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Sample records for acute allergic skin

  1. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types are atopic dermatitis (often called eczema) and contact dermatitis. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) Eczema is a chronic ... contact with your skin, they may cause a rash called contact dermatitis. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: ...

  2. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

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    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  3. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

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    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  4. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

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    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  5. The feline skin microbiota: The bacteria inhabiting the skin of healthy and allergic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Meason-Smith, Courtney; Johnson, Timothy J.; Mansell, Joanne; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Background The skin is inhabited by a multitude of microorganisms. An imbalance of these microorganisms is associated with disease, however, the causal relationship between skin microbiota and disease remains unknown. To describe the cutaneous bacterial microbiota of cats and determine whether bacterial dysbiosis occurs on the skin of allergic cats, the skin surfaces on various regions of 11 healthy cats and 10 allergic cats were sampled. Methodology/Principal findings Genomic DNA was extracted from skin swabs and sequenced using primers that target the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA. The bacterial sequences from healthy cats revealed that there are differences in species diversity and richness between body sites and different epithelial surfaces. Bacterial communities preferred body site niches in the healthy cats, however, the bacterial communities on allergic cat skin tended to be more unique to the individual cat. Overall, the number of bacterial species was not significantly different between the two health status groups, however, the abundances of these bacterial species were different between healthy and allergic skin. Staphylococcus, in addition to other taxa, was more abundant on allergic skin. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals that there are more bacterial species inhabiting the skin of cats than previously thought and provide some evidence of an association between dysbiosis and skin disease. PMID:28575016

  6. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

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    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  7. Frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens in allergic patients

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    Heriberto Camero-Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is deemed to have a worldwide prevalence ranging from 2 to 10 %. Objective: To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens by age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, prolective, observational study. Patients aged from 2 to 64 years with symptoms consistent with allergic disease were included. Skin prick tests were carried out with food allergens. Frequencies and percentages were estimated. Results: One-hundred and ninety-one patients were included, out of which 63.4% were females. Mean age was 22.5 years; 19.3 % showed positive skin reactivity to at least one food. Distribution by age group was as follows: preschool children 13.5 %, schoolchildren 24.3 %, adolescents 2.7 % and adults 59.5 %. Diagnoses included allergic rhinitis in 84.3 %, asthma in 19.4 %, urticaria in 14.1 % and atopic dermatitis in 8.4 %. Positive skin reactivity frequency distribution in descending order was: soybeans with 5.2 %, peach with 4.7 %, grapes, orange and apple with 3.6 %, nuts with 3.1 %, pineapple, avocado, tomato and tuna with 2.6 %. Conclusion: The frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens was similar to that reported in the national and Latin American literature, but sensitization to each specific allergen varied for each age group.

  8. [Frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens in allergic patients].

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    Camero-Martínez, Heriberto; López-García, Aída Inés; Rivero-Yeverino, Daniela; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Cristina; Vázquez-Rojas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is deemed to have a worldwide prevalence ranging from 2 to 10 %. To determine the frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens by age groups. Cross-sectional, descriptive, prolective, observational study. Patients aged from 2 to 64 years with symptoms consistent with allergic disease were included. Skin prick tests were carried out with food allergens. Frequencies and percentages were estimated. One-hundred and ninety-one patients were included, out of which 63.4% were females. Mean age was 22.5 years; 19.3 % showed positive skin reactivity to at least one food. Distribution by age group was as follows: preschool children 13.5 %, schoolchildren 24.3 %, adolescents 2.7 % and adults 59.5 %. Diagnoses included allergic rhinitis in 84.3 %, asthma in 19.4 %, urticaria in 14.1 % and atopic dermatitis in 8.4 %. Positive skin reactivity frequency distribution in descending order was: soybeans with 5.2 %, peach with 4.7 %, grapes, orange and apple with 3.6 %, nuts with 3.1 %, pineapple, avocado, tomato and tuna with 2.6 %. The frequency of skin reactivity to food allergens was similar to that reported in the national and Latin American literature, but sensitization to each specific allergen varied for each age group.

  9. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

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    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  11. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison

    2017-05-09

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  12. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Diesel

    2017-01-01

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to...

  13. Management of Acute Skin Trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel W. Beam

    2010-01-01

    @@ Acute skin trauma (ie, abrasions, avulsions, blisters, incisions, lacerations, and punctures) is common among individuals involved in work, recreational, and athletic activities. Appropriate management of these wounds is important to promote healing and lessen the risk of cross-contamination and infection. Wound management techniques have undergone significant changes in the past 40 years but many clinicians continue to manage acute skin trauma with long-established, traditional techniques (ie, use of hydrogen peroxide, adhesive strips/patches, sterile gauze, or no dressing) that can delay healing and increase the risk of infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss evidence-based cleansing, debridement, and dressing techniques for the management of acute skin trauma.

  14. A CLINICAL CASE OF ACUTE ALLERGIC MYOCARDITIS SIMULATING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

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    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of evolving acute eosinophilic myocarditis simulating coronary heart disease. Subjects and methods. Patient B. aged 62 years was admitted to Intensive Care Unit Fifteen, N.I. Pirogov First Moscow City Clinical Hospital, by being transferred from Thailand with a referral diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction made on November 1, 2012, with complaints of pressing and aching heart pains. At a Phuket hospital, his electrocardiogram recorded atrial fibrillation; indirect cardiac massage, electric pulse therapy, and mechanical ventilation were performed. After being admitted to the N.I. Pirogov First Moscow City Clinical Hospital, the patient underwent examination: estimation of laboratory indicators over time, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, Holter ECG monitoring, and myocardial scintigraphy. Results. The patient had a history of an allergic reaction as urticaria to the ingestion of fish products. His examination showed practically all diagnostic criteria for allergic myocarditis: hypereosinophilia (the admission level of eosinophils was 9% with their further normalization; the characteristic clinical presentation of myocarditis (pressing retrosternal pain; elevated levels of cardiac specific enzymes (creatinine phosphokinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin T; ECG changes – myocardial hypokinesis in the acute period, followed by its pattern normalization. of the pattern. Myocardial scintigraphy (by taking into account the fact that the patient had had a new allergic reaction episode, the investigators decided not to perform coronary angiography revealed decreased radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the lower left ventricular wall in the right coronary arterial bed; perfusion remained in the other myocardial walls. Conclusion. This clinical case reflects the specific features of the course of and difficulties in the diagnosis of acute allergic myocarditis that, in most cases, has no specific

  15. [Examination of acute phase proteins concentrations in children with allergic rhinitis].

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    Steiner, Iwona; Sobieska, Magdalena; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of upper respiratory tract (about 15 per cent of the population in industrialized countries suffer from this condition), characterized by frequent sneezing and a runny or stuffy nose sometimes accompanied by watery eyes. As the most common allergic condition, allergic rhinitis affects people of all ages. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls. The median age of onset of the condition is 10 years old, meaning that equal numbers of children develop the condition before and after age 10. Symptoms usually appear in childhood first and then lessen by the age of 30 or 40. Seasonal allergic rhinitis usually results from tree, grass or weed pollen. With this type of rhinitis, symptoms will decrease with the arrival of cold weather. Perennial allergic rhinitis can cause year-round symptoms. This allergic reaction is the result of indoor irritants such as feathers, mold spores, animal dander (hair and skin shed by pets) or dust mites. It is often aggravated by a food allergy, the most common being an allergy to milk. Acute phase proteins (APP) belong to the most ancient part of the unspecific immunity and contribute markedly to the keeping of homeostasis. As much as 30 various proteins are for the moment regarded as APP. Being multifunctional regulators and effectors APP stay in multiple relations to practically all types of cells and molecules. Among APP following functional groups may be described: transport proteins (transferrin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin), clotting factors (fibrinogen), antiproteases (alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin), complement components (C3, C4) and several proteins of hardly known function, like C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A, acid alpha1-glycoprotein (AGP) and others. From a group of 32 children, aged from 5 to 14 years, with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and from a control group of 10 healthy children sex and age matched

  16. Influence of skin peeling procedure in allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in patients who have previously undergone skin peeling has been rarely studied. We compared the frequency of positive patch test (PT) reactions in a patient group with a history of peeling, to that of a control group with no history of peeling. The Korean standard series and cosmetic series were performed on a total of 262 patients. 62 patients had previously undergone peeling and 200 patients did not. The frequency of positive PT reactions on Korean standard series was significantly higher in the peeling group compared with that of the control group (P peeling group was higher than that of the control group, but lacked statistical significance. The frequency (%) of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the high-frequency peel group was higher than that of the low-frequency group, but lacked statistical significance. It appears peeling may not generally affect the development of contact sensitization. Further work is required focusing on the large-scale prospective studies by performing a PT before and after peeling.

  17. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-01-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances

  18. Memory and multitasking performance during acute allergic inflammation in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

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    Trikojat, K; Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Plessow, F; Schmitt, J; Fischer, R

    2017-04-01

    In previous research, patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) showed poorer school and work performance during periods of acute allergic inflammation, supporting the idea of an impact of SAR on cognitive functions. However, the specific cognitive domains particularly vulnerable to inflammatory processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of SAR on memory and multitasking performance, as two potentially vulnerable cognitive domains essential in everyday life functioning, was investigated in patients with SAR. Non-medicated patients with SAR (n = 41) and healthy non-allergic controls (n = 42) performed a dual-task paradigm and a verbal learning and memory test during and out of symptomatic allergy periods (pollen vs. non-pollen season). Disease-related factors (e.g. symptom severity, duration of symptoms, duration of disease) and allergy-related quality of life were evaluated as potential influences of cognitive performance. During the symptomatic allergy period, patients showed (1) poorer performance in word list-based learning (P = 0.028) and (2) a general slowing in processing speed (P multitasking. Yet, typical parameters indicating specific multitasking costs were not affected. A significant negative association was found between learning performance and duration of disease (r = -0.451, P = 0.004), whereas symptom severity (r = 0.326; P = 0.037) and quality of life (r = 0.379; P = 0.015) were positively associated with multitasking strategy. Our findings suggest that SAR has a differentiated and complex impact on cognitive functions, which should be considered in the management of SAR symptoms. They also call attention to the importance of selecting sensitive measures and carefully interpreting cognitive outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Interleukin 4-producing CD4+ T cells in the skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

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    Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T

    2002-03-01

    Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.

  20. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  1. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  2. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT...

  3. WILDE,OSCAR SKIN-DISEASE - ALLERGIC CONTACT-DERMATITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NATER, JP

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly

  4. Skin breakdown in acute care pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddaby, Elizabeth C; Barnett, Scott D; Facteau, Lorna

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, single-page measurement tool that evaluates risk of skin breakdown in the peadiatric population and apply it to the acutely hospitalized child. Data were collected over a 15-month period from 347 patients on four in-patient units (PICU, medical-surgical, oncology, and adolescents) on skin breakdown using the AHCPR staging guidelines and compared to the total score on the Starkid SkinScale in order to determine its ability to predict skin breakdown. The inter-rater reliability of the Starkid Skin Scale was r2 = 0.85 with an internal reliablity of 0.71. The sensitivity of the total score was low (17.5%) but highly specific (98.5%). The prevalence of skin breakdown in the acutely hospitalized child was 23%, the majority (77.5%) occurring as erythema of the skin. Buttocks, perineum, and occiput were the most common locations of breakdown. Occiput breakdown was more common in critically ill (PICU) patients while diaper dermatitis was more common in the general medical-surgical population.

  5. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

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    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  6. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2006-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2005. Although studies documented deficiencies in community management of anaphylaxis, guidelines and National Institutes of Health summary reports provide direction toward improved research and education. At least 9% of young children "outgrow" a tree nut allergy. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include reports of probability of reactions to peanut at various peanut-specific IgE concentrations and skin test response size and the utility of evaluating IgE binding to specific epitopes. Future food allergy treatments might include selection of "less allergenic" fruit cultivars, genetic silencing of major allergens, and treatment of allergic patients with Chinese herbal remedies. Osteopontin might be a useful biomarker for success of venom immunotherapy. Progress in our understanding of the immunology of atopic dermatitis and autoimmune urticaria has also been made. These observations will likely contribute toward optimizing management of these common allergic disorders.

  7. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Allergic complications of L-asparaginase therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinidis Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-asparaginase (L-ASP is one of the most effective medications for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL in children, and allergic reactions to the therapy are considered the most significant side effects. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of allergic reactions, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the development of allergic reactions during L-ASP therapy in children with ALL. Methods. The study encompassed 70 patients under 18 years of age, who were treated at the Institute for Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, Novi Sad in the period January 2000 - June 2009. We analyzed the frequency and type of allergic reactions during the administration of L-ASP, the onset of allergic reaction in relation to the phase of therapy of underlying disease, as well as the prevalence of allergic reactions in relation to drug administration method. Results. Allergic reaction manifested in 17 patients (24%. In 14 patients (82% allergic reaction to L-ASP manifested as urticaria, bronchospasm or anaphylaxis, whereas a mild local reaction was observed in only three patients (18%. In a group treated, according to the high-risk protocol, the prevalence of allergic reactions was statistically significantly higher in the intermediate-risk group of patients (p<0.01, i.e. statistically significantly more frequent, as compared to the standard-risk group of patients (p<0.05. The majority of patients (11; 65% developed allergic reactions to the 9th dose of L-ASP, i.e. the first dose during the reinduction phase. The time interval between the last L-ASP dose in the induction phase and the 1st dose in the reinduction phase was at least four weeks. With respect to administration method, the majority of patients (16; 94% developed allergic reaction after intravenous application of L-ASP. Conclusion. Potential risk factors for the development of allergic reaction to L-ASP are a high-risk therapy

  9. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis: A commentary on the relationship between T lymphocytes and skin sensitising potency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, Ian; Maxwell, Gavin; Gilmour, Nicky; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Friedmann, Peter S.; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    T lymphocytes mediate skin sensitisation and allergic contact dermatitis. Not unexpectedly, therefore, there is considerable interest in the use of T lymphocyte-based assays as alternative strategies for the identification of skin sensitising chemicals. However, in addition to accurate identification of hazards the development of effective risk assessments requires that information is available about the relative skin sensitising potency of contact allergens. The purpose of this article is to consider the relationships that exist between the characteristics of T lymphocyte responses to contact allergens and the effectiveness/potency of sensitisation. We propose that there are 3 aspects of T lymphocyte responses that have the potential to impact on the potency of sensitisation. These are: (a) the magnitude of response, and in particular the vigour and duration of proliferation and the clonal expansion of allergen-reactive T lymphocytes, (b) the quality of response, including the balance achieved between effector and regulatory cells, and (c) the breadth of response and the clonal diversity of T lymphocyte responses. A case is made that there may be opportunities to exploit an understanding of T lymphocyte responses to contact allergens to develop novel paradigms for predicting skin sensitising potency and new approaches to risk assessment.

  11. Juvenile allergic urethritis with urethro-ejaculatory reflux presenting as acute intermittent bilateral testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramnik V; Brimioulle, Marina; Govani, Dhaval; Youssef, Talaat

    2015-07-06

    We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery. Allergic urethritis in association with bilateral UER causing secondary seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis is rare. It presented as acute scrotum and responded to innovative treatment. Allergic disease can have a dramatic effect on a child's quality of life. This is the first documented case of allergic urethritis and associated UER presenting as juvenile acute scrotum. Steroids, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents together with avoidance of the allergen helped achieve recovery. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  13. Parvalbumin in fish skin-derived gelatin: is there a risk for fish allergic consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, S J; Nordlee, J A; Lee, P-W; Happe, R P; Hessing, M; Norland, R; Manning, T; Deschene, R; De Jong, G A H; Taylor, S L

    2012-01-01

    The major allergen parvalbumin was purified from cod muscle tissues, and polyclonal antibodies were raised towards it. The antibodies were tested for specificity and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using these antibodies. The ELISA was applied to measure parvalbumin in cod skin, the starting material for fish gelatin made from deep sea, wild fish. The ELISA was sufficiently sensitive (LLOQ = 0.8 ng ml(-1) in extracts, corresponding to 0.02 µg of parvalbumin per g of tissue), and did not cross-react with common food constituents. Fish gelatin, wine and beer, matrices for the potential use of this ELISA, did not cause disturbance of the assay performance. The data show that the parvalbumin content in cod muscle tissue is 6.25 mg g(-1), while the skins contained considerably less, 0.4 mg g(-1). Washing of the skins, a common industrial procedure during the manufacturing of fish gelatin, reduced the level of parvalbumin about 1000-fold to 0.5 µg g(-1), or 0.5 ppm. From 95 commercial lots of fish gelatin it is shown that 73 are below 0.02 µg g(-1) parvalbumin. From the other 22 lots, the one with the highest concentration contained 0.15 µg g(-1) of parvalbumin. These levels are generally assumed to be safe for fish-allergic individuals.

  14. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The urgent need for a harmonized severity scoring system for acute allergic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Beyer, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    The accurate assessment and communication of the severity of acute allergic reactions is important to patients, clinicians, researchers, the food industry, public health and regulatory authorities. Severity has different meanings to different stakeholders with patients and clinicians rating...... of different stakeholder groups. We propose a novel approach to develop and then validate a harmonized scoring system for acute allergic reactions, based on a data-driven method that is informed by clinical and patient experience and other stakeholders' perspectives. We envisage two formats: (i) a numerical...... the significance of particular symptoms very differently. Many severity scoring systems have been generated, most focusing on the severity of reactions following exposure to a limited group of allergens. They are heterogeneous in format, none has used an accepted developmental approach and none has been validated...

  16. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis : Spongiotic Skin Lesions in Allergic Contact Dermatitis Are Highly Infiltrated by T Cells Expressing Perforin and Granzyme B

    OpenAIRE

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in...

  17. Screening for skin-sensitizing allergens among patients with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Shakoor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To detect common skin-sensitizing agents among patients experiencing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 152 patients with clinically suspected ACD who underwent patch testing in an allergy clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2012 and February 2015. Of these patients, only 74 (48% patients reacted to one or more contact allergens. This group of patients included 58 (78.4% women and 16 (21.6% men (mean age: 37.8±13.8 years. Patch testing was performed using the thin-layer rapid-use epicutaneous patch test panels. Results: Nickel sulfate was the most common sensitizing agent, with 26 (35.1% patients yielding a positive result; followed by p-phenylenediamine in 17 (22.9%, butyl-tetra-phenol formaldehyde in 12 (16.2%, gold sodium thiosulfate in 10 (13.5%, and thimerosal in 6 (8.1% patients. Nickel reactivity was significantly higher among women (41.4% than among men (12.5% (p less than 0.0001. Similarly, gold reactivity among women (15.5% was also higher than among men (6.2% (p≤0.02. Conclusion: The high level of skin sensitization due to nickel, PPD, and gold in patients with ACD emphasizes the need for measures to decrease exposure to these sensitizing agents.

  18. Acute skin reaction after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data on acute mouse and pig skin reaction after fractionated γ or X irradiation have been analysed in terms of a new cell tissue kinetic model. The exponential-quadratic and generalized Huggett formulae have been used for cell lethality description. Fairly better results could be demonstrated with generalized Huggett formula. The speed of repopulation has been determined for fractionated regimes as well as for some irregular schedules. The repopulation is slower in the case of fractionated treatment. On considering the normal cell loss factor in the tissue, minimum cell cycle time has been calculated. Its value differs for various strains (Tsub(d)=28.8 hours for SAS/TO mice and Tsub(d) < or approximately 17 hours for WHT/Ht mice) and does not differ for plucked skin. The repopulation has been shown to follow exponential dependence after some latent period. Other factors influencing the effectiveness of radiation treatment (the length of the latent period or the changes of the survival curve during fractionated irradiation) have been considered, too

  19. Evaluation of the correlation between Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis and Feline Extent and Severity Index and skin hydration in atopic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Łukasz R; Zając, Marcin; Gołyński, Marcin; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Taszkun, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of the severity of clinical signs of cats with allergic skin diseases has used two scoring systems: Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis (SCORFAD) and the Feline Extent and Severity Index (FeDESI). The integrity of the cutaneous barrier can also be evaluated by measuring skin hydration. A correlation between the clinical score and skin hydration has been observed in humans and dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). To demonstrate a correlation between the clinical score and skin hydration of cats affected with presumed AD. European short hair cats (n = 18): 11 females and seven males with a confirmed diagnosis of AD. SCORFAD and FeDESI scores were calculated and the measurements of skin hydration were assessed from seven body sites using corneometry. The correlation between the SCORFAD and FeDESI systems and skin hydration of each site, and the average skin hydration was calculated. There was a positive correlation between the SCORFAD score and skin hydration for the axilla, thorax and forelimb; for FeDESI and axilla and lumbar sites. There was a negative correlation between the FeDESI and skin hydration for the pinna (r = -0.47). Measurements of skin hydration could be a useful tool for the evaluation of allergic cats. There is limited evidence of any useful correlation between clinical scoring systems and measurements of hydration. The pinna may be a suitable region for the assessment of skin barrier function in normal and allergic cats. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  1. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), impetigo... of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of ABSSSI, impetigo, and minor cutaneous abscesses. This... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0433...

  2. Acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarana, M; Nucci, M

    2018-03-01

    Neutropenic patients developing acute disseminated candidiasis may present with skin lesions. To evaluate the epidemiology of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients, taking into consideration changes caused by different prophylactic strategies. A systematic review of English-language articles found via PubMed (1963-2016) was performed. We asked the following questions: (a) What Candida species are more frequently involved in this syndrome? (b) Has antifungal prophylaxis changed the species causing skin lesions? (c) What are the typical patterns of skin lesions? (d) What is the frequency of skin lesions in neutropenic patients with candidaemia or acute disseminated candidiasis? (e) Has antifungal prophylaxis decreased the incidence of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions? Among 183 studies, 33 were selected, reporting 100 cases of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients. It occurred more frequently in the setting of induction therapy for de novo or relapsed acute leukaemia, and the most frequent Candida species were C. tropicalis (68%) and C. krusei (15%). Diffuse maculopapular lesions predominated in cases caused by C. tropicalis and nodular and papular lesions in cases caused by C. krusei. Prophylaxis with fluconazole was reported in six cases, C. krusei in five and C. ciferrii in one. The death rate was 45.4%. Two patterns were recognized: disseminated maculopapular lesions caused by C. tropicalis in patients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring in 39% to 44% of neutropenic patients with acute disseminated candidiasis, and nodular lesions caused by C. krusei in patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring less frequently. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 389 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics: Detection by Skin Tests and Subcutaneous Provocation. Analysis of 160 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Luiz; Gonçalves Tavares, Tania Maria; Delcourt, Nathalia; Baroni, Juliana; Rios, João; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (LA) are frequent and often referred to as allergic. Although immune-mediated reactions are rare, it should be investigated for suspected cases. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive skin test to these drugs in patients with a suspected history of allergic reactions and describe the main socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals. Methods Retrospective study of medical records of patients attended at Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro Allergic Clinic, between 2008 and 2011. The parameters evaluated were the test indication and the patient ages and gender. The drug tested was that the patient had a history of suspicion. Patients underwent skin prick and intradermal tests and subcutaneous provocation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results It was performed 160 tests (125 female). Three of this total was excluded due to inconclusive results. In women, the highest proportion of tests was in the age group from 41 to 60 years (43%), while in males the higher concentration was at a youngest age group: 21 to 40 years (41%). The most common indication (103 cases, 65%) for the tests was a previous suspected anaphylactic reaction by LA. Seven of 157 tests had a positive result (4.4%), 6 of them occurred in women (4.8%). Only one test resulted in a type of anaphylactic reaction response (0.67%). All patients who presented positive response to the test had a history of per-anesthetic reaction that suggested an immune-mediated mechanism. Conclusions In patients with a history of previous reaction to local anesthetics, the skin tests with these drugs have a key role in the prevention of anaphylaxis, and on guidance for adequate anesthetic procedures.

  4. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  5. Outcomes Following Discontinuation of E. coli l-Asparaginase Upon Severe Allergic Reactions in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chang, Wan-Hui; Liu, Hsi-Che; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hung, Giun-Yi; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Peng, Ching-Tien; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Te-Kao; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chao, Yu-Hua; Chang, Tai-Tsung; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Lin, Pei-Chin; Wang, Shih-Chung; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Ho, Wan-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Liang, Der-Cherng

    2016-04-01

    Discontinuation of E. coli l-asparaginase in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unavoidable upon severe allergic reaction. We sought to examine outcomes following E. coli l-asparaginase discontinuation due to severe allergic reactions. We evaluated the outcome of children enrolled in Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-2002-ALL protocol between 2002 and 2012, who had E. coli l-asparaginase discontinued due to severe allergic reactions, and compared the outcomes of those who continued with Erwinia l-asparaginase (Erwinase) with those who did not. Among 700 patients enrolled in this study, 33 patients had E. coli l-asparaginase treatment discontinued due to severe allergic reactions. Five-year overall survival did not differ significantly among the 648 patients without discontinuation (81 ± 1.6%, mean ± SE), compared to 17 patients with allergic reactions and treated with Erwinase (88 ± 7.8%) and 16 patients with allergic reactions but not treated with Erwinase (87 ± 8.6%). Among 16 patients who did not receive Erwinase, all 10 who received ≥50% of the scheduled doses of E. coli l-asparaginase before discontinuation survived without events. Erwinase treatment may not be needed for some ALL patients with severe allergy to E. coli l-asparaginase if ≥50% of prescribed doses were received and/or therapy is augmented with other agents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  7. Acute skin reactions observed in fractionated proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takuro; Maruhashi, Noboru; Takada, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Between May 1985 and July 1987, 49 skin reactions of 43 patients treated by proton irradiation were observed at the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), the University of Tsukuba. Taking the peak skin score as an endpoint, the radiobiological effects [relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and time-dose relationship] of the proton beam in multi-fractionated treatments were estimated. Factors influencing the skin dose, such as the prescribed tumor dose, tumor site, and number of applied fields, were also analyzed. The following conclusions regarding acute skin reactions to the clinical use of proton irradiation were obtained: 1) the physical skin-sparing effect of proton irradiation in single-field irradiation, especially in superficial regions, is not large compared with that of high-energy photon irradiation; 2) multidirectional proton irradiation significantly reduced the skin dose and severity of acute reasons; 3) the radiobiological effects of the proton beam, RBE and the time factor, estimated in human skin in multi-fractional treatment were slightly smaller than those of X-rays, i.e., 0.92 and -0.25±0.09, respectively. (author)

  8. Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington RJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To retrospectively examine the relation between skin test reactivity, venom-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody levels, and severity of clinical reaction in patients with insect venom allergy. Method Thirty-six patients (including 15 females who presented with a history of allergic reactions to insect stings were assessed. The mean age at the time of the reactions was 33.4 ± 15.1 years (range, 4-76 years, and patients were evaluated 43.6 ± 90 months (range, 1-300 months after the reactions. Clinical reactions were scored according to severity, from 1 (cutaneous manifestations only to 3 (anaphylaxis with shock. These scores were compared to scores for skin test reactivity (0 to 5, indicating the log increase in sensitivity from 1 μg/mL to 0.0001 μg/mL and radioallergosorbent test (RAST levels (0 to 4, indicating venom-specific IgE levels, from undetectable to >17.5 kilounits of antigen per litre [kUA/L]. Results No correlation was found between skin test reactivity (Spearman's coefficient = 0.15, p = .377 or RAST level (Spearman's coefficient = 0.32, p = .061 and the severity of reaction. Skin test and RAST scores both differed significantly from clinical severity (p p = .042. There was no correlation between skin test reactivity and time since reaction (Spearman's coefficient = 0.18, p = .294 nor between RAST and time since reaction (r = 0.1353, p = .438. Elimination of patients tested more than 12 months after their reaction still produced no correlation between skin test reactivity (p = .681 or RAST score (p = .183 and the severity of the clinical reaction. Conclusion In venom-allergic patients (in contrast to reported findings in cases of inhalant IgE-mediated allergy, there appears to be no significant correlation between the degree of skin test reactivity or levels of venom-specific IgE (determined by RAST and the severity of the clinical reaction.

  9. TREATMENT POLICY OF PEDIATRICIANS AGAINST ACUTE AND CHRONIC ALLERGIC PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN. DESLORATADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic idiopathic nettle rash, atopic dermatitis have been characterized by a stable growth in the prevalence of the allergic pathology over the last several decades. A similar pathogenesis of allergic diseases makes it possible to regard them as different manifestations of a systemic allergic inflammation. Histamine is one of the main mediators of an allergic inflammation, therefore first-line medications (drug of choice in the treatment of an allergic pathology, first of all, rhinitis and chronic nettle rash, are second-generation blockers of Н1-receptors. The proposed article discusses the issues connected with the use of antihistamines for children.Key words: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, nettle rash, atopic dermatitis, treatment, antihistamines, children.

  10. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  11. Acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis in relation to comorbidity, ethnicity and environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Hoffmans

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of comorbidity, ethnicity, occupation, smoking and place of residence on allergic rhinitis (AR, acute rhinosinusitis (ARS and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS.A GA2LEN (The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network screening questionnaire was sent to a random sample of the Dutch population (n = 16700 in three different areas of the Netherlands.Fifty percent (8347 of the questionnaires sent were returned. A total of 29% respondents (27-31% in different areas met the criteria for AR, 18% (17-21% for ARS and 16% (13-18% for CRS. Risk factors for AR were itchy rash, eczema, adverse response after taking a painkiller, asthma, CRS and ARS. Moreover, the risk of AR was twice as low for full-time housewives/househusbands than for people with jobs. The risk of ARS or CRS was significantly higher in respondents with a doctor's diagnosis of CRS, AR, itchy rash or smoking. The risk of CRS was also significantly higher in respondents with an adverse response after taking painkillers, active smoking or asthma. Caucasians are generally less likely to have AR or CRS than Latin-Americans, Hindustani and African-Creoles, and more likely to have ARS than Asian, Hindustani, Mediterranean and African-Creoles.This study found shared and distinct risk factors for AR, ARS and CRS and therefore provides support for the belief that they have shared symptoms but are different diseases with different aetiologies.

  12. An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. We studied the value of the skin prick-prick test (SPT), skin application food test (SAFT) and atopy patch test (APT) with fresh egg extract......-allergic children were positive in SPT and 40-60% in APT. In APT and in SPT false-positive reactions to egg were observed. In this study comprising a small number of patients including control subjects, neither SAFT nor APT with fresh whole egg extract were able to increase the diagnostic accuracy in detecting egg...

  13. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of allergic conjunctivitis. Classification and pathogenesis ... Table 1: The classification of allergic conjunctivitis1,2,5. Acute allergic ..... molecular structure which may be associated with a more rapid ... Resolvin E1, a proresolving lipid mediator.

