MHP in 391 children were assessed by applying the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, as well as its impact supplement. Furthermore, the child behaviour checklist 1½-5 (CBCL 1½-5) and the IOWA-Conners behaviour rating scale were applied. Prevalence rates of MHP with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were determined. Odds ratios were calculated to analyse the relationships between MHP, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical region using logistic regression. Overall, 7.4 % of the children showed symptoms of MHP. 12.9 % of the children were considered to be impaired by psychosocial problems. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were present in 4.2 % of the children; 11.8 % showed hyperactivity symptoms. The observed prevalence rates call for early mental health prevention in preschoolers.

  20. Celiac disease in the developing countries: A new and challenging public health problem

    Francesco Cataldo; Giuseppe Montalto


    In the past, celiac disease was believed to be a chronic enteropathy, almost exclusively affecting people of European origin. The availability of new, simple, very sensitive and specific serological tests (anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium and anti-transglutaminase antibody assays) have shown that celiac disease is common not only in Europe and in people of European ancestry but also in the developing countries where the major staple diet is wheat (Southern Asia, the Middle East, North West and East Africa, South America), both in the general population and in the groups at risk. Gluten intolerance thus appears to be a widespread public health problem and an increased level of awareness and clinical suspicion are needed in the New World where physicians must learn to recognize the variable clinical presentations (classical, atypical and silent forms) of celiac disease. In the developing countries, both serological screening in the general population and serological testing in groups at risk are necessary for an early identification of celiac patients. The gluten-free diet poses a challenging public health problem in the developing countries, especially since commercial gluten-free products are not available.

  1. [Social anomie and the renewed increase of mental health problems at the work place].

    Carpentier-Roy, M C


    Several studies on mental health in the workplace show a renewed increase of mental health problems. These problems, related to workplace relations, present social causes of a much larger degree; for instance, the social anomy afflicting Québec is rippling through the workplace, much like what many other industrialized societies are experiencing during this end of century. The sensitive social balance, in principle under the responsibility of social institutions and government, has given business the opportunity to occupy a central position and become the major forum for an individual's search for identity. This centrality carries with it a certain number of strong contradictions and disappointments because, in spite of the rhetoric and its illusions, corporations are loyal to economic logic and take a perverse ownership of one of the individual's most important values, namely the quest and desire to be defined as a person and to be acknowledged as such. As a result, individuals often find themselves in a fragile state, at times even left with deconstructed psyches.

  2. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J


    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  3. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders.

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G


    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries.

  4. Assessment of arsenic contamination of groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh.

    Khalequzzaman, M; Faruque, Fazlay S; Mitra, Amal K


    Excessive amounts of arsenic (As) in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several biogeochemical processes are active among the region's various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.

  5. [Social inclusion of individuals with mental health problems: building social networks in everyday life].

    Salles, Mariana Moraes; Barros, Sônia


    The support of social networks is a fundamental aspect for the social inclusion of people with mental health problems. This study seeks to identify and analyze the difficulties and possibilities of users of a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) in building their extended social network. The qualitative approach was used as the research methodology and Ágnes Heller's concept about everyday life was used as a philosophical benchmark. The subjects in this investigation were frequenters of Psychosocial Care Centers with people from their social network. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for the data gathering and discourse analysis was used for examining the data. It was seen that although this population is living in the community it is frequently segregated and isolated from living together with other people, thereby leading to social exclusion. Nevertheless, CAPS are a space of belonging and welcoming that undeniably produce favorable changes in the users' lives. People with mental health problems have also been able to relate to others in CAPS. By using the available opportunities, they make new friends and maintain friendships they already had. Living with others in the community is highly conducive to the formation of relationships.