  14. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  15. [Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test in egg and cow's milk allergic infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Mean diameter is the most common used parameter for wheal response assessment after skin prick test. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of mean diameter according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Data of 173 children referred to the Division of Primary Child Health Care for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. All children underwent skin prick test and open food challenge to the relevant food(s) in clinic. The mean wheal diameter of skin prick test was measured, and open food challenge was performed to confirm food allergy. The SPSS software package version 13.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical analysis. Open food challenge was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, was calculated by cross-table. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the parameter. For the 173 children, 271 open food challenges were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow's milk, In which 123 were positive, 99 children were diagnosed as food allergy. Cutaneous symptoms (87.0%) were most common, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (9.8%). The AUC of mean diameter was 0.794 for egg white, 0.804 for egg yolk and 0.904 for cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 mm was ranged from 71% to 87%, while the specificity was between 31% and 57%. The authors also defined food specific skin prick test mean diameters that were 100% diagnostic for allergy to egg white (≥ 8.5 mm), egg yolk (≥ 5.5 mm), cow's milk (≥ 5.5 mm). Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges can be calculated for egg and cow's milk using mean diameter. It

  16. Emerging treatment options for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: focus on intravenous delafloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Righi E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Antonio Vena, Matteo Bassetti Infectious Diseases Division, Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Udine, Italy Abstract: The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm. Delafloxacin displays enhanced in vitro activity against MRSA, and enterococci, while maintaining efficacy against gram-negative pathogens and anaerobes. Delafloxacin has been studied for the treatment of ABSSSI and respiratory infections. Phase III studies have demonstrated noninferiority of delafloxacin compared to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and the combination of vancomycin plus aztreonam in the treatment of ABSSSI. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, the wide spectrum of action, and the potential for sequential therapy, delafloxacin represents a promising option in the empirical and targeted treatment of ABSSSI, both in hospital- and in community-based care. Keywords: bacterial skin and skin structure infections, multidrug-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, delafloxacin

  17. A systematic literature review of the economic implications of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degener, F.; Ivanescu, C.; Casamayor, M.; Postma, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: During the years, acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) have seen an increase in incidence in many parts of the western world. Additionally, the treatment of ABSSSIs, generally consisting of surgical debridement or drainage and empiric antibiotics in the hospital,

  18. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... assist sponsors in the development of new antibacterial drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin..., rm. 2201, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist that office... Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joseph G. Toerner, Center...

  19. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  20. An investigation into the management of acute skin reactions from tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, M.A.; Haycocks, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This research examined the acute skin reaction of two consecutive groups receiving tangetial breast irradiation for carcinoma of the breast. The first group used the traditional skin care advice of using warm water only within the treatment area, while the second group continued with their normal skin care regime. Data was collected on the physical manifestations of the acute reaction, medical history, the use of concurrent cytotoxic agents, treatment parameters and skin care products used. Statistical analysis using the T-test method showed no difference in the skin reaction between the two groups. The investigation has lead to a change of policy in the management of acute breast reactions. Patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall can now use their routine skin care products with no adverse effect on skin reactions. (author)

  1. Freqüência de positividade em teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos Frequency of positive skin tests for airborne allergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Godinho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da prevalência das rinopatias tem sido descrito na literatura médica e a rinite alérgica continua sendo a mais freqüente. O teste cutâneo é importante no diagnóstico diferencial das doenças nasais e na determinação do padrão de sensibilização da população. Esta permite a promoção de medidas de redução de exposição, sendo fundamental para o tratamento adequado da rinite alérgica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Com o objetivo de determinar a freqüência de positividade no teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos específicos, avaliamos os prontuários de 398 pacientes com sintomas nasais sugestivos de alergia ou outras queixas otorrinolaringológicas que necessitavam deste teste para esclarecimento diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: A poeira doméstica (74,9%, o dermatofagóide (58,4% e o mofo (36,5% foram os alérgenos mais freqüentes, seguidos do pêlo de cão (32,7%, gramínea (22,4%, pêlo de gato (16,9%, penas (16,4% e lã (15,6%. Apenas 3,5% com positividade para pena de periquito e 1,5% para flores. 39 pacientes (9,8% apresentaram teste cutâneo negativo, 10 (2,5% apresentaram reação ao extrato da solução e 8 (2% não reagiram à histamina. Não foram encontradas complicações à aplicação do teste. CONCLUSÃO: A poeira doméstica foi o aeroalérgeno mais freqüente. Os testes cutâneos devem ser realizados no contexto da história clínica e os resultados apresentados nos orientam para o adequado diagnóstico e tratamento das rinopatias.Medical literature has reported on the increase in the prevalence of nose diseases, and allergic rhinitis still leads the statistics. The skin test is important in the differential diagnosis of nose diseases and to determine the sensitivity pattern of the population in order to establish measures to reduce exposure. This is fundamental for adequate handling allergic rhinitis. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In order to determine the

  2. Modeling economic implications of alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Nikhil; Ward, Alexandra J; Pelligra, Christopher G; Kongnakorn, Thitima; Fan, Weihong; LaPensee, Kenneth T

    2014-10-01

    The economic implications from the US Medicare perspective of adopting alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are substantial. The objective of this study is to describe a modeling framework that explores the impact of decisions related to both the location of care and switching to different antibiotics at discharge. A discrete event simulation (DES) was developed to model the treatment pathway of each patient through various locations (emergency department [ED], inpatient, and outpatient) and the treatments prescribed (empiric antibiotic, switching to a different antibiotic at discharge, or a second antibiotic). Costs are reported in 2012 USD. The mean number of days on antibiotic in a cohort assigned to a full course of vancomycin was 11.2 days, with 64% of the treatment course being administered in the outpatient setting. Mean total costs per patient were $8671, with inpatient care accounting for 58% of the costs accrued. The majority of outpatient costs were associated with parenteral administration rather than drug acquisition or monitoring. Scenarios modifying the treatment pathway to increase the proportion of patients receiving the first dose in the ED, and then managing them in the outpatient setting or prescribing an oral antibiotic at discharge to avoid the cost associated with administering parenteral therapy, therefore have a major impact and lower the typical cost per patient by 11-20%. Since vancomycin is commonly used as empiric therapy in clinical practice, based on these analyses, a shift in treatment practice could result in substantial savings from the Medicare perspective. The choice of antibiotic and location of care influence the costs and resource use associated with the management of ABSSSIs. The DES framework presented here can provide insight into the potential economic implications of decisions that modify the treatment pathway.

  3. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome by playing video games or by a frequently ringing mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H

    2003-06-01

    Playing video games causes physical and psychological stress, including increased heart rate and blood pressure and aggression-related feelings. Use of mobile phones is very popular in Japan, and frequent ringing is a common and intrusive part of Japanese life. Atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome is often exacerbated by stress. Stress increases serum IgE levels, skews cytokine pattern towards Th2 type, enhances allergen-induced skin wheal responses, and triggers mast cell degranulation via substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor. (1). In the video game study, normal subjects (n = 25), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 25) or atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (n = 25) played a video game (STREET FIGHTER II) for 2 h. Before and after the study, allergen-induced wheal responses, plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor, and in vitro production of total IgE, antihouse dust mite IgE and cytokines were measured. (2). In the mobile phone study, normal subjects (n = 27), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 27) or atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (n = 27) were exposed to 30 incidences of ringing mobile phones during 30 min. Before and after the study, allergen-induced wheal responses, plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor were measured. Playing video games had no effect on the normal subjects or the patients with allergic rhinitis. In contrast, playing video games significantly enhanced allergen-induced skin wheal responses and increased plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factors in the patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Moreover, playing video games enhanced in vitro production of total IgE and anti-house dust mite IgE with concomitant increased production of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 and decreased production of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in the patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. However, exposure

  4. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Pedersen, Juri Lindy; Skov, Per Stahl

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...

  5. Allergic reactions in red tattoos: Raman spectroscopy for 'fingerprint' detection of chemical risk spectra in tattooed skin and culprit tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M; Serup, J

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. Twelve dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history the source of the allergy. Three primary aromatic amine (PAA) laboratory standards (aniline, o-anisidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine) were also studied. Application of Raman spectroscopy to the shave biopsies was technically feasible. In addition, all ten inks and the three PAA standards could be discriminated. 10/12 shave biopsies provided clear fingerprint Raman signals which differed significantly from background skin, and Raman spectra from 8/12 biopsies perfectly matched spectra from the three culprit ink products. The spectrum of one red ink (a low cost product named 'Tattoo', claimed to originate from Taiwan, no other info on label) was identified in 5/12 biopsies. Strong indications of the inks 'Bright Red' and 'Crimson Red' were seen in three biopsies. The three PAA's could not be unambiguously identified. This study, although on a small-scale, demonstrated Raman spectroscopy to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effect of vitamin E on acute skin reaction caused by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirier, A; Akmansu, M; Bora, H; Gurer, M

    2007-09-01

    Ionizing radiation affects healthy organs and tissues as well as diseased tissues during radiation therapy. Skin reactions varying from acute erythema to necrosis can be seen. It has been found that vitamin E can prevent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in both animals and cell cultures. This study investigated the preventative effect of antioxidant vitamin E on irradiation-induced acute skin reactions. No protective effect of vitamin E was demonstrated. It is possible that the vehicle induced free radical exposure in the irradiated skin.

  7. Accumulation of 111In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules

  8. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  9. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  10. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gunhyuk, E-mail: uranos5@kiom.re.kr [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dal-Seok [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon [Major in Cosmeceutical Science, Division of Bio-technology and Convergence, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-ung, E-mail: ykim@dhu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  11. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Dal-Seok; Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon; Kim, Yong-ung

    2016-01-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  12. Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Evelyn Santos; Lee, Chrono K; Specht, Charles A; Yadav, Bhawna; Huang, Haibin; Akalin, Ali; Huh, Jun R; Mueller, Christian; Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with conidia. All of these functions underscore a potential protective role for eosinophils in acute aspergillosis. Given the postulated role for IL-17 in asthma pathogenesis, we assessed whether eosinophils could act as sources of IL-23 and IL-17 in models where mice were sensitized to either A. fumigatus antigens or ovalbumin (OVA). We found IL-23p19+ IL-17AF+ eosinophils in both allergic models. Moreover, close to 95% of IL-23p19+ cells and >90% of IL-17AF+ cells were identified as eosinophils. These data establish a new paradigm in acute and allergic aspergillosis whereby eosinophils act not only as effector cells but also as immunomodulatory cells driving the IL-23/IL-17 axis and contributing to inflammatory cell recruitment.

  13. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anturaniemi, Johanna; Uusitalo, Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding 'Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms)' using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322) as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers) and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds) showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current household. The

  14. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Anturaniemi

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD. Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding 'Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms' using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322 as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current

  15. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

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    Choong Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD. The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and interleukins (ILs. Glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13 levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

  16. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.sun@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Yun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Gia-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Min-Jen [Department of General Surgery, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT.

  17. The effect of salmeterol and salbutamol on mediator release and skin responses in immediate and late phase allergic cutaneous reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Skov, P S

    1999-01-01

    on clinical and biochemical EAR and LPR in human skin. METHODS: Measurement of wheal and flare reactions to allergen, codeine, and histamine, and LPR (induration) to allergen. Assessment of histamine and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release by microdialysis technique in EAR, and measurement of mediators in LPR......, myeloperoxidase, or eosinophil cationic protein in LPR. CONCLUSIONS: Salmeterol and salbutamol inhibited allergen-induced skin responses, and reduced mediator release in EAR but not LPR. In general, the anti-inflammatory effects of salmeterol did not differ from those induced by salbutamol....

  18. Association between desloratadine and prednisolone in the treatment of children with acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized and controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Wandalsen

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: A combination of antihistamines and oral corticosteroids is often used to treat acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Objective: To evaluate safety and efficacy of desloratadine plus prednisolone in the treatment of acute symptoms of children (2-12 years with allergic rhinitis, and to compare it to dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone. Methods: Children with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis and symptomatic (nasal symptoms score [0-12] ≥ 6 were allocated in a double-blind, randomized fashion to receive dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone (n = 105; three daily doses or desloratadine plus prednisolone (n = 105; single dose followed by two of placebo for 7 days. At the beginning and end of the evaluation, the following were obtained: nasal symptoms score, extra nasal symptoms score, peak nasal inspiratory flow, blood biochemistry, and electrocardiogram. Ninety-six children of the dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group and 98 of the desloratadine plus prednisolone group completed the protocol. Results: The two groups were similar regarding initial and final nasal symptoms scores, extra nasal symptoms scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow. A drop of 76.4% and 79.1% for nasal symptoms score, 86.0% and 79.2% for extra nasal symptoms score, as well as an increase of 25.2% and 24.3% for peak nasal inspiratory flow occurred for those treated with desloratadine plus prednisolone and dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone, respectively. There were no significant changes in blood chemistry. Sinus tachycardia was the most frequent electrocardiogram change, but with no clinical significance. Drowsiness was reported significantly more often among those of dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group (17.14% × 8.57%, respectively. Conclusion: The desloratadine plus prednisolone combination was able to effectively control acute symptoms of rhinitis in children, improving symptoms and nasal function. Compared to the

  19. Putative skin-protective formulations in preventing and/or inhibiting experimentally-produced irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1999-10-01

    The effectiveness of skin protective formulations was evaluated in a previously-described in vivo human model. All formulations failed to inhibit ammonium hydroxide and urea irritation. Only paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol statistically (plauryl sulfate irritation. Paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol was quantitatively the most effective formulation. These results suggest that some formulations may provide protective effects against certain, but not all, irritants or allergens.

  20. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  3. Establishment and application of rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guoliang; Lu Xing'an; Tang Jun; Wang Xiuzhen; Wu Shiliang; Tian Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish an experimental rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury and to study the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on wound healing. Methods: Areas of buttock skin (20 mm x 40 mm) of 40 male SD rats were irradiated with 45 Gy/β-rays generated by linear accelerator, and then the forty rats were divided into two groups randomly: treatment group administrated with SOD (n=20) and control group administrated with normal saline (NS) (n=20). The wound healing time and rate were observed. The pathological changes were observed by light microscopy. The expressions of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) were determined by SP immunohistochemical method. Results: The deep second-degree burns was observed following 45 Gy irradiation. The wound healing time in treatment group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Strongly positive (+ + +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in treatment group and positive (+ +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in the control group were observed 6 weeks, 7 weeks and 8 weeks after the irradiation, while only weakly positive (+) expressions of VEGF and bFGF in both groups 4 weeks, 5 weeks and 9 weeks after the irradiation. Conclusions: The wound model of acute β-irradiated skin injury in rat was established and used in study of the effect of medicine on wound healing. SOD can promote the wound healing of acute β-irradiated skin injury. (authors)

  4. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  5. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.tewari-singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Orlicky, David J [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  6. Food Sensitivity in Children with Acute Urticaria in Skin Prick Test: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Eke Gungor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded. Material and Method: A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August 2013 and 1 August 2014, in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents. Results: Overall, 574 children aged 1-14 years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in 22.3% (128/574 of the patients. This rate was found to be 31.9% among those younger than 3 years, while 19.3% in those older than 3 years. Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: egg white, 7.3%; wheat, 3.3%; cow milk, 2.7%,; sesame, 2.8%; hazelnut, 2.4%; soybean, 2.3%; peanut, 1.9%, walnut, 1.6%; tuna fish, 1.6%. In general, the history of patients wasn%u2019t compatible with food sensitization detected. Discussion: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

  7. Prognostic factors for acute and late skin reactions in radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, Ingela; Nyman, Jan; Holmberg, Erik; Oden, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with identical radiotherapy schedules show a substantial variation in the degree of acute and late normal tissue reactions. To identify any possible contributing factors to this phenomenon, we have analyzed the treatments of 402 breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The patients received adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy between 1972 and 1985 and have been followed up since then. Multivariate analyses were performed with peak reflectance erythema and peak acute reaction score as endpoints for the acute reactions, and with progression rate of telangiectasia as well as telangiectasia score as endpoints for the late reactions. Twenty patient- and treatment-related factors were tested such as age, menopausal status, hemoglobin level, serum calcium, smoking habits, hypothyroidism, diabetes, hypertension, blood pressure, cardiovascular and autoimmune disease, the influence of hormone therapy and chemotherapy, pretreatment reflectance value, acute skin reactions, radiation quality, individual dose, bilateral fields, and the total effect (TE) for the dose schedule applied. Results: The TE was a strong prognostic factor for all endpoints. In addition to TE, blood pressure was prognostic for the peak erythema measured by reflectance spectrophotometry, and the pretreatment reflectance value was prognostic for the acute score. The only independent prognostic factors found for the progression of skin telangiectasia and telangiectasia score except for TE were the individual dose and the acute skin reactions. Conclusions: These factors explained at most about 30% of the variance describing the total patient-to-patient variability for each endpoint. The remaining variability is still unexplained but may be related to individual differences in cellular radiosensitivity, partly determined by genetic variations and partly by unknown epigenetic factors

  8. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

  10. Acute effects of coffee on skin blood flow and microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesselaar, Erik; Nezirevic Dernroth, Dzeneta; Farnebo, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Vasodilatation during iontophoresis of ACh was significantly stronger after intake of caffeinated coffee compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (1.26±0.20PU/mmHg vs. 1.13±0.38PU/mmHg, Pcoffee. After intake of caffeinated coffee, a more pronounced decrease in CVC in the fingertip was observed compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (-1.36PU/mmHg vs. -0.52PU/mmHg, P=0.002). Caffeine, as ingested by drinking caffeinated coffee acutely improves endothelium-dependent microvascular responses in the forearm skin, while endothelium-independent responses to PORH and SNP iontophoresis are not affected. Blood flow in the fingertip decreases markedly during the first hour after drinking caffeinated coffee compared to decaffeinated coffee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The acute effects of different energy beta-emitters on pig and mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.; Hamlet, R.; Wells, J.; Charles, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Acute changes were studied in the skin of mice and pigs following irradiation with Sr 90 (Esub(max) 2.27 MeV), Tm 170 (Esub(max) 0.97 MeV) and Pm 147 (Esub(max) 0.225 MeV). Sr 90 irradiation in the pig and Sr 90 and Tm 170 exposure in the mouse resulted in a distinct field-size effect for sources of 5-22.5 mm diameter; ED 50 values for moist desquamation were 22.0-27.5 Gy from the 22.5 mm source and 75-90 Gy for the 5 mm source. Tm 170 irradiation in the pig produced no distinct area effect for sources of 5-19 mm diameter (ED 50 approx.= 80 Gy). Acute tissue breakdown was only achieved in pig and mouse skin by very high doses (ED 50 >= 140 Gy) from sources of 147 produced acute epithelial breakdown, only after high skin-surface doses (ED 50 550-725 Gy). Area-and energy-related changes can, in part be explained by an hypothesis based on repopulation of the epithelium in the irradiated area by the migration of either cells from the edge of that area and/or cells surviving at the base of hair follicles. Differences in the results in pig and mouse can be explained on the basis of the distribution of target cells in the epidermis at varying depths. (author)

  12. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-rong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP in ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI, melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm2 for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage.

  13. Characterization and scoring of skin changes in severe acute malnutrition in children between 6 months and 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov, S; Vestergaard, Christian; Babirekere, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is a life-threatening condition. It can be associated with severe skin changes, first properly described by Williams in 1933. The aetiology of these skin changes is still unknown and their character has never been systematically described in dermatological...... objective was to identify the skin changes characteristic of children with severe acute malnutrition and to develop a clinical score that describes the morphology and severity in dermatological terms. We also investigated if any of the different skin changes were connected to prognosis. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Mwanamugimu (Department of Paediatrics and Child Health), Uganda, 120 children were included over a period of six months and observed when treated for severe acute malnutrition. Skin changes were registered through clinical examination and photo documentation and associated...

  14. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    condition include itching, excessive lacrimation, ophthalmic ... allergens with the surface of the eye in a person who is allergic .... Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: more severe disorder, which usually affects boys living in warm, dry climates.

  15. Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immunologist)? Resources American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Medline Plus, Allergic Rhinitis Last Updated: December 8, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: ...

  16. Fibroblast radiosensitivity versus acute and late normal skin responses in patients treated for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, William A.; Tucker, Susan L.; Geara, Fady B.; Wike, Jennifer; Peters, Lester J.; Turesson, Ingela; Nyman, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine if the radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, measured in early passage cultures, is significantly correlated with the degree of acute or late normal skin damage in patients treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In the 1970s, a series of breast cancer patients was treated at the Department of Oncology in Gothenburg, Sweden with postoperative irradiation to the parasternal region. Patients were treated bilaterally using different fractionation schedules and doses to the right and left fields. Peak acute reactions were scored on a six-point scale, and skin erythema was measured by reflectance spectrophotometry. Telangiectasia was graded over time on a six-point scale. In April 1992, two small skin biopsies were obtained from 22 patients in two treatment groups (i.e., four dose-fractionation schedules) and, using either delayed or immediate plating, fibroblast radiosensitivity was measured in early passage cultures by clonogenic survival, after high and low dose-rate irradiations. Survival at 2.0 Gy (SF2) was calculated from complete survival curves. Results: To test assay reproducibility, SF2 values derived from paired biopsies of the same patient (12 cases) were compared. A reasonably good correlation (p = 0.075) was obtained for SF2s determined by high dose-rate irradiations with immediate plating, but not for delayed plating or low dose-rate treatments. The median coefficient of variation in the replicate SF2s after high dose-rate treatment and immediate plating was 13%, suggesting that the poor correlation in paired SF2 values is due to the magnitude of the uncertainty in SF2 relative to the overall spread in SF2 values between patients (CV = 28%). Individual SF2 values and averaged values from patients with data from two biopsies were compared with the acute and late clinical reactions. A significant negative correlation was found between SF2 and relative clinical response, but only when

  17. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  18. Comparative study of acute lateral skin damage during radio wave and laser exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubensky V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the depth and nature of the zones of thermal damage to the skin under radio wave and laser skin dissection during experiment. Material and Methods. The model of acute thermal damage was full-liner skin wounds of 20 nonlinear rats that were divided into 2 groups and operated by different methods. In the 1st group, the incisions were made by the apparatus of radio wave surgery (Surgitron DF S5, in the 2nd group the animals were operated with a laser surgical apparatus. The magnitude and structure of the lateral thermal damage was evaluated when analyzing the biopsy material. Results. During the study of experimental wounds, the extent of carbonation in the first group (operated with Surgitron DF S5 was 11.56±3.056 urn, coagulation necrosis 116.5±26.78 urn, and the hyper-thermiazone 148.42±60.171 urn. In the group of animals operated with a laser apparatus, the carbonization zone was 22.58±6.62 urn, the coagulation necrosis zone was 331.1±79.08 urn, and the hyperthermia extent was 376.2±53.27 urn. Conclusion. A comparative study of lateral skin damage in radio wave and laser skin dissection revealed a deeper thermal change in the skin and an increase in the extent of thermally altered structures under laser action: the carbonization zone was larger than for radio waves by 11.02 urn, coagulation necrosis by 214.6 urn, and the hyperthermia zone by 227.78 urn.

  19. Quantitative analysis of skin reaction by reflectance spectrophotometer. Acute reaction following proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko.

    1994-01-01

    Acute reactions induced by proton irradiation were measured using a reflectance spectrophotometer, which is commonly used in the printing and textile industries. In this method, the skin color was expressed by three parameters, lightness (L * ), chroma (C * ) and hue (h). At first, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this spectrophotometer, the skin color of a normal volunteer was measured 100 times. The values of the three parameters for normal skin were as follows (mean values and standard deviation), L * : 68.64±0.29, C * : 19.08±0.13, h: 69.41±0.76. The standard deviations with regard to L * and h, were considered to be sufficiently small when compared with the changes of these parameters (prefix: Δ) in the irradiated sites (ΔL * * and h values significantly decreased with time, and the L * values were highly correlated with elapsed treatment days. The h values had a relatively low linear correlation compared with L * . The C * values had no trends as the treatment period was extended. Among these parameters, the L * values were the most valuable for assessment of proton-induced skin reactions, and it was suggested that the L * values measured with this spectrophotometer were a useful index for showing biological effects induced by proton irradiation. Further experiments are needed to apply this method to quantify the biological effects induced by other forms of ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. Modified skin window technique for the extended characterisation of acute inflammation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D. J. B.; Radulovic, M.; McCartney, S.; Bloom, S.; Segal, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To modify the skin window technique for extended analysis of acute inflammatory responses in humans, and demonstrate its applicability for investigating disease. Subjects 15 healthy subjects and 5 Crohn’s patients. Treatment Skin windows, created by dermal abrasion, were overlaid for various durations with filter papers saturated in saline, 100 ng/ml muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or 10 μg/ml interleukin-8 (IL-8). Methods Exuded leukocytes were analyzed by microscopy, immunoblot, DNA-bound transcription factor arrays and RT-PCR. Inflammatory mediators were quantified by ELISA. Results Infiltrating leukocytes were predominantly neutrophils. Numerous secreted mediators were detectable. MDP and IL-8 enhanced responses. Many signalling proteins were phosphorylated with differential patterns in Crohn’s patients, notably PKC α/β hyperphosphorylation (11.3 ± 3.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.9 units, P immunomodulators. PMID:17522815

  1. Mast Cells Limit the Exacerbation of Chronic Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Response to Repeated Allergen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Rivera, Vladimir-Andrey; Siebenhaar, Frank; Zimmermann, Carolin; Siiskonen, Hanna; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. Ear swelling chronic contact hypersensitivity responses increased markedly, up to 4-fold, in MC-deficient Kit W-sh/W-sh (Sash) and MCPT5-Cre + iDTR + mice compared with wild-type mice. Local engraftment with MCs protected Sash mice from exacerbated ear swelling after repeated oxazolone challenge. Chronic contact hypersensitivity skin of Sash mice exhibited elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-17α, and IL-23, as well as increased accumulation of Ag-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 + tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells. The CD8 + T cell mitogen IL-15, which was increased in oxazolone-challenged skin of Sash mice during the accumulation of cutaneous T RM cells, was efficiently degraded by MCs in vitro. MCs protect from the exacerbated allergic skin inflammation induced by repeated allergen challenge, at least in part, via effects on CD8 + T RM cells. MCs may notably influence the course of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. A better understanding of their role and the underlying mechanisms may lead to better approaches for the treatment of this common, disabling, and costly condition. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Expression of apoptosis-related genes in acute β-irradiated skin injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu; He Hanliang; Qi Qiang; Lin Wei; Shen Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamic expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2, Bax and P53 in acute radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to explore the underlying mechanism involved in retarded healing of the ulcer. Methods: Fifty-four female SD rats were divided into 3 groups. The model of acute radiation-induced skin injury, in rats was replicated with 45 Gy electron accelerator β-ray to the skin as radiation group (n=24); the model of deep second degree scald in rats was established as burn group (n=24); 6 normal rats were served as normal control group. From different periods skin wounds, the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and P53 were respectively assessed by means of immunohistochemical technique and. apoptosis was observed by TUNEL assay. Results: (1) The result of the TUNEL manifested that the integral absorbance (IA) of the radiation group was much higher than that of the control group. There is statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05). (2) 0, 1, 2, 3 weeks after wound emerging, the Bax and P53 integral absorbance (IA) in radiation group was much higher than that of the control group. The Bcl-2 integral absorbance (IA) in bum group was much higher than that of the radiation group. There is statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: It was shown that apoptosis of β radiation manifested three typical characteristics, namely early occurrence, high frequency and delayed disappearance after radiation, which might explain the delayed wound healing caused by β radiation. (authors)

  3. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  4. Fibroblast radiosensitivity versus acute and late normal skin responses in patients treated for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, W.A.; Wike, J.; Tucker, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    To determine if the radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, measured in early passage cultures, is significantly correlated with the degree of acute or late normal skin damage in patients treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy. To test assay reproducibility, SF2 values derived from paired biopsies of the same patient (12 cases) were compared. A reasonably good correlation (p = 0.075) was obtained for SF2s determined by high dose-rate irradiations with immediated plating, but not for delayed plating or low dose-rate treatments. The median coefficient of variation in the replicate SF2s after high dose-rate treatment and immediate plating was 13%, suggesting that the poor correlation in paired SF2 values is due to the magnitude of the uncertainty in SF2 relative to the overall spread in SF2 values between patients (CV = 28%). Individual SF2 values and averaged values from patients with data from two biopsies were compared with the acute and late clinical reactions. A significant negative correlation was found between SF2 and relative clinical response, but only when averaged high dose-rate SF2 values and telangiectasia scores were compared. There was no significant correlation between average SF2 values and acute responses or between individual SF2 measurements and either the acute or late clinical response. The results of this study suggest that the degree of late telangiectasia is at least partially dependent upon the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of normal fibroblasts, but the relationship is not clear cut. Multiple replicate assays are necessary to obtain reliable estimates of fibroblast SF2 values using current techniques. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, L.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Hellings, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a common disorder, which can be defined as chronic nasal inflammation, independent of systemic IgE-mediated mechanisms. Symptoms of NAR patients mimic those of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. However, AR patients can easily be diagnosed with skin prick test or

  6. Inhibition by local bupivacaine-releasing microspheres of acute postoperative pain from hairy skin incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Blaskovich, Phillip D; Pham, Lan N; Costa, Daniel S; Nichols, Gary A; Hildebrand, William P; Scarborough, Nelson L; Herman, Clifford J; Strichartz, Gary R

    2013-09-01

    Acute postoperative pain causes physiological deficits and slows recovery. Reduction of such pain by local anesthetics that are delivered for several days postoperatively is a desirable clinical objective, which is approached by a new formulation and applied in animal studies reported here. We subcutaneously injected a new formulation of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid polymer microspheres, which provides steady drug release for 96+ hours into rats at the dorsal region 2 hours before surgery. A single 1.2-cm-long skin incision was followed by blunt dissection of skin away from the underlying fascia, and closed by 2 sutures, followed by 14 days of testing. Microspheres containing 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg bupivacaine were injected locally 2 hours before surgery; bupivacaine-free microspheres were the vehicle control, and bupivacaine HCl solution (0.5%), the positive control. Mechanical sensitivity was determined by the frequency of local muscle contractions to repeated pokes with nylon monofilaments (von Frey hairs) exerting 4 and 15 g forces, testing, respectively, allodynia and hyperalgesia, and by pinprick. Injection of bupivacaine microspheres (40 mg drug) into intact skin reduced responses to 15 g von Frey hairs for 6 hours and to pinprick for 36 hours. Respective reductions from bupivacaine HCl lasted for 3 and 2 hours. Skin incision and dissection alone caused mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia for 14 days. Microspheres containing 20 or 40 mg bupivacaine suppressed postoperative hypersensitivity for up to 3 days, reduced integrated allodynia (area under curve of response versus time) over postoperative days 1 to 5 by 51% ± 20% (mean ± SE) and 78% ± 12%, and reduced integrated hyperalgesia by 55% ± 13% and 64% ± 11%, for the respective doses. Five and ten milligrams bupivacaine in microspheres and the 0.5% bupivacaine solution were ineffective in reducing postoperative hypersensitivity, as were 40 mg bupivacaine microspheres injected contralateral to the

  7. Acute fish liver intoxication induced blisters formation and generalized skin peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chung, Wen-Hung; Ho, Hsin-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Acute fish liver intoxication, including hypervitaminosis A and hypervitaminosis D, may result from the ingestion of certain fish livers. The typical symptoms of hypervitaminosis A include nausea, headache, blurred vision, and cutaneous manifestations, such as flushing, vesicles formation, and desquamation. Hypervitaminosis D may result in hypercalcemia. We report a case of acute fish liver intoxication with systemic and cutaneous manifestations. A 63-year-old male presented to the clinic with generalized desquamation and multiple clear-fluid filled flaccid vesicles after eating approximately two fist-sized portions (about 300-400 g) of cooked seerfish (Scomberomorus spp.) liver. Laboratory examination showed a high serum level of vitamin A and D, and hypercalcemia. Fish liver consumption from particular fish may result in acute hypervitaminosis A and D. In patients with skin detachment or blister formation, headache, drowsiness, and other symptoms and signs consistent with hypervitaminosis A and/or hypercalcemia, a history of fish intake should be sought, and a serum level of vitamin A and D should be measured.