  6. A ten-year follow-up of human leptospirosis in Uruguay: an unresolved health problem

    Felipe Schelotto


    Full Text Available Leptospira spp. are delicate bacteria that cannot be studied by usual microbiological methods. They cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans through infected urine of wild or domestic animals. We studied the incidence of this disease in the Uruguayan population, its epidemiologic and clinical features, and compared diagnostic techniques. After examining 6,778 suspect cases, we estimated that about 15 infections/100,000 inhabitants occurred yearly, affecting mainly young male rural workers. Awareness about leptospirosis has grown among health professionals, and its lethality has consequently decreased. Bovine infections were probably the principal source of human disease. Rainfall volumes and floods were major factors of varying incidence. Most patients had fever, asthenia, myalgias or cephalalgia, with at least one additional abnormal clinical feature. 30-40% of confirmed cases presented abdominal signs and symptoms, conjunctival suffusion and altered renal or urinary function. Jaundice was more frequent in patients aged > 40 years. Clinical infections followed an acute pattern and their usual outcome was complete recovery. Laboratory diagnosis was based on indirect micro-agglutination standard technique (MAT. Second serum samples were difficult to obtain, often impairing completion of diagnosis. Immunofluorescence was useful as a screening test and for early detection of probable infections.

  7. Health problems and disability in long-term sickness absence: ICF coding of medical certificates

    Morgell Roland


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and to explore the distribution, including gender differences, of health problems and disabilities as reflected in long-term sickness absence certificates. Methods A total of 433 patients with long sick-listing periods, 267 women and 166 men, were included in the study. All certificates exceeding 28 days of sick-listing sent to the local office of the Swedish Social Insurance Administration of a municipality in the Stockholm area were collected during four weeks in 2004-2005. ICD-10 medical diagnosis codes in the certificates were retrieved and free text information on disabilities in body function, body structure or activity and participation were coded according to ICF short version. Results In 89.8% of the certificates there were descriptions of disabilities that readily could be classified according to ICF. In a reliability test 123/131 (94% items of randomly chosen free text information were identically classified by two of the authors. On average 2.4 disability categories (range 0-9 were found per patient; the most frequent were 'Sensation of pain' (35.1% of the patients, 'Emotional functions' (34.1%, 'Energy and drive functions' (22.4%, and 'Sleep functions' (16.9%. The dominating ICD-10 diagnostic groups were 'Mental and behavioural disorders' (34.4% and 'Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue' (32.8%. 'Reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders' (14.7%, and 'Depressive episode' (11.5% were the most frequent diagnostic codes. Disabilities in mental functions and activity/participation were more commonly described among women, while disabilities related to the musculoskeletal system were more frequent among men. Conclusions Both ICD-10 diagnoses and ICF categories were dominated by mental and musculoskeletal health problems, but there seems to be gender

  8. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace

    Brohan Elaine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1 employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2 factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3 whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4 factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1 expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2 other reasons for non-disclosure; 3 reasons for disclosure; and 4 disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes.

  9. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Anderson Hugh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  10. Learning styles, academic achievement, and mental health problems among medical students in Thailand

    Salilthip Paiboonsithiwong


    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various learning styles among medical students and their correlations with academic achievement and mental health problems in these students. Methods This study was conducted among 140 first-year medical students of Chiang Mai University, Thailand in 2014. The participants completed the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire, the results of which can be categorized into 4 modes, corresponding to how many of the 4 types are preferred by a respondent. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and the 21-item Outcome Inventory (OI-21 were also used. The participants’ demographic data, grade point average (GPA, and scores of all measurements are presented using simple statistics. Correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyze differences in the scores and to determine the associations among them. Results Sixty percent of the participants were female. The mean age was 18.86±0.74 years old. Quadmodal was found to be the most preferred VARK mode (43.6%. Unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal modes were preferred by 35%, 12.9%, and 18.6% of the participants, respectively. Among the strong unimodal learners, visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic preferences were reported by 4.3%, 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.1% of participants, respectively. No difference was observed in the PSS-10, OI-anxiety, OI-depression, and OI-somatization scores according to the VARK modes, although a significant effect was found for OI-interpersonal (F=2.788, P=0.043. Moreover, neither VARK modes nor VARK types were correlated with GPA. Conclusion The most preferred VARK learning style among medical students was quadmodal. Learning styles were not associated with GPA or mental health problems, except for interpersonal problems.