  8. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  9. The allergic march

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergic rhinitis (Fig. 1). Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic ... Boys appear to be at greater risk of developing the typical progression of allergic .... childhood asthma: lessons from the German. Multicentre Study ...

  10. Acute antibody-mediated rejection of skin grafts without involvement of granulocytes or complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogman, M.J.; Cornelissen, I.M.; Koene, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In immunosuppressed mice that carry rat skin xeno-grafts, acute antibody-mediated graft rejection (AAR) can be induced by intravenous administration of mouse anti-rat globulin. Dependent on the amount of antibody injected and on the complement status of the recipient, an Arthus-like or a Shwartzman-like pattern of vasculitis occurs. The role of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) in either type of vasculitis was tested by inducing AAR in recipients depleted of PMNs by total body irradiation. Despite the absence of PMNs in the graft vessels, AAR occurred both in the Arthus-like and in the Shwartzman-like type. Moreover, AAR could be elicited in PMN-depleted recipients that were complement-depleted by cobra venom factor treatment or were congenitally C5-deficient. We conclude that neither the PMN nor complement is an essential mediator the PMN nor complement is an essential mediator in this form of antibody-mediated vasculitis

  11. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  12. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  13. The acute effects of alpha and beta irradiation of mouse skin and the factors affecting the response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, S.G.; Coggle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Several problems regarding acute effects of alpha and beta irradiation were investigated in order to clarify protection problems of localised doses to the skin. A study into the acute biological effects of different energy beta emitters and the effects of energy and area on the response showed direct relationships between these criteria for a range of different acute responses with different time courses. Three different types of acute response were found and these are described as 'moist desquamation', 'acute ulceration' and 'acute epidermal necrosis'. An unexpected finding was that the lower energy beta emitter 170 Tm was as efficient at inducing scab formation as the higher energy 90 Sr sources for the same area of exposure. Experiments using 2x4 cm 2 exposures to 224 Cm alpha particles showed that the response to this poorly penetrating radiation was minimal after doses as high as 180 Gy measured at 10 μm into the skin. In comparison, large area exposure to 170 Tm produced areas of prolonged scabbing after doses up to 100 Gy. However, the intensity of the reaction varied between strains. (author)

  14. Brain and skin do not contribute to the systemic rise in erythropoietin during acute hypoxia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Taudorf, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    these findings apply to humans remains unknown. We exposed healthy young subjects to hypoxia (equivalent to 3800 m) and measured EPO in arterial and jugular venous plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. To examine the role of the skin for EPO production during hypoxia, subjects were exposed to 8 h of hypobaric......Erythropoietin (EPO) preserves arterial oxygen content by controlling red blood cell and plasma volumes. Synthesis of EPO was long thought to relate inversely to renal oxygenation, but in knockout mice, brain and skin have been identified as essential for the acute hypoxic EPO response. Whether...

  15. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Klimakov, B.D.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Vajnson, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose [ru

  16. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-06-01

    Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

  17. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma : Minimal risk of acute toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses.

  18. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  19. Increased energy expenditure and glucose oxidation during acute nontraumatic skin pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Greisen, Jacob; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Jensen, Troels S; Hansen, Peter O; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2009-04-01

    Tissue injury is accompanied by pain and results in increased energy expenditure, which may promote catabolism. The extent to which pain contributes to this sequence of events is not known. In a cross-over design, 10 healthy volunteers were examined on three occasions; first, during self-controlled nontraumatic electrical painful stimulus to the abdominal skin, maintaining an intensity of 8 on the visual analogue scale (0-10). Next, the electrical stimulus was reproduced during local analgesia and, finally, there was a control session without stimulus. Indirect calorimetry and blood and urine sampling was done in order to calculate energy expenditure and substrate utilization. During pain stimulus, energy expenditure increased acutely and reversibly by 62% (95% confidence interval, 43-83), which was abolished by local analgesia. Energy expenditure paralleled both heart rate and blood catecholamine levels. The energy expenditure increase was fuelled by all energy sources, with the largest increase in glucose utilization. The pain-related increase in energy expenditure was possibly mediated by adrenergic activity and was probably to a large extent due to increased muscle tone. These effects may be enhanced by cortical events related to the pain. The increase in glucose consumption favours catabolism. Our findings emphasize the clinical importance of pain management.

  20. Hyposensitization in nickel allergic contact dermatitis: Clinical and immunologic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger); M.M.A. Kozel (M. M A); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; Th. van Joost (Theo); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); R. Benner (Robbert); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) previously sensitized T cells cause skin damage. If an ubiquitous allergen such as nickel is involved, no effective treatment is available. Down-regulation of this allergic response has been described after antigen presentation in the

  1. Measurement and comparison of skin dose using OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Essam H; Hammad, Lina F; Al-Mohammed, Huda I

    2011-07-01

    Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to bone marrow transplant. It is involved in the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore measuring and monitoring the skin dose during the treatment is important. Two kinds of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (OneDose MOSFET and mobile MOSEFT) dosimeter are used during the treatment delivery to measure the skin dose to specific points and compare it with the target prescribed dose. The objective of this study was to compare the variation of skin dose in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using OneDose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET, and then compare both results with the target prescribed dose. The measurements involved 32 patient's (16 males, 16 females), aged between 14-30 years, with an average age of 22.41 years. One-Dose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 10 different anatomical sites on every patient. The results showed there was no variation between skin dose measured with OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET in all patients. Furthermore, the results showed for every anatomical site selected there was no significant difference in the dose delivered using either OneDose MOSFET detector or Mobile MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. The study concludes that One-Dose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET both give a direct read-out immediately after the treatment; therefore both detectors are suitable options when measuring skin dose for total body irradiation treatment.

  2. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  3. Acute skin toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy or EGFR inhibitors : Literature review and consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russi, Elvio G.; Moretto, Francesco; Rampino, Monica; Benasso, Marco; Bacigalupo, Almalina; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Numico, Gianrnauro; Bossi, Paolo; Buglione, Michela; Lombardo, Antonino; Airoldi, Mario; Merlano, Marco C.; Licitra, Lisa; Denaro, Nerina; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Girolomoni, Giarnpiero; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of radiation therapy, often integrated with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies, on the skin include severe acute and chronic dermatitis associated with pain, discomfort, itching, and burning, and may heavily affect patients' quality of life. The management of these skin

  4. Risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Christer; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Foucard, Tony; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, S Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for asthma have been investigated in a large number of studies in adults and children, with little progress in the primary and secondary prevention of asthma. The aim of this investigation was to investigate risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents. In this study, 959 schoolchildren (13-14 years old) answered a questionnaire and performed exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements. All children (n = 238) with reported asthma, asthma-related symptoms and/or increased NO levels were invited to a clinical follow-up which included a physician evaluation and skin-prick testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 96 adolescents, whereof half had allergic and half non-allergic asthma. Children with both allergic and non-allergic asthma had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (20.8 and 20.7 vs. 19.8 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of parental asthma (30% and 32% vs. 16%) (p < 0.05). Early-life infection (otitis and croup) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.99 (1.02-3.88) and 2.80 (1.44-5.42), respectively], pets during the first year of life [2.17 (1.16-4.04)], window pane condensation [2.45 (1.11-5.40)] and unsatisfactory school cleaning [(2.50 (1.28-4.89)] was associated with non-allergic but not with allergic asthma. This study indicates the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of asthma when assessing the effect of different risk factors. While the risk of both allergic and non-allergic asthma increased with increasing BMI, associations between early-life and current environmental exposure were primarily found in relation to non-allergic asthma.

  5. Comparative study on skin dose measurement using MOSFET and TLD for pediatric patients with acute lymphatic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, Huda I; Mahyoub, Fareed H; Moftah, Belal A

    2010-07-01

    The object of this study was to compare the difference of skin dose measured in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (mobile MOSFET dose verification system (TN-RD-70-W) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 chips, Harshaw/ Bicron, OH, USA). Because TLD has been the most-commonly used technique in the skin dose measurement of TBI, the aim of the present study is to prove the benefit of using the mobile MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements during the total body irradiation (TBI) over thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The measurements involved 10 pediatric patients ages between 3 and 14 years. Thermoluminescent dosimeters and MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 9 different anatomic sites on each patient. The present results show there is a variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD in all patients, and for every anatomic site selected, there is no significant difference in the dose delivered using MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. However, there is a significant difference for every anatomic site using TLD compared with either the prescribed dose or MOSFET. The results indicate that the dosimeter measurements using the MOSFET gave precise measurements of prescribed dose. However, TLD measurement showed significant increased skin dose of cGy as compared to either prescribed dose or MOSFET group. MOSFET dosimeters provide superior dose accuracy for skin dose measurement in TBI as compared with TLD.

  6. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Druce HM. Allergic and non allergic rhinitis. In: Middleton EM Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF. Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis,. Mo: Mosby, Year-Book;1998.p.1005-16. 3. Blaiss MS. Quality of life in allergic rhinitis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83(5):449-54. 4.

  7. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Ramesh; Neupane, Saraswoti; Kandel, Ishwar Sharma

    2004-12-01

    A 24 years old male presented with recurrent symptoms of cough and breathlessness for 6 years but increased in past 6 months. Fleeting radiological opacities, peripheral eosinophilia and central type bronchiectasus in high resolution CT scan gave the suspicion of allergic bronchopolmonary aspergilosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was done by skin prick and immunological tests. The patient showed an excellent response to oral prednisolone.

  8. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and patch test results of leather workers at two Indonesian tanneries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Jungbauer, Frank; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Occupational skin diseases in tannery workers in newly industrialized countries have been reported, but neither the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis nor the skin-sensitizing

  9. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  10. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4 + cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders

  11. Hematogenously Disseminated Skin Disease Caused by Mucor velutinosus in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Christensen, Jesica A.; Bennett, John E.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a case of disseminated skin infection caused by Mucor velutinosus, a recently described new species. We believe this to be the first published report of a clinical case of mucormycosis due to M. velutinosus, as well as a rare case of dissemination from a deep site to skin. PMID:21543575

  12. Trait Positive Affect Buffers the Effects of Acute Stress on Skin Barrier Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Pressman, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examines the role of self-reported trait positive affect (PA) on skin barrier recovery after skin disruption, and whether the role of trait PA in wound healing is consistent with the direct effects model or the stress-buffering model of PA and health. Design Sixty healthy participants (mean age 22.7 ± 3.9 years) completed a self-report measure of trait positive and negative affect, underwent a “tape-stripping” procedure that disrupts normal skin barrier function, and were randomly assigned to a Stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or No Stress (reading task) condition. Main Outcome Measures Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 hr after skin disruption. Results Multilevel modeling indicated that greater trait PA was related to faster skin barrier recovery (p < .05). The effects of PA on skin barrier recovery were independent of levels of trait NA. Conclusion These findings suggest that trait PA may influence skin barrier recovery following a brief stressor. In addition, these results provide additional evidence that trait PA can positively impact objective health outcomes. PMID:19450044

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide therapy on the healing of acute skin wounds induced on the back of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vitória Carmo Penhavel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing effect of carbon dioxide therapy on skin wounds induced on the back of rats. METHODS: Sixteen rats underwent excision of a round dermal-epidermal dorsal skin flap of 2.5 cm in diameter. The animals were divided into two groups, as follows: carbon dioxide group - subcutaneous injections of carbon dioxide on the day of operation and at three, six and nine days postoperatively; control group - no postoperative wound treatment. Wounds were photographed on the day of operation and at six and 14 days postoperatively for analysis of wound area and major diameter. All animals were euthanized on day 14 after surgery. The dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer containing the wound were resected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the percentage of wound closure, in histopathological findings, or in the reduction of wound area and major diameter at 14 days postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Under the experimental conditions in which this study was conducted, carbon dioxide therapy had no effects on the healing of acute skin wounds in rats.

  14. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma. Minimal risk of acute toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P < 0.001). A lower grade 3 AE rate was also observed in patients who had received the low-dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses. (orig.) [German] Eine niedrigdosierte Ganzhautelektronenbestrahlung (TSEBT) wird vermehrt zur effektiven palliativen Behandlung von Patienten mit primaer kutanen T-Zell-Lymphomen (pCTCL) eingesetzt. In dieser Studie vergleichen wir die Toxizitaetsprofile verschiedener Dosiskonzepte. Untersucht wurden 60 zwischen 2000 und 2016 am Universitaetsklinikum Muenster mittels TSEBT

  15. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-05-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated at 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned.

  17. Hypnosis and the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler-Harper, J; Bircher, A J; Langewitz, W; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the immune system and the pathogenesis of immune disorders has increased. There has been much research on the complex connections between the psyche, the central nervous system and the immune system and the effect of mood on disease processes. This paper reviews the evidence on the effects of hypnosis on the allergic skin test reaction, on allergies, particularly respiratory allergies and hayfever, and on bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. Hypnosis, which is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness associated with concentration, relaxation and imagination, and amongst other characteristics an enhanced responsiveness to suggestion, has long been thought to be effective in the amelioration of various bodily disorders. It has seemed that the state of hypnosis is capable of a bridging or mediating function in the supposed dualism between mind and body. There has been great variation in the experimental and clinical procedures such as type of hypnotic intervention employed, the training of subjects and the timing of the intervention. Also, variability in the type of allergen used and its mode of application is evident. But despite these limitations, many of the studies have shown a link between the use of hypnosis and a changed response to an allergic stimulus or to a lessened bronchial hyperreactivity. There is as yet no clear explanation for the effectiveness of hypnosis, but there is some evidence for an influence on the neurovascular component of the allergic response.

  18. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z M; Zhong, H Q; Zhai, J; Wang, C X; Xiong, H L; Guo, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo. (paper)

  19. Topical therapy for facial allergic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kondratyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to assess clinical dynamics and morphofunctional skin parameters of patients with facial allergic dermatoses on the background of combined topical therapy. Materials and methods. 45 patients with various facial allergic dermatoses in dry and sensitive skin took part in the research. The methods included anamnesis taking, poll, objective examination and assessment of morphofunctional parameters of skin, as well as estimation of life quality dynamic index (LQDI. Main results. After a course of treatment with 0,05% solution of alclometasone dipropionate inflammation of dermatosis ceased in 45 (100% patients, itching and pains in 39 (86,7% patients, but complaints about dryness and peeling of facial skin remained in 41 (91,1% and 40 (88,8% patients respectively. On the background of therapy including emollient Aflocream the above mentioned symptoms did not appear in 43 (95,6% patients, wherein maximum effect was achieved in patients with allergic contact dermatitis - 14 (93,3%. After a course of topical therapy all patients showed statistically significant increase of epidermal moisture level, alongside with reduction of skin relief and degree of keratinization. During the assessment of LQDI a tendency to reduction of proportion of patients on whom the disease has a strong and extremely strong impact was noted in 10 patients (i.e. 22,2%, moderate influence - in 5 of them (11,45%, insignificant influence or its absence - in 30 (66,7% people. Conclusion. Combined therapy including the use of a topical corticosteroid Afloderm and an emollient Aflocream showed good clinical efficiency in patients with facial allergic dermatoses. The efficiency is also confirmed with improvements in morphofunctional characteristics of patients’ skin on the background of therapy.

  20. Dendritic cells: biology of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebak, M.J.; Gibbs, S.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Scheper, R.J.; Rustemeyer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis results from a T-cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response induced by allergens. Skin dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of allergic skin responses. Following encounter with an allergen, DCs become activated and undergo

  1. Effect of Hevea brasiliensis latex sap gel on healing of acute skin wounds induced on the back of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vitória Carmo Penhavel

    Full Text Available Objective : to evaluate the effect of topical delivery of latex cream-gel in acute cutaneous wounds induced on the back of rats. Methods : we subjected sixteen rats to dermo-epidermal excision of a round dorsal skin flap, with 2.5cm diameter. We divided the animals into two groups: Latex Group: application of cream-gel-based latex throughout the wound bed on postoperative days zero, three, six and nine; Control group: no treatment on the wound. Photographs of the lesions were taken on the procedure day and on the 6th and 14th postoperative days, for analyzing the area and the larger diameter of the wound. We carried out euthanasia of all animals on the 14th postoperative day, when we resected he dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer supporting the wound for histopathological study. Results : there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of wound closure, in the histopathological findings or in the reduction of the area and of the largest diameter of the wounds among the groups studied on the 14th postoperative day. Conclusion : according to the experimental conditions in which the study was conducted, latex cream-gel did not interfere in the healing of acute cutaneous wounds in rats.

  2. Safety of a Novel Botanical Extract Formula for Ameliorating Allergic rhinitis. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Joshua, A J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Each year more than 50 million Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis, which is a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity. Basically, allergic rhinitis is symptomatically recognized as the inflammation and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes; sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy; watery, and swollen eyes; and defined as a state of hypersensitivity/ hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular allergen (antigen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. Earlier studies in our laboratories have demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell stabilization activities of Aller-7 in addition to its efficacy in a clinical setting. A series of preliminary toxicological evaluations were also conducted in the past, which demonstrated its safety. In this study, we have conducted further safety studies on Aller-7, including acute oral, acute dermal, acute dermal irritation, eye irritation, and 90-day repeated dose toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity of Aller-7 was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats and no mortality or toxicity was observed at this dose, while the acute dermal toxicity was found to be greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight. In the acute dermal irritation study, the skin irritancy index was found to be 0.0, which classifies Aller-7 as a nonirritant to rabbit skin. In the acute eye irritation study, Aller-7 was found to have minimal irritancy to eyes of rabbits. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study, Aller-7 was administered at dose levels of 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg rat body weight for 90

  3. Substantiation of the active ingredients rational concentration of ointment for treatment of allergic dermatitis complicated by fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rukhmakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Due to the rapid growth of number of allergic skin diseases complicated by secondary fungal infection, creation of new drugs with an integrated anti-allergic and anti-fungal action for their local treatment is especially important. Methods and results. In the process of developing an ointment under conventional name “Allergolik” microbiological studies have been conducted to determine its rational composition. Concentrations of licorice root extract, terbinafine hydrochloride and lavender essential oil have been substantiated as parts of the studied medication. Study of acute toxicity of the developed dosage form has set that it belongs to the IV class of low-toxic substances due to the standard classification of K.K. Sidorova. Conclusion. This testifies the correctness of the choice of drug active ingredients and their concentrations.

  4. Assessing the economic value of avoiding hospital admissions by shifting the management of gram+ acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections to an outpatient care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektare, V; Khachatryan, A; Xue, M; Dunne, M; Johnson, K; Stephens, J

    2015-01-01

    To estimate, from a US payer perspective, the cost offsets of treating gram positive acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI) with varied hospital length of stay (LOS) followed by outpatient care, as well as the cost implications of avoiding hospital admission. Economic drivers of care were estimated using a literature-based economic model incorporating inpatient and outpatient components. The model incorporated equal efficacy, adverse events (AE), resource use, and costs from literature. Costs of once- and twice-daily outpatient infusions to achieve a 14-day treatment were analyzed. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were adjusted to 2015 US$. Total non-drug medical cost for treatment of ABSSSI entirely in the outpatient setting to avoid hospital admission was the lowest among all scenarios and ranged from $4039-$4924. Total non-drug cost for ABSSSI treated in the inpatient setting ranged from $9813 (3 days LOS) to $18,014 (7 days LOS). Inpatient vs outpatient cost breakdown was: 3 days inpatient ($6657)/11 days outpatient ($3156-$3877); 7 days inpatient ($15,017)/7 days outpatient ($2495-$2997). Sensitivity analyses revealed a key outpatient cost driver to be peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) costs (average per patient cost of $873 for placement and $205 for complications). Drug and indirect costs were excluded and resource use was not differentiated by ABSSSI type. It was assumed that successful ABSSSI treatment takes up to 14 days per the product labels, and that once-daily and twice-daily antibiotics have equal efficacy. Shifting ABSSSI care to outpatient settings may result in medical cost savings greater than 53%. Typical outpatient scenarios represent 14-37% of total medical cost, with PICC accounting for 28-43% of the outpatient burden. The value of new ABSSSI therapies will be driven by eliminating the need for PICC line, reducing length of stay and the ability to completely avoid a hospital stay.

  5. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones TM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Travis M Jones,1,2 Steven W Johnson,1,3 V Paul DiMondi,1,4 Dustin T Wilson,1,2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, 2Department of Pharmacy, Duke University Hospital, Durham, 3Department of Pharmacy, Forsyth Medical Center, Novant Health, Winston-Salem, 4Department of Pharmacy, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. Keywords: JNJ-Q2, fluoroquinolone, ABSSSI, CABP, MRSA

  6. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  7. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Presenting as Acute Orbital Myositis Preceding a Skin Rash: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ha Yeun; Cho, Seong Whi [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, in which orbital symptoms and signs appear before the onset of a skin rash, is very rare. We experienced such a case and therefore report on it via magnetic resonance imaging. A 48-year-old man with pain and swelling of left eye and headache presented 2 days before onset of a zoster skin rash. On orbit-al MRI, edematous thickening of the left lateral rectus muscle with high signal intensity was revealed. After contrast injection, the lateral rectus muscle demonstrated heterogenous enhancement. Also, diffuse contrast enhancement was noted at left preseptal space, lacrimal gland and periorbital soft tissue. The man was treated with antiviral agents and prednisolone. Two weeks later, he recovered from the skin manifestations and most of the orbital manifestations except for the diplopia and restricted lateral movement.

  8. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.S.; Bokhari, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  9. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The evolution of acute burn care - retiring the split skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, J E

    2017-07-01

    The skin graft was born in 1869 and since then, surgeons have been using split skin grafts for wound repair. Nevertheless, this asset fails the big burn patient, who deserves an elastic, mobile and robust outcome but who receives the poorest possible outcome based on donor site paucity. Negating the need for the skin graft requires an autologous composite cultured skin and a material capable of temporising the burn wound for four weeks until the composite is produced. A novel, biodegradable polyurethane chemistry has been used to create two such products. This paper describes the design, production, optimisation and evaluation of several iterations of these products. The evaluation has occurred in a variety of models, both in vitro and in vivo, employing Hunterian scientific principles, and embracing Hunter's love and appreciation of comparative anatomy. The process has culminated in significant human experience in complex wounds and extensive burn injury. Used serially, the products offer robust and elastic healing in deep burns of any size within 6 weeks of injury.

  11. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  12. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  13. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution in acute allergic conjunctivitis at 15 minutes and 16 hours after instillation versus placebo and olopatadine 0.1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack V Greiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jack V Greiner1,2, Kimberly Edwards-Swanson3, Avner Ingerman41Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, MA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 3Johnson & Johnson Consumer and Personal Products Worldwide, Skillman, NJ; 4Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USAPurpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of alcaftadine 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% ophthalmic solutions in treating the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% and placebo using the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC model.Methods: One hundred and seventy subjects were randomized and 164 subjects completed all visits. CAC was performed to determine and confirm subjects’ eligibility at visits 1 and 2, respectively. The CAC was repeated at visit 3 (day 0 ± 3, 16 hours after study medication instillation, and at visit 4 (day 14 ± 3, 15 minutes after instillation. Ocular itching and conjunctival redness were evaluated after an allergen challenge, along with several secondary endpoints.Results: Alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine 0.1% treatments exhibited significantly lower mean scores compared with placebo for ocular itching and conjunctival redness at visits 3 and 4. Most adverse events were self-limiting and mild in severity. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred.Conclusion: Treatment with alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution resulted in mean differences of >1 unit (ocular itching and approximately >1 unit (conjunctival redness, which was significant (P < 0.001 compared with placebo treatment. All doses of alcaftadine were safe and well tolerated in the population studied.Keywords: alcaftadine, allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival allergen challenge

  15. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were ...

  16. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  17. Acute leukemia after radiotherapy in a patient with Turcot's syndrome. Impaired colony formation in skin fibroblast cultures after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Little, J.B.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; Paterson, M.C.; Arlett, C.; Garnick, M.B.; Mayer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Colonic polyposis and carcinoma developed in a woman with Turcot's syndrome at the age of 31 years; astrocytoma developed when she was 37. Her brother and sister had died of astrocytoma at the ages of 18 and 33 years, respectively. Progressive neutropenia developed in the patient three months after radiotherapy for her brain tumor and acute myelomonocytic leukemia 19 months after treatment. Three laboratories independently evaluated cultures of her skin fibroblasts for in vitro sensitivity to cell killing (loss of colony-forming ability) by x-rays. Survival assays consistently revealed slight but significant radiosensitivity in an early-passage (six to 10 doublings) fibroblast subculture. A later subculture (21 to 29 doublings) showed no abnormality, a possible effect of selective in vitro loss of radiosensitive cells

  18. A Population-based Clinical Study of Allergic and Non-allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Thomsen, S.F.; Nolte, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to describe differences between allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. Methods. A total of 1,186 subjects, 14 to 44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms, and furthermore skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured. Results. A total of 489...

  19. Acute effects of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on oxidative stress levels in diabetic rats with skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Amanda Silveira; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Olmedo, Larissa; de Senna Cardoso, Bruno Mendonça; da Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2017-09-01

    Laser therapy influences oxidative stress parameters such as the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the production of reactive oxygen species. To analyze the effects of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress in diabetics rats with skin wounds. Thirty-six animals were divided into 4 groups: NDNI: non-diabetic rats with cutaneous wounds that not received laser therapy; NDI: non-diabetic rats with cutaneous wounds that received laser therapy; DNI: diabetic rats with skin wounds who did not undergo laser therapy; DI: rats with diabetes insipidus and cutaneous wounds and received laser therapy. The animals were treated with LLLT (660 nm, 100 mW, 6 J/cm, spot size 0.028 cm). On the day of killing the animals, tissue-wrapped cutaneous wounds were collected and immediately frozen, centrifuged, and stored to analyze malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Significant difference was observed within the groups of MDA levels (ANOVA, p = 0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significantly lower values of MDA in irradiated tissues, both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. ANOVA of the diabetic group revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01) when all groups, except NDI and DI, were compared. LLLT was effective in decreasing MDA levels in acute surgical wounds in diabetic rats.

  20. Allergic anaphylaxis due to subcutaneously injected heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heparins are one of the most used class of anticoagulants in daily clinical practice. Despite their widespread application immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to heparins are rare. Among these, the delayed-type reactions to s.c. injected heparins are well-known usually presenting as circumscribed eczematous plaques at the injection sites. In contrast, potentially life-threatening systemic immediate-type anaphylactic reactions to heparins are extremely rare. Recently, some cases of non-allergic anaphylaxis could be attributed to undesirable heparin contaminants. A 43-year-old patient developed severe anaphylaxis symptoms within 5–10 minutes after s.c. injection of enoxaparin. Titrated skin prick testing with wheal and flare responses up to an enoxaparin dilution of 1:10.000 indicated a probable allergic mechanism of the enoxaparin-induced anaphylaxis. The basophil activation test as an additional in-vitro test method was negative. Furthermore, skin prick testing showed rather broad cross-reactivity among different heparin preparations tested. In the presented case, history, symptoms, and results of skin testing strongly suggested an IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity against different heparins. Therefore, as safe alternative anticoagulants the patient could receive beneath coumarins the hirudins or direct thrombin inhibitors. Because these compounds have a completely different molecular structure compared with the heparin-polysaccharides.

  1. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  2. The allergic scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as allergic rhinitis and asthma, have increased in prevalence, particularly in industrialised .... within the alveolar macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, platelets, basophils and ..... world allergy organization position statement. World Allergy ...

  3. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. Allergy shots often lead to lasting relief ... AAAAI Foundation Donate American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI ...

  4. Allergic colitis in infants related to cow's milk: clinical characteristics, pathologic changes, and immunologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Lun; Yang, Yao-Jong; Yang, Sing-San; Wang, Li-Hui; Lee, Chung-Ta; Jan, Ren-Long; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2013-02-01

    Allergic colitis (AC) is an inflammatory condition characterized by eosinophils infiltrating the colonic wall. It can be a benign and/or severe illness among gastrointestinal diseases in infants. We report five infants who, since January 2009, in whom AC under fibrotic endoscopic examinations has been diagnosed. The criterion for histopathologic diagnosis of AC in this study was five or more eosinophils per high-power field. Patients' clinical symptoms, pathologic findings, and immunologic studies, such as specific antibodies against component of cow's milk protein, were compared with those of allergic children without AC and those of nonatopic control children. Histopathologic examinations of biopsy specimens revealed acute inflammation with characteristic eosinophilic infiltration of lamina propria (5-15 eosinophils per high-power field) in all five patients. They all had strongly positive skin prick tests against milk protein, which were not correlated with in vitro allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels. In contrast, there were significantly higher levels of IgE antibodies, and lower specific IgG4 and IgA levels to components and whole milk proteins in AC, as compared to control children without AC. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of intestine confirm the diagnosis of AC. However, allergen skin prick test and IgE antibody to milk protein components also provide helpful diagnostic tools for this rare disease in children. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  6. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic brosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  7. The effect of Mepitel Film on acute radiation-induced skin reactions in head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Hayley; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ling; Chyou, Te-Yu; Gao, Shanbao; Ward, Iain; Herst, Patries M

    2018-01-01

    Mepitel Film significantly decreases acute radiation-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Here we investigated the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients (ACTRN12614000932662). Out of a total of 36 head and neck cancer patients from New Zealand (NZ) (n = 24) and China (n = 12) recruited between June 2015 and December 2016, 33 patients complied with protocol. Of these, 11 NZ patients followed a management protocol; 11 NZ patients and 11 Chinese patients followed a prophylactic protocol. An area of the neck receiving a homogenous radiation dose of > 35 Gy was divided into two equal halves; one half was randomized to Film and the other to either Sorbolene cream (NZ) or Biafine cream (China). Skin reaction severity was measured by Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale and expanded Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters or gafchromic film. Film decreased overall skin reaction severity (combined Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale score) by 29% and moist desquamation rates by 37% in the Chinese cohort and by 27 and 28%, respectively in the NZ cohort. Mepitel Film did not affect head movements but did not adhere well to the skin, particularly in males with heavy beard stubble, and caused itchiness, particularly in Chinese patients. Mepitel Film reduced acute radiation-induced skin reactions in our head and neck cancer patients, particularly in patients without heavy stubble. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to confirm the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients.

  8. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938

  9. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.

  10. Cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts in a case of accidental acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthuy, M.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1982-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts from a young boy, heavily irradiated by handling of an iridium-192 source of 25 curies is reported. About half of the cells examined had chromosomal abnormalities. The same clone, with multiple chromosome rearrangement, was observed in cultures from biopsies obtained 25 and 35 months after the accident. Several other clones were detected in vitro. The results obtained from cultures of biopsies from different locations show that no direct relationships were found between the absorbed dose and the frequency of stable chromosomal rearrangements. The comparison of the intrachromosomal rearrangements, mostly inversions, observed in this study with those detected in human pathology, in irradiation experiments in vitro, and in various species of primates indicates that these rearrangements do not occur at random. (orig.)

  11. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  12. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  13. The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis : cellular aspects with special emphasis on Langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkens (Wytske)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractPresent ideas concerning the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis are largely deduced from systemic investigations and extrapolated from studies in the skin and the lung. Studies on allergic rhinitis generally comprise clinical aspects and/or biochemical, humoral and cellular features of

  14. Anaphylaxis, contact urticaria, and allergic asthma caused by persulfates in hair bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schuttelaar, M.L.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persulfate salts are potent oxidizing agents in hair bleach products that accelerate the bleaching process. Ammonium and potassium persulfates may cause delayedtype and immediate skin reactions. Also allergic asthma and rhinitis have been described. Objectives: Ammonium and potassium

  15. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  16. Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aihua; Su, Zhen; Li, Sanming; Han, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian; Narges Alizadeh Korkinejad; Shima Shirkhoda; Mohammad Nabavi; Zahra Pourpak

    2012-01-01

    The  frequency of  allergic diseases such  as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT) by stand...

  19. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    2016-06-01

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V ( B. breve ) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only. Sensitized mice were fed a control diet or a diet enriched with short-chain- (scFOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS), B. breve or scFOSlcFOS +  B. breve for 3 weeks starting after the last sensitization. Non-sensitized mice received the control diet. Anaphylactic shock symptoms, acute allergic skin responses and serum specific IgE, mMCP-1 and galectin-9 were measured upon OVA challenge. Activated Th2-, Th1-cells and regulatory T-cells were quantified in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cytokine profiles were analyzed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in ceacal samples. The acute allergic skin response was reduced in mice fed the scFOSlcFOS +  B. breve diet compared to mice fed any of the other diets. A reduction in mast cell degranulation (mMCP-1) and anaphylactic shock symptoms was also observed in these mice. Unstimulated splenocyte cultures produced increased levels of IL10 and IFNg in mice fed the scFOSlcFOS +  B. breve diet. Correspondingly, increased percentages of activated Th1 cells were observed in the spleen. Allergen-specific re-stimulation of splenocytes showed a decrease in IL5 production. In summary; post-sensitization administration of scFOSlcFOS +  B. breve was effective in reducing allergic symptoms after allergen challenge. These effects coincided with changes in regulatory and effector T-cell subsets and increases in the SCFA propionic acid. These

  20. Acute skin toxicity-related, out-of-pocket expenses in patients with breast cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy: a descriptive, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Mattson, David M K; Green, Sheryl; Jandorf, Lina H; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Montgomery, Guy H

    2012-12-01

    Acute skin toxicity is one of the most common side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy. To date, no one has estimated the nonmedical out-of-pocket expenses associated with this side effect. The primary aim of the present descriptive, exploratory study was to assess the feasibility of a newly developed skin toxicity costs questionnaire. The secondary aims were to: (1) estimate nonmedical out-of-pocket costs, (2) examine the nature of the costs, (3) explore potential background predictors of costs, and (4) explore the relationship between patient-reported dermatologic quality of life and expenditures. A total of 50 patients (mean age = 54.88, Stage 0-III) undergoing external beam radiotherapy completed a demographics/medical history questionnaire as well as a seven-item Skin Toxicity Costs (STC) questionnaire and the Skindex-16 in week 5 of treatment. Mean skin toxicity costs were $131.64 (standard error [SE] = $23.68). Most frequently incurred expenditures were new undergarments and products to manage toxicity. Education was a significant unique predictor of spending, with more educated women spending more money. Greater functioning impairment was associated with greater costs. The STC proved to be a practical, brief measure which successfully indicated specific areas of patient expenditures and need. Results reveal the nonmedical, out-of-pocket costs associated with acute skin toxicity in the context of breast cancer radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify individual costs associated with this treatment side effect, as well as the first to present a scale specifically designed to assess such costs. In future research, the STC could be used as an outcome variable in skin toxicity prevention and control research, as a behavioral indicator of symptom burden, or as part of a needs assessment.

  1. The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujishima

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

  2. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  3. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  4. Allergic rhinitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is also associated with co-morbidities such as sinusitis, otitis media ... nose, chronic infective sinusitis and nasal polyps may mimic the signs .... fungal spores. Gauteng. Add: tree pollen (cypress). Farming areas. Add: Zea mays, horse, Blomia tropicalis. Table ii. Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  5. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    NEW DEFINITIONS. The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)1 now state that the term hypersensitivity should be used for 'all .... leading ultimately to allergic inflamma- tion of the sinuses. Not every bacterial infection needs to be treated with an antimicrobial. This is the prime responsi-.

  6. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  7. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part I. Results of a German multicenter questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Wilhelm, R.; Niehoff, P.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, it was to evaluate the remedies, which are used for prevention and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large bowel, rectum and vagina). A questionnaire was sent to 130 radiotherapeutic departments in Germany in Juli 1995. The questionnaire had been designed with 22 open questions concerning the preventive and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of skin and mucosal sites. From 130 questionnaires, 89 (68.4%) were sent back till August 1995. All of them were evaluable. The recommendations showed a broad spectrum for each site. Especially the oral mucositis was treated in many different ways and combinations. The prevention and therapy of complicating superinfections seem to be the joint principle of most of the recommendations. The management of the acute radiation related morbidity has a wide clinical spectrum among different radiation therapy centers. Systematic prospectively designed investigations are necessary in order to achieve a further reduction in the radiation related acute morbidity. Therefore, a multicenter collaborative working group has been founded. (orig./MG) [de

  8. An objective long-term evaluation of Integra (a dermal skin substitute) and split thickness skin grafts, in acute burns and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Potokar, Tom S; Price, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    The field of wound healing and tissue repair has advanced rapidly in the last decade, with this there is an increasing emphasis on the importance of the functional and cosmetic outcomes following injury. Integra artificial skin is the most widely used synthetic skin substitute and is reported to have better outcomes in relation to the appearance and elasticity when compared to split thickness skin grafting (SSG). A review of the literature reveals very few trials that are based on an objective evaluation of Integra treated scars as compared to SSGs. This research aimed to provide objective data on the long-term outcome of Integra. All adult patients from the Welsh Burns Centre who had been successfully treated with Integra+/-SSG were invited to attend a clinic for a follow up provided they had been healed for greater than one year. The hypothesis that Integra scars are more pliable than skin grafts was tested objectively using the Cutometer, a suction device which measures skin elasticity. Of the 13 patients eligible, six were available for assessment. The results of this study suggest that Integra treated sites correlate well with normal skin as measured by the Cutometer. This was statistically significant for the parameters Ur/Ue (elastic function) and Ur/Uf (gross elasticity). On the other hand there was no correlation seen between the patients SSG sites and the patient's normal skin. With advances in medicine we are increasingly able to modulate wound healing and the resultant scars. In order to assess new and often costly treatments the need for objective scar measurement tools have become apparent. Integra has been advocated to improve scarring from injury. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the long-term outcome of Integra as compared to traditional methods such as SSG. In the past scar evaluation has been based on subjective scores by patients and clinicians. Now the mechanical properties of the skin can be evaluated using simple

  9. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation and allergic disorders in Korean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JinAh; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kwon, Ji-Won; Song, Young Hwa; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Hong, Soo-Jong; Shin, Yee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to support an association between symptoms of pediatric allergic disorders and psychosocial factors in the general population, particularly in Asian countries. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and symptoms of allergic disorders and to investigate the association between behavior problems and biomarkers of atopy. A cross-sectional survey of parental responses to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was conducted from one elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Skin prick tests for 18 major allergens were also performed. A total of 780 children with valid CBCL surveys were included in the study. Externalizing problems were significantly larger in children with asthmatic symptoms, while internalizing problems were significantly larger in children with symptoms of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Social adaptations were significantly lower in children with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Boys with more positive allergens via the skin prick tests showed larger internalizing problems. While school children with allergic symptoms have been reported to have more difficulties with psychosocial adaptation, the patterns of psychosocial problems varied somewhat according to the types of atopic disorder. There was a positive relationship between atopy and behavior problems, especially in boys. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of allergic reactions in the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Christopher; Milles, Maano

    2011-02-01

    Since more than 50 million people in the United States have allergies, knowledge of the management of allergic reactions in the dental office is extremely important. Appropriate care may range from a simple referral to a primary care physician to lifesaving measures implemented during acute anaphylactic reactions. The authors present a basic review of the pathophysiology of allergic reactions and provide information detailing the diagnosis and management of allergic reactions that may be encountered in the dental office. Utilizing this information, the dental practitioner and ancillary staff will have a thorough understanding of allergic reactions and be prepared to successfully identify and treat these reactions.

  11. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  12. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevention of incontinence-related skin breakdown for acute and critical care patients: comparison of two products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Mary; Droegemueller, Carol; Rivers, Sonja; Deuser, William E

    2012-01-01

    Perineal protection products were compared for their efficacy in preventing skin breakdown in the hospitalized patient with urinary and/or fecal incontinence. Each product was used for the duration of the hospital stay with daily observations for perineal skin condition. Results indicated the spray product and wipe product were comparable in rate of skin breakdown prevention. Findings suggest the wipe product is more cost-effective for use during hospitalization, and the spray product preserves skin integrity over a longer period of time, beyond average hospitalization duration.

  15. Suppression of skin inflammation in keratinocytes and acute/chronic disease models by caffeic acid phenethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Koo, Jung Eun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Bae, Ok-Nam; Lee, Joo Young

    2015-04-01

    Skin inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology and symptoms of diverse chronic skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we examined if caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a skin-permeable bioactive compound from propolis, was protective against skin inflammation using in vitro cell system and in vivo animal disease models. CAPE suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The potency and efficacy of CAPE were superior to those of a non-phenethyl derivative, caffeic acid. Consistently, topical treatment of CAPE (0.5 %) attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-induced skin inflammation on mouse ear as CAPE reduced ear swelling and histologic inflammation scores. CAPE suppressed increased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase in TPA-stimulated skin. TPA-induced phosphorylation of IκB and ERK was blocked by CAPE suggesting that protective effects of CAPE on skin inflammation is attributed to inhibition of NF-κB activation. Most importantly, in an oxazolone-induced chronic dermatitis model, topical application of CAPE (0.5 and 1 %) was effective in alleviating AD-like symptoms such as increases of trans-epidermal water loss, skin thickening and serum IgE as well as histologic inflammation assessment. Collectively, our results propose CAPE as a promising candidate for a novel topical drug for skin inflammatory diseases.

  16. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  17. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  18. A newly synthesized macakurzin C-derivative attenuates acute and chronic skin inflammation: The Nrf2/heme oxygenase signaling as a potential target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Muhammad [College of Pharmacy Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Iljin [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong-A; Noh, Dabi [College of Pharmacy Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Hoon; Chang, Sun-Young [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungsu, E-mail: hkimajou@ajou.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ok-Nam, E-mail: onbae@hanyang.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Impaired immune responses in skin play a pivotal role in the development and progression of chemical-associated inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we synthesized new flavonoid derivatives from macakurzin C, and identified in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent anti-inflammatory flavonoid, Compound 14 (CPD 14), with its underlying mechanisms. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages and IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes, CPD 14 significantly inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (IC{sub 50} for NO inhibition in macrophages: 4.61 μM). Attenuated NF-κB signaling and activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPD 14. The in vivo relevance was examined in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute skin inflammation and oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis models. Topically applied CPD 14 significantly protected both irritation- and sensitization-associated skin inflammation by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators. In summary, we demonstrated that a newly synthesized flavonoid, CPD 14, has potent inhibitory effects on skin inflammation, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic candidate to treat skin disorders associated with excessive inflammation. - Highlights: • An anti-inflammatory flavonoid CPD 14 was newly synthesized from macakurzin C. • CPD 14 potently inhibited inflammatory reaction in keratinocytes and macrophages. • Dermal toxicity by irritation or sensitization in rats was protected by CPD 14. • Attenuated NF-κB and activated Nrf2/HO-1 were main mechanisms of CPD 14 action.

  19. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Rossella; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Muto, Paolo; Ravo, Vincenzo; Sammarco, Elena; Calvanese, Maria Grazia; De Natale, Flora; Falivene, Sara; Di Lecce, Ada; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Murino, Paola; Manzo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy

  20. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Sfintizky, Andreas; Welzel, Grit; Simeonova, Anna; Sperk, Elena; Siebenlist, Kerstin; Mai, Sabine; Wenz, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher grade

  1. Use of helium-neon laser for the prevention of acute radiation reaction of the skin in neutron-beam therapy of head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.I.; Musabaeva, L.I.; Kitsmanyuk, Z.D.; Lavrenkov, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary data on helium-neon laser usage to prevent acute radiation skinresponse in patients with head and neck neoplasm were presented in case of fast neutrons therapy with average energy of ≅ 6.3 MeV. Irradiation was performed by 2 fractions a week with single absorbed focal dose of 1.2-1.4 Gy and the dose for the skin was 2-2.2 Gy. RBE of the fast neutrons comprised ∼ 3. Some patients were subjected to neutron therapy in combination with helium-neon laser treatment, the others underwent only neutron therapy. Combination of neutron and helium-neon laser therapy increased skin resistance to neutron irradiation. Combined treatment with neutrons and helium-neon laser decreased development of humid epidermitis by half than in case of neutron treatment alone

  2. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N.; Pant, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.)

  3. Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, J; Holford-Strevens, V; Cheang, M; Warren, C P

    1986-01-01

    History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:3709486

  4. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  5. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  6. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic asthma (AA) caused by perennial house dust mite (HDM) versus AR and/or AA caused by seasonal pollen allergy. Following a systematic search, the identified studies used the...

  7. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  8. Awareness of allergic enterocolitis among primary-care paediatricians: A web-based pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, P; Landi, M; Martelli, A; Piacentini, G L; Capristo, C; Paiola, G; Peroni, D G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic enterocolitis, also known as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), is an increasingly reported and potentially severe non-IgE mediated food allergy of the first years of life, which is often misdiagnosed due to its non-specific presenting symptoms and lack of diagnostic guidelines. We sought to determine the knowledge of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of FPIES among Italian primary-care paediatricians. A 16-question anonymous web-based survey was sent via email to randomly selected primary care paediatricians working in the north of Italy. There were 194 completed surveys (48.5% response rate). Among respondents, 12.4% declared full understanding of FPIES, 49% limited knowledge, 31.4% had simply heard about FPIES and 7.2% had never heard about it. When presented with clinical anecdotes, 54.1% recognised acute FPIES and 12.9% recognised all chronic FPIES, whereas 10.3% misdiagnosed FPIES as allergic proctocolitis or infantile colic. To diagnose FPIES 55.7% declared to need negative skin prick test or specific-IgE to the trigger food, whereas 56.7% considered necessary a confirmatory oral challenge. Epinephrine was considered the mainstay in treating acute FPIES by 25.8% of respondents. Only 59.8% referred out to an allergist for the long-term reintroduction of the culprit food. Overall, 20.1% reported to care children with FPIES in their practice, with cow's milk formula and fish being the most common triggers; the diagnosis was self-made by the participant in 38.5% of these cases and by an allergist in 48.7%. There is a need for promoting awareness of FPIES to minimise delay in diagnosis and unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  10. IL-23 and T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human beings with allergic contact dermatitis; in particular, the innate response of keratinocytes to contact allergen, the induction of allergen-specific T(H)17 cells, and the presence of T(H)17-related effector cells in inflamed skin. METHODS....... CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the involvement of T(H)17-mediated immunopathology in human allergic contact dermatitis, including both innate and adaptive immune responses to contact allergens....

  11. Association of Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder with allergic diseases in children and adolescents: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, M; Guner, S N; Karabekiroglu, K; Baykal, S; Kilic, M; Sancak, R; Karabekiroglu, A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the rate of allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (n:26) and/or Tourette syndrome (TS) (n:32) [OCD plus TS, n:13] compared to control subjects (n:35) [total, n:80]. The symptoms of any allergic disease were assessed using the ISAAC questionnaire form. Allergy diagnoses were made by a pediatric allergy specialist. Skin prick tests were applied, and IgE levels and eosinophil counts were measured. While only one-fifth of the control subjects had allergic diseases, more than half of the children with TS and/or OCD had comorbid allergic diseases. Positive skin prick tests were greater in OCD patients compared to control subjects. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of eosinophil counts or IgE levels. Among the allergic diseases, while allergic rhinitis was diagnosed at significantly higher rates in TS patients, eczema was significantly higher in OCD patients compared to control subjects. This preliminary study shows an association between allergic diseases and TS and/or OCD. The results revealing differences in associations between types of allergic disease (rhinitis or eczema) and neuropsychiatric disorder (tic disorder or OCD) need to be investigated in further studies with higher numbers of participants, and immune markers should be examined.

  12. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Alizadeh Korkinejad, Narges; Shirkhoda, Shima; Nabavi, Mohammad; Pourpak, Zahra

    2012-09-01

    The frequency of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT) by standard extracts of three insect aeroallergens including Mosquito, Corn moth, Cockroach and two species of mites as common aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoid Farina, Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus) were done.SPT results showed that the most common insect aeroallergens were: mosquito (32.6%) followed by corn moth (26.3%) and cockroach (13.7%).The prevalence of SPT positive response to Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus, Dermatophagoid Farina were 8.4% and 7.4%, respectively. These results demonstrated that sensitization to insect aeroallergens was significantly more common compared to mites in patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd city, a city surrounded by deserts. High prevalence of skin reactivity to mosquito and corn moth as insect aeroallergens in Yazd city with hot and dry climate in contrast to humid regions such as north of Iran, where mites are more frequent, indicates differences in the prevalence of aeroallergen reactivity in various areas with different climates. Our study could highlight the importance of insect aeroallergens for clinicians for better diagnosis and management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  13. Thêta-Cream versus Bepanthol lotion in breast cancer patients under radiotherapy. A new prophylactic agent in skin care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röper, Barbara; Kaisig, Danielle; Auer, Florian; Mergen, Ertan; Molls, Michael

    2004-05-01

    In radiotherapy of the breast following breast-conserving surgery, the adverse reaction predominantly found is confined to the skin. After phase II studies, Thêta-Cream, containing CM Glucan, Hydroxyprolisilan C und Matrixyl as active substances, was said to have prophylactic properties of preventing acute radiation side effects in skin tissue. In a prospective randomized study, Thêta-cream was compared with standard skin care using Bepanthol lotion. 20 breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to use Thêta-Cream or Bepanthol lotion during radiotherapy. At 0, 30, and 50 Gy, acute skin toxicity was scored with a modified RTOG scoring system. The patients' content with the skin care and the technical assistants' content with the skin marks were recorded. For single aspects of toxicity and their sums in defined skin areas, no differences in median and range between study groups were found. The maximal toxicity anywhere in the breast averaged in a moderate erythema, mild elevation of skin temperature, no desquamation in both groups. Mild itchiness and sporadic efflorescences were more frequently seen with Thêta-Cream. According to a ranking of anonymized breast photos at 50 Gy by independent investigators, side effects were equal. Patients' content was high with both skin care regimens (1.25 on a scale from 0 to 10). With Thêta-Cream a trend toward worse skin marks was noted. Adverse events exclusively occurred in Thêta-Cream users: suspected allergic reaction once, and the necessity for resimulation twice. In direct comparison with dexpanthenol-containing lotion, no advantage for Thêta-Cream was found. Higher costs and problems with skin marks prevent a general recommendation.

  14. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  15. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  16. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  17. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  18. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  19. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Elisabeth C A M; Wijering, Selva C; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E; Garssen, Johan

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of drugs that can be used for the treatment of allergic disease is important in human health. Arctium lappa Linne (Compositae) (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine in Brazil and throughout Asia and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the inhibitory effects of AL on degranulation and the release of mediators as well as on inhibition of cys-leukotriene biosynthesis by basophils were investigated. AL was selected out of 10,000 herbal extracts in a set-up for high throughput screening in which the degree of degranulation was monitored by the release of beta-hexosaminidase from rat basophil leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The AL extract significantly reduced degranulation and biosynthesis of cys-leukotrienes of human basophils in peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 8.3 and 11.4 microg/ml, respectively). Viability and metabolic activity of the PBMCs were not affected. Although arctiin, the active component of AL that has been described in the literature, was not able to reduce degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells, a single high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fraction from the AL extract inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release (IC(50) = 22.2 microg/ml). Topical administration of an aqueous extract of AL (5 mg/ear) on the ear of whey-sensitized mice 4 hrs before challenge with whey in the ear inhibited acute ear swelling by 50% in an in vivo cow's milk allergic model. The extract had no effect in this model when administered orally. In conclusion, the active component present in the active HPLC fraction of the AL extract was able to significantly reduce the release of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of degranulation and cys-leukotriene release in vitro. In addition, this active component was able to inhibit acute skin response in mice in vivo, indicating that AL is a very promising natural component for use in anti-allergic treatment.

  2. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  3. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  4. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  5. Characterization of the cutaneous mycobiota in healthy and allergic cats using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Johnson, Timothy J; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies have demonstrated a diverse skin-associated microbiota and microbial dysbiosis associated with atopic dermatitis in people and in dogs. The skin of cats has yet to be investigated using NGS techniques. We hypothesized that the fungal microbiota of healthy feline skin would be similar to that of dogs, with a predominance of environmental fungi, and that fungal dysbiosis would be present on the skin of allergic cats. Eleven healthy cats and nine cats diagnosed with one or more cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders, including flea bite, food-induced and nonflea nonfood-induced hypersensitivity. Healthy cats were sampled at twelve body sites and allergic cats at six sites. DNA was isolated and Illumina sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi. Sequences were processed using the bioinformatics software QIIME. The most abundant fungal sequences from the skin of all cats were classified as Cladosporium and Alternaria. The mucosal sites, including nostril, conjunctiva and reproductive tracts, had the fewest number of fungi, whereas the pre-aural space had the most. Allergic feline skin had significantly greater amounts of Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes, and significantly less Epicoccum compared to healthy feline skin. The skin of healthy cats appears to have a more diverse fungal microbiota compared to previous studies, and a fungal dysbiosis is noted in the skin of allergic cats. Future studies assessing the temporal stability of the skin microbiota in cats will be useful in determining whether the microbiota sequenced using NGS are colonizers or transient microbes. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Unusual acute and delayed skin reactions during and after whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, B.; Roedel, C.; Weiss, C. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Meissner, M.; Wolter, M. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Besides radiotherapy (RT) and surgery, the introduction of BRAF inhibitors like vemurafenib has provided new opportunities for treatment of patients with metastasized malignant melanomas. RT and vemurafenib are being increasingly used concurrently, although little is known about the potential side effects of this combination. Vemurafenib is known to cause severe cutaneous skin reactions such as phototoxicity and evidence is accumulating that RT may further enhance these side effects. We report two cases of unusual skin reactions occurring during and after treatment with a combination of vemurafenib and whole-brain irradiation in patients with cerebral metastases arising from malignant melanomas. One case report describes excessive acute radiodermatitis which arose during whole-brain irradiation in combination with vemurafenib. The second describes a late skin reaction occurring approximately 30 days after completion of RT. These two case reports show that combination of both treatment modalities is possible, but requires close monitoring of patients and good interdisciplinary collaboration. (orig.) [German] Neben der Strahlentherapie und Chirurgie stellt die Einfuehrung von BRAF-Inhibitoren wie Vemurafenib eine neue Moeglichkeit zur Behandlung von metastasierten malignen Melanomen dar und immer haeufiger kommt eine Kombination aus Strahlentherapie und Vemurafenib zum Einsatz. Bislang ist wenig bekannt ueber potentielle Nebenwirkungen, die sich aus einer Kombination beider Therapieoptionen ergeben koennen. Vemurafenib kann zu schweren kutanen Nebenwirkungen wie z. B. Phototoxizitaet fuehren und es haeufen sich Hinweise, dass die Strahlentherapie diese Nebenwirkungen verstaerken kann. Wir berichten ueber zwei Faelle ungewoehnlicher Hautreaktionen waehrend und nach einer Ganzhirnbestrahlung in Kombination mit Vemurafenib. Ein Fall beschreibt eine akute und ueberschiessende Radiodermatitis unter fortlaufender Radiotherapie und der andere Fall beschreibt eine spaete

  7. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunaloke Chakrabarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS, “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  8. Neurotrophins in healthy and diseased skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, U; Kapp, A

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the complex mechanism of allergic inflammatory skin diseases has been a main challenge of clinical and experimental research for years. It is well known that the inflammatory response is also controlled by tissue resident cells including neurons and structural cells. Thus, allergic inflammation triggers neuronal dysfunction and structural changes in diseased skin. Prime candidates for the interaction between immune, structural, and neuronal cells are presented by neurotrophins. Neurotrophins have initially been described for their neurotrophic capacity. However, recent evidence emerges that neurotrophins display bidirectional interaction pathways in activating structural cells, immune cells in addition to neurons. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are upregulated in allergic inflammatory skin diseases. Further, structural cells, neurons and tissue resident cells have not only been shown to be a target but also a source of neurotrophin. In this regard, eosinophil granulocytes which are key target effector cells in chronic inflammatory skin have been identified as a target of neurotrophins but are also capable of neurotrophin production. Thus, neuroimmune interaction mechanisms in allergic inflammatory skin display a novel pathophysiological aspect in which neurotrophins serve as prime candidates for bidirectional interaction mechanisms. In this review, we provide an actual overview of neurotrophins in healthy and diseased skin with special emphasis on atopic dermatitis and therapeutic implications.

  9. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.

  10. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Saibaba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Department of Radiation Oncology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka (India); Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu, E-mail: ksatyamoorthy@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Oritavancin Relative to Vancomycin for Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections (ABSSSI) in the Outpatient Setting: Results From the SOLO Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodise, Thomas P; Redell, Mark; Armstrong, Shannon O; Sulham, Katherine A; Corey, G Ralph

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oritavancin compared with vancomycin for patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) who received treatment in the outpatient setting in the Phase 3 SOLO clinical trials. SOLO I and SOLO II were 2 identically designed comparative, multicenter, double-blind, randomized studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single 1200-mg dose of intravenous (IV) oritavancin versus 7-10 days of twice-daily IV vancomycin for the treatment of ABSSSI. Protocols were amended to allow enrolled patients to complete their entire course of antimicrobial therapy in an outpatient setting. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite endpoint (cessation of spread or reduction in size of the baseline lesion, absence of fever, and no rescue antibiotic at early clinical evaluation [ECE]) (48 to 72 hours). Key secondary endpoints included investigator-assessed clinical cure 7 to 14 days after end of treatment (posttherapy evaluation [PTE]) and 20% or greater reduction in lesion area at ECE. Safety was assessed until day 60. Seven hundred ninety-two patients (oritavancin, 392; vancomycin, 400) received entire course of treatment in the outpatient setting. Efficacy response rates at ECE and PTE were similar (primary composite endpoint at ECE: 80.4% vs 77.5% for oritavancin and vancomycin, respectively) as was incidence of adverse events. Five patients (1.3%) who received oritavancin and 9 (2.3%) vancomycin patients were subsequently admitted to a hospital. Oritavancin provides a single-dose alternative to multidose vancomycin for treatment of ABSSSI in the outpatient setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. A Pooled Analysis of the Phase 3 REVIVE Trials: Randomized, Double-blind Studies to EValuate the Safety and Efficacy of Iclaprim Versus Vancomycin for trEatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David B; Corey, G Ralph; Holland, Thomas L; Lodise, Thomas; O'Riordan, William; Wilcox, Mark H; File, Thomas M; Dryden, Matthew; Balser, Barbara; Desplats, Eve; Torres, Antoni

    2018-05-18

    Iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine antibiotic, was compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in two studies (REVIVE-1 and REVIVE-2). We explored the efficacy and tolerability of iclaprim in a pooled analysis of results from both studies. REVIVE-1 and REVIVE-2 were Phase 3, double-blind, randomized (1:1), multicenter, active-controlled, non-inferiority (margin of 10%) trials, each designed to enroll 600 patients a piece with ABSSSI. The studies used identical study protocols. Iclaprim 80 mg and vancomycin 15 mg/kg were administered IV every 12 hours for 5-14 days. The primary endpoint was a ≥20% reduction from baseline in lesion size (early clinical response [ECR]) at the early time point (48 to 72 hours after the start of study drug) in the intent-to-treat population. In REVIVE-1, ECR at the early time point was 80.9% with iclaprim vs. 81.0% with vancomycin (treatment difference, -0.13%; 95% confidence interval, -6.42% to 6.17%). In REVIVE-2, ECR was 78.3% with iclaprim vs. 76.7% with vancomycin (treatment difference: 1.58%, 95% CI: -5.10% to 8.26%). The pooled ECR was 79.6% with iclaprim vs. 78.8% with vancomycin (treatment difference: 0.75%, 95% CI: -3.84 to 5.35%). Iclaprim and vancomycin were comparable for the incidence of mostly mild adverse events, except for a higher incidence of elevated serum creatinine with vancomycin (n=7) compared with iclaprim (n=0). Iclaprim achieved noninferiority compared with vancomycin for early clinical response at the early time point and secondary endpoints with a similar safety profile in two Phase 3 studies for the treatment of ABSSSI suspected or confirmed to be caused by Gram-positive pathogens. NCT02600611 and NCT02607618. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Aesthetic skin branding: a novel form of body art with adverse clinical sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoukian, Raffy; Ukatu, Chidi; Lee, Edward; Hyman, Josh; Sundine, Michael; Kobayashi, Mark; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Branding is a form of body art wherein third-degree burns are inflicted on the skin to produce permanent scars. This method of scarification is a common practice among many indigenous cultures and has become exceedingly common in western societies. As with other forms of body art, branding is not a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder but, rather, a method of self-expression. The process can be performed through the use of electrocautery, laser, chemicals, freezing, and hot metal. Complications arising from the procedure include acute infection, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, allergic reactions, and sequelae arising from third-degree burns. In addition, skin branding has been shown to be associated with substance abuse and high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the following case report and review to familiarize clinicians with this dangerous method of body art.