  11. Occupational Risk Factors and Health Problems Faced by Nurses that Working Dialysis Unit and Nephrology Service

    Mehtap Curcani


    Full Text Available AIM: This study is carried out descriptively with the aim of determining occupational risks the nurses working in dialysis units and nephrology services. METHOD: 47 nurses working in dialysis and nephrology units of the hospitals in Erzurum were included in the study content. In the collection of the data, questionnaire form prepared in the light of literature and including the preventions taken by nurses themselves or their organizations against the professional risks they faced, or personal problems the nurses experienced, professional risk or professional-personal features was used. RESULTS: In the result of the study, it was detected that 48.9% of the nurses was at 28-32 age group, and that 38.3% of the nurses graduated from nursing higher school, and that 72.3% of the nurses worked in dialysis unit. It was found out that while practicing their professions, the nurses expressed that infection risk (97.9%, stress (83%, verbal abuse (80.9%, psychiatric trauma (66%, allergic substance (63.8%, the noise (36.2%, and physical abuse (23.4% were the risk factors they raced in working medium .In the health problem seen in the nurses, in the first row is lumbago. CONCLUSION: In the result of the study, it was found out that while practicing their professions, the nurses expressed that infection risk was the highest rate among the risk factors they raced in working medium and, in the health problem seen in the nurses, in the first row is lumbago and that the nurses and organizations’ attempts which will reduce the risks were not sufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 339-344

  12. Effectiveness of Strengths-Based Case Management for People with Mental Health Problems in Hong Kong

    Kevin Y. C. Hui


    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of a 6-month strengths-based case management intervention with 45 Chinese participants with mental health problems in Hong Kong. Social workers provided service according to the strengths-based case management (SCM model developed at the University of Kansas. Changes in participants’ recovery components (Stage of Recovery Scale, mental health symptoms (GHQ, and satisfaction with life were assessed using a single group pretest and posttest design. Results suggest that participants had some improvement in their autonomy, hope, and overall well-being as well as satisfaction with life after receiving services. No significant improvements in the other recovery components and GHQ score were found. Significantly, a number of participants progressed from stages of being overwhelmed or struggling with disability to stages of living with or beyond disability. Strengths-based practice helped participants develop a transformed self which sees hope and possibility despite the vulnerabilities caused by their illness. Though further refinement and testing are vital, adoption of SCM in Hong Kong mental health services is promising.

  13. Stretching health diplomacy beyond 'Global' problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in.

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B


    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the 'globalization of social policy', global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as 'go to' personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation.

  14. Structuring policy problems for plastics, the environment and human health: reflections from the UK.

    Shaxson, Louise


    How can we strengthen the science-policy interface for plastics, the environment and human health? In a complex policy area with multiple stakeholders, it is important to clarify the nature of the particular plastics-related issue before trying to understand how to reconcile the supply and demand for evidence in policy. This article proposes a simple problem typology to assess the fundamental characteristics of a policy issue and thus identify appropriate processes for science-policy interactions. This is illustrated with two case studies from one UK Government Department, showing how policy and science meet over the environmental problems of plastics waste in the marine environment and on land. A problem-structuring methodology helps us understand why some policy issues can be addressed through relatively linear flows of science from experts to policymakers but why others demand a more reflexive approach to brokering the knowledge between science and policy. Suggestions are given at the end of the article for practical actions that can be taken on both sides.

  15. Health science education: reviewing a framework for problem-based learning.

    McCarlie, V Wallace; Orr, Daniel L


    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has become one pedagogical approach to gain currency in recent decades, its foundational underpinnings have remained obscure. This investigation seeks to elucidate the theoretical framework or assumptions upon which PBL operates. We have situated core PBL principles in the larger context of health science education, which underwent dramatic changes at the beginning of the twentieth century. The fundamental problem at that time in dental education was moving beyond a lecture-based and apprentice curriculum (students memorizing facts) to a critical thinking-based curriculum. We trace these developments and especially the principles that one thinker, who does not easily fit into any one school of thought, used to frame the problem. We found that the principles underlying the idea of PBL have existed for over a century in varying academic alleys outside of dentistry (including constructivist thought). Despite our technological advances, many of the core challenges of a century ago remain challenges today. Although PBL is certainly not the only way to provide dental students an opportunity to best develop critical thinking, it nevertheless provides an environment in which the learning process may be enhanced.

  16. What is important, what needs treating? How GPs perceive older patients’ multiple health problems: a mixed method research study

    Junius-Walker Ulrike


    Full Text Available Abstract Background GPs increasingly deal with multiple health problems of their older patients. They have to apply a hierarchical management approach that considers priorities to balance competing needs for treatment. Yet, the practice of setting individual priorities in older patients is largely unexplored. This paper analyses the GPs’ perceptions on important and unimportant health problems and how these affect their treatment. Methods GPs appraised the importance of health problems for a purposive sample of their older patients in semi-structured interviews. Prior to the interviews, the GPs had received a list of their patients’ health problems resulting from a geriatric assessment and were asked to rate the importance of each identified problem. In the interviews the GPs subsequently explained why they considered certain health problems important or not and how this affected treatment. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis and quantitative methods. Results The problems GPs perceive as important are those that are medical and require active treatment or monitoring, or that induce empathy or awareness but cannot be assisted further. Unimportant problems are those that are well managed problems and need no further attention as well as age-related conditions or functional disabilities that provoke fatalism, or those considered outside the GPs’ responsibility. Statements of professional actions are closely linked to explanations of important problems and relate to physical problems rather than functional and social patient issues. Conclusions GPs tend to prioritise treatable clinical conditions. Treatment approaches are, however, vague or missing for complex chronic illnesses and disabilities. Here, patient empowerment strategies are of value and need to be developed and implemented. The professional concepts of ageing and disability should not impede but rather foster treatment and care. To this end, GPs need to be able to

  17. Secondary analysis of data can inform care delivery for Indigenous women in an acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Bradley, Pat; Cunningham, Teresa; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia; Dunn, Sandra


    There is a paucity of research exploring Indigenous women's experiences in acute mental health inpatient services in Australia. Even less is known of Indigenous women's experience of seclusion events, as published data are rarely disaggregated by both indigeneity and gender. This research used secondary analysis of pre-existing datasets to identify any quantifiable difference in recorded experience between Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, and between Indigenous women and Indigenous men in an acute mental health inpatient unit. Standard separation data of age, length of stay, legal status, and discharge diagnosis were analysed, as were seclusion register data of age, seclusion grounds, and number of seclusion events. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and where warranted, inferential statistical methods used SPSS software to apply analysis of variance/multivariate analysis of variance testing. The results showed evidence that secondary analysis of existing datasets can provide a rich source of information to describe the experience of target groups, and to guide service planning and delivery of individualized, culturally-secure mental health care at a local level. The results are discussed, service and policy development implications are explored, and suggestions for further research are offered.

  18. Associations Between Stressful Events and Self-Reported Mental Health Problems Among Non-Western Immigrants in Denmark

    Singhammer, John; Bancila, Delia


    in a bilingual telephone survey on health among ethnic minorities in Denmark in 2007. Overall response rate is 52.1%. 3.997 individuals were selected for the present study. Self-reported mental health problems is twice as high among immigrants from Ex-Yugoslavia (24.6%), Iraq (30.2%) Iran (20.5%), Lebanon (27...