  14. Clinical correlations of dry eye syndrome and allergic conjunctivitis in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju

    2013-01-01

    Clinical patterns in pediatric patients with dry eye syndrome and allergic conjunctivitis were investigated. Children aged 6 to 15 years with dry eye symptoms were included. Slit-lamp examinations including tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test, and fluorescent staining were performed, and subjective symptoms were investigated. Patients with allergic conjunctivitis were subjected to skin prick tests. Tear film break-up time was shorter and the number of symptoms related to dry eyes was higher in pediatric patients with allergic conjunctivitis than in those without allergic conjunctivitis. Patients with allergic conjunctivitis who had higher numbers of positive allergens on the skin prick test also had shorter tear film break-up time. Because pediatric patients with dry eye syndrome tend to complain less about their symptoms than adult patients, dry eye syndrome is commonly overlooked. This study showed that dry eyes tended to be more severe with the presence of allergic conjunctivitis; the more allergens present, the more severe the dry eyes. More attention should be paid to the treatment of pediatric patients with dry eyes accompanied by allergies. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  16. Dermatite alérgica sazonal em ovinos Seazonal allergic dermatitis in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mello de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de dermatite alérgica sazonal em ovinos nos municípios de São Vicente do Sul e Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul. Os ovinos afetados não tinham raça definida e pertenciam a diversas categorias. As lesões eram vistas principalmente na cabeça (orelhas e ao redor dos olhos, focinho e lábios, úbere, porção distal dos membros e abdômen ventral. Dois padrões de lesão foram encontrados; num padrão agudo havia acentuado eritema associado à grande quantidade de pápulas, pústulas, colaretes epidérmicos e crostas; no padrão crônico, áreas liquenificadas, ulceradas, exsudativas, crostosas, alopécicas e, por vezes, sangrantes, eram vistas nos mesmos locais. Microscopicamente, os ovinos mais recentemente afetados demonstravam dermatite perivascular superficial eosinofílica, já os animais com lesões mais antigas apresentavam dermatite perivascular superficial linfo-histioplasmocitária.An outbreak of acute seasonal allergic dermatitis is described in sheep from the municipalities of São Vicente do Sul and Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Affected sheep were crossbreeds of different categories. Skin lesions were observed mainly in the head (ears and around the eyes, muzzle, and lips, mammary gland, distal portions of the limbs and ventral abdomen. Two lesion patterns were found; an acute pattern showed marked erythema associated with numerous papules, pustules, epidermal colarettes, and crust; in a chronic pattern the same anatomical sites had lichenified, ulcerated, exudative, crusted, and alopecic areas, which were occasionally hemorrhagic. Microscopically, sheep that were recently affected had perivascular eosinophilic dermatitis; in the skin of more chronically affected sheep there was superficial lymphocytic and histioplasmocytic perivascular dermatitis.

  17. In vivo performance of chitosan/soy-based membranes as wound-dressing devices for acute skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tírcia C; Höring, Bernhard; Reise, Kathrin; Marques, Alexandra P; Silva, Simone S; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Mano, João F; Castro, António G; Reis, Rui L; van Griensven, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    Wound management represents a major clinical challenge on what concerns healing enhancement and pain control. The selection of an appropriate dressing plays an important role in both recovery and esthetic appearance of the regenerated tissue. Despite the wide range of available dressings, the progress in the wound care market relies on the increasing interest in using natural-based biomedical products. Herein, a rat wound-dressing model of partial-thickness skin wounds was used to study newly developed chitosan/soy (cht/soy)-based membranes as wound-dressing materials. Healing and repair of nondressed, cht/soy membrane-dressed, and Epigard(®)-dressed wounds were followed macroscopically and histologically for 1 and 2 weeks. cht/soy membranes performed better than the controls, promoting a faster wound repair. Re-epithelialization, observed 1 week after wounding, was followed by cornification of the outermost epidermal layer at the second week of dressing, indicating repair of the wounded tissue. The use of this rodent model, although in impaired healing conditions, may enclose some drawbacks regarding the inevitable wound contraction. Moreover, being the main purpose the evaluation of cht/soy-based membranes' performance in the absence of growth factors, the choice of a clinically relevant positive control was limited to a polymeric mesh, without any growth factor influencing skin healing/repair, Epigard. These new cht/soy membranes possess the desired features regarding healing/repair stimulation, ease of handling, and final esthetic appearance-thus, valuable properties for wound dressings.

  18. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    recommendation that clinicians recommend intranasal steroids for patients with a clinical diagnosis of AR whose symptoms affect their quality of life. The development group also made a strong recommendation that clinicians recommend oral second-generation/less sedating antihistamines for patients with AR and primary complaints of sneezing and itching. The panel made the following recommendations: (1) Clinicians should make the clinical diagnosis of AR when patients present with a history and physical examination consistent with an allergic cause and 1 or more of the following symptoms: nasal congestion, runny nose, itchy nose, or sneezing. Findings of AR consistent with an allergic cause include, but are not limited to, clear rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, pale discoloration of the nasal mucosa, and red and watery eyes. (2) Clinicians should perform and interpret, or refer to a clinician who can perform and interpret, specific IgE (skin or blood) allergy testing for patients with a clinical diagnosis of AR who do not respond to empiric treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain, or when knowledge of the specific causative allergen is needed to target therapy. (3) Clinicians should assess patients with a clinical diagnosis of AR for, and document in the medical record, the presence of associated conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, sleep-disordered breathing, conjunctivitis, rhinosinusitis, and otitis media. (4) Clinicians should offer, or refer to a clinician who can offer, immunotherapy (sublingual or subcutaneous) for patients with AR who have inadequate response to symptoms with pharmacologic therapy with or without environmental controls. The panel recommended against (1) clinicians routinely performing sinonasal imaging in patients presenting with symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of AR and (2) clinicians offering oral leukotriene receptor antagonists as primary therapy for patients with AR. The panel group made the following options: (1) Clinicians may advise

  19. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  20. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part II. Recommendations from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Niehoff, P.; Wilhelm, R.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the recommendations from the literature are compared to the results of the questionnaire. An extensive research on common data information systems (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI and others) was performed. The criteria included the organ related morbidity and therapeutic strategies for its reduction. The obtained data were compared to the results from the questionnaire. The study data found by the research often demonstrate small patient numbers and little convincing results. However, as in the questionnaire, the joint principle seems to be the reduction of acute inflammatory tissue reaction by evasion of bacterial and mycotic overgrowth and reduction of exo- and endogenous toxins. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Theta-Cream trademark versus Bepanthol trademark lotion in breast cancer patients under radiotherapy. A new prophylactic agent in skin care?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, B.; Kaisig, D.; Auer, F.; Mergen, E.; Molls, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: in radiotherapy of the breast following breast-conserving surgery, the adverse reaction predominatly found is confined to the skin. After phase II studies, Theta-Cream trademark , containing CM glucan, hydroxyprolisilan C und matrixyl as active substances, was said to have prophylactic properties of preventing acute radiation side effects in skin tissue. In a prospective randomized study, Theta-Cream trademark was compared with standard skin care using Bepanthol trademark lotion. Patients and methods: 20 breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to use Theta-Cream trademark or Bepanthol trademark lotion during radiotherapy. At 0, 30, and 50 Gy, acute skin toxicity was scored with a modified RTOG scoring system. The patients' content with the skin care and the technical assistants' content with the skin marks were recorded. Results: for single aspects of toxicity and their sums in defined skin areas, no differences in median and range between study groups were found. The maximal toxicity anywhere in the breast averaged in a moderate erythema, mild elevation of skin temperature, no desquamation in both groups. Mild itchiness and sporadic efflorescences more frequently seen with Theta-Cream trademark . According to a ranking of anonymized breast photos at 50 Gy by independent investigators, side effects were equal. Patients' content was high with both skin care regimens (1.25 on a scale from 0 to 10). With Theta-Cream trademark a trend toward worse skin marks was noted. Adverse events exclusively occurred in Theta-Cream trademark users: suspected allergic reaction once, and the necessity for resimulation twice. Conclusion: in direct comparison with dexpanthenol-containing lotion, no advantage for Theta-Cream trademark was found. Higher costs and problems with skin marks prevent a general recommendation. (orig.)

  2. Phase II study assessing the effectiveness of Biafine cream as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced acute skin toxicity to the breast in women undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant CMF chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumacher, Ewa; Wighton, Anne; Franssen, Edmee; Chow, Edward; Tsao, May; Ackerman, Ida; Andersson, Lourdes; Kim, John; Wojcicka, Anna; Ung, Yee; Sixel, Katharina; Hayter, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Biafine cream in preventing Grade 2 acute radiation dermatitis, according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada skin radiation toxicity criteria in patients undergoing concomitant adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the breast. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients participated in this study. Patients were treated with a lumpectomy followed by concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the breast. Biafine cream was applied daily, starting on the first day and ending 2 weeks post-radiotherapy. Patients underwent weekly skin assessments throughout radiotherapy and at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. Outcome measures were assessed using a Skin Assessment Questionnaire that was scored according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada skin radiation toxicity criteria and a self-administered questionnaire that evaluated skin symptoms. Results: The maximum skin toxicity observed during the course of treatment was as follows: less than Grade 2 toxicity, 15% (9 patients); Grade 2, 83% (50 patients); Grade 3, 2% (1 patient); Grade 4, 0% (0 patients). The majority of the radiation dermatitis was observed after 3 weeks of radiotherapy. Conclusion: The majority of patients who underwent concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy for breast cancer developed Grade 2 radiation dermatitis with the use of Biafine cream. However, no treatment delays or interruptions were observed because of skin toxicity

  3. Comparative immunology of allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-01-01

    Allergic responses occur in humans, rodents, non-human primates, avian species, and all of the domestic animals. These responses are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind to mast cells and cause release/synthesis of potent mediators. Clinical syndromes include naturally occurring asthma in humans and cats; atopic dermatitis in humans, dogs, horses, and several other species; food allergies; and anaphylactic shock. Experimental induction of asthma in mice, rats, monkeys, sheep, and cats has helped to reveal mechanisms of pathogenesis of asthma in humans. All of these species share the ability to develop a rapid and often fatal response to systemic administration of an allergen--anaphylactic shock. Genetic predisposition to development of allergic disease (atopy) has been demonstrated in humans, dogs, and horses. Application of mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic asthma has provided evidence for a role of air pollutants (ozone, diesel exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke) in enhanced sensitization to allergens.

  4. Chemokine Signaling in Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Toward Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2018-06-22

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that results in significant cost and morbidity. Despite its high prevalence, therapeutic options are limited. Allergic contact dermatitis is regulated primarily by T cells within the adaptive immune system, but also by natural killer and innate lymphoid cells within the innate immune system. The chemokine receptor system, consisting of chemokine peptides and chemokine G protein-coupled receptors, is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes such as ACD. Specific chemokine signaling pathways are selectively up-regulated in ACD, most prominently CXCR3 and its endogenous chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Recent research demonstrates that these 3 chemokines are not redundant and indeed activate distinct intracellular signaling profiles such as those activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestin adapter proteins. Such differential signaling provides an attractive therapeutic target for novel ACD therapies and other inflammatory diseases.

  5. No adjuvant effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-maize on allergic responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reiner

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-maize (MON810 on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

  6. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-08-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people.

  7. Para-phenylenediamine and allergic sensitization : risk modification by N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemeke, B.; Brans, R.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Dickel, H.; Bruckner, T.; Hein, D. W.; Heesen, M.; Merk, H. -F.; Kawakubo, Y.; Blomeke, B.

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a common contact sensitizer causing allergic contact dermatitis, a major skin problem. As PPD may need activation to become immunogenic, the balance between activation and/or detoxification processes may influence an individual's susceptibility. PPD is

  8. A rare case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Alternaria alternata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Agarwal, K.; Randhawa, H.S.; Kathuria, S.; Gaur, S.N.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Roy, P.; Arora, N.; Khanna, G.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM), caused by Alternaria alternata, is reported in an immunocompetent resident of Delhi. Her complaints included a generalized, urticarial skin rash and occasional pain in the right lower chest. Her differential count showed eosinophils, 22%;

  9. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE...

  10. EAACI Position Paper for practical patch testing in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold...

  11. Solanum paranense Extracts and Solanine Present Anti-Inflammatory Activity in an Acute Skin Inflammation Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Piana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the S. paranense crude extract, S. paranense alkaloid fraction, and solanine alkaloid. These samples reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner and a maximum inhibition of 81%, 98%, and 80% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Moreover, the samples inhibit the MPO activity with an inhibition maximum of 51%, 40%, and 46% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Similar results were found for dexamethasone 0.10 mg/ear (positive control, which showed inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 100% and 65%, respectively. These results found probably are related to the presence of solanine which is present in significant quantity in the alkaloid fraction and others as rutin and rosmarinic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids. These results support the use of S. paranense for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders.

  12. The incidence of Common Allergens in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Referred to Shahid Mofatteh Clinic, Yasuj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nabavizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Background & Aim: Allergic diseases are one of the most common diseases which are more prevalent in certain seasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory and food allergies to common allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 184 patients including 120 males and 64 females referred to the Shahid Mofatteh Clinic with the respiratory allergy symptoms including rhinitis, sneezing and coughing during 2012-2013. Data collection, checklist registered, including demographic information and data associated with sensitivity of skin prick test of 21 allergens were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical. Results: A number of 153 patients (83.2% were allergic to one or more of the 21 allergens tested, whereas 31 patients (16.8 of them showed no sensitivity. The most common allergic reactions to insect allergens were 73 cases (47.7%, grass and turf 58 cases (37.9% percent, Beetle 55 cases (35.9%, wheat flour, 51 (33.3% walnuts, 37 (24.4% and cat fur 36 (5/23.5% respectively.. Conclusion: Susceptibility to insects, beetles and grass had the highest prevalence in patients with allergic rhinitis referred to Super Specialized clinic in Yasuj. Because susceptibility to allergens depends on the environment, therefore, being aware of them can lead to avoidance and control allergic reactions. Key words: Allergic Disease, Skin Prick Test, Rhinitis

  13. Outpatient treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) with tedizolid phosphate and linezolid in patients in the United States: Subgroup analysis of 2 randomized phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anda, Carisa; Anuskiewicz, Steven; Prokocimer, Philippe; Vazquez, Jose

    2017-12-01

    Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a frequent cause of hospital admissions in the United States. Safe and effective outpatient treatments may lower ABSSSI-associated health care costs by reducing unnecessary hospital admissions. Using data from 2 phase 3 trials (ESTABLISH-1, NCT01170221; ESTABLISH-2, NCT01421511), this post-hoc analysis explored the efficacy and safety of tedizolid in an outpatient setting. Subgroup analysis was performed on US outpatients (defined as patients who were not in hospital at the time of treatment initiation) with ABSSSI caused by presumed or proven gram-positive pathogens. Patients were randomly assigned to receive tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily for 6 days (n = 403) or linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days (n = 410). The primary end point was early clinical response (48-72 hours after the start of treatment). Secondary end points included investigator-assessed clinical response at end of therapy (EOT) and post-therapy evaluation (PTE; 7-14 days after therapy). Additional assessments included the patient-reported level of pain using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the per-pathogen favorable microbiological response rate at the PTE visit. Compliance with treatment and safety outcomes was also recorded. Early clinical response was similar between treatment groups (tedizolid, 82.4%; linezolid, 79.0%), as was investigator-assessed clinical response at EOT (tedizolid, 87.1%; linezolid, 86.1%) and PTE (tedizolid, 83.1%; linezolid, 83.7%). Mean changes from baseline to days 10 to 13 in VAS scores were identical between treatment groups (tedizolid, -51.9 mm; linezolid, -51.9 mm). Microbiological eradication rates were generally similar in both treatment groups for all key pathogens. Patients in both groups had favorable response at PTE. More tedizolid-treated patients (89.3%) than linezolid-treated patients (77.3%) were compliant with treatment. The most frequently reported drug

  14. Single Intravenous Dose of Oritavancin for Treatment of Acute Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria: Summary of Safety Analysis from the Phase 3 SOLO Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, G Ralph; Loutit, Jeffery; Moeck, Greg; Wikler, Matthew; Dudley, Michael N; O'Riordan, William

    2018-04-01

    Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms. Its rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and long elimination half-life allow single-dose treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). SOLO I and SOLO II were randomized, double-blind studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of a single 1,200-mg intravenous (i.v.) dose of oritavancin versus twice-daily i.v. vancomycin for 7 to 10 days in ABSSSI patients. Safety data from both studies were pooled for safety analysis. The database comprised pooled safety data for 976 oritavancin-treated patients and 983 vancomycin-treated patients. The incidences of adverse events, serious adverse events, and discontinuations due to adverse events were similar for oritavancin (55.3, 5.8, and 3.7%, respectively) and vancomycin (56.9, 5.9, and 4.2%, respectively). The median time to onset (3.8 days versus 3.1 days, respectively) and the duration (3.0 days for both groups) of adverse events were also similar between the two groups. The most frequently reported events were nausea, headache, and vomiting. Greater than 90% of all events were mild or moderate in severity. There were slightly more infections and infestations, abscesses or cellulitis, and hepatic and cardiac adverse events in the oritavancin group; however, more than 80% of these events were mild or moderate. Subgroup analyses did not identify clinically meaningful differences in the incidence of adverse events attributed to oritavancin. A single 1,200-mg dose of oritavancin was well tolerated and had a safety profile similar to that of twice-daily vancomycin. The long elimination half-life of oritavancin compared to that of vancomycin did not result in a clinically meaningful delay to the onset or prolongation of adverse events. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01252719 and NCT01252732.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  16. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines.[1] Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...

  17. Chromium(III) release from chromium‐tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Matura, Mihály; Lidén, Carola

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not. Objectives To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr‐tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr‐allergic individuals. Method Ten Cr‐allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr‐tanned and a Cr‐free leather bracelet over a period of 3 weeks, for 12 h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers. Results Four of 10 Cr‐allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr‐tanned bracelet within 7–21 days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr‐tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin. Conclusions This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr‐tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr‐allergic individuals. PMID:29322530

  18. High prevalence of food sensitization among adults with allergic diseases who live in the Guadalajara metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Bedolla-Barajas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of food sensitization in adults shows differences owing to geographic, regional and cultural circumstances. Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with food sensitization in adults with allergic diseases. Methods: Cross-sectional study, where medical records of adult patients with any allergic disease and who tested positive to airborne allergens on at least one skin test were reviewed. Age, sex, underlying allergic disease and skin test result were recorded. Statistical analyses included food sensitization prevalence with the corresponding confidence intervals (CI, as well as a multivariate analysis to determine associated factors. Results: We included 258 patients with a mean of 36 years of age; 75 % were of the female sex. The most common underlying condition was allergic rhinitis (59 %. The prevalence of food sensitization was 37 % (95 % CI, 31.5-43.3 and it did not vary significantly according to sex or allergic disease in question. The most sensitizing food was soybeans (44.8 %, and associated factors were sensitization to cat dander (OR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.03-3.2 and 5 or more positive skin tests (OR = 4.3, 95 % CI 2.3-8.1. Conclusions: The prevalence of food sensitization in people with allergic disease was 40 %. Further studies are required to determine its prevalence in the general population.

  19. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  20. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  1. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  2. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  3. Allergic-like reactions to asparaginase: Atypical allergies without asparaginase inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Robin Q H; Pieters, Rob; Escherich, Gabriele; van der Sluis, Inge M

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase is an important component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. Unfortunately, this treatment is hampered by hypersensitivity reactions. In general, allergies - regardless of severity - cause complete inactivation of the drug. However, we report atypical allergic reactions without inactivation of asparaginase, here called allergic-like reactions. Patients with an allergic-like reaction, who were treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL-11 or the CoALL 08-09 protocol, were described. The reactions were identified by continual measurement of asparaginase activity levels. Characteristics, including timing of occurrence, symptoms, grade, and the presence of antiasparaginase antibodies, were compared to those of real allergies. Fourteen allergic-like reactions occurred in nine patients. Five reactions were to PEGasparaginase and nine to Erwinia asparaginase. Allergic-like reactions occurred relatively late after the start of infusion compared to real allergies. Antibodies were absent in all but one patient with an allergic-like reaction, while they were detected in all patients with a real allergy. Symptoms and grade did not differ between the groups. Asparaginase was continued with the same formulation in six patients of whom four finished treatment with adequate activity levels. In conclusion, allergic-like reactions occur relatively late after the start of infusion and without antibodies. Despite these clinical differences, allergic-like reactions can only be distinguished from real allergies by continually measuring asparaginase activity levels. If clinically tolerated, formulations should not be switched in case of allergic-like reactions. Moreover, failure to recognize these reactions may lead to a less favorable prognosis if asparaginase therapy is terminated unnecessarily. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Brittany A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ly, David; Savage, Jason E. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Hewitt, Stephen M. [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dan, Tu D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ylaya, Kris [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Shankavaram, Uma [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Simone, Nicole L., E-mail: nicole.simone@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  5. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  6. The Danish urban-rural gradient of allergic sensitization and disease in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, G; Linneberg, A; Husemoen, L L N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living in an indu......BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living...... in an industrialized country as Denmark. METHODS: A total of 1236 male participants of 30-40 years of age recruited from two epidemiological studies were divided into four groups with regard to place of upbringing; city, town, rural area and farm. Allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick tests (SPTs) to 10...... sensitization and specific allergen sensitization in adults depending on their childhood exposure. In this highly homogenous western population, exposure to a less urbanized childhood was associated with lower risk of allergic sensitization and disease as an adult....

  7. Stratum corneum biomarkers for inflammatory skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on development of biomarkers, obtained by a non-invasive sampling method, for skin inflammatory diseases relevant for occupational settings; irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In various studies, in which different

  8. Quantitation of contact allergy in guinea pigs by measuring changes in skin blood flow and skin fold thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Staberg, B

    1985-01-01

    Skin blood flow determined by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and skin fold thickness (SFT) have been used to quantitate allergic contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) using chlorocresol as the allergen. The closed patch test procedure itself influenced both LDF and SFT...

  9. Oral fungal immunomodulatory protein-Flammulina velutipes has influence on pulmonary inflammatory process and potential treatment for allergic airway disease: A mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Oral FIP-fve had an anti-inflammatory effect on the acute phase of the airway inflammatory process induced by HDM in the mouse model and might have a potentially therapeutic role for allergic airway diseases.

  10. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  11. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  12. Anti-Allergic Properties of Curine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ribeiro-Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum (Menispermaceae. Recent findings have shed light on the actions of curine in different models of allergy and inflammation. Here we review the properties and mechanisms of action of curine focusing on its anti-allergic effects. Curine pre-treatment significantly inhibited the scratching behavior, paw edema and systemic anaphylaxis induced by either ovalbumin (OVA in sensitized animals or compound 48/80, through mechanisms of mast cell stabilization and inhibition of mast cell activation to generate lipid mediators. In addition, oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophil recruitment and activation, as well as, OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the production of IL-13 and eotaxin, and of Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, curine exhibit anti-allergic effects in models of lung, skin and systemic allergy in the absence of significant toxicity, and as such has the potential for anti-allergic drug development.

  13. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Conjunctival Diseases

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    Etsuko Takamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  14. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  16. The association between phthalates in dust and allergic diseases among Bulgarian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Larsson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified associations between the concentration of phthalates in indoor dust and allergic symptoms in the airways, nose, and skin. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalate...... (controls). The dust samples were analyzed for their content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). RESULTS: A higher concentration of DEHP was found in homes...

  17. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo.

  19. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence...... of these were judged to be of high, five moderate and three low quality. These reviews suggested that, in carefully selected patients, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy resulted in significant reductions in symptom scores and medication requirements. Serious adverse outcomes were rare...

  20. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  1. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, F. R.; Weller, M. S.; Jansen, H. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is reflected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  2. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  3. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis METHODS: We searched 15 international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened by two reviewers against pre-defined eligibility criteria...... and critically appraised using established instruments. Our primary outcomes of interest were symptom, medication and combined symptom and medication scores. Secondary outcomes of interest included cost-effectiveness and safety. Data were descriptively summarized and then quantitatively synthesized using random...

  4. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  5. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  6. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  7. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  8. A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study To Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Iclaprim versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections Suspected or Confirmed To Be Due to Gram-Positive Pathogens (REVIVE-2 Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas L; O'Riordan, William; McManus, Alison; Shin, Elliot; Borghei, Ali; File, Thomas M; Wilcox, Mark H; Torres, Antoni; Dryden, Matthew; Lodise, Thomas; Oguri, Toyoko; Corey, G Ralph; McLeroth, Patrick; Shukla, Rajesh; Huang, David B

    2018-05-01

    Iclaprim is a novel diaminopyrimidine antibiotic that may be an effective and safe treatment for serious skin infections. The safety and effectiveness of iclaprim were assessed in a global phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial. Six hundred thirteen adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) suspected or confirmed to be due to Gram-positive pathogens were randomized to iclaprim (80 mg) or vancomycin (15 mg/kg of body weight), both of which were administered intravenously every 12 h for 5 to 14 days. The primary endpoint was a ≥20% reduction in lesion size compared with that at the baseline at 48 to 72 h after the start of administration of study drug in the intent-to-treat population. Among patients randomized to iclaprim, 78.3% (231 of 295) met this primary endpoint, whereas 76.7% (234 of 305) of those receiving vancomycin met this primary endpoint (difference, 1.58%; 95% confidence interval, -5.10% to 8.26%). This met the prespecified 10% noninferiority margin. Iclaprim was well tolerated, with most adverse events being categorized as mild. In conclusion, iclaprim was noninferior to vancomycin in this phase 3 clinical trial for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. On the basis of these results, iclaprim may be an efficacious and safe treatment for skin infections suspected or confirmed to be due to Gram-positive pathogens. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02607618.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Changes in Bacteria Induce Inflammatory Skin Diseases | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as dry skin with a relentless itch and eczema. AD is considered an allergic disease in which the skin inflammation manifests in response to chronic exposure to contact allergens. However, identification of a responsible allergen is uncommon. Meanwhile, analyses have demonstrated that the surface of

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in two resource-limited settings in Peru with disparate degrees of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, L M; Romero, K M; Robinson, C L; Hansel, N N; Gilman, R H; Hamilton, R G; Lima, J J; Wise, R A; Checkley, W

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a disease with a high global disease burden, but risk factors that contribute to this condition are not well understood. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis in two Peruvian populations with disparate degrees of urbanization. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study on 1441 children aged 13-15 years at enrollment (mean age 14.9 years, 51% boys) to investigate the prevalence of allergic disease. We used a standardized, Spanish validated questionnaire to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asked about sociodemographics and family history of allergies. Children also underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, allergy skin testing to 10 common household allergens and provided a blood sample for measurement of 25OH vitamin D and total serum IgE. Overall prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 18% (95% CI 16% to 20%). When stratified by site, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 23% Lima vs. 13% in Tumbes (P overweight (1.5, 1.0-2.3); exhaled nitric oxide ≥ 20 ppb (1.9, 1.3-2.7); and total serum IgE ≥ 95th percentile (2.4, 1.2-4.8). Population attributable risk of important factors for allergic rhinitis were 25% for high exhaled nitric oxide, 22% for allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, 22% for paternal rhinitis, 10% for being overweight and 7% for an elevated total serum IgE. Allergic rhinitis was prevalent in both settings, and important risk factors include elevated exhaled nitric oxide, allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, parental rhinitis, being overweight and high total serum IgE. When considering subject-specific factors, the difference in prevalence between the urban and rural settings became non-important. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, dorzolamide, side effects

  13. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication. PMID:25147796

  14. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  15. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  16. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  17. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Fungal Sensitization in Children with Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Uysal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevelance of fungal sensitization among school-aged children with allergic respiratory diseases who attended our outpatient clinic and to evaluate its clinical impact on disease severity. Materials and Methods: Children with allergic symptoms during mould season, who attended our outpatient clinic between January 2014 and August 2015, were evaluated for allergic respiratory diseases. Skin prick testing with fungal and other commercial standardized solutions of aeroallergens was performed in all children. Spirometry was performed in children with asthma. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE and aeroallergen specific IgE (sIgE levels were measured. Results: A total of 112 children were included in the study. The prevelance of fungal sensitization was 6.4%. Alternaria alterna was the most common fungal allergen in both mono and polysensitized groups (p=0.002, p=0.004, respectively. Alternaria alterna sensitization was significantly higher in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis compared to those with intermittant allergic rhinitis (p=0.002. The patients with mild asthma were mostly monosensitized (p=0.003, but cases with severe asthma (SA were polysensitized (p=0.007. In polysensitized cases, Alternaria alterna and Cladosporium spp. coexistance was the most common combination compared to other fungal combinations (p<0.001. The sensitivity rate of sIgE was found to be 88%. In spirometric analysis, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity values were lower in polysensitized children with asthma and in children with asthma coexisting allergic rhinitis compared to children with allergic rhinitis only (p=0.004, p=0.001, respectively. Conclusion: The most common fungal allergen was Alternaria alterna in children with mono or polysensitization. Polysensitization with fungal allergens was closely associated with SA and lower spirometric parameters.

  19. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Röder (Esther)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Europe. Besides nose symptoms such as sneezing and a blocked nose, patients also suffer from general complaints like fatigue, sleeping problems and difficulty concentrating. Allergic rhinitis can have a serious impact on

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  1. Orphan immunotherapies for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    As confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to Hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. Other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), such as dog, molds, occupational allergens, and insects, have also been recognized. For these allergens, immunotherapy is poorly studied and often unavailable. Thus, use of the term orphan immunotherapies is appropriate. We used MEDLINE to search the medical literature for English-language articles. Randomized, controlled, masked studies for orphan immunotherapies were selected. In the remaining cases, the available reports were described. The literature on food desensitization is abundant, but for other orphan allergens, such as mosquito, Argas reflexus, dog, or occupational allergens, there are only a few studies, and most are small studies or case reports. Orphan immunotherapy is associated with insufficient evidence of efficacy from controlled trials, an erroneous belief of the limited importance of some allergen sources, and the unlikelihood for producers to have a profit in making commercially available extracts (with an expensive process for registration) to be used in few patients. It should be taken into consideration that adequate preparations should be available also for orphan allergens. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Khan, Ajmal; Garg, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT) of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S). The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild), ABPA-CB (moderate), and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe), as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses

  3. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  4. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CT and HR-CT of exogenous allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, A.; Kullnig, P.; Pongratz, M.

    1992-01-01

    The CT changes on conventional and high resolution CT in 14 patients with exogeneous allergic alveolitis (EAA) were analysed retrospectively. There were 8 patients with clinically subacute disease, 5 patients in a chronic stage and 1 patient with acute EAA. The appearances and their distribution were examined. Seven of the 8 patients in the subacute stage showed a ground glass pattern and multiple nodules of less than 2 mm. All patients in the chronic stage showed a combination of fine infiltrates, small nodules and irregular linear densities; distortion of the pulmonary pattern was present in 3 cases. The patient with acute EAA showed diffuse dense areas of consolidation in both lungs as well as multiple nodules and a ground glass pattern. The CT appearances of EAA correspond with the basic micropathology and, within the clinical context, permit diagnostic classification. (orig.) [de

  6. Suspected allergic contact dermatitis to iodopropynyl butylcarbamate in an alcohol hand rub commonly used in Australian health-care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of suspected allergic contact dermatitis to the preservative and uncommon allergen iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, found in Microshield Angel hand gel, a skin cleanser commonly used in Australian health-care settings. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Metabolism of 32P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezes, V.; Bukovsky, V.; Drgova, A.; Mezesova, V.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of intraventricularly administered 32 P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of 32 P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs. (author)

  9. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  10. Drug-elicited systemic allergic (contact) dermatitis - update and possible pathomechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    . A heterogeneous clinical picture, in combination with limited insight to its pathomechanisms, makes such systemic reactions an area in need of further study. This article summarizes knowledge about systemic dermatitis elicited by drugs, with a special emphasis on possible pathomechanisms. A list of putative...... be misleading because skin contact is not a prerequisite, we suggest that the term 'systemic allergic dermatitis' should be used in the future Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  11. Association between childhood allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status in later life: systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Quint, Jennifer K; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the a...

  12. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  13. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  14. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  16. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young......, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy associated...

  17. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  18. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC and potassium nitrate (KN are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN, KN, and zinc chloride (ZC. Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms.. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis.

  19. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  20. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Hazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  1. Report of Allergic Reaction After Application of Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careta, Mariana Figueiroa; Delgado, Livia; Patriota, Régia

    2015-07-01

    Botulinum toxin is a widely used treatment with satisfactory results, and it is relatively safe in the doses used for cosmetic procedures. The authors report a case of allergic reaction to Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A (CBTX-A). Although this is a rare adverse event, it is nonetheless clinically relevant to healthcare professionals. A 44-year-old woman presented to the authors' hospital complaining of dynamic wrinkles. CBTX-A was used to treat her. Minutes after application, she developed urticarial plaques proximal to the injection site. The patient had an allergic reaction, as documented by a positive skin test, which was controlled by the administration of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids. This report is intended to guide healthcare professionals faced with this type of adverse event regarding how to proceed without hindering the delivery and effectiveness of the treatment. When performed by a qualified health professional, this treatment brings excellent results in the vast majority of cases. 5 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R; Julander, Anneli; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread use. The key risk factor in this situation is the ability of metal alloys in coins to release nickel and contaminate the skin after repeated contact from coin handling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  4. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  5. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  7. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  8. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  9. IgE antibodies of fish allergic patients cross-react with frog parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Thill, L; Grigioni, F; Lehners, C; Falagiani, P; Ferrara, A; Romano, C; Stevens, W; Hentges, F

    2004-06-01

    The major allergens in fish are parvalbumins. Important immunoglobulin (Ig)E cross-recognition of parvalbumins from different fish species has been shown. Recently frog parvalbumin alpha has been found to be responsible for a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by the ingestion of frog meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IgE antibodies of fish allergic persons cross-react with frog parvalbumin and to appreciate its clinical relevance. The sera of 15 fish allergic patients and one fish and frog allergic patient were tested by IgE-immunoblotting against frog muscle extract. Sera were tested against recombinant parvalbumin alpha and beta from Rana esculenta. Skin prick tests were performed in selected patients with recombinant frog parvalbumin. Ca(2+) depletion experiments and inhibition studies with purified cod and frog recombinant parvalbumin were done to characterize the cross-reactive pattern. Fourteen of the sera tested had IgE antibodies recognizing low molecular weight components in frog muscle extract. Calcium depletion experiments or inhibition of patient sera with purified cod parvalbumin led to a significant or complete decrease in IgE binding. When tested against recombinant parvalbumins, three of 13 sera reacted with alpha parvalbumin and 11 of 12 reacted with beta parvalbumin from R. esculenta. Skin prick tests performed with recombinant frog parvalbumin were positive in fish allergic patients. Inhibition studies showed that a fish and frog allergic patient was primarily sensitized to fish parvalbumin. Cod parvalbumin, a major cross-reactive allergen among different fish species, shares IgE binding epitopes with frog parvalbumin. This in vitro cross-reactivity seems to be also clinically relevant. Parvalbumins probably represent a new family of cross-reactive allergens.

  10. Efficacy of a novel food supplement in the relief of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of the consumption of anti-allergic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Renato

    2015-04-27

    Seasonal Allergic rhinitis (SAR) is characterized by runny nose, congestion, sneezing and sinus pressure. A clinical study was performed to demonstrate the efficacy of Lertal®, an innovative food supplement containing Quercetin, Perilla frutescens and Vitamin D3 formu-lated in a double layer "fast-slow" release tablet form, in the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of consumption of anti-allergic drugs. 23 subjects enrolled in the open clinical study had at least one year history of allergic rhinitis and positive skin prick test or RAST to Parietaria officinalis pollen. At baseline, the subjects had symptoms of nasal and/or ocular seasonal allergic rhinitis. The activity of the food supplement was evaluated using the Total Symptoms Score at first (baseline) and second (final) visit, after one month of supplementation. The consumption of anti-allergic drugs was also evaluated. All subjects enrolled completed the study. The comparison of the scores obtained in the two visits (baseline and final) showed a highly significant reduction of the overall symptoms: approximately 70% for symptom scores and 73% in use of anti-allergic drugs. Sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching, lacrimation and congestion of the conjunctiva, all showed a highly significant reduction. No noteworthy side effect was recorded and all patients finished the study with good compliance. The results showed a clear efficacy of the food supplement Lertal® in reducing nasal and/or eye symptoms. This activity was objectively confirmed by the reduction in the consumption of anti-allergic drugs used to relieve symptoms. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  11. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  12. Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use...... of hair dyes in this age group. This investigation reports PPD sensitization in children with regard to cause of sensitization, clinical presentation and consequences. Clinical history and patch test results for consecutive children below 16 years of age with suspected hair dye allergic reactions...... and positive patch tests to PPD were collected over 2 years in 2 Danish dermatology clinics. 8 children aged 12-15 years were collected, and they all reacted to several hair dye ingredients. 5 of the patients were hospitalized, 1 in the intensive care unit. 6 of the patients gave a history of prior reaction...

  13. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2017-04-01

    To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA, this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  14. Weighted road density and allergic disease in children at high risk of developing asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Hansell

    Full Text Available Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS, potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma.We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density, as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs, total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis.Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR for house dust mite (HDM positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48, for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01-1.41 and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03-1.63 per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children.Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma.

  15. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Kumagai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  16. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  17. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders.

  18. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Axelrod

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available David Axelrod1, Leonard Bielory2Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 1Department of Medicine, 2Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase; and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria.Keywords: fexofenadine, allergy, oral suspension, formulations, pharmacology

  19. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Yanchenko; A. V. Malyshev; S. N. Sakhnov; N. V. Fedotova; O. Yu. Orlova; I. V. Grishenko; Z. A. Exuzyan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes) were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day), cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day), and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day). Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day). 10 controls (20 eyes) were ...

  20. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  1. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagata

    Full Text Available Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO, MIF transgenic (Tg and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW pollen or Japanese cedar (JC pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  2. Occupational allergic diseases in kitchen and health care workers: an underestimated health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami; Son, Nazan; Keskin, Ahmet; Korkut, Yasemin; Unalacak, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW). The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males) participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic) rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  3. Bradykinin B2 receptor expression in the bronchial mucosa of allergic asthmatics: the role of NF-kB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, F. L. M.; Petecchia, L.; Sorbello, V.; Di Stefano, A.; Usai, C.; Massaglia, G. M.; Gnemmi, I.; Mognetti, B.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Sterk, P. J.; Sabatini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) mediates acute allergic asthma and airway remodelling. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is potentially involved in BK B2 receptor (B2R) regulation. In this observational cross-sectional study, B2R and NF-kB expression was evaluated in bronchial biopsies from mild asthmatics (after

  4. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Moinuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  5. [Allergic colitis in exclusively breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Salinas, C; Blasco Alonso, J; Olivares Sánchez, L; Barco Gálvez, A; del Río Mapelli, L

    2006-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is induced by antigens present in cow's milk proteins in formula or human milk. In the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed in exclusively breast-fed infants. We performed a retrospective study of 13 infants diagnosed with allergic colitis in our unit between January 1997 and January 2004. All the infants had been exclusively breast-fed. In all patients, initial symptoms were digestive (12 with mucus and bloody stools). Onset of symptoms occurred at 0-3 months in 77 %. Laboratory data of the allergic compound were negative. The main locations were the descending and sigmoid colon (75 %). Biopsy demonstrated acute inflammation, with neutrophil infiltration and an increase in eosinophils. In all patients, initial treatment consisted of exclusion of cow's milk proteins from the mother's diet. Ten of the 13 patients showed no improvement, requiring exclusive administration of protein-free hydrolyzate. In 3 infants, breastfeeding was maintained (breastfeeding without cow's milk proteins plus hydrolyzate). Diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis is based on exclusion of other causes of specific colitis and typical endoscopic and ultrastructural findings. Moreover, a satisfactory response to dietary treatment must be demonstrated. This diagnosis should be considered in breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding without involvement of general health status.

  6. Clinical implications of mast cell involvement in allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, D; Rambasek, T; Bielory, L

    2018-03-01

    The conjunctiva is a common site for the allergic inflammatory response due to it being highly vascularized, having constant exposure to environmental pollutants and allergenic pollens and having a unique conjunctival associated lymphoid tissue. The primary morbidity of anterior surface conjunctival disorders that include allergic conjunctivitis and tear film disorders is associated with its high frequency of involvement rather than its severity, although the more chronic forms can involve the cornea and lead to sight-threatening conditions. Ocular allergy is associated with IgE-mediated mast cell activation in conjunctival tissue leading to the release of preformed mediators including histamine and proteases and subsequent de novo formation of lipid-derived mediators and cytokines that trigger a cascade of cellular and molecular events leading to extensive migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells to the ocular surface. The trafficking of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes to the ocular surface is due to establishing various chemokine gradients (mainly CCL11, CCL24, CCL5, MCP-3, and MCP-4), cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (such as VCAM-1 the ligand for VLA-4), and leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. The release of preformed mediators underlies the acute ocular surface response while the secondary influx of inflammatory cells leading to the recruitment and activation of eosinophils and the subsequent activation of Th2 and Th1 lymphocytes at the level of the conjunctiva reflects the late-phase reaction. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  7. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  8. Epidemiology of skin diseases in university of Nigeria Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several studies have been carried out to determine the patterns of skin diseases across Nigeria and results have shown changing patterns with the trend reflecting a higher tendency for allergic dermatoses in a majority of these studies. This study was carried out to evaluate the current clinical picture of patients ...

  9. Incidência comparativa da apendicite aguda em população miscigenada, de acordo com a cor da pele Comparative incidence of acute appendicitis in a mixed population, related to the skin color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Apendicite aguda é uma emergência cirúrgica muito comum, mas sua etiopatogenia ainda permanece incompreendida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos da apendicite aguda relacionados à cor da pele, sexo e idade. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 500 pacientes operados de apendicite aguda e outros 500 doentes aleatórios tratados por diferentes doenças no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG. Avaliaram-se sexo, idade e cor da pele. Os resultados foram comparados por meio do teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Significativa prevalência de pacientes leucodérmicos (73,8% foi verificada nessas séries. Não houve predominância por sexo. O número de homens leucodérmicos com apendicite aguda foi significativamente maior do que homens leucodérmicos do grupo-controle. A incidência de melanodérmicos com apendicite foi significativamente menor do que a de pacientes negros do grupo-controle. A idade média da apendicite aguda foi de 23,2 anos para os pacientes leucodérmicos e de 32,3 anos para os melanodérmicos. CONCLUSÕES: Foi nítida a relação entre apendicite aguda com a cor branca da pele.BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is a very common surgical emergency, but its etiology and pathology remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate epidemiological aspects of acute appendicitis related to skin color, gender and age. METHODS: Five-hundred patients operated on for acute appendicitis, and other 500 patients treated for different diseases and considered as a control group were studied at "Hospital das Clínicas", Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Gender, age and skin color were investigated. The results were compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: There was no prevalence related to gender. A significant prevalence of white patients (73.8% was verified in this series. The number of white men with appendicitis was significantly higher than white men in the

  10. Improvements in skin-testing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Warner W

    2006-01-01

    Allergy skin testing is the primary modality used in the diagnosis of allergic diseases and guides development of treatment and avoidance plans. The goal of the Allergist is to skin test the appropriate population with a device and technique that minimizes pain while maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The debate involving the use of intradermal versus skin-prick testing in the diagnosis of aeroallergy has been long lasting. Past and present medical literature will be reviewed, establishing the lack of diagnostic use of intradermal testing in the setting of aeroallergy. New skin devices continue to be developed with a trend toward production of multidevices. Performance characteristics of various skin test devices will be reviewed with an emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and variability of skin-prick testing devices. Significant statistical differences exist between all devices tested and reported in the literature. Whether these statistical differences equate to clinical differences is not known. With this review the practicing allergist should carefully evaluate multiple different devices and choose a device that suits their practice needs. In addition, allergists must ensure that technicians are sufficiently trained on the correct use of their device and should conduct continuing education to ensure that proper skin testing techniques are being used in their practice. Finally, the use of skin testing in pediatrics will be reviewed with a focus on safety. Care should be taken when skin testing infants < or = 6 months of age, especially in the setting of eczema and a family history of atopy.

  11. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand Fard, Mohammad Amin; Khanjani, Narges; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Ashrafi Asgarabad, Ahad

    2017-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data. The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant ( P=0.046); and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets' skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose) were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038). These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring. In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions.

  12. Proactive penicillin allergy testing in primary care patients labeled as allergic: outcomes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Britta K; Bowen, Brady J; Otabor, Uwa; Celestin, Jocelyn; Sorum, Paul C

    2017-11-01

    To promote penicillin allergy testing in an outpatient setting in patients labeled as penicillin allergic, to determine the number of those who are truly allergic, evaluate patient satisfaction with the testing, and educate both patients and clinicians about testing. Patients with a history of penicillin allergy listed in their EHR were screened and recruited by their primary care office and referred for penicillin allergy testing. The results of allergy testing and patient satisfaction after testing were the main outcomes. We also surveyed the primary care physicians about perceived barriers to recruitment. A total of 82 patients were recruited, although only 37 actually underwent testing. None of these 37 had a positive skin test, and none of 36 had a positive oral challenge (1 refused it). Following testing, 2 patients (5%) had subjective reactions within 24 h. Thirty-one patients (84%) responded to a post-testing follow-up questionnaire; 3 (10%) were subsequently treated with a beta-lactam, and all reported that testing provided important information to their medical history. Providers identified time constraints, either their or their patients lack of time, as the major barrier to recruitment. Penicillin allergy testing safely evaluates patients labeled as penicillin allergic. It is well tolerated, and embraced by the patients who undergo testing. In our study, none of the patients tested had an allergic reaction, but we identified multiple barriers to developing a protocol for testing patients from the primary care setting.

  13. Homeopathy for allergic rhinitis: protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem that is often treated with homeopathy. The objective of this review will be to evaluate the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods/Design The authors will conduct a systematic review. We will search Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, CAM-Quest, Google Scholar and reference lists of identified studies up to December 2013. The review will include randomized controlled trials that evaluate homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Studies with participants of all ages, with acute or chronic comorbidities will be included. Patients with immunodeficiency will not be included. The diagnosis will be based on the published guidelines of diagnosis and classification. Studies of all homeopathy modalities (clinical, complex and classical homeopathy, and isopathy) will be included. We will include trials with both active controls (conventional therapy, standard care) and placebo controls. The primary outcomes are: an improvement of global symptoms recorded in validated daily or weekly diaries and any scores from validated visual analogue scales; the total Quality of Life Score (such as the Juniper RQLQ);individual symptoms scores which include any appropriate measures of nasal obstruction, runny nose, sneezing, itching, and eye symptoms; and number of days requiring medication. Secondary outcomes selected will include serum immunoglobin E (IgE) levels, individual ocular symptoms, adverse events, and the use of rescue medication. Treatment effects will be measured by calculating the mean difference and the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data. Risk ratio or, if feasible, odds ratio will be calculated with 95% CI for dichotomous data. After assessing clinical and statistical heterogeneity, meta-analysis will be performed, if appropriate. The individual participant will be the unit of analysis. Descriptive information on missing data will be

  14. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...... understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...

  15. An epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis due to epilating products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, A; Armingaud, P; Avenel-Audran, M; Begon-Bagdassarian, I; Constandt, L; Giordano-Labadie, F; Girardin, P; Coz, C J L E; Milpied-Homsi, B; Nootens, C; Pecquet, C; Tennstedt, D; Vanhecke, E

    2002-08-01

    Over a period of 19 months, 33 cases of acute allergic contact dermatitis from Veet epilating waxes and/or the accompanying tissue (Reckitt Benckiser, Massy, France) were observed in France and Belgium. The lesions started on the legs and spread to other parts of the body, especially the face, and were sometimes so severe that hospitalization and/or systemic corticosteroids were required. Primary sensitization occurred as early as after the first application in several patients. Patch tests were performed in 26 of the patients and produced strong positive reactions to the tissue (25 times) and/or the wax (13 times). The allergenic culprits in the wax were modified-colophonium derivatives (colophonium in the standard series testing negatively in all except 4 patients), while methoxy PEG-22/dodecyl glycol copolymer and to a lesser degree lauryl alcohol turned out to be the main causal allergens in the tissue.

  16. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. Objective: We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Methods: Using the 2005–2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever (n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever (n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. Results: In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated (p pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure–response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure–response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. Conclusions: These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. Citation: Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, Long S, London SJ, Henneberger PK, Blair A, Alavanja M, Beane Freeman LE, Sandler DP. 2017. Pesticides are associated with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Environ Health Perspect 125:535–543; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP315 PMID:27384423

  17. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos

    2018-03-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation.

  18. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2018-01-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation. PMID:29723367

  19. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  20. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  2. Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone on allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tater, Kathy C; Jackson, Hilary A; Paps, Judy; Hammerberg, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    To determine the acute corn-specific serum IgE and IgG, total serum IgE, and clinical responses to s.c. administration of prophylactic vaccines and aluminum adjuvant in corn-allergic dogs. 20 allergic and 8 nonallergic dogs. 17 corn-allergic dogs were vaccinated. Eight clinically normal dogs also were vaccinated as a control group. Serum corn-specific IgE, corn-specific IgG, and total IgE concentrations were measured in each dog before vaccination and 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by use of an ELISA. The corn-allergic dogs also had serum immunoglobulin concentrations measured at 8 and 9 weeks after vaccination. Twenty allergic dogs received a s.c. injection of aluminum adjuvant, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in each dog 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. The allergic dogs were examined during the 8 weeks after aluminum administration for clinical signs of allergic disease. The allergic dogs had significant increases in serum corn-specific IgE and IgG concentrations 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination but not 8 or 9 weeks after vaccination. Control dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations after vaccination. After injection of aluminum adjuvant, the allergic dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations or clinical signs. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG concentrations increase after prophylactic vaccination in allergic dogs but not in clinically normal dogs. Prophylactic vaccination of dogs with food allergies may affect results of serologic allergen-specific immunoglobulin testing performed within 8 weeks after vaccination.

  3. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Webster, Joan; Chung, Bryan; Marquart, Louise; Ahmed, Muhtashimuddin; Garantziotis, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is a common side effect that affects the majority of cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. RISR is often characterised by swelling, redness, pigmentation, fibrosis, and ulceration, pain, warmth, burning, and itching of the skin. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of interventions which aim to prevent or manage RISR in people with cancer. We searched the following databases up to November 2012: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), CINAHL (from 1981) and LILACS (from 1982). Randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for preventing or managing RISR in cancer patients were included. The primary outcomes were development of RISR, and levels of RISR and symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were time taken to develop erythema or dry desquamation; quality of life; time taken to heal, a number of skin reaction and symptom severity measures; cost, participant satisfaction; ease of use and adverse effects. Where appropriate, we pooled results of randomized controlled trials using mean differences (MD) or odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Forty-seven studies were included in this review. These evaluated six types of interventions (oral systemic medications; skin care practices; steroidal topical therapies; non-steroidal topical therapies; dressings and other). Findings from two meta-analyses demonstrated significant benefits of oral Wobe-Mugos E for preventing RISR (OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.38)) and limiting the maximal level of RISR (MD -0.92 (95% CI -1.36 to -0.48)). Another meta-analysis reported that wearing deodorant does not influence the development of RISR (OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.37)). Despite the high number of trials in this area, there is limited good, comparative research that provides definitive results suggesting the effectiveness of any single intervention for

  4. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  5. Wound-Related Allergic/Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Ladizinski, Barry; Saraiya, Ami; Lee, Kachiu C; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy; Maibach, Howard

    2016-06-01

    To provide information from a literature review about the prevention, recognition, and treatment for contact dermatitis. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify signs and symptoms of and diagnostic measures for contact dermatitis.2. Identify causes and risks for contact dermatitis.3. Select appropriate treatment for contact dermatitis and its prevention. Contact dermatitis to wound care products is a common, often neglected problem. A review was conducted to identify articles relevant to contact dermatitis.A PubMed English-language literature review was conducted for appropriate articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.Contact dermatitis is both irritant (80% of cases) or allergic (20% of cases). Frequent use of potential contact allergens and impaired barrier function of the skin can lead to rising sensitization in patients with chronic wounds. Common known allergens to avoid in wound care patients include fragrances, colophony, lanolin, and topical antibiotics.Clinicians should be cognizant of the allergens in wound care products and the potential for sensitization. All medical devices, including wound dressings, adhesives, and bandages, should be labeled with their complete ingredients, and manufacturers should be encouraged to remove common allergens from wound care products, including topical creams, ointments, and dressings.

  6. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of the Health Sciences Centre and Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. Individuals Results A total of 61 patients with egg allergy (history of an allergic reaction to egg with either positive skin test &/or specific IgE to egg >0.35 Ku/L were referred to our allergy clinics for skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine. 2 patients were excluded, one did not have a skin prick test to the H1N1 vaccine (only vaccine administration and the other passed an egg challenge during the study period. Ages ranged from 1 to 27 years (mean 5.6 years. There were 41(69.5% males and 18(30.5% females. All but one patient with a history of egg allergy, positive skin test to egg and/or elevated specific IgE level to egg had negative skin tests to the H1N1 vaccine. The 58 patients with negative skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine were administered the vaccine and observed for 30 minutes post vaccination with no adverse results. The patient with the positive skin test to the H1N1 vaccine was also administered the vaccine intramuscularly with no adverse results. Conclusions Despite concern regarding possible anaphylaxis to the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients, in our case series 1/59(1.7% patients with sensitization to egg were also sensitized to the H1N1 vaccine. Administration of the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients with negative H1N1 skin tests and observation is safe. Administering the vaccine in a 1 or 2 dose protocol without skin testing is a reasonable alternative

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Nygaard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

  8. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant...... was threefold. (1) To evaluate the correlation between HD-OCT features and clinical scores of allergic and irritant patch test reactions. (2) To explore the potential of HD-OCT in optimizing the visual patch test scoring. (3) To assess in vivo the cytological and 3-D micro-architectural differences in skin...... reaction types between doubtful positive ACD and ICD. Twenty-two volunteers were patch tested using potassium(VI)dichromate, cobalt(II)chloride, nickel(II) sulfate and palladium(II)chloride. Visual patch test scoring and HD-OCT assisted patch test scoring were performed at 48 and 96 h after patch test...

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, I S; Koh, D

    1992-02-01

    5 production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). 2 of the workers had concomitant sensitization to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitizer both in persons producing the chemical and among end-users of TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitizing alternatives should be explored.

  10. EAACI position paper for practical patch testing in allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Oranje, Arnold P

    2015-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination, and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold standard diagnostic test. Based on consensus, the EAACI Task Force on Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Children produced this document to provide details on clinical aspects, the standardization of patch test methodology, and suggestions for future research in the field. We provide a baseline list of test allergens to be tested in children with suspected ACD. Additional tests should be performed only on specific indications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  12. Allergic rhinitis is associated with otitis media with effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2012-01-01

    Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....

  13. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  14. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  15. A comparative study of spray keratinocytes and autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of acute burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rajiv; Roggy, David Edward; Zieger, Madeline Jane; Nazim, Muhammad; Hartman, Brett Colby; Gibbs, Jeff Thomas

    2015-02-01

    ReCell (Avita Medical, Northridge, CA) is an autologous cell harvesting (ACH) device that enables a thin split-thickness skin biopsy to be processed to produce a cell population that includes a mixed population of keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and papillary dermal fibroblasts for immediate delivery via a spray applicator onto a prepared skin surface. In this Institutional Review Board-approved US Food and Drug Administration phase 2 study, the authors prospectively evaluated the treatment of partial-thickness burns in patients with two 320 cm2 areas, 1 area treated with the ACH device and the other with a meshed split-thickness skin graft (MSTSG) as a control. The authors compared the treatment areas for graft take, pigmentation, and color match to surrounding healthy tissue, scarring, and pain. In this preliminary study, 10 patients were treated with this protocol. Eight patients had 100% take to both treatment areas and 2 patients had significant non-take and graft loss attributable to underexcised wound beds and difficulty with the spray applicator. Pigmentation and color match ratings were identical at week 52 and the Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores were comparable. One subject rated the autologous cell harvesting site as having a better appearance, while the remaining subjects rated their ACH and MSTSG sites' appearances as being comparable. In early follow-up visits, pain ratings were slightly elevated in the ACH group due to graft healing; however, in visits following week 2, pain ratings at the ACH and MSTSG sites were rated similarly by all patients. This preliminary report describes an early experience with the ACH device and the treatment of partial-thickness burn injuries. In this 10-patient series, patients benefitted from having a decreased donor site size and comparable outcomes with MSTSG treatment. While this preliminary underpowered study has provided positive results, there is a learning curve with choosing the proper wound

  16. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousif Atia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and its possible influence on their symptoms and immune markers. We chosed 20 non smoker patients with house dust mite (HDM allergy causing allergic rhinitis and 20 non smoker healthy subjects matched for age and sex. For all subjects rhinoscopy was done, skin prick test, nasal culture for S.aureus, nasal interleukin 4,nasal total IgE, serum total IgE and serum specific IgE(SSIgE for HDM. Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80% and 5/20 (25% in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference plt0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total IgE (r = 0.78, plt0.01 and significant positive correlation with SSIgE (HDM (r = 0.53, plt0.05, nasal total IgE (r = 0.39, plt0.05 and nasal IL-4 (r = 0.55, plt0.05. Nasal staph.aureus actively modulated the immune reaction in persistent allergic rhinitis patients by promoting local IgE production, so we recommend early detection and treatment of S.aureus carriage in patients

  17. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh N. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 1.13, allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04, eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06, or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03 in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  18. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the hand and forearm : Acute surgical treatment and defect reconstruction with MatriDerm® and split-thickness skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermueller, B; Singer, G; Pickl, P; Jesacher, M

    2018-03-01

    This case report describes a 55-year-old male patient with type II necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the hand and forearm. The rapid progression of the tissue infection could be successfully stopped with radical surgical débridement and antibiotic therapy. For the reconstruction of the extensive loss of soft tissue a combination of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and the synthetic dermal substitute MatriDerm® was used. In cases of NF, MatriDerm® and STSG provide a rapidly available and simple alternative to other reconstruction techniques.

  19. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid leak mimicking allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Anthony J; Cleri, Dennis J; Porwancher, Richard B; Panesar, Mandip; Villota, Francisco J; Seelagy, Marc M

    2005-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinorrhea are common clinical complaints that may be allergic or nonallergic in etiology. Distinguishing between allergic and nonallergic etiologies can be difficult but necessary for treatment. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman with > 20 years of rhinorrhea before a diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and a life-threatening complication occurred. It is essential that no symptom, especially that which persists and resists treatment, is trivialized. Here, we establish how a careful history and evaluation will direct the clinician to the correct diagnosis.

  2. Food Allergy Sensitization and Presentation in Siblings of Food Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Walkner, Madeline M; Greenhawt, Matthew; Lau, Claudia H; Caruso, Deanna; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Smith, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Many parents of food allergic children have concerns about the development of food allergies in their other children. We sought to determine prevalence of food sensitization and clinical food allergy among siblings of food allergic children. Two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the Chicago Family Cohort Food Allergy study. One thousand one hundred and twenty children (ages 0-21 years) with a food allergy (defined by a reported reaction history and evidence of food-specific IgE or skin prick test) and at least 1 biological sibling were included in this study. Among siblings of children with food allergy, 33.4% had no sensitization and no clinical symptoms to food. Fifty-three percent had a positive food serum-specific IgE or skin prick test, but no reported symptoms of food allergy. Only 13.6% of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to the same food. Milk allergy was the most common allergy among siblings (5.9%), followed by egg allergy (4.4%) and peanut allergy (3.7%). In a large cohort of food allergic families, only a small proportion of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to a food. Sensitization without reactivity was common among siblings. Testing for food allergy in siblings without a history of clinical reactivity appears to be unjustified. Screening may lead to negative consequences related to potential misdiagnosis and unnecessary avoidance of a food. More data are needed to determine the absolute risk of food allergy development in siblings of food allergic children. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  3. A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Iclaprim Vs Vancomycin for the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections Suspected or Confirmed to be Due to Gram-Positive Pathogens: REVIVE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David B; O'Riordan, William; Overcash, J Scott; Heller, Barry; Amin, Faisal; File, Thomas M; Wilcox, Mark H; Torres, Antoni; Dryden, Matthew; Holland, Thomas L; McLeroth, Patrick; Shukla, Rajesh; Corey, G Ralph

    2018-04-03

    Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of iclaprim compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). REVIVE-1 was a phase 3, 600-patient, double-blinded, randomized (1:1), active-controlled trial among patients with ABSSSI that compared the safety and efficacy of iclaprim 80 mg fixed dose with vancomycin 15 mg/kg, both administered intravenously every 12 hours for 5-14 days. The primary endpoint of this study was a ≥20% reduction in lesion size (early clinical response [ECR]) compared with baseline among patients randomized to iclaprim or vancomycin at the early time point (ETP), 48 to 72 hours after the start of administration of study drug in the intent-to-treat population. ECR among patients who received iclaprim and vancomycin at the ETP was 80.9% (241 of 298) of patients receiving iclaprim compared with 81.0% (243 of 300) of those receiving vancomycin (treatment difference, -0.13%; 95% confidence interval, -6.42%-6.17%). Iclaprim was well tolerated in the study, with most adverse events categorized as mild. Iclaprim achieved noninferiority (10% margin) at ETP compared with vancomycin and was well tolerated in this phase 3 clinical trial for the treatment of ABSSSI. Based on these results, iclaprim appears to be an efficacious and safe treatment for ABSSSI suspected or confirmed to be due to gram-positive pathogens. NCT02600611.

  4. Structural elucidation and estimation of the acute toxicity of the major UV-visible photoproduct of fludioxonil - detection in both skin and flesh samples of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Nicol, Édith; Genty, Christophe; Bourcier, Sophie; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible irradiation of fludioxonil was investigated with two photoreactors using either a mercury or xenon vapor lamp. In both cases, it led to the formation of only one photoproduct in significant amount: 2-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-4-yl)-2-(nitrosomethylene)-4-oxobutanenitrile, which has been characterized using Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution - Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) coupling. A photolysis pathway has been proposed to rationalize its formation in degassed water. In vitro bioassays on Vibrio fischeri bacteria showed that UV-vis irradiation of an aqueous solution of fludioxonil significantly increases its toxicity. Because no other by-product was detected in significant amount, the photoproduct mentioned above may be considered mainly responsible for this increase in toxicity. Grape berries treated with a 50 ppm aqueous solution of fludioxonil were submitted to UV-visible irradiation under laboratory conditions. The fungicide and photoproduct were detected in both skin and flesh of berries, even after they have been rinsed with water. The ability of the photoproduct to pass through the fruit skin is comparable with that of fludioxonil. These results are of concern for consumers because they mean that water tap rinsing does not lead to efficient removing of both compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  6. Determinants of skin sensitivity to solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.; Vink, A.A.; Boelsma, E.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Poppel, van G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Acute effects of UV irradiation include UV-induced erythema. Sunlight plays an important role in the development of skin cancer. Several predictive factors of UV-induced erythema could also be predictive for skin cancer. Objective: Our objective was to quantitatively assess phenotypical

  7. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Bilge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW and health care workers (HCW. Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc. during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. Results. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P<0.001. Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P<0.05. In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07–2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.38 than the general population. Conclusion. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  8. Chronic effects of UV on human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic exposures and acute accidents of the skin to UV has been recognized as an important risk for skin cancers in human. Attempts have been made with mathematical models to correlate the ambient UV dose and occupational irradiations with the risk of skin cancers. Development of accurate global measurements of solar irradiance and personal dosimetry is expected in the future in order to reduce the exposure of the general population, to precise the measures to be taken for indoor and outdoor workers. (author)

  9. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16...