  19. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin


    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  20. Teacher Satisfaction with School and Psychological Well-Being Affects Their Readiness to Help Children with Mental Health Problems

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta


    Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were…

  1. Unlicensed Boarding House Managers' Experiences and Perceptions of Need in Residents with Mental Health and Substance Use Problems

    Deane, Frank P.; Tweedie, Rosemarie; van der Weyden, Chantelle; Cowlin, Feona


    Unlicensed boarding houses provide low cost accommodation for many people who have mental health and/or alcohol or other drug problems. The present study explored the needs and experiences of owners and managers of unlicensed boarding houses who have residents with MH and AOD problems. Twenty-three boarding house managers (BHMs) from Illawarra and…

  2. A longitudinal study of child mental health and problem behaviours at 14 years of age following unplanned pregnancy.

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Najman, Jake Moses; Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Bor, William; Clavarino, Alexandra


    A substantial minority of children are born as a consequence of an unplanned pregnancy. Yet little is known about the impact of unplanned/unwanted pregnancy (UP) on long-term health outcomes for children. This study aimed to examine the association between UP and child mental health and behavioural problems at 14 years, and whether this association is confounded or mediated by other variables. Data were from a pre-birth prospective study that included 4765 mothers and their children (48.4% female and 51.6% male) followed up from pregnancy to 14 years of the child's age in Brisbane, Australia. Child anxiety/depression, aggression, delinquency, attention problems, withdrawal problems, somatic complaints, social problems, thought problems, internalizing, externalizing and total problems were measured using the Achenbach's Youth Self Report at 14 years. Child smoking and alcohol consumption were self-reported at 14 years. UP was prospectively assessed at the first antenatal visit of pregnancy. UP as reported by mothers at first antenatal visit predicted elevated levels of problem behaviours and increased substance use in children at 14 years. The impact of UP on child mental health and problem behaviours is partly due to the confounding effect of other variables, such as maternal socio-demographic status, mental health and substance use during pregnancy. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanism of association between UP and child aggression and early alcohol consumption at 14 years.

  3. The Use of Social Marketing to Influence the Development of Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Public Health

    Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.


    In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…

  4. Health and nursing problems of elderly patients related to bio-psycho-social need deficiencies and functional assessment

    Muszalik, Marta; Dijkstra, Ate; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Zielinska-Wieczkowska, Halina


    Elderly population is characterized by larger need for social welfare and medical treatment than other age groups. Along with aging, there is a number of emerging health, nursing, caring, psychological and social problems. Complexity of these problems results from overlapping and advancing involutio

  5. Quality of life in relation to future mental health problems and offending: Testing the good lives model among detained girls.

    Van Damme, Lore; Hoeve, Machteld; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colins, Olivier F


    Detained girls bear high levels of criminal behavior and mental health problems that are likely to persist into young adulthood. Research with these girls began primarily from a risk management perspective, whereas a strength-based empowering perspective may increase knowledge that could improve rehabilitation. This study examines detained girls' quality of life (QoL) in relation to future mental health problems and offending, thereby testing the strength-based good lives model of offender rehabilitation (GLM). At baseline, 95 girls (Mage = 16.25) completed the World Health Organization QoL instrument to assess their QoL prior to detention in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Six months after discharge, mental health problems and offending were assessed by self-report measures. Structural equation models were conducted to test GLM's proposed (in)direct pathways from QoL (via mental health problems) toward offending. Although we could not find support for GLM's direct negative pathway from QoL to offending, our findings did provide support for GLM's indirect negative pathway via mental health problems to future offending. In addition, we found a direct positive pathway from detained girls' satisfaction with their social relationships to offending after discharge. The current findings support the potential relevance of addressing detained girls' QoL, pursuing the development of new skills, and supporting them to build constructive social contacts. Our findings, however, also show that clinicians should not only focus on strengths but that detecting and modifying mental health problems in this vulnerable group is also warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Fuller Jeffrey


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  7. Prevalence of Children’s Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions

    Noriko Kato


    Full Text Available The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children’s mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children’s mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children’s development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.

  8. Clinicians' and patients' experiences and satisfaction with unscheduled, nighttime, Internet-based video conferencing for assessing acute medical problems in a nursing facility.