  10. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  11. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  12. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...

  13. Allergic Rhinitis | Sommers | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but the antihistamines are less effective for nasal congestion and minimally address the problem of inflammation. Immune-based specifically targeted molecules, such as the cloned humanised monoclonal antibody-inhibiting human IgE omalizumab, are presently being studied in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  14. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...

  15. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...

  16. Omalizumab in the management of patients with allergic (IgE-mediated asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sandström

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas SandströmDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital, Umeå, SwedenAbstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, binds to the FcεRI binding site on free IgE. As a result, circulating free IgE is reduced, IgE is prevented from attaching to mast cells and basophils, and FcεRI receptor expression is down-regulated. The inflammatory response to allergens and the acute and chronic effector phases of allergic inflammation are thereby attenuated. In clinical trials in adults and adolescents, omalizumab reduced asthma exacerbations, severe asthma exacerbations, inhaled corticosteroid requirements, and emergency visits, as well as significantly improving asthma-related quality of life, morning peak expiratory flow and asthma symptom scores in patients with severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Results from clinical trials in children (< 12 years are consistent with those in the adult population. It is difficult to predict which patients will respond to omalizumab. Responders to omalizumab should be identified after a 16-week trial of therapy using the physician’s overall assessment. When treatment is targeted to these responders, omalizumab provides a cost-effective therapy for inadequately controlled severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Long-term therapy with omalizumab shows the potential for disease-modification in asthma. Ongoing studies are also evaluating the use of omalizumab in other non-asthma IgE-mediated conditions.Keywords: omalizumab, IgE, allergic asthma

  17. Immunological differences between insect venom-allergic patients with and without immunotherapy and asymptomatically sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzt, L; Bokanovic, D; Schrautzer, C; Laipold, K; Möbs, C; Pfützner, W; Herzog, S A; Vollmann, J; Reider, N; Bohle, B; Aberer, W; Sturm, G J

    2017-11-23

    Currently available tests are unable to distinguish between asymptomatic sensitization and clinically relevant Hymenoptera venom allergy. A reliable serological marker to monitor venom immunotherapy (VIT) does also not exist. Our aim was to find reliable serological markers to predict tolerance to bee and vespid stings. We included 77 asymptomatically sensitized subjects, 85 allergic patients with acute systemic sting reactions, and 61 allergic patients currently treated with VIT. Levels of sIgE and sIgG 4 to bee and vespid venom, rApi m 1, and rVes v 5 were measured immediately after allergic sting reactions or before sting challenges and 4 weeks later. All sting challenges were tolerated. The inhibitory activity was determined using BAT inhibition and ELIFAB assay. Median sIgG 4 levels were 96-fold higher in VIT patients (P venom, but not in those treated with bee venom. Four weeks after the sting, sIgE and sIgG 4 levels were increased in allergic and asymptomatically sensitized patients, but not in VIT patients. Immunological responses after stings varied in bee and vespid venom-allergic patients. In patients under VIT, sIgE and sIgG 4 remained completely stable after sting challenges. Monitoring VIT efficacy was only possible in vespid venom allergy, and the sIgG 4 threshold for rVes v 5 had the highest sensitivity to confirm tolerance. The BAT inhibition test was the most reliable tool to confirm tolerance on an individual basis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  18. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells....

  19. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  20. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  2. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Family based association analysis of the IL2 and IL15 genes in allergic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Haagerup, Annette; Binderup, Helle

    2006-01-01

    ) identified in a family based association study of two Danish samples comprising a total of 235 families with allergic diseases. None of the IL15 SNPs showed significant association and the haplotype analysis yielded inconsistent results in the two samples. In contrast, the two IL2 SNPs showed association...... both separately and in haplotypes with several atopic phenotypes, most significantly with IgE-mediated allergy. (single SNP P-value 0.0005 for positive skin prick test, haplotype P-value 0.019 for positive RAST test). To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting association between IL2 and Ig...

  4. Evaluation of the impact of severity of itching symptoms on the level of depression in patients with allergic contact eczema (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Czarny-Działak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent skin disorders in the general population as well as among people who work professionally. Allergic contact allergens are simple chemical compounds. The most common are nickel and fragrance substances. Aim of the research : To estimate if and how the degree of itching in allergic contact dermatitis influences the development of depression. Material and methods: The treatment was conducted on a group of 17 people with allergic contact dermatitis. Each person was treated in order to estimate the level of depression using Becks scale and the level of itching. Next, it was estimated if the level of itching had any influence on the development of depression. Results: All skin diseases, including allergic contact eczema affect the biological and psychosocial functioning, and the quality of human. Five patients out of 17 showed features of depression: 3 mild (2 men and 1 woman, which is the most common state of transition, and 2 (women moderately-severe depressive symptoms. Both patients with moderately-severe depressive symptoms had a significant degree of severity of pruritus. Conclusions: It was stated that the level of itching has no influence on the development of depression.

  5. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  6. An experimental model of allergic asthma in cats sensitized to house dust mite or bermuda grass allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Roy D; Williams, Kurt J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2004-10-01

    Animal models are used to mimic human asthma, however, not all models replicate the major characteristics of the human disease. Spontaneous development of asthma with hallmark features similar to humans has been documented to occur with relative frequency in only one animal species, the cat. We hypothesized that we could develop an experimental model of feline asthma using clinically relevant aeroallergens identified from cases of naturally developing feline asthma, and characterize immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes over 1 year. House dust mite (HDMA) and Bermuda grass (BGA) allergen were selected by screening 10 privately owned pet cats with spontaneous asthma using a serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA. Parenteral sensitization and aerosol challenges were used to replicate the naturally developing disease in research cats. The asthmatic phenotype was characterized using intradermal skin testing, serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgG and IgA ELISAs, airway hyperresponsiveness testing, BALF cytology, cytokine profiles using TaqMan PCR, and histopathologic evaluation. Sensitization with HDMA or BGA in cats led to allergen-specific IgE production, allergen-specific serum and BALF IgG and IgA production, airway hyperreactivity, airway eosinophilia, an acute T helper 2 cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and BALF cells, and histologic evidence of airway remodeling. Using clinically relevant aeroallergens to sensitize and challenge the cat provides an additional animal model to study the immunopathophysiologic mechanisms of allergic asthma. Chronic exposure to allergen in the cat leads to a variety of immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes that mimic the features seen in human asthma.

  7. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Induces a Transmissible Dysbiotic Skin Microbiota that Promotes Skin Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimblet, Ciara; Meisel, Jacquelyn S; Loesche, Michael A; Cole, Stephen D; Horwinski, Joseph; Novais, Fernanda O; Misic, Ana M; Bradley, Charles W; Beiting, Daniel P; Rankin, Shelley C; Carvalho, Lucas P; Carvalho, Edgar M; Scott, Phillip; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-12

    Skin microbiota can impact allergic and autoimmune responses, wound healing, and anti-microbial defense. We investigated the role of skin microbiota in cutaneous leishmaniasis and found that human patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis develop dysbiotic skin microbiota, characterized by increases in the abundance of Staphylococcus and/or Streptococcus. Mice infected with L. major exhibit similar changes depending upon disease severity. Importantly, this dysbiosis is not limited to the lesion site, but is transmissible to normal skin distant from the infection site and to skin from co-housed naive mice. This observation allowed us to test whether a pre-existing dysbiotic skin microbiota influences disease, and we found that challenging dysbiotic naive mice with L. major or testing for contact hypersensitivity results in exacerbated skin inflammatory responses. These findings demonstrate that a dysbiotic skin microbiota is not only a consequence of tissue stress, but also enhances inflammation, which has implications for many inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Case with Repeated Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome due to Pseudoephedrine Use: Kounis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çeliker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic reaction-associated acute coronary syndrome picture is defined as Kounis syndrome. Although drug use is the most common cause of allergic reaction, foods and environmental factors may also play a role in the etiology. Herein, a case with acute coronary syndrome that developed two times at 8-month interval due to pseudoephedrine use for upper respiratory tract infection is presented.

  9. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knackstedt, R W; Dixon, J A; O'Neill, P J; Herrera, F A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent.

  10. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Knackstedt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may

  11. Effects of air pollution on the skin: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Poonam; Nandar, Shashi Kumar; Kathuria, Sushruta; Ramesh, V

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air pollution over the years has had major effects on the human skin. Various air pollutants such as ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, oxides, particulate matter, ozone and cigarette smoke affect the skin as it is the outermost barrier. Air pollutants damage the skin by inducing oxidative stress. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with extrinsic skin aging and skin cancers. Cigarette smoke contributes to premature aging and an increase in the incidence of psoriasis, acne and skin cancers. It is also implicated in allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with extrinsic skin aging, pigmentation, cancers and acneiform eruptions. Volatile organic compounds have been associated with atopic dermatitis. Given the increasing levels of air pollution and its detrimental effects on the skin, it is advisable to use strategies to decrease air pollution.

  12. Distribution of inhalant allergies in pediatric patients presenting with allergic complaints in the Eastern Anatolia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mehmet; Taskin, Erdal

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to define the distribution of inhalant allergens in pediatric patients in whom sensitization was diagnosed with a skin prick test (SPT) who had presented with allergic complaints. In addition, the correlation between the inhalant allergens detected on the SPT and the patients' demographic features, diagnosis, and laboratory findings was defined. A total of 1415 children among the 4056 patients who presented at a clinic in the Eastern Anatolia region with allergic complaints and who had undergone an SPT were included in this study. On the SPT, sensitization to grass pollens was found in 60.1%, cereals pollens in 57.2%, and Dermatophagoides farinae in 21.8% of the patients. Furthermore, on the SPT, incidence of asthma development was 3.96 times higher (odds ratio 3.96, 95% CI: 1.77-6.83; P=0.001) in patients who were allergic to Dermatophagoides farinae. In our study, differences were found in the study region compared to data from around the world and other regions in Turkey in terms of the distribution of allergies and variations in allergens in patients diagnosed due to variations in climate and plants.

  13. Wasp venom is appropriate for immunotherapy of patients with allergic reaction to the European hornet sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter; Silar, Mira; Music, Ema; Erzen, Renato

    2002-02-01

    To identify whether it is the yellow jacket (Vespula germanica) or European hornet (Vespa crabro) venom that induces sensitization in patients with IgE-mediated allergic reaction to the venom from the sting of a European hornet. Since these patients usually have positive skin tests and specific IgE to all vespid venoms, it would be useful to distinguish cross-reactors from non-cross-reactors to perform immunotherapy with the venom that induced the sensitization. We performed inhibition tests in 24 patients who had experienced anaphylactic reaction after being stung by a European hornet. Of 24 patients with allergic reaction after Vespa crabro sting, 17 were sensitized only to epitopes of Vespula germanica venom. Only 4 out of 24 patients were sensitized to epitopes completely cross-reactive with Dolichovespula arenaria venom. In Slovenia, the vast majority of patients with anaphylactic reaction to Vespa crabro sting seem to be sensitized to Vespula germanica venom. We consider wasp venom an appropriate immunotherapeutic agent for such patients, except for those with proven primary sensitization to specific epitopes of Vespa crabro venom. Fluorescence enzyme immunoassay inhibition should be considered a convenient tool for the identification of primary sensitization in patients allergic to vespid venoms.

  14. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Se-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. Methods This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and nuclear factor (NF-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Results We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  15. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jang, Seon-A; Joo, Haemi; Park, Sulkyoung; Kang, Se-Chan; Lee, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Sun-Young

    2011-02-08

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE) had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL) suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by mushrooms. A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, J N; Soderberg, M D

    1991-09-01

    The first author is allergic to skin contact with mushrooms of Suillus americanus, S. granulatus, S. grevillei, S. luteus, or S. neoalbidipes. Symptoms develop between one and two days after contact and last for approximately a week, disappearing completely without treatment. Symptoms consist of reddening, swelling, and itching, at the sites of contact with pileus cuticle mucilage of all five species. Pore layer tissues (tested for S. americanus and S. luteus) also produced strong reactions, as did pileus trama (tested for S. luteus). Spores from spore prints (tested for S. americanus and S. luteus) produced no reaction. The reaction can be avoided by wearing gloves when handling allergic species and by washing hands promptly after working with these species. Similar cases, reported from North America, Europe, and Russia, involve Agaricus, Boletus, Lactarius, Paxillus, Ramaria, and Suillus species. Several cases involve allergy to multiple species or genera. Symptom severity varies, presumably with intensity of exposure. In one case, symptoms were renewed following ingestion. Most cases demonstrate delayed allergic contact sensitivity.

  17. Full-course drug challenge test in the diagnosis of delayed allergic reactions to penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Jakob E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Drug challenge test (DCT) has long been the most sensitive test in the allergological work-up when investigating for penicillin allergy. To improve sensitivity of the diagnostic work-up in diagnosing penicillin allergics with histories of allergic reactions on day 2 or later in the course of penicillin treatment. A full-course DCT was added to the current protocol if specific IgE, skin tests and DCT were all negative in patients who had a nonimmediate reaction to penicillin treatment. Sixteen patients with a history of an immediate reaction to penicillin treatment underwent testing with negative outcomes. Fifty percent of patients undergoing full-course DCT experienced a cutaneous adverse drug reaction. None of the controls reacted (p = 0.001). The mean time of reaction was 6 days. Penicillin V accounted for most reactions. Urticaria was the most frequent clinical reaction observed. Full-course DCT offers an improvement of sensitivity and predictive values of the diagnostic work-up of allergic reactions to penicillin occurring on day 2 of penicillin treatment or later. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Association between childhood allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status in later life: systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the association between specific allergic diseases and educational attainment. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status, and if possible, calculate meta-analytic summary estimates for the associations. Methods Systematic electronic searches in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and education Resources Information Center (ERIC); hand search in reference lists of included papers and conference reports; search for unpublished studies in clinical trial registers and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report; data extraction; and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) will be performed. Analysis Data will be summarised descriptively, and meta-analysis including meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneities will be performed if possible. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination in a peer-reviewed, open-access, international scientific journal is planned. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017058036. PMID:29025838

  19. Encapsulation of hydrophobic allergens into nanoparticles improves the in vitro immunological diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortial, Angèle; Nosbaum, Audrey; Rozières, Aurore; Baeck, Marie; de Montjoye, Laurence; Grande, Sophie; Briançon, Stéphanie; Nicolas, Jean-François; Vocanson, Marc

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) relies on in vivo patch testing. In vitro immunological assays based on the characterization of circulating allergen-specific memory T cells represent a promising alternative to patch testing. However, their development is hampered by the technical challenge of assessing hydrophobic allergens in serum-based assays. In this study, we show that the encapsulation of fragrance mix 1 (FMI, a mixture of 8 hydrophobic allergens) into poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticle (NP) vectors: (1) dramatically increases the solubilization of allergens in conventional cell culture media and (2) allows for a robust in vitro reactivation of allergen-specific T cells in large numbers of fragrance allergic patients. Therefore, the encapsulation of hydrophobic allergens into NP vectors opens new avenues to improve the in vitro immunobiological diagnosis of ACD. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensivity reaction prevalent in many individuals. Currently, skin patch testing has been the mainstay for diagnosis clinically. In this study, the authors described an improvement to in vitro immunological assays measuring circulating allergen-specific memory T cells, using nanoparticle vectors. The positive data might provide an exciting alternative to current practice of patch-testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis by liposomal amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most frequently observed adverse reactions of a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (LAB on the first dose of fever and rigors are, hypokalemia and renal toxicity. Acute pancreatitis is not listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics of LAB, although some non-severe cases of pancreatitis toxicity after LAB are described in the literature. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of an 88-year-old male with not known allergies and diagnosed with arterial hypertension and Grade III chronic kidney disease. One month before was admitted because of pneumonia, acute kidney injury, atrial fibrillation and pancytopenia; he was discharged on January 13, 2016, and two weeks later, he returned to the Urgency Department with severe deterioration of the general condition, fever, and a skin rash , these symptoms were attributed to a delayed allergic reaction to levofloxacin. During his first admission, he was treated with acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg, digoxin, metamizole, pantoprazole, valsartan/amlodipine. The Lab results showed pancytopenia. It was performed a bone marrow aspiration, suggesting a case of leishmaniasis. It was initiated intravenous treatment with LAB at 3 mg / kg / day. The first day of treatment, the patient showed a severe bronchospasm, exacerbation of the previous rash possibly caused by quinolones treatment, was treated with corticosteroids, antihistamines, aerosol therapy and oxygen therapy until full recovery. During the following days, LAB was administrated at a slow infusion rate and premedication with appropriate tolerance. On the fifth day of the treatment, the patient started with a diffuse abdominal pain, anorexia, and vomiting. The amylase lab result was 431 IU/L. An abdominal scanner showed edematous pancreatitis. After 48 hours the amylase and lipase lab values were normal. And the abdominal Scanner was repeated with no changes. The evolution of patient was aggravating until reaching multiple organs failure a

  1. Measurement of anti-Ascaris IgE antibody levels in tropical allergic patients, using modified ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Pérez, M; López, R I; Turner, K J

    1987-01-01

    The two most common situations in which the determination of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is of interest are allergic disease and helminthic infection. This is of particular importance in the tropical environment, as helminthiasis possibly influences the expression of allergic reactivity. Because of the low absolute serum levels of IgE, solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is conventionally used for its measurement. The radioactive and toxic volatile reagents required restricted application of such assays in the tropical situation. We evaluated a nitrocellulose-based, avidin biotin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE, in which monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies were employed. Excellent correlations were obtained between ELISA and RIA for both total and allergen-specific IgE measurement. The ELISA was then applied to determine the levels of anti-Ascaris antibodies in selected allergic patients, in whom no cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity reactions were demonstrated against common environmental allergens such as house dust, but who had positive skin reactions to Ascaris extract. When compared with non-allergic subjects who had equivalent cutaneous reactivity, no significant differences were found in total IgE levels, house-dust specific IgE levels or non-reaginic anti-Ascaris antibody levels. However, higher levels of IgE antibody against the parasite were detected in the allergic subjects. This observation raises the question of the possible role of Ascaris infection in the stimulation of allergic reactions in such patients. We describe an immunoenzymatic assay for total and specific IgE antibody that is better adapted to the tropical situation than the commonly used radioimmunoassays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  3. Acute disseminated cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P H; Chan, H L; Lee, Y S; Wong, H B

    1988-10-01

    Acute disseminated candidiasis is a serious and difficult problem often seen in immunocompromised states. Appearance of a characteristic skin eruption is helpful in the diagnostic. We report below a case report of an eight year old girl with aplastic anemia who had received multiple courses of antibiotics. A profuse monomorphic papular nodular eruption subsequently appeared on the face, palms and soles. Candida tropicalis was identified from the skin biopsy taken from one such lesion.

  4. Decreased expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase in childhood allergic asthma and its inverse correlation with fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Ling; Wang, Mei; Liao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The tryptophan metabolic pathway mediated by indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-degrading enzyme, plays an important role in controlling the development of allergic inflammation. The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is closely associated with the allergic state and is extensively used for the clinical evaluation of airway allergic inflammation. Clinical trials have rarely assessed the expression of IDO in childhood allergic asthma and its correlation with FeNO. To evaluate the IDO level in children with childhood allergic asthma and the relation between IDO levels and FeNO. Thirty children older than 5 years who were diagnosed the first time with allergic asthma were selected from the pediatric outpatient department. Another 30 healthy children were selected as controls. The subjects were evaluated by complete medical history, pulmonary function test results, skin prick test reaction, FeNO concentration test result, eosinophil count, and a disease severity score. Peripheral venous blood and induced sputum were obtained to measure the concentrations of IDO metabolites (ie, tryptophan and kynurenine). The IDO levels in the peripheral blood and induced sputum were significantly lower in patients with childhood allergic asthma than in children in the control group. The IDO level was negatively correlated with FeNO but was not significantly correlated with age, sex, blood eosinophil count, or disease severity scale. The expression of IDO was significantly lower in childhood allergic asthma, particularly in children with high FeNO levels. There was no significant relation between IDO levels and asthma severity. Chinese Clinical Trial Register (www.chictr.org.cn) Identifier: ChiCTR-COC-15006080. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity to the Main Allergens in Children with Allergic Diseases

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    O.D. Kuznietsova

    2015-11-01

    Objective of the research — to study hypersensitivity to the main allergens in children with allergic diseases based on the results of skin allergy testing, as well as to analyze the structure of diseases. Materials and methods. We have examined 228 children using skin prick testing, the estimation of results was conducted 25–40 minutes after performing the test. Associations between the results of skin prick test with various allergens were studied using cross-correlation analysis in the package of applied statistics Statistics 6.0. Results. 85.5 % of children were sensitized to the pollen allergens, domestic — 54 %, food — 21 %, fungal allergens — 35 %. Among pollen plants, there prevails sensitization to ambrosia — 47.8 %, sunflower — 49.5 %, cyclachaena — 38.5 %; among domestic allergens — to the tick species D.рteronyssinus and D.farinae — 24 %, cat hair — 19.7 %, among fungal — to Alternaria (23 %. Most often hyperergic reaction (papule diameter ≥ 8 mm was observed to cyclachaena (44 %, sunflower (46 %, ambrosia (50 %, cat hair (42 %, D.farinae (39 %. We have established significant (р < 0.05 correlations of mainly middle strength between positive prick-tests in pairs: ambrosia — cyclachaena (r = +0.43, ambrosia — sunflower (r = +0.43, acarus D.рteronyssinus — D.farinae (r = +0.66, mixture «birch, alder, oak, hazel» — ryegrass (r = +0.53, beef meat — egg yolk (r = +0.42, pork meat — chicken meat (r = +0.35, milk (r = +0.36, wool of sheep — pork (r = +0.36. Conclusion. Predominance of sensitization to pollen allergens represents the epidemiological situation in the South region of Ukraine. The presence of correlations between the different types of allergens indicates the cross reactions between them. In case of multiple positive results of skin allergen tests, the study using molecular allergy diagnostic method is recommended to establish genuine or cross allergy.

  6. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C.; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-11-01

    Our goal here was to identify dose and temporal dependent radiation responses in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. Direct sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts following exposure to 0.1, 2 and 10 Gy of ionizing radiation at 3 and 8 hours. These doses include a low dose in the range of some medical diagnostic procedures (0.1 Gy), a dose typically received during radiotherapy (2.0 Gy) and a lethal dose (10 Gy). These doses could be received after an intentional or accidental radiation exposure and biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage exposed individuals. A total of 1701 genes were deemed to be significantly affected by high dose radiation exposure with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. A group of 29 genes including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA, and AEN were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at multiple time points. A much larger group of up regulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after a 10 Gy exposure. At high doses, down regulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a handful of genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy exposure using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to the high dose exposures. Differential regulation of PLK1 signaling at low and high doses was confirmed using qRT-PCR. These results indicate that some alterations in gene expression are qualitatively different at low and high doses of radiation in this model system.

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  8. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...... contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...

  9. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    -up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...... and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness...... and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies....

  10. Corticosteroid hypersensitivity studies in a skin allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2015-12-01

    Corticosteroids can cause hypersensitivity reactions, particularly delayed-type allergic reactions. A new classification system for testing hypersensitivity to corticosteroids distributes the drugs into 3 groups according to molecular structure; patients are classified according to whether they are allergic to agents in 1 or more of the groups. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of corticosteroid-allergic patients treated at our clinic and apply the new classification system to them; we also compared these patients' characteristics to those of others treated at our clinic. Retrospective study of cases of delayed-type corticosteroid hypersensitivity treated in the skin allergy clinic of a tertiary level hospital over an 11-year period. We reviewed the records of 2857 patients, finding 33 with at least one positive patch test result showing corticosteroid hypersensitivity. Atopic dermatitis and hand involvement were less common in our corticosteroid-allergic patients. All were allergic to a group 1 corticosteroid (most often, budesonide, the culprit in 87.9%). Testing with a specific corticosteroid series revealed that 14 (42.4%) were also allergic to corticosteroids in group 2 and/or group 3. None were allergic exclusively to group 2 or group 3 agents. Twenty-one patients were exposed to a corticosteroid cream from a group their patch test results indicated allergy to; 13 of them (61.9%) did not develop a hypersensitivity reaction. The Spanish standard series only contains group 1 corticosteroids. In the interest of improving allergy management, we recommend testing with a specific corticosteroid series and a patient's own creams whenever patch testing with a standard series reveals a hypersensitivity reaction to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  12. Fungi-Induced Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Allergic Diseases: One Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Barac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Aspergillus can cause different allergic diseases including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS. ABPA is allergic pulmonary disease against Aspergillus antigens. AFRS is a type of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS presented as hypersensitivity reactions to the fungal presence in sinuses. The aim of the present study was to clarify if ABPA and AFRS could be considered as a common disease entity.Methodology: The prospective cohort study included 75 patients with ABPA. Patients were divided into two groups and compared with each other: (i patients with CT confirmation of rhinosinusitis and presence of fungi in sinuses (ABPA+AFRS group and (ii patients without CT or without mycological evidence of AFRS (ABPA group.Results: Findings of this study were: (i AFRS was confirmed in 80% of patients with ABPA; (ii all ABPA+AFRS patients had allergic mucin while fungal hyphae were present in 60% sinonasal aspirate; (iii ABPA+AFRS patients had more often complicated CRS with (nasal polyps NP (p < 0.001 and more severe forms of CRS; (iv culture of sinonasal aspirate revealed fungal presence in 97% patients with ABPA+AFRS; (v patients with ABPA+AFRS had more common positive skin prick test (SPT for A. fumigatus (p = 0.037, while patients without AFRS had more common positive SPT for Alternaria alternata and Penicillium notatum (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively; (vi 67% of ABPA patients had Aspergillus induced AFRS; (vii larger number of fungi was isolated from the air-samples obtained from homes of patients with ABPA+AFRS than from the homes of patients without AFRS, while the most predominant species were A. fumigatus and A. niger isolated from almost 50% of the air-samples.Conclusion: The pathogenesis of ABPA and AFRS is similar, and AFRS can be considered as the upper airway counterpart of ABPA. Fungi-induced upper and lower respiratory tract allergic diseases present common entity. Next studies

  13. Occupational skin problems in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-10-01

    Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20-25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms.

  14. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

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    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  15. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  16. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand Fard, Mohammad Amin; Khanjani, Narges; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Ashrafi Asgarabad, Ahad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data. Results: The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant ( P=0.046); and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets’ skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose) were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038). These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring. Conclusion: In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions. PMID:28589108

  17. Allergic fungal sinusitis - new aspects of clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a chronic non­invasive disease. Hypersensitive immune response is usually initiated by allergens of filamentous fungi Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Bipolaris, Curvularia and Alternaria. AFS is a clinical and immune analogue of the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA as the sinus exudate resembles that of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL in ABPA. Patients with AFS are usually immunocompetent, atopic and males. The most common symptoms are headache, fullness in the paranasal sinuses, and difficult breathing through the nose. Clinically, there is a chronic mucosal inflammation and histopathologic finding shows allergic mucin and eosinophils. Specific staining methods, Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS or periodic acid­Schiff (PAS, are used for microscopic visualisation of hyphae, which are, in addition to the isolated fungi, most reliable evidence of AFS. Computerized tomography (CT of paranasal sinuses shows the areas of hyperdensity. In cases where AFS is complicated by the erosion of bone tissue, discontinuation of the sinus bone wall can be seen. Significant laboratory finding, which correlate highly with the AFS, are high immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies specific for fungi, detected by the skin prick test or in serum. Treatment is often surgical, and after removal of the allergic mucin, therapy involves oral and nasal corticosteroids, immunotherapy and locally applied antimycotics (with verified fungal etiology. During treatment, the total/specific IgE is monitored - concentration increases with the development of AFS, and decreases during the improvement process. Knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of AFS is scarce, and represents the focus of further research in order to define an optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke republike Srbije, br. OI175034

  18. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Farahmand fard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran.   Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data.   Results: The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant (       P=0.046; and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets’ skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038. These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring.   Conclusion: In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions.

  19. Functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children with allergic dermatosis

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    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 10 % of the pediatric population suffers from atopic dermatitis, and this disease is most common skin allergic pathology. The influence of thyroid hormones on the development of atopy is known. Study purpose was to evaluate the features of the functional status of the pituitary-thyroid system in children with allergic dermatosis. Materials and methods. 72 children aged from 7 to 18 years were divided into 4 groups: group I — patients who suffer from atopic dermatitis (n = 29, II — children with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 17, III group — patients with simple contact dermatitis (n = 16, IV group — healthy children (n = 10. The levels of thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, antibodies to thyroglobulin (TG were determined. Results. Erythema was found in 95.2 %, edema — in 43.5 %, exudation — in 37.1 %, excoriation — in 43.5 %, lichenification — in 56.4 % of the total group of patients. Dysfunctions of the pituitary-thyroid system, both at the central and peripheral level, were determined. The frequency of antibodies to TG detection in children of the first group was high and exceeded the average population values by 3.7 times (36.7 %, χ2 = 17.5, p < 0.05. The level of TG in all of observed patients was significantly higher than that of in the comparison group. The frequency of detection of antibo­dies to TG in the group of patients with the disease experience more than 10 years exceeded the average population values by 3.2 times (34.0 %, χ2 = 8.1, p < 0.05. Conclusions. Changes in the morpho-functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system, mainly of an autoimmune nature, are revealed in children with allergic dermatosis.

  20. Hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis presenting with a vasculitic syndrome, acute nephritis and a puzzling skin rash: a case report

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    Keasberry Justin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has been associated with many drugs and it is a relatively rare side effect of the antihypertensive drug hydralazine. The diagnosis and management of patients who have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis may be challenging because of its relative infrequency, variability of clinical expression and changing nomenclature. The spectrum of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is wide and can be fatal. This case documents a 62-year-old woman who presented with hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis with a puzzling cutaneous rash. Case presentation We report a rare case of hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis in a 62-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with a vasculitic syndrome with a sore throat, mouth ulcers and otalgia after several months of constitutional symptoms. She then proceeded to develop a rash over her right lower limb. Clinically, the rash had features to suggest Sweet’s syndrome, but also had some appearances consistent with embolic phenomena and did not have the appearance of palpable purpure usually associated with cutaneous vasculitis. Differential diagnoses were hydralazine-associated Sweet’s syndrome, streptococcal-induced cutaneous eruption or an unrelated contact dermatitis. A midstream urine sample detected glomerular blood cells in the setting of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis and Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia. A renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune, focally necrotizing glomerulonephritis with small crescents. Her skin biopsy revealed a heavy neutrophil infiltrate involving the full thickness of the dermis with no evidence of a leucocytoclastic vasculitis, but was non-specific. She was initially commenced on intravenous lincomycin for her bloodstream infection and subsequently

  1. Immediate and delayed reactions to radiocontrast media: is there an allergic mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut

    2009-08-01

    Radiocontrast media can cause immediate (1 hour) and nonimmediate (>1 hour) hypersensitivity reactions that remain unpredictable and a cause of concern for radiologists and cardiologists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions resemble anaphylaxis, whereas nonimmediate ones clinically are predominated by exanthemas. Increasing evidence indicates that immediate reactions and nonimmediate skin exanthemas may be allergic reactions involving either contrast media-reactive IgE or T cells, respectively. Skin testing is a useful tool for the diagnosis of contrast media allergy. It may have an important role in the selection of a safe product in previous reactors, although validation data are still lacking. In vitro tests to search for contrast media-specific cell activation are currently under investigation.

  2. Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Samuelsson, E G

    1988-01-01

    Five children aged 12-40 months with IgE-mediated adverse reactions to cow milk (immediate onset clinical pattern of cow milk allergy) were orally challenged double-blind in random order with three different milk preparations processed from the same batch of milk 1) raw untreated cow milk, 2......) pasteurized cow milk, 3) homogenized and pasteurized cow milk, and 4) Nutramigen (a commercial hypoallergenic infant formula based on hydrolysed casein) as placebo. Skin prick tests with the same preparations were also performed. On oral challenge the three different processed milk types provoked significant...... and similar allergic reactions in each child, and no adverse reactions followed the challenge with placebo (Nutramigen). Skin prick test with the same milk products were positive in all children and comparable to the results with an extract of purified raw cow milk protein (Soluprick), whereas Nutramigen did...

  3. New concept in allergy: Non-allergic rats becomes allergic after induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide

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    Haryono Utomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a theory, seemingly it is impossible that allergic diseases, including asthma, are the result of exposure to a transmissible agent. The fact that nearly all children with asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergic children have asthma, at least raises the possibility that other factors are involved. Interestingly, non-allergic children become allergic after their parents came from working in allergic people for several months. Recent research revealed that periodontal pathogens are also transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants.Therefore, it is logical that non-allergic children could become allergic after exposed to periodontopathic bacteria. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify a new concept that non-allergic rat may become allergic after exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Randomized control series design experimental study was conducted to 24 male Wistar rats, two experimental groups and one control group. One group was subjected to intrasulcular injection of PgLPS1435/1450. Tissue examination were done for allergy biomarkers with peroxidase immunohistochemistry for leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in bronchus tissue. Serum level examination of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and immunoglobulin E (IgE was done with ELISA. Data were analyzes using ANOVA. Results: after four days, LTC4 and ECP expression increased significantly (p=0.001; even insignificant, IL-4 and IgE serum level also increased. Conclusion: PgLPS is able to stimulate immunocompetent cells which changed the host immune response of non-allergic rats. Therefore, it is possible that they become allergic.Latar belakang: Menurut teori, penularan penyakit alergi termasuk asma merupakan hal yang mustahil. Fakta menunjukkn bahwa hampir semua anak penderita asma mempunyai alergi, tetapi tidak semua anak alergi menderita asma, sehingga mungkin

  4. Hair-dye induced erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis

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    Mrinal Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self limited skin disease characterized by the sudden eruption of symmetrical lesions in typical targetoid fashion usually confined to face and extremities. The most commonly implicated factors include infections like herpes simplex, mycoplasma, drugs like antibiotics and anticonvulsants and vaccinations. Contact dermatitis induced EM is a rarely reported entity. Herein we present a case of a 40 year old female who presented with EM due to contact sensitivity to p-Paraphenylenediamine (PPD, a common coloring agent in hair-dyes and a potent sensitizer. Till date, there have been only a few case reports of PPD induced EM.

  5. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

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    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  6. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  7. Occupational skin diseases in Czech healthcare workers from 1997 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovcová, A; Fenclová, Z; Pelclová, D

    2013-04-01

    The healthcare sector ranked in second place among economic sectors in the Czech Republic, with about 11.4 % of all occupational diseases in 2009. Skin diseases constituted about 20 % of all occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the causes and trends in allergic and irritant-induced skin diseases in the healthcare sector. The data concerning occupational skin diseases (Chapter IV of the Czech List of Occupational Diseases, non-infectious skin illnesses) in the healthcare sector were analyzed from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases from 1997 until 2009. The trends in the total counts and most frequent causes were evaluated. During the past 13 years, a total of 545 skin diseases were acknowledged in healthcare workers. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 464 (85 %), irritant contact dermatitis in 71 (13 %) and contact urticaria in 10 subjects (2 %). Ninety-five percent of the patients were females. The overall incidence in individual years varied between 1.0 and 2.9 cases per 10,000 full-time employees per year. Disinfectants were the most frequent chemical agents causing more than one third of all allergic skin diseases (38 %), followed by rubber components (32 %) and cleaning agents (10 %). A general downward trend of diagnosed cases of occupational skin diseases in heath care workers in the Czech Republic over the past 13 years was demonstrated.

  8. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis is to perform a patch test. Because this has several disadvantages, the development of a new in vitro test system would be of immense value. Gene transcripts that distinguish allergics from non-allergics may have the potential...... widely available. The 26 differentially expressed genes identified in this study may potentially function as diagnostic markers for contact sensitivity....

  9. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Fenoy

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+FoxP3(+ cells.

  10. Anti-allergic and anti-microbial activities of some Thai crops

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    Supinya Tewtrakul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Thai crops including banana, okra, jackfruit, germinated rice, rambutan, durian, jampadah, huasa potato,tamarind, coconut, mango, fan palm fruit and dioscorea tuber were tested for anti-allergic effect using RBL-2H3 cells andanti-microbial activity. These 13 crops, some of which included different parts, e.g. skin, flesh, and seed, were extracted withfour solvents separately [(95% ethanol (EtOH, 50% EtOH, water (W and hot water (HW], respectively, to obtain 112extracts. Among these extracts, mango seed in 50% EtOH possessed the highest anti-allergic activity against antigen-inducedb-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC50 value of 7.5±0.8 mg/ml, followed bybanana (W, IC50 = 13.5±2.4 mg/ml, okra (W, IC50 = 13.6±3.1 mg/ml, jampadah skin (HW, IC50 = 13.8±3.9 mg/ml, tamarindseed coat (HW, IC50 = 14.2±3.1 mg/ml, jampadah flesh (W, IC50 = 14.6±3.1 mg/ml; whereas other crops possessed IC50values from 21.5->100 mg/ml. Moreover, the plants showing high anti-allergic effects were also possessed marked antibacterialactivity. Rambutan peel, mango peel, mango seed and tamarind seed coat exhibited appropriate anti-bacterialactivity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values ranging from 250-2,000 mg/ml, but did not show any effect towards Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. This study indicates that these Thaicrops may have potential as functional foods and neutraceuticals for treatment of allergy, allergy-related diseases and somebacterial infections.

  11. Diagnostic Algorithm for Pancreatic Pathology in Сhildren with Allergic Diseases

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    I.V. Karpushenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increase in the incidence of allergic diseases worldwide, their direct relationship with the defeat of the digestive organs with the formation of functional disorders and inflammatory processes, their earlier manifestation determine the relevance and necessity of studying early diagnosis of these diseases in children. Objective. Improving the quality of the diagnosis of pancreatic pathology in children with allergic diseases. Materials and methods. The study involved 169 children aged 3 to 17 years, the main group consisted of 105 children with allergic diseases, control one — of 64 children. Verification of allergy: skin tests, specific immunoglobulins and total immunoglobulin E. Examination of the pancreas: determining the levels of α-amylase, trypsin, blood lipase, extended coprotest, postprandial hyperemia during ultrasound study. Diagnostic algorithm has been created using heterogeneous consistent procedures by Wald-Genkin. Results. We have determined the diagnostic coefficient, according to which pancreatic pathology is confirmed: by postprandial hyperemia 5–15 %, inhomogenous ultrasound structure of the pancreas with increased or decreased echogenicity; constipation or stool with signs of amylorrhea and iodofilic flora; in the early medical history — exudative-catarrhal anomaly constitution; complaints of moderate pain after a meal or not-related to it, with localization around the umbilicus or in the right upper quadrant; dyspeptic syndrome; moderate palpable pain sensitivity in the epigastrium, in the projection of the pancreas and along the colon; the presence of skin and the absence of respiratory allergy manifestations; pre-school age; elevated levels of trypsin and blood amylase; family history of digestive diseases; asthenovegetative syndrome; pathology of the pregnancy and labor, poor nutrition, concomitant somatic pathology; female gender, normal levels of total immunoglobulin E. Conclusions. The algorithm

  12. Comparison of Allergic Adverse Effects and Contrast Enhancement Between Iodixanol and Iopromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharekhanloo, Farideh; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media are the most commonly used contrast agents in the world with an annual application of 40-50 million. New non-ionic contrast agents are subdivided into low osmolar agents such as iopromide and iso-osmolar agents such as iodixanol. Regarding different biochemical characteristics, these agents are different in the allergic reactions and contrast enhancement and final lesion conspicuity. This study was carried out to compare allergic adverse effects and contrast enhancement between iodixanol and iopromide. One-hundred and twenty patients who were referred for abdominal CT scan to Besat Hospital were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). Group A received 100 cc iodixanol (300 mgI/mL) and group B received 100 cc iopromide (300 mgI/ml) by power injector. CT examination was performed using Helical CT Scanner (Somatom, Siemens, Germany). Sixty seconds after injection, images were obtained and enhancement of port, liver and aorta were determined. Allergic adverse effects were recorded one hour and up to one week after injection. Iodixanol produced a significantly greater enhancement of the hepatic, aorta and portal vein than iopromide (P < 0.01). Sixty seconds after injection, associated pain and heat sensation were less frequent in iodixanol in comparison with iopromide (P = 0.03). Immediate reactions such as nausea and vomiting were less frequent in iodixanol (P = 0.01). Late skin reactions such as rash was more frequent in iodixanol (P < 0.01). Iodixanol is safe and is better tolerated in the early phase of injection with better contrast enhancement and lesion conspicuity. Mild late skin rash is its disadvantage

  13. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential immunotoxic effects of trichloroethylene-induced IV allergic reaction in renal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE is known to induce allergic contact dermatitis and subsequent occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLD with multi-system injuries, including liver, kidney, and skin injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying immune system dysfunction that result in organ injury have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we measured the levels of secreted cytokines by effect or T cells in TCE-treated guinea pigs to better understand the contribution of allergic disorders in renal injuries. We immunized guinea pigs with trichloroethylene using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT and scored the inflammation on the guinea pigs’ skin. The kidney function and ultra-structural changes in the kidneys were detected using biochemical methods and electron microscopy. The deposition of cytokines was determined using immunohistochemistry. The sensitization rate was 63.16% in the TCE-sensitized groups. The electron microscopy results showed tubular epithelial cell mitochondrial swelling, vacuolar degeneration, and atrophy of the microvillus in the sensitized groups. A high degree of cytokine deposition was observed in the renal tubular proximal epithelial cells in the TCE-sensitized groups. As observed in this study, the variation in the level of immune system activation not only indicates that TCE can largely magnify the immune reaction but also suggests a potential role of immune dysfunction in renal impairment.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate in OmniPod, an innovative tubeless insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Mowitz, Martin; Bonardel, Nathalie; Aerts, Olivier; Bruze, Magnus

    2018-04-10

    The frequency of allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates is increasing worldwide, and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA) has been identified as a culprit sensitizer in FreeStyle Libre, a medical device used by diabetic patients. To report on 4 patients sensitized to IBOA contained in OmniPod, a new, tubeless insulin pump, and to describe the clinical and chemical analytical work-up. Four patients with eczematous skin eruptions after using OmniPod, including 2 with previous adverse skin reactions to FreeStyle Libre, were patch tested with a baseline series and additional (meth)acrylates, including IBOA in several concentrations and/or vehicles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the presence of IBOA in OmniPod. All patients were shown to be sensitized to IBOA. GC-MS identified IBOA in OmniPod, with the highest concentrations being found in the unit itself and not in the adhesive patch. The OmniPod tubeless insulin pump is another source of IBOA, and its use may lead to primary sensitization to this acrylate, or may provoke elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in previously sensitized patients. Our cases highlight the need to obtain satisfactory cooperation from pharmaceutical companies involved in the manufacture of these widely used medical devices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-04-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fouladseresht

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of various environmental allergens is the major challenge in allergic diseases and the only treatment is avoiding these allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients using Skin Prick Test (SPT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on clinically confirmed patients of atopic-dermatitis (n=54, allergenic-rhinitis (n=64 and chronic-urticaria (n=39 who referred to asthma and allergy clinic at Afzali-Pour hospital in Kerman during 2008-2010. Skin prick test was done using allergen extracts to determine the patients' sensitivity to food and airborne antigens. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients responded to at least one allergen. Allergy to airborne and food allergens was 55.9 % and 21.7%, respectively. Chenopodiaceae (22.9% and egg white (10.2% were most prevalent airborne and food allergens. Allergy to cockroach, egg white, egg yolk and tomato was significantly higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that allergy to food and airborne allergens is different depending on the nutrition and environmental conditions.

  19. 急诊手外科中腹部任意型皮瓣的应用%Application of Abdominal Randomy Skin flap in the Acute Operation for hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建勋; 王宁

    2002-01-01

    Objective To present the means and effect of repairing hand soft tissue defect. Methods To transplate from 45 patients'randomy skin flap to hand defect area, and cut off the peduncle. Result The survival of skin flap is satisfactory with softness and colorfamiliar to normal skin 1 ~ 3 years after operation. Conclusion Therapy is simple reliable and effective.

  20. Sensitization to Casuarina equisetifolia and Pinus spp Pollen in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aída Velasco-Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollinosis studies at Mexico City have found a considerable amount of Casuarina equisetifolia and Pinus spp pollen, its sensitization frequency is unknown. In Mexico, some allergens are not considered related to asthma or allergic rhinitis, even though reports in other coun- tries have been demonstrated their relevance as aeroallergens. Objective: To estimate the frequency of sensitization to Casuarina eq- uisetifolia and Pinus spp pollen. Patients and method: A transversal, descriptive trial was done at Hos- pital General de Mexico. Previous informed consent 142 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma, 3 to 55 years old, were included to the study. A complete clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and skin prick tests were performed. Results: We included 142 patients, 44 children (64% males and 98 adults (73% females. We found that 8 (18.18% children and 35 (35.7% adults had a positive skin prick test to Casuarina equisetifolia. None of the patients included in the study had a positive skin prick test to Pinus spp. Conclusions: Sensitization to Casuarina equisetifolia is as important as other pollens found in Mexico City. These results suggest that it should be included when skin prick tests are performed. Pinus spp pollen is considered an aeroallergen in European countries but we did not cor- roborate sensitization in our population.

  1. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  2. Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichte, Megan J.; Katta, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms...

  3. Allergenic components of a novel food, Micronesian nut Nangai (Canarium indicum), shows IgE cross-reactivity in pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sten, E.; Skov, P. S.; Bode Andersen, S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New foods may present a risk for food hypersensitive patients. Several examples exist of allergic reactions caused by cross-reactive plant-derived foods, and new foods should be scrutinised before introducing them to the market. We have evaluated the clinical and serological relevance...... previously. To determine the biological and clinical relevance of the cross-reactivity, histamine release (HR) test, skin prick test (SPT) and food challenge were used. RESULTS: There was prevalence for reactivity against Nangai in the group of pollen allergic patients. This cross-reactivity seems...... to be related--at least in part--to carbohydrate epitopes. Three out of 12 patients tested with Nangai were positive upon open challenge, but using double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) this could not be confirmed in two patients. The biological effects of Nangai on allergic patients were...

  4. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Bito, T.; Oka, M.; Fukunaga, M.; Tsuru, K.; Horikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  5. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  6. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  7. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  8. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  9. A study for characterization of IgE-mediated cutaneous immediate and late-phase reactions in non-allergic domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Shanna L; Kearney, Michael; Del Piero, Fabio; Hammerberg, Bruce; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2014-05-15

    Immunoglobulin-E (IgE) mediated reactions can be induced by intradermal injection of anti-IgE antibodies in both humans and dogs. These reactions grossly and histologically mimic changes seen in naturally occurring allergic dermatitis in these species. Similar studies have not been conducted in the cat. Purified polyclonal rabbit-origin IgG specific for canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) were injected intradermally in 7 non-allergic laboratory colony cats. Wheal measurements were obtained and biopsies collected before injection and at injection sites after 20 min, 6, 24, and 48 h. Injection of anti-IgE induced an immediate wheal response which was significantly larger than that seen after injection of rabbit IgG. Anti-IgE injected skin was also significantly thicker than IgG-injected skin. This corresponded with a significant increase in number of visibly degranulated mast cells in anti-IgE samples when compared to IgG samples. Injection of anti-IgE was associated with the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to the injected dermis. The number of inflammatory cells and mononuclear cells were significantly elevated after the injection of anti-IgE when compared to IgG-injected skin. Both eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly increased in anti-IgE samples relative to IgG, although neutrophils were only transiently increased. The high eosinophil and relatively low neutrophil cell counts in these samples were consistent with previously documented histologic features of naturally occurring feline allergic skin disease. Immunohistochemistry identified a significantly overall increased CD1a(+) cells after the intradermal injection of anti-IgE when compared to IgG and non-injected skin. CD3(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+) were also significantly increased overall in anti-IgE injected skin relative to IgG injected skin. These data document the gross and cellular response to injection of anti-IgE in the skin of healthy, non-allergic cats and support a

  10. Modulation of lung inflammation by vessel dilator in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier Stephania A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and its receptor, NPRA, have been extensively studied in terms of cardiovascular effects. We have found that the ANP-NPRA signaling pathway is also involved in airway allergic inflammation and asthma. ANP, a C-terminal peptide (amino acid 99–126 of pro-atrial natriuretic factor (proANF and a recombinant peptide, NP73-102 (amino acid 73–102 of proANF have been reported to induce bronchoprotective effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma. In this report, we evaluated the effects of vessel dilator (VD, another N-terminal natriuretic peptide covering amino acids 31–67 of proANF, on acute lung inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Methods A549 cells were transfected with pVD or the pVAX1 control plasmid and cells were collected 24 hrs after transfection to analyze the effect of VD on inactivation of the extracellular-signal regulated receptor kinase (ERK1/2 through western blot. Luciferase assay, western blot and RT-PCR were also performed to analyze the effect of VD on NPRA expression. For determination of VD's attenuation of lung inflammation, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and then treated intranasally with chitosan nanoparticles containing pVD. Parameters of airway inflammation, such as airway hyperreactivity, proinflammatory cytokine levels, eosinophil recruitment and lung histopathology were compared with control mice receiving nanoparticles containing pVAX1 control plasmid. Results pVD nanoparticles inactivated ERK1/2 and downregulated NPRA expression in vitro, and intranasal treatment with pVD nanoparticles protected mice from airway inflammation. Conclusion VD's modulation of airway inflammation may result from its inactivation of ERK1/2 and downregulation of NPRA expression. Chitosan nanoparticles containing pVD may be therapeutically effective in preventing allergic airway inflammation.

  11. Eosinophils as a novel cell source of prostaglandin D2: autocrine role in allergic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Magalhães, Kelly G; Mesquita-Santos, Fabio P.; Bakker-Abreu, Ilka; Samico, Rafaela F.; Molinaro, Raphael; Calheiros, Andrea S.; Diaz, Bruno L.; Bozza, Patrícia T.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is a key mediator of allergic inflammatory diseases that is mainly synthesized by mast cells, which constitutively express high levels of the terminal enzyme involved in PGD2 synthesis, the hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). Here, we investigated whether eosinophils are also able to synthesize, and therefore, supply biologically active PGD2. PGD2 synthesis was evaluated within human blood eosinophils, in vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils, and eosinophils infiltrating inflammatory site of mouse allergic reaction. Biological function of eosinophil-derived PGD2 was studied by employing inhibitors of synthesis and activity. Constitutive expression of H-PGDS was found within non-stimulated human circulating eosinophils. Acute stimulation of human eosinophils with A23187 (0.1 – 5 μM) evoked PGD2 synthesis, which was located at the nuclear envelope and was inhibited by pre-treatment with HQL-79 (10 μM), a specific H-PGDS inhibitor. Pre-stimulation of human eosinophils with arachidonic acid (AA; 10 μM) or human eotaxin (6 nM) also enhanced HQL-79-sensitive PGD2 synthesis, which, by acting on membrane-expressed specific receptors (DP1 and DP2), displayed an autocrine/paracrine ability to trigger leukotriene (LT)C4 synthesis and lipid body biogenesis, hallmark events of eosinophil activation. In vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils also synthesized paracrine/autocrine active PGD2 in response to AA stimulation. In vivo, at late time point of the allergic reaction, infiltrating eosinophils found at the inflammatory site appeared as an auxiliary PGD2-synthesizing cell population. Our findings reveal that eosinophils are indeed able to synthesize and secrete PGD2, hence representing during allergic inflammation an extra cell source of PGD2, which functions as an autocrine signal for eosinophil activation. PMID:22102725

  12. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Maria-Magdalena; Poenaru, Elena; Poenaru, Calin; Constantin, Traian

    2014-03-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%.The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions.

  13. Evaluation of skin sensitivity in dogs bearing allergic dermatitis to standardized allergenic extract of house dust and storage mites Avaliação da sensibilidade de cães com dermatite alérgica a extratos padronizados de ácaros da poeira domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E.S. Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts of five house dust and storage mite species standardized for humans might be used for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD. Extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae were evaluated by intradermal testing in 20 healthy dogs (control and 25 dogs with allergic dermatitis. A significant difference in the response was observed between the two groups (pO presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se extratos alergênicos de cinco espécies de ácaros da poeira domiciliar e produtos armazenados, padronizados para humanos, podem ser utilizados no diagnóstico da dermatite atópica canina. Extratos de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae e Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae foram avaliados através de testes intradérmicos em 45 cães, dos quais 20 normais e 25 com dermatite alérgica. Uma diferença significativa foi observada no padrão de respostas obtidas dos dois grupos (p<0.05. Apenas um animal (5% do grupo controle reagiu ao teste cutâneo, enquanto que no grupo dos alérgicos 14 cães (56% apresentaram pelo menos uma reação positiva (odds ratio = 24.2. As maiores freqüências de reações positivas observadas no grupo dos alérgicos foram aos extratos de T. putres-centiae ou L. destructor, cada um induzindo reações em 10(40% cães. Os extratos de D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus e B. tropicalis foram responsáveis por reações positivas em 7(28%, 3(12% e 3(12% cães, respectivamente. Os extratos padronizados para humanos avaliados no presente estudo podem ser utilizados como complemento no diagnóstico da doença, assim como na seleção de alérgenos para a imunoterapia alérgeno-específica.

  14. Difference in the Breast Milk Proteome between Allergic and Non-Allergic Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Reina, F.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Koppelman, G.H.; Postma, D.S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and

  15. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  16. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  19. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Karsten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330. Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD, 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis.

  20. The role of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in the diagnosis of allergic diseases of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vooren, P.H.; Kramps, J.A.; Franken, C.; Dijkman, J.H.; Velde, E.A. van der

    1984-01-01

    The predictive value of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was investigated in 472 patients with diseases of the lower respiratory system suspected of an allergic origin. These patients were subjected to inhalation provocation tests with grass pollen, house-dust mites and cat and dog dander. Whereas the history frequently yielded false-positive and false-negative information, both the skin test and the RAST allowed far more reliable prediction, especially in pollen allergy. Negative results of skin test or RAST rendered a specific airway allergy highly improbable. However, in case of anamnestic suspicion corroborated by the skin test and (or) RAST, inhalation tests were still indispensable for the demonstration of respiratory system allergy. (Auth.)

  1. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    The problem with choosing a suitable pre-medication protocols before local anesthesia in dentistry in allergic patients is always discussed, as in the dental practice different schemes are already proven (3,5). The propose of this communication is to share the experience on those pre-medication schemes in allergic patients during and outside pollen season.

  2. Expression of Pendrin Periostin in Allergic Rhinitis Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : Production of pendrin and periostin is upregulated in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Therefore, these mediators may be therapeutic target candidates for allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin- induced asthma.

  3. Advances in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    , surpassing the efficacy of gold standard treatment, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), for the first time. It is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis when monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or INS is NOT considered...

  4. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    ... 12(1):3-12. 3. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases ... childhood allergic diseases. This review ... produce cysteinyl-LTs and LTB4 spontaneously in vitro.8. Although nonleukocyte cells generally do not have sufficient 5-LO and FLAP to synthesize .... uninterrupted sleep in these patients.55.

  5. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...

  6. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease...

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...... from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates....

  8. An update on mycobacteria and the development of allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria can diminish allergic and asthmatic manifestations. This means that mycobacteria could offer therapeutical opportunities as an 'anti-allergic' vaccine.In humans, the genetic background and the environment probably contribute to the development of allergies. Over the last 20. years, a

  9. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of TSLP Function in Human Allergic Disorders - TSLP Programs the “Th2 code” in Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoki; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arima, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been recently implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. In humans, aberrant TSLP expression is observed in allergic tissues, such as lesional skins of atopic dermatitis, lungs of asthmatics, nasal mucosa of atopic rhinitis and nasal polyps, and ocular surface of allergic keratoconjunctivitis. TSLP is produced predominantly by damaged epithelial cells and stimulates myeloid DCs (mDCs). TSLP-activated mDCs can promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into a Th2 phenotype and the expansion of CD4+ Th2 memory cells in a unique manner dependent on OX40L, one of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily members with Th2-promoting function, and lack of production of IL-12. From a genetic point of view, multiple genome-wide association studies have repeatedly identified the TSLP gene as one of the loci associated with susceptibility to allergic diseases. Thus, TSLP is a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disorders. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate TSLP expression and the effects of TSLP on orchestrating the immune response toward a Th2 phenotype is essential for developing anti-TSLP therapy. PMID:22189594

  11. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  12. Maternal immune response to helminth infection during pregnancy determines offspring susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Kathrin; Paul, Sabine; Prazeres da Costa, Olivia; Ritter, Manuel; Buch, Thorsten; Busch, Dirk H; Layland, Laura E; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa U

    2014-12-01

    Schistosomiasis, a chronic helminth infection, elicits distinct immune responses within the host, ranging from an initial TH1 and subsequent TH2 phase to a regulatory state, and is associated with dampened allergic reactions within the host. We sought to evaluate whether non-transplacental helminth infection during pregnancy alters the offspring's susceptibility to allergy. Ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation was analyzed in offspring from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mothers mated during the TH1, TH2, or regulatory phase of infection. Embryos derived from in vitro fertilized oocytes of acutely infected females were transferred into uninfected foster mice to determine the role of placental environment. The fetomaternal unit was further characterized by helminth-specific immune responses and microarray analyses. Eventually, IFN-γ-deficient mice were infected to evaluate the role of this predominant cytokine on the offspring's allergy phenotype. We demonstrate that offspring from schistosome-infected mothers that were mated in the TH1 and regulatory phases, but not the TH2 immune phase, are protected against the onset of allergic airway inflammation. Interestingly, these effects were associated with distinctly altered schistosome-specific cytokine and gene expression profiles within the fetomaternal interface. Furthermore, we identified that it is not the transfer of helminth antigens but rather maternally derived IFN-γ during the acute phase of infection that is essential for the progeny's protective immune phenotype. Overall, we present a novel immune phase-dependent coherency between the maternal immune responses during schistosomiasis and the progeny's predisposition to allergy. Therefore, we propose to include helminth-mediated transmaternal immune modulation into the expanded hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Asthma and other allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in Najran: the need for a comprehensive intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Jobran M

    2016-01-01

    In the last three decades, an increasing incidence of allergic diseases has been associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in the southwestern Saudi region of Najran, and to determine the sensitization of patients to a set of allergens. Cross-sectional observational study. Primary, intermediate and secondary schools, Najran, Saudi Arabia. All participants completed the Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed, using a panel of standardized allergenic extracts. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pediatric allergic diseases. The study included 1700 Saudi schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was 27.5%, 6.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27), fast food consumption (aOR, 1.53), trucks passing near houses (aOR, 1.86), and having a dog or cat at home (aOR, 1.85) were significant risk factors. A total of 722 (42.5%) children had a positive SPT result to at least one allergen. The most prevalent allergens were grass pollens (60%), cat fur (41.6%), and house dust mites (25%). The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for developing an effective interven- tion program including several components working in harmony to control and reduce the burden of allergic diseases. These results may not be generalizable to the rest of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  15. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...... rinse-off products has been less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allergic response elicited in presensitized individuals from exposure to a rinse-off product preserved with the maximum permitted level of MDBGN. METHODS: Nineteen contact allergic individuals and nine controls participated...

  16. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  18. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Non allergic simple eosinophilic pneumonia--Löffler syndrome--a case report study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-Jevtović, Ivana; Tomović, Miroslav S; Mojsilović, Slavica; Petrović, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Löffler syndrome is an acute, pneumonia of unknown ethiology. This disease is not often associated with bronchial asthma. In its asymptomatic form, this disease is reversible, transient, self-limited with no requests for specific therapy regimen. In the symptomatic form, as well as during its progression, treatment with steroids is very effective. Furthermore, in both acute eosinophilic and idiopathic chronic eosinophilic form, this kind of therapy ensures survival. The case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman was presented with 2-month history of low grade fever, shortness of breath, cough and reduced exercise tolerance. Although she had an allergic accident on insects in history, non allergy reactions as well as an obstructive disease with that kind of origin were not detected on admission. The diagnosis of simple eosinophilic pneumonia (SEP) (Löffler's syndrome) was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy and by sternal testing. The peripheral blood eosinophilia with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates on X ray chest radiography were observed during clinical examination. Biopsy specimen of the lung parenchym showed changes associated with Löffler's syndrome. The diagnosis was, also, confirmed according to the radiographic findings of unilateral migratory infiltrates consistent pneumonia. Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS) has to be considered in this differential diagnosis. Frequently, this disease has extrinsic bronchial asthma with eosinophilic pneumonia in history: asthma is often associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In the reported case, treatment with steroids resulted in a marked clinical improvement compared to nonsteroid therapy.

  20. Occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in patients with asthma: An Eastern India experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is a clinical syndrome associated with immune sensitivity to various fungi notably Aspergillus spp. that colonize the airways of asthmatics. Early diagnosis and treatment with systemic corticosteroids is the key in preventing the progression of the disease to irreversible lung fibrosis. Aims: To study the occurrence of ABPM among asthma patients with fungal sensitization attending a chest clinic of a tertiary hospital of eastern India. The clinico-radiological and aetiological profiles are also described. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients with asthma presenting to the chest clinic over a period of one year were screened for cutaneous hypersensitivity to 12 common fungal antigens. The skin test positive cases were further evaluated for ABPM using standard criteria. Results: One hundred and twenty-six asthma patients were screened using twelve common fungal antigens; forty patients (31.74% were found to be skin test positive, and ABPM was diagnosed in ten patients (7.93%. Of the 10 cases of ABPM, nine cases were those of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and one case was identified as caused by sensitization to Penicillium spp. A majority of the cases of ABPM had advanced disease and had significantly lower FEV1 compared to non-ABPM skin test positive asthmatics. Central bronchiectasis on high resolution CT scan was the most sensitive and specific among the diagnostic parameters. Conclusion: There is a significant prevalence of ABPM in asthma patients attending our hospital and this reinforces the need to screen asthma patients for fungal sensitisation. This will help in early diagnosis and prevention of irreversible lung damage.