    Weiner, Michael; Schadow, Gunther; Lindbergh, Donald; Warvel, Jill; Abernathy, Greg; Perkins, Susan M; Fyffe, Joanne; Dexter, Paul R; McDonald, Clement J


    Videoconferencing between patients and their physicians can increase patients' access to healthcare. Unscheduled videoconferencing can benefit patients with acute medical problems but has not been studied extensively. We conducted a clinical trial of unscheduled, nighttime videoconferencing in a nursing home, where on-call physicians usually provide care by telephone from remote locations. Although most calls for medical problems did not lead to videoconferencing, physicians and nursing-home residents were satisfied with videoconferencing when it did occur, and physicians reported that making medical decisions was easier with videoconferencing. Videoconferencing was most often conducted to assess residents with changes in mental status, abnormal laboratory values, or falls. Physicians often lacked immediate access to videoconferencing equipment when medical problems with residents occurred. This application could benefit from improved access and portability of equipment.

  9. Obesity as a clinical and public health problem: is there a need for a new definition based on lipotoxicity effects?

    Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio


    The risk functions for obesity (defined as the quantitative relation between degree of obesity throughout its range and the risk of health problems) have been used to define 'obesity' as an excess storage of fat in the body to such an extent that it causes health problems leading to increased...... of the multiple epidemiological studies of the risk functions. It is obvious from all these studies that the sizes of the fat depots are risk indicators of health effects in various ways. Paradoxically, the sizes of the fat stores are also indicators of the preceding implementation of the ability of the body...... of obesity to one based on better estimates of future risks of health problems derived from later metabolic dysfunctions rather than on the past coping with the exposure to the fatty acids by storage as triglycerides. Implementation of such definition would require a test that measures this residual capacity...

  10. Invited commentary: Interpreting associations between high birth weight and later health problems.

    Eriksen, Willy


    High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here.

  11. How mental health nurses improve their critical thinking through problem-based learning.

    Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju


    Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.

  12. How Community Organizations Promote Continuity of Care for Young People with Mental Health Problems.

    Polgar, Michael F; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Morrissey, Joseph P


    Young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who experience mental health problems experience transitions and need help from a variety of organizations. Organizations promote continuity of care by assisting young adults with developmental, service, and systemic transitions. Providers offer specific services to help transitions and also form cooperative relationships with other community organizations. Results from a survey of 100 service providers in one community describe organizational attributes and practices which are associated with continuity of care in a regional system for young adults. Data analyses show that full-service organizations which practice cultural competence offer more specific services that foster continuity of care. Larger, full-service organizations are also more likely to have more extensive and collaborative inter-organizational networks that help young adults continue care over time within the regional system of care.

  13. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Maj, M


    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  14. Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette


    UNLABELLED: The thesis includes seven published papers and an overview concerning the epidemiological aspects of mental health problems and psychopathology in children aged 0-3 years. The research behind the thesis focuses at psychopathology in the first years of life. The aim has been...... to investigate phenomenology, prevalence, risk factors and predictors, in order to contribute to the knowledge about early developmental psychopathology, and improve the scientific foundation for identification and treatment of mental illness of infants and toddlers, and optimize the foundation for prevention...... of neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship...

  15. Problem-Solving and Mental Health Outcomes of Women and Children in the Wake of Intimate Partner Violence

    John Maddoux


    Full Text Available The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly P<0.001 greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly P<0.001 greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women’s abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.

  16. The prevalence, management and outcome for acute wounds identified in a wound care survey within one English health care district.

    Vowden, Kathryn R; Vowden, Peter


    This paper reports the characteristics and local management of 826 acute wounds identified during an audit across all health care providers serving the population of Bradford, UK. Of the wounds encountered 303 were traumatic wounds and 237 primary closures with smaller numbers of other acute wound types. Of the 303 traumatic wounds 174 occurred in women (57.4%). Men predominated in the under 45s (65M:26F), this being largely accounted for by hand and finger trauma (n = 62) particularly in patients of working age (M32:F12). Women predominated in the over 65s (50M:130F), this being largely accounted for by lower limb traumatic wounds (M24:F91), the majority of these being in patients 65 and over (M14:F82). In this sub-group of 96 patients 25 had wounds of 6 weeks or longer duration, only 3 had undergone Doppler assessment and only 2 received compression bandaging. Typically these wounds were of recent origin and small in size (under 1 week and less than 5 cm2 in surface area) however exceptions occurred where 10 people had wounds over 25 cm2 in area while 3 wounds had been present for over 5 years. 101 (12.2%) of the encountered wounds were considered to be infected although the practice of wound swabbing in the presence of presumed infection seemed inadequate with 37.6% of all infected acute wounds not being swabbed while 97 non-infected wounds were swabbed. Where wounds were swabbed 4.5% were found to be MRSA positive. Across all acute wound types (with the sole exception of primary closures) antimicrobial wound dressings were the most prevalent form of dressing and covered 56 (55.4%) of all infected wounds.

  17. Transitions Into Food Insecurity Associated With Behavioral Problems And Worse Overall Health Among Children.

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Denney, Justin T


    Children living in food-insecure households face myriad challenges to their well-being. The Great Recession of December 2007-June 2009 increased food insecurity to the highest levels ever measured in the United States. Using nationally representative data from the period 2010-12 for 6,300 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, with household incomes below 300 percent of the federal poverty level and a dynamic measure of food insecurity transitions, we assessed the impact of transitions into and out of household food insecurity on the academic achievement, behavioral problems, and health status of young children. We found negligible impacts of food insecurity transitions on academic achievement in first grade. However, we found consistent negative impacts of the transitions on teachers' reports of children's externalizing behaviors, self-control, and interpersonal skills and on parents' reports of children's overall health status. Taken together, our findings underline the importance of food security for children's healthy development.

  18. Depression in late life: a hidden public health problem for Mexico?

    Wagner Fernando A.


    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most important causes of disability in the world, causes considerable suffering, and problems associated with depression are extremely costly to society. Depression is one of the most common and debilitating illnesses of older people that is frequently overlooked. The most recent epidemiological study in Mexico estimated the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes among people 18 to 54 years old to be 7.8%, only second to alcohol dependence (8.2%. A previous study found that older adults tend to have higher levels of depression than younger adults. There are important gaps of information about depression among the elderly. Along with refined measurement approaches, further research is needed on risk and protective factors for depression as these factors might highlight the areas that need to be targeted. Addressing depression among the elderly can significantly contribute in reduced health care costs, lowered disability, morbidity and mortality. This could yield important savings, freeing resources that might become available for the attention of important health care needs.

  19. Depression in late life: a hidden public health problem for Mexico?

    Wagner, F A; Gallo, J J; Delva, J


    Depression is one of the most important causes of disability in the world, causes considerable suffering, and problems associated with depression are extremely costly to society. Depression is one of the most common and debilitating illnesses of older people that is frequently overlooked. The most recent epidemiological study in Mexico estimated the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes among people 18 to 54 years old to be 7.8%, only second to alcohol dependence (8.2%). A previous study found that older adults tend to have higher levels of depression than younger adults. There are important gaps of information about depression among the elderly. Along with refined measurement approaches, further research is needed on risk and protective factors for depression as these factors might highlight the areas that need to be targeted. Addressing depression among the elderly can significantly contribute in reduced health care costs, lowered disability, morbidity and mortality. This could yield important savings, freeing resources that might become available for the attention of important health carè needs.

  20. Hot environment and health problems of outdoor workers at a construction site.

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa


    The aim of this research was to understand hot working environment at a construction site in summer and its effects on health of workers. In the subjective construction site, some measures, such as taking a break during work, setting tents and electric fans, and drinking cool water, had already been taken to reduce heat stress. Twelve male workers were examined. The WBGT outdoors during work varied from 23 to 34 degrees C. The time-motion study revealed that one subject worked exceeding 7 hours, and that the other one had little rest time and drank little water during work. Few items of subjective symptoms increased after work compared with before work. In blood chemical data, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen did not change. Blood sugar before work was significantly higher than before lunch and after work. Two subjects showed serum osmotic pressures increased after work. Two had the tendency to increase the blood pressure during work. The measures seemed effective, because the effects of work were not remarkable in general. However, some problems were still pointed out. Thus, stricter work control and health care for workers are necessary, such as controlling working hours strictly and monitoring the water intake during work